Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: typhoon

31 Characteristics of Old-Growth and Secondary Forests in Relation to Age and Typhoon Disturbance

Authors: Teng-Chiu Lin, Pei-Jen Lee Shaner, Shin-Yu Lin

Abstract:

Both forest age and physical damages due to weather events such as tropical cyclones can influence forest characteristics and subsequently its capacity to sequester carbon. Detangling these influences is therefore a pressing issue under climate change. In this study, we compared the compositional and structural characteristics of three forests in Taiwan differing in age and severity of typhoon disturbances. We found that the two forests (one old-growth forest and one secondary forest) experiencing more severe typhoon disturbances had shorter stature, higher wood density, higher tree species diversity, and lower typhoon-induced tree mortality than the other secondary forest experiencing less severe typhoon disturbances. On the other hand, the old-growth forest had a larger amount of woody debris than the two secondary forests, suggesting a dominant role of forest age on woody debris accumulation. Of the three forests, only the two experiencing more severe typhoon disturbances formed new gaps following two 2015 typhoons, and between these two forests, the secondary forest gained more gaps than the old-growth forest. Consider that older forests generally have more gaps due to a higher background tree mortality, our findings suggest that the age effects on gap dynamics may be reversed by typhoon disturbances. This study demonstrated the effects of typhoons on forest characteristics, some of which could negate the age effects and rejuvenate older forests. If cyclone disturbances were to intensity under climate change, the capacity of older forests to sequester carbon may be reduced.

Keywords: typhoon, canpy gap, coarse woody debris, forest stature, forest age

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30 Using Computational Fluid Dynamics to Model and Design a Preventative Application for Strong Wind

Authors: Ming-Hwi Yao, Su-Szu Yang

Abstract:

Typhoons are one of the major types of disasters that affect Taiwan each year and that cause severe damage to agriculture. Indeed, the damage exacted during a typical typhoon season can be up to $1 billion, and is responsible for nearly 75% of yearly agricultural losses. However, there is no consensus on how to reduce the damage caused by the strong winds and heavy precipitation engendered by typhoons. One suggestion is the use of windbreak nets, which are a low-cost and easy-to-use disaster mitigation strategy for crop production. In the present study, we conducted an evaluation to determine the optimal conditions of a windbreak net by using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. This model may be used as a reference for crop protection. The results showed that CFD simulation validated windbreak nets of different mesh sizes and heights in the experimental area; thus, CFD is an efficient tool for evaluating the effectiveness of windbreak nets. Specifically, the effective wind protection length and height were found to be 6 and 1.3 times the length and height of the windbreak net, respectively. During a real typhoon, maximum wind gusts of 18 m s-1 can be reduced to 4 m s-1 by using a windbreak net that has a 70% blocking rate. In short, windbreak nets are significantly effective in protecting typhoon-affected areas.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, disaster, typhoon, windbreak net

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29 The Impact of Floods and Typhoons on Housing Welfare: Case Study of Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam

Authors: Seyeon Lee, Suyeon Lee, Julia Rogers

Abstract:

This research investigates and records post-flood and typhoon conditions of low income housing in the Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam; area prone to extreme flooding in Central Vietnam. The cost of rebuilding houses after flood and typhoon has been always a burden for low income households. These costs often lead to the elimination of essential construction practices for disaster resistance. Despite relief efforts from international non-profit organizations and Vietnam government, the impacts of flood and typhoon damages to residential construction has been reoccurring to the same neighborhood annually. Notwithstanding its importance, this topic has not been systematically investigated. The study is limited to assistance provided to low income households documenting existing conditions of low income homes impacted by post flood and typhoon conditions in the Thua Thien Hue Province. The research identifies leading causes of the building failure from the natural disasters. Relief efforts and progress made since the last typhoon is documented. The quality of construction and repairs are assessed based on Home Builders Guide to Coastal Construction by Federal Emergency Management Agency. Focus group discussions and individual interviews with local residents from four different communities were conducted to get incites on repair effort by the non-profit organizations and Vietnam government, and their needs post flood and typhoon. The findings from the field study informed that many of the local people are now aware of the importance of improving housing conditions as one of the key coping strategies to withstand flood and typhoon events as it makes housing and community more resilient to future events. While there has been a remarkable improvement of housing and infrastructure with the support from the local government as well as the non-profit organizations, many households in the study areas are found to still live in weak and fragile housing conditions without gaining access to the aid to repair and strengthen the houses. Given that the major immediate recovery action taken by the local people tends to focus on repairing damaged houses, and on this ground, low-income households spend a considerable amount of their income on housing repair, providing proper and applicable construction practices will not only improve the housing condition, but also contribute to reducing poverty in Vietnam.

Keywords: disaster coping mechanism, housing welfare, low-income housing, recovery reduction

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28 The Concentration of Formaldehyde in Rainwater and Typhoon Rainwater at Sakai City, Japan

Authors: Chinh Nguyen Nhu Bao, Hien To Thi, Norimichi Takenaka

Abstract:

Formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations in rainwater including in tropical storms in Sakai City, Osaka, Japan have been measured continuously during rain event by developed chemiluminescence method. The level of formaldehyde was ranged from 15 µg/L to 500 µg/L. The high concentration of HCHO in rainwater is related to the wind direction from the south and west sides of Sakai City where manufactures related to chemicals, oil-refinery, and steel. The in-situ irradiated experiment on rainwater sample was conducted to prove the aqueous phase photo-production of HCHO and the degradation of HCHO. In the daytime, the aqueous phase photolysis is the source of HCHO in rainwater (4.52 ± 5.74 µg/L/h for UV light source in-situ condition, 2.84-8.96 µg/L/h under sunlight). However, in the night time, the degradation is the function of microorganism.

Keywords: chemiluminescence, formaldehyde, rainwater, typhoon

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27 Analyzing the Performance of the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010 as Framework for Managing and Recovering from Large-Scale Disasters: A Typhoon Haiyan Recovery Case Study

Authors: Fouad M. Bendimerad, Jerome B. Zayas, Michael Adrian T. Padilla

Abstract:

With the increasing scale of severity and frequency of disasters worldwide, the performance of governance systems for disaster risk reduction and management in many countries are being put to the test. In the Philippines, the Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM) Act of 2010 (Republic Act 10121 or RA 10121) as the framework for disaster risk reduction and management was tested when Super Typhoon Haiyan hit the eastern provinces of the Philippines in November 2013. Typhoon Haiyan is considered to be the strongest recorded typhoon in history to make landfall with winds exceeding 252 km/hr. In assessing the performance of RA 10121 the authors conducted document reviews of related policies, plans, programs, and key interviews and focus groups with representatives of 21 national government departments, two (2) local government units, six (6) private sector and civil society organizations, and five (5) development agencies. Our analysis will argue that enhancements are needed in RA 10121 in order to meet the challenges of large-scale disasters. The current structure where government agencies and departments organize along DRRM thematic areas such response and relief, preparedness, prevention and mitigation, and recovery and response proved to be inefficient in coordinating response and recovery and in mobilizing resources on the ground. However, experience from various disasters has shown the Philippine government’s tendency to organize major recovery programs along development sectors such as infrastructure, livelihood, shelter, and social services, which is consistent with the concept of DRM mainstreaming. We will argue that this sectoral approach is more effective than the thematic approach to DRRM. The council-type arrangement for coordination has also been rendered inoperable by Typhoon Haiyan because the agency responsible for coordination does not have decision-making authority to mobilize action and resources of other agencies which are members of the council. Resources have been devolved to agencies responsible for each thematic area and there is no clear command and direction structure for decision-making. However, experience also shows that the Philippine government has appointed ad-hoc bodies with authority over other agencies to coordinate and mobilize action and resources in recovering from large-scale disasters. We will argue that this approach be institutionalized within the government structure to enable a more efficient and effective disaster risk reduction and management system.

Keywords: risk reduction and management, recovery, governance, typhoon haiyan response and recovery

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26 Wind Fragility for Honeycomb Roof Cladding Panels Using Screw Pull-Out Capacity

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, Woo Young Jung

Abstract:

The failure of roof cladding mostly occurs due to the failing of the connection between claddings and purlins, which is the pull-out of the screw connecting the two parts when the pull-out load, i.e. typhoon, is higher than the resistance of the connection screw. As typhoon disasters in Korea are constantly on the rise, probability risk assessment (PRA) has become a vital tool to evaluate the performance of civil structures. In this study, we attempted to determine the fragility of roof cladding with the screw connection. Experimental study was performed to evaluate the pull-out resistance of screw joints between honeycomb panels and back frames. Subsequently, by means of Monte Carlo Simulation method, probability of failure for these types of roof cladding was determined. The results that the failure of roof cladding was depends on their location on the roof, for example, the edge most panel has the highest probability of failure.

Keywords: Monte Carlo Simulation, roof cladding, screw pull-out strength, wind fragility

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25 The Effects of Extreme Precipitation Events on Ecosystem Services

Authors: Szu-Hua Wang, Yi-Wen Chen

Abstract:

Urban ecosystems are complex coupled human-environment systems. They contain abundant natural resources for producing natural assets and attract urban assets to consume natural resources for urban development. Urban ecosystems provide several ecosystem services, including provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services, and supporting services. Rapid global climate change makes urban ecosystems and their ecosystem services encountering various natural disasters. Lots of natural disasters have occurred around the world under the constant changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events in the past two decades. In Taiwan, hydrological disasters have been paid more attention due to the potential high sensitivity of Taiwan’s cities to climate change, and it impacts. However, climate change not only causes extreme weather events directly but also affects the interactions among human, ecosystem services and their dynamic feedback processes indirectly. Therefore, this study adopts a systematic method, solar energy synthesis, based on the concept of the eco-energy analysis. The Taipei area, the most densely populated area in Taiwan, is selected as the study area. The changes of ecosystem services between 2015 and Typhoon Soudelor have been compared in order to investigate the impacts of extreme precipitation events on ecosystem services. The results show that the forest areas are the largest contributions of energy to ecosystem services in the Taipei area generally. Different soil textures of different subsystem have various upper limits of water contents or substances. The major contribution of ecosystem services of the study area is natural hazard regulation provided by the surface water resources areas. During the period of Typhoon Soudelor, the freshwater supply in the forest areas had become the main contribution. Erosion control services were the main ecosystem service affected by Typhoon Soudelor. The second and third main ecosystem services were hydrologic regulation and food supply. Due to the interactions among ecosystem services, fresh water supply, water purification, and waste treatment had been affected severely.

Keywords: ecosystem, extreme precipitation events, ecosystem services, solar energy synthesis

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24 Typhoon Disaster Risk Assessment of Mountain Village: A Case Study of Shanlin District in Kaohsiung

Authors: T. C. Hsu, H. L. Lin

Abstract:

Taiwan is mountainous country, 70% of land is covered with mountains. Because of extreme climate, the mountain villages with sensitive and fragile environment often get easily affected by inundation and debris flow from typhoon which brings huge rainfall. Due to inappropriate development, overuse and fewer access roads, occurrence of disaster becomes more frequent through downpour and rescue actions are postponed. However, risk map is generally established through administrative boundaries, the difference of urban and rural area is ignored. The neglect of mountain village characteristics eventually underestimates the importance of factors related to vulnerability and reduces the effectiveness. In disaster management, there are different strategies and actions at each stage. According to different tasks, there will be different risk indices and weights to analyze disaster risk for each stage and then it will contribute to confront threat and reduce impact appropriately on right time. Risk map is important in mitigation, but also in response stage because some factors such as road network will be changed by disaster. This study will use risk assessment to establish risk map of Shanlin District which is mountain village in Kaohsiung as a case study in mitigation and response stage through Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). AHP helps to recognize the composition and weights of risk factors in mountain village by experts’ opinions through survey design and is combined with present potential hazard map to produce risk map.

Keywords: risk assessment, mountain village, risk map, analytic hierarchy process

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23 A Comparative Analysis of Evacuation Behavior in Case of Cyclone Sidr, Typhoon Yolanda and the Great East Japan Earthquake

Authors: Swarnali Chakma, Akihiko Hokugo

Abstract:

Research on three case studies reviewed here explains many aspects and complications of evacuation behavior during an emergency period. The scenario and phenomenon of the disaster were different, but the similarities are that after receiving the warning peoples does not take it seriously. Many individuals evacuated after taking some kind of action, for example; return to home, searching for family members, prepared valuable things etc. Based on a review of the literature, the data identified a number of factors that help explain evacuation behavior during the disaster. In the case of Japan, cultural inhibitors impact people’s behavior; for example, following the traffic rules, some people lost their time to skip because of the slow-moving car makes overcrowded traffic and some of them were washed away by the tsunami. In terms of Bangladeshi culture, women did not want to evacuate without men because staying men and women who do not know each other under the same roof together is not regular practice or comfortable. From these three case studies, it is observed that early warning plays an important role in cyclones, typhoons and earthquakes. A high level of trust from residents in the warning system is important to real evacuation. It is necessary to raise awareness of disaster and provide information on the vulnerability to cyclones, typhoons and earthquakes hazards at community levels. The local level may help decision makers and other stakeholders to make a better decision regarding an effective disaster management.

Keywords: disaster management, emergency period, evacuation, shelter, typhoon

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22 Development of Earthquake and Typhoon Loss Models for Japan, Specifically Designed for Underwriting and Enterprise Risk Management Cycles

Authors: Nozar Kishi, Babak Kamrani, Filmon Habte

Abstract:

Natural hazards such as earthquakes and tropical storms, are very frequent and highly destructive in Japan. Japan experiences, every year on average, more than 10 tropical cyclones that come within damaging reach, and earthquakes of moment magnitude 6 or greater. We have developed stochastic catastrophe models to address the risk associated with the entire suite of damaging events in Japan, for use by insurance, reinsurance, NGOs and governmental institutions. KCC’s (Karen Clark and Company) catastrophe models are procedures constituted of four modular segments: 1) stochastic events sets that would represent the statistics of the past events, hazard attenuation functions that could model the local intensity, vulnerability functions that would address the repair need for local buildings exposed to the hazard, and financial module addressing policy conditions that could estimates the losses incurring as result of. The events module is comprised of events (faults or tracks) with different intensities with corresponding probabilities. They are based on the same statistics as observed through the historical catalog. The hazard module delivers the hazard intensity (ground motion or wind speed) at location of each building. The vulnerability module provides library of damage functions that would relate the hazard intensity to repair need as percentage of the replacement value. The financial module reports the expected loss, given the payoff policies and regulations. We have divided Japan into regions with similar typhoon climatology, and earthquake micro-zones, within each the characteristics of events are similar enough for stochastic modeling. For each region, then, a set of stochastic events is developed that results in events with intensities corresponding to annual occurrence probabilities that are of interest to financial communities; such as 0.01, 0.004, etc. The intensities, corresponding to these probabilities (called CE, Characteristics Events) are selected through a superstratified sampling approach that is based on the primary uncertainty. Region specific hazard intensity attenuation functions followed by vulnerability models leads to estimation of repair costs. Extensive economic exposure model addresses all local construction and occupancy types, such as post-linter Shinand Okabe wood, as well as concrete confined in steel, SRC (Steel-Reinforced Concrete), high-rise.

Keywords: typhoon, earthquake, Japan, catastrophe modelling, stochastic modeling, stratified sampling, loss model, ERM

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21 Suggestion of Methodology to Detect Building Damage Level Collectively with Flood Depth Utilizing Geographic Information System at Flood Disaster in Japan

Authors: Munenari Inoguchi, Keiko Tamura

Abstract:

In Japan, we were suffered by earthquake, typhoon, and flood disaster in 2019. Especially, 38 of 47 prefectures were affected by typhoon #1919 occurred in October 2019. By this disaster, 99 people were dead, three people were missing, and 484 people were injured as human damage. Furthermore, 3,081 buildings were totally collapsed, 24,998 buildings were half-collapsed. Once disaster occurs, local responders have to inspect damage level of each building by themselves in order to certificate building damage for survivors for starting their life reconstruction process. At that disaster, the total number to be inspected was so high. Based on this situation, Cabinet Office of Japan approved the way to detect building damage level efficiently, that is collectively detection. However, they proposed a just guideline, and local responders had to establish the concrete and infallible method by themselves. Against this issue, we decided to establish the effective and efficient methodology to detect building damage level collectively with flood depth. Besides, we thought that the flood depth was relied on the land height, and we decided to utilize GIS (Geographic Information System) for analyzing the elevation spatially. We focused on the analyzing tool of spatial interpolation, which is utilized to survey the ground water level usually. In establishing the methodology, we considered 4 key-points: 1) how to satisfy the condition defined in the guideline approved by Cabinet Office for detecting building damage level, 2) how to satisfy survivors for the result of building damage level, 3) how to keep equitability and fairness because the detection of building damage level was executed by public institution, 4) how to reduce cost of time and human-resource because they do not have enough time and human-resource for disaster response. Then, we proposed a methodology for detecting building damage level collectively with flood depth utilizing GIS with five steps. First is to obtain the boundary of flooded area. Second is to collect the actual flood depth as sampling over flooded area. Third is to execute spatial analysis of interpolation with sampled flood depth to detect two-dimensional flood depth extent. Fourth is to divide to blocks by four categories of flood depth (non-flooded, over the floor to 100 cm, 100 cm to 180 cm and over 180 cm) following lines of roads for getting satisfaction from survivors. Fifth is to put flood depth level to each building. In Koriyama city of Fukushima prefecture, we proposed the methodology of collectively detection for building damage level as described above, and local responders decided to adopt our methodology at typhoon #1919 in 2019. Then, we and local responders detect building damage level collectively to over 1,000 buildings. We have received good feedback that the methodology was so simple, and it reduced cost of time and human-resources.

Keywords: building damage inspection, flood, geographic information system, spatial interpolation

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20 Experimental Simulations of Aerosol Effect to Landfalling Tropical Cyclones over Philippine Coast: Virtual Seeding Using WRF Model

Authors: Bhenjamin Jordan L. Ona

Abstract:

Weather modification is an act of altering weather systems that catches interest on scientific studies. Cloud seeding is a common form of weather alteration. On the same principle, tropical cyclone mitigation experiment follows the methods of cloud seeding with intensity to account for. This study will present the effects of aerosol to tropical cyclone cloud microphysics and intensity. The framework of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model incorporated with Thompson aerosol-aware scheme is the prime host to support the aerosol-cloud microphysics calculations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) ingested into the tropical cyclones before making landfall over the Philippine coast. The coupled microphysical and radiative effects of aerosols will be analyzed using numerical data conditions of Tropical Storm Ketsana (2009), Tropical Storm Washi (2011), and Typhoon Haiyan (2013) associated with varying CCN number concentrations per simulation per typhoon: clean maritime, polluted, and very polluted having 300 cm-3, 1000 cm-3, and 2000 cm-3 aerosol number initial concentrations, respectively. Aerosol species like sulphates, sea salts, black carbon, and organic carbon will be used as cloud nuclei and mineral dust as ice nuclei (IN). To make the study as realistic as possible, investigation during the biomass burning due to forest fire in Indonesia starting October 2015 as Typhoons Mujigae/Kabayan and Koppu/Lando had been seeded with aerosol emissions mainly comprises with black carbon and organic carbon, will be considered. Emission data that will be used is from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The physical mechanism/s of intensification or deintensification of tropical cyclones will be determined after the seeding experiment analyses.

Keywords: aerosol, CCN, IN, tropical cylone

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19 Comparison of Wind Fragility for Window System in the Simplified 10 and 15-Story Building Considering Exposure Category

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, WooYoung Jung

Abstract:

Window system in high rise building is occasionally subjected to an excessive wind intensity, particularly during typhoon. The failure of window system did not affect overall safety of structural performance; however, it could endanger the safety of the residents. In this paper, comparison of fragility curves for window system of two residential buildings was studied. The probability of failure for individual window was determined with Monte Carlo Simulation method. Then, lognormal cumulative distribution function was used to represent the fragility. The results showed that windows located on the edge of leeward wall were more susceptible to wind load and the probability of failure for each window panel increased at higher floors.

Keywords: wind fragility, window system, high rise building, wind disaster

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18 Risk and Coping: Understanding Community Responses to Calls for Disaster Evacuation in Central Philippines

Authors: Soledad Natalia M. Dalisay, Mylene De Guzman

Abstract:

In archipelagic countries like the Philippines, many communities thrive along coastal areas. The sea is the community members’ main source of livelihood and the site of many cultural activities. For these communities, the sea is their life and livelihood. Nevertheless, the sea also poses a hazard during the rainy season when typhoons frequent their communities. Coastal communities often encounter threats from storm surges and flooding that are common when there are typhoons. During such periods, disaster evacuation programs are implemented. However, in many instances, evacuation has been the bane of local government officials implementing such programs in their communities as resistance from community members is often encountered. Such resistance is often viewed by program implementers as due to the fact that people were hard headed and ignorant of the potential impacts of living in hazard prone areas. This paper argues that it is not for these reasons that people refused to evacuate. Drawing from data collected from fieldwork done in three sites in Central Philippines affected by super typhoon Haiyan, this study aimed to provide a contextualized understanding of peoples’ refusal to heed disaster evacuation warnings. This study utilized the multi-sited ethnography approach with in-depth episodic interviews, focus group discussions, participatory risk mapping and key informant interviews in gathering data on peoples’ experiences and insights specifically on evacuation during typhoon Haiyan. This study showed that people have priorities and considerations vital in their social lives that they are protecting in their refusal to leave their homes for pre-emptive evacuation. It is not that they are not aware of the risks when the face the hazard. It is more that they had faith in the local knowledge and strategies that they have developed since the time of their ancestors as a result of living and engaging with hazards in their areas for as long as they could remember. The study also revealed that risk in encounters with hazards was gendered. Furthermore, previous engagement with local government officials and the manner in which the pre-emptive evacuation programs were implemented had cast doubt on the value of such programs in saving their lives. Life in the designated evacuation areas can be as dangerous if not more compared with living in their coastal homes. There seems to be the impression that in the evacuation program of the government, people were being moved from hazard zones to death zones. Thus, this paper ends with several recommendations that may contribute to building more responsive evacuation programs that aim to build people’s resilience while taking into consideration the local moral world in communities in identified hazard zones.

Keywords: coastal communities, disaster evacuation, disaster risk perception, social and cultural responses to hazards

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17 Analyze Long-Term Shoreline Change at Yi-Lan Coast, Taiwan Using Multiple Sources

Authors: Geng-Gui Wang, Chia-Hao Chang, Jee-Cheng Wu

Abstract:

A shoreline is a line where a body of water and the shore meet. It provides economic and social security to coastal habitations. However, shorelines face multiple threats due to both natural processes and man-made effects because of disasters, rapid urbanization, industrialization, and sand deposition and erosion, etc. In this study, we analyzed multi-temporal satellite images of the Yilan coast, Taiwan from 1978 to 2016, using the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS), weather information (as rainfall records and typhoon routes), and man-made construction project data to explore the causes of shoreline changes. The results showed that the shoreline at Yilan coast is greatly influenced by typhoons and anthropogenic interventions.

Keywords: shoreline change, multi-temporal satellite, digital shoreline analysis system, DSAS, Yi-Lan coast

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16 Rainfall Estimation Using Himawari-8 Meteorological Satellite Imagery in Central Taiwan

Authors: Chiang Wei, Hui-Chung Yeh, Yen-Chang Chen

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to estimate the rainfall using the new generation Himawari-8 meteorological satellite with multi-band, high-bit format, and high spatiotemporal resolution, ground rainfall data at the Chen-Yu-Lan watershed of Joushuei River Basin (443.6 square kilometers) in Central Taiwan. Accurate and fine-scale rainfall information is essential for rugged terrain with high local variation for early warning of flood, landslide, and debris flow disasters. 10-minute and 2 km pixel-based rainfall of Typhoon Megi of 2016 and meiyu on June 1-4 of 2017 were tested to demonstrate the new generation Himawari-8 meteorological satellite can capture rainfall variation in the rugged mountainous area both at fine-scale and watershed scale. The results provide the valuable rainfall information for early warning of future disasters.

Keywords: estimation, Himawari-8, rainfall, satellite imagery

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15 Instability Index Method and Logistic Regression to Assess Landslide Susceptibility in County Route 89, Taiwan

Authors: Y. H. Wu, Ji-Yuan Lin, Yu-Ming Liou

Abstract:

This study aims to set up the landslide susceptibility map of County Route 89 at Ren-Ai Township in Nantou County using the Instability Index Method and Logistic regression. Seven susceptibility factors including Slope Angle, Aspect, Elevation, Distance to fold, Distance to River, Distance to Road and Accumulated Rainfall were obtained by GIS based on the Typhoon Toraji landslide area identified by Industrial Technology Research Institute in 2001. To calculate the landslide percentage of each factor and acquire the weight and grade the grid by means of Instability Index Method. In this study, landslide susceptibility can be classified into four grades: high, medium high, medium low and low, in order to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the two models. The precision of this model is verified by classification error matrix and SRC curve. These results suggest that the logistic regression model is a preferred method than instability index in the assessment of landslide susceptibility. It is suitable for the landslide prediction and precaution in this area in the future.

Keywords: instability index method, logistic regression, landslide susceptibility, SRC curve

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14 Damage Cost for Private Property by Extreme Wind over the past 10 Years in Korea

Authors: Gou-Moon Choi, Woo-Young Jung, Chan-Young Yune

Abstract:

Recently, the natural disaster has increased worldwide. In Korea, the damage to life and property caused by a typhoon, heavy rain, heavy snow, and an extreme wind also increases every year. Among natural disasters, the frequency and the strength of wind have increased because sea surface temperature has risen due to the increase of the average temperature of the Earth. In the case of extreme wind disaster, it is impossible to control or reduce the occurrence, and the recovery cost always exceeds the damage cost. Therefore, quantitative estimation of the damage cost for extreme wind needs to be established beforehand to install proactive countermeasures. In this study, the damage cost for private properties was analyzed based on the data for the past 10 years in Korea. The damage cost curve was also suggested for the metropolitan cities and provinces. The result shows the possibility for the regional application of the damage cost curve because the damage cost of the regional area is estimated based on the cost of cities and provinces.

Keywords: damage cost, extreme wind, natural disaster, private property

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13 The Concept of Anchor Hazard Potential Map

Authors: Sao-Jeng Chao, Chia-Yun Wei, Si-Han Lai, Cheng-Yu Huang, Yu-Han Teng

Abstract:

In Taiwan, the landforms are mainly dominated by mountains and hills. Many road sections of the National Highway are impossible to avoid problems such as slope excavation or slope filling. In order to increase the safety of the slope, various slope protection methods are used to stabilize the slope, especially the soil anchor technique is the most common. This study is inspired by the soil liquefaction potential map. The concept of the potential map is widely used. The typhoon, earth-rock flow, tsunami, flooded area, and the recent discussion of soil liquefaction have safety potential concepts. This paper brings the concept of safety potential to the anchored slope. Because the soil anchor inspection is only the concept of points, this study extends the concept of the point to the surface, using the Quantum GIS program to present the slope damage area, and depicts the slope appearance and soil anchor point with the slope as-built drawing. The soil anchor scores are obtained by anchor inspection data, and the low, medium and high potential areas are remitted by interpolation. Thus, the area where the anchored slope may be harmful is judged and relevant maintenance is provided. The maintenance units can thus prevent judgment and deal with the anchored slope as soon as possible.

Keywords: anchor, slope, potential map, lift-off test, existing load

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12 The Capacity Building in the Natural Disaster Management of Thailand

Authors: Eakarat Boonreang

Abstract:

The past two decades, Thailand faced the natural disasters, for instance, Gay typhoon in 1989, tsunami in 2004, and huge flood in 2011. The disaster management in Thailand was improved both structure and mechanism for cope with the natural disaster since 2007. However, the natural disaster management in Thailand has various problems, for examples, cooperation between related an organizations have not unity, inadequate resources, the natural disaster management of public sectors not proactive, people has not awareness the risk of the natural disaster, and communities did not participate in the natural disaster management. Objective of this study is to find the methods for capacity building in the natural disaster management of Thailand. The concept and information about the capacity building and the natural disaster management of Thailand were reviewed and analyzed by classifying and organizing data. The result found that the methods for capacity building in the natural disaster management of Thailand should be consist of 1)link operation and information in the natural disaster management between nation, province, local and community levels, 2)enhance competency and resources of public sectors which relate to the natural disaster management, 3)establish proactive natural disaster management both planning and implementation, 4)decentralize the natural disaster management to local government organizations, 5)construct public awareness in the natural disaster management to community, 6)support Community Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) seriously, and 7)emphasis on participation in the natural disaster management of all stakeholders.

Keywords: capacity building, Community Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM), Natural Disaster Management, Thailand

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11 Coupled Analysis for Hazard Modelling of Debris Flow Due to Extreme Rainfall

Authors: N. V. Nikhil, S. R. Lee, Do Won Park

Abstract:

Korean peninsula receives about two third of the annual rainfall during summer season. The extreme rainfall pattern due to typhoon and heavy rainfall results in severe mountain disasters among which 55% of them are debris flows, a major natural hazard especially when occurring around major settlement areas. The basic mechanism underlined for this kind of failure is the unsaturated shallow slope failure by reduction of matric suction due to infiltration of water and liquefaction of the failed mass due to generation of positive pore water pressure leading to abrupt loss of strength and commencement of flow. However only an empirical model cannot simulate this complex mechanism. Hence, we have employed an empirical-physical based approach for hazard analysis of debris flow using TRIGRS, a debris flow initiation criteria and DAN3D in mountain Woonmyun, South Korea. Debris flow initiation criteria is required to discern the potential landslides which can transform into debris flow. DAN-3D, being a new model, does not have the calibrated values of rheology parameters for Korean conditions. Thus, in our analysis we have used the recent 2011 debris flow event in mountain Woonmyun san for calibration of both TRIGRS model and DAN-3D, thereafter identifying and predicting the debris flow initiation points, path, run out velocity, and area of spreading for future extreme rainfall based scenarios.

Keywords: debris flow, DAN-3D, extreme rainfall, hazard analysis

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10 The Effects of Weather Events and Land Use Change on Urban Ecosystems: From Risk to Resilience

Authors: Szu-Hua Wang

Abstract:

Urban ecosystems, as complex coupled human-environment systems, contain abundant natural resources for breeding natural assets and, at the same time, attract urban assets and consume natural resources, triggered by urban development. Land use change illustrates the interaction between human activities and environments factually. However, IPCC (2014) announces that land use change and urbanization due to human activities are the major cause of climate change, leading to serious impacts on urban ecosystem resilience and risk. For this reason, risk assessment and resilience analysis are the keys for responding to climate change on urban ecosystems. Urban spatial planning can guide urban development by land use planning, transportation planning, and environmental planning and affect land use allocation and human activities by building major constructions and protecting important national land resources simultaneously. Urban spatial planning can aggravate climate change and, on the other hand, mitigate and adapt climate change. Research on effects of spatial planning on land use change and climate change is one of intense issues currently. Therefore, this research focuses on developing frameworks for risk assessment and resilience analysis from the aspect of ecosystem based on typhoon precipitation in Taipei area. The integrated method of risk assessment and resilience analysis will be also addressed for applying spatial planning practice and sustainable development.

Keywords: ecosystem, land use change, risk analysis, resilience

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9 The Mandaya Woman: Her Role as Balyan (Priestess) and Magdadawot (Bard)

Authors: Genevieve Jorolan-Quintero

Abstract:

After the devastation caused by typhoon Haiyan in the southeastern part of the Philippines in 2012, there was this intense need among the indigenous communities to ‘reconcile’ with nature. The belief that the deluge, which claimed thousands of lives, was caused by the destruction of the environment because of humanities’ greed and carelessness was widespread and strong. The rift had to be mended. Nature had to be appeased. For this, the balyan (priestess) was called in to perform a ritual. Only she can communicate with the spirits. The communities depend on her spiritual intervention as she alone has the power to invoke the spirits of nature. Among the indigenous people, the balyan is most often also a magdadawot (bard) who possesses the knowledge especially about the folk epics and the skill to chant them. The balyan is the communities’ repository of knowledge. When one passes away, a whole library of tribal knowledge and wisdom is lost. The oral traditions embody the life values, ideals, customs, and even the history of the First Nations People. These include the myths, epics, legends, riddles, and songs. The indigenous system is patriarchal, but is actually indirectly matriarchal reflecting the authority of the woman. Disputes within the community are heard and tried by the Council of Elders. However, the balyan is often consulted for her opinion. Her advice is deemed significant and most often necessary. These are three instances that highlight the significant role of the balyan among the indigenous communities in the Philippines, especially among the Mandaya tribe who live in the southern region of the country. This paper highlights the unique kind of leadership of the Mandaya woman – as priestess and bard - and her impact on the lives of her people.

Keywords: balyan, bard, magdadawot, mandaya

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8 A Modelling Study to Compare the Storm Surge along Oman Coast Due to Ashobaa and Nanauk Cyclones

Authors: R. V. Suresh Reddi, Vishnu S. Das, Mathew Leslie

Abstract:

The weather systems within the Arabian Sea is very dynamic in terms of monsoon and cyclone events. The storms generated in the Arabian Sea are more likely to progress in the north-west or west direction towards Oman. From the database of Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), the number of cyclones that hit the Oman coast or pass within close vicinity is noteworthy and therefore they must be considered when looking at coastal/port engineering design and development projects. This paper provides a case study of two cyclones, i.e., Nanauk (2014) and Ashobaa (2015) to assess the impact on storm surge off the Oman coast. These two cyclones have been selected since they are comparable in terms of maximum wind, cyclone duration, central pressure and month of occurrence. They are of similar strength but differ in track, allowing the impact of proximity to the coast to be considered. Of the two selected cyclones, Ashobaa is the 'extreme' case with close proximity while Nanauk remains further offshore and is considered as a more typical case. The available 'best-track' data from JTWC is obtained for the 2 selected cyclones, and the cyclone winds are generated using a 'Cyclone Wind Generation Tool' from MIKE (modelling software) from DHI (Danish Hydraulic Institute). Using MIKE 21 Hydrodynamic model powered by DHI the storm surge is estimated at selected offshore locations along the Oman coast.

Keywords: costal engineering, cyclone, storm surge, modelling

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7 From Ondoy to Habagat: Comparison of the Community Coping Strategies between Barangay Tumana and Provident Village, Marikina City

Authors: Dinnah Feye H. Andal, Ann Laurice V. Salonga

Abstract:

The paper investigates the flooding event that was experienced by Marikina City residents during the onslaught of Tropical Storm Ondoy on September 26, 2009 and during the heavy downpour caused by the southwest monsoon (Habagat) on August 1-8, 2012. Typhoon Ketsana, locally known as Tropical Storm Ondoy, devastated the whole of Marikina City, displacing a lot of people from their homes and damages properties as well, as flood rose at a very short period of time. Meanwhile, the massive amount of rain water brought by the southwest monsoon lasted for a week that also caused flooding to different parts of Metro Manila including Marikina City. This paper examines how the respondents’ experiences of the flooding caused by Tropical Storm Ondoy informed the coping strategies that the households in Barangay Tumana and Provident Village employed during the flooding brought by the southwest monsoon rains. Specifically, the research compares the coping strategies to flood hazards between residents of Barangay Tumana and Provident Village before, during and after the flooding caused by the southwest monsoon rains. Both study sites have relatively low elevation and are located along rivers and creeks which make them highly susceptible to flood. Interviews with affected residents were undertaken to understand how a household's coping strategies contribute to the development of community coping strategies at the respective neighborhood level. Based from the findings, income levels, local politics, religion and social relations between and among neighbors affect the way household and community coping strategies differ in the two case study sites.

Keywords: community coping strategies, Habagat, Marikina, Ondoy

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6 Disaster Recovery and Tourism Development: The Case of Diving Industry in Coron Island Palawan

Authors: Kimberly Joyce A. Roguis, Mica Lorraine L. Fernando, Alan Vito B. Macadangdang, Jennina Mari C. Mijares, Maria Carinnes A. Gonzalez

Abstract:

The paper showcases the vulnerability of the tourism industry especially the inevitable occurrence of natural disasters, implicating the necessity for post-disaster analysis on tourist attractions. This study discusses the aftermath of the super typhoon ‘Yolanda’ incident in the locality of Coron Island, Palawan, assessing its general effect on the community and its tourism livelihood through the analysis of responses from key role-players in the tourism industry of the area gathered through semi-structured interviews and direct observation. The local government’s instigation of recovery programs to their locality has been a pivotal factor in reviving the vitality of their tourism industry and the involvement of the community has been the determining condition that shifted the industry towards revival a year after the incidence. The study illuminates the disaster mitigation processes in the local tourism livelihood perspective, predominantly the diving industry. It did not suffer physical damage to a great extent but was affected because of the public imagery the disaster brought upon. Collaboration between the local government and the community is the highlight of the research for they maneuvered recovery revealing that cooperation between these two parties bridged the correlation of recovery to tourism development. The disaster paved way to a stance towards promoting progressive tourism outlooks, raising awareness among the public and private sectors and re-assessment of the tourism vitality in their locality. The mayhem and destruction proved to be a liberating creative process to give way to progression and was deemed to be of high significance in the over-all tourism system process despite its impediments in the case of the tourism industry in Coron, Palawan.

Keywords: disaster recovery, tourism development, diving, Palawan

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5 Wildfire-Related Debris-Flow and Flooding Using 2-D Hydrologic Model

Authors: Cheong Hyeon Oh, Dongho Nam, Byungsik Kim

Abstract:

Due to the recent climate change, flood damage caused by local floods and typhoons has frequently occurred, the incidence rate and intensity of wildfires are greatly increased due to increased temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns. Wildfires cause primary damage, such as loss of forest resources, as well as secondary disasters, such as landslides, floods, and debris flow. In many countries around the world, damage and economic losses from secondary damage are occurring as well as the direct effects of forest fires. Therefore, in this study, the Rainfall-Runoff model(S-RAT) was used for the wildfire affected areas in Gangneung and Goseong, which occurred on April 2019, when the stability of vegetation and soil were destroyed by wildfires. Rainfall data from Typhoon Rusa were used in the S-RAT model, and flood discharge was calculated according to changes in land cover before and after wildfire damage. The results of the calculation showed that flood discharge increased significantly due to changes in land cover, as the increase in flood discharge increases the possibility of the occurrence of the debris flow and the extent of the damage, the debris flow height and range were calculated before and after forest fire using RAMMS. The analysis results showed that the height and extent of damage increased after wildfire, but the result value was underestimated due to the characteristics that using DEM and maximum flood discharge of the RAMMS model. This research was supported by a grant(2017-MOIS31-004) from Fundamental Technology Development Program for Extreme Disaster Response funded by Korean Ministry of Interior and Safety (MOIS). This paper work (or document) was financially supported by Ministry of the Interior and Safety as 'Human resoure development Project in Disaster management'.

Keywords: wildfire, debris flow, land cover, rainfall-runoff meodel S-RAT, RAMMS, height

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4 The Integration and Practice of Indigenous Knowledge System and Sustainable Environmental Education Concept

Authors: Shih-Tsung Chen, Yenchin Hsiao

Abstract:

Evergreen Lily is a newly-built school after Morakot Typhoon took place. The school is located on Majia farm, which is surrounded by mountains. The fund in the construction of the school is solely sponsored by Chang Yung-Fa Foundation. There are 483 permanent houses near the school belonging to three tribes, Dashe, Majia, and Haocha. Due to the most ancient heritages of Paiwan and Rukai in these three tribes, the school is full of cultural atmosphere. From modern and traditional perspectives, Evergreen Lily strives to establish and develop a long-lasting educational model to meet the expectation of the tribes, parents, and the public. This study is a case study of how to develop indigenous education in newly established schools after the Morakot Hurricane disaster to meet the concept of environmental education. The systematic curriculum construction of education and cultural integration and the systematic practice of curriculum practice will be discussed, and the concept and practice of tribal education curriculum and sustainable environmental education will be understood. This study found that this school integrates the spirit of natural philosophy, democratic education, ethnic and experimental education, and constructs a knowledge system that includes three levels of spiritual culture, institutional culture, and material culture, as well as six dimensions of life philosophy, natural ecology, organizational system, tribal literature and history, song and dance, and technical and artistic methods. Adhering to the concept of harmonious education and the sustainable common good, the development of school-based tribal academic courses accounts for about one-third of the total number of teaching sessions, and there are different cultural themes in grades one to six, and there are clear teaching modules to effectively enhance students' potential inspiration. The complete curriculum implementation model can be described as a model for the development of indigenous schools to sustainable environmental education.

Keywords: environmental education, indigenous education, sustainable development, school-based curriculum

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3 The Flooding Management Strategy in Urban Areas: Reusing Public Facilities Land as Flood-Detention Space for Multi-Purpose

Authors: Hsiao-Ting Huang, Chang Hsueh-Sheng

Abstract:

Taiwan is an island country which is affected by the monsoon deeply. Under the climate change, the frequency of extreme rainstorm by typhoon becomes more and more often Since 2000. When the extreme rainstorm comes, it will cause serious damage in Taiwan, especially in urban area. It is suffered by the flooding and the government take it as the urgent issue. On the past, the land use of urban planning does not take flood-detention into consideration. With the development of the city, the impermeable surface increase and most of the people live in urban area. It means there is the highly vulnerability in the urban area, but it cannot deal with the surface runoff and the flooding. However, building the detention pond in hydraulic engineering way to solve the problem is not feasible in urban area. The land expropriation is the most expensive construction of the detention pond in the urban area, and the government cannot afford it. Therefore, the management strategy of flooding in urban area should use the existing resource, public facilities land. It can archive the performance of flood-detention through providing the public facilities land with the detention function. As multi-use public facilities land, it also can show the combination of the land use and water agency. To this purpose, this research generalizes the factors of multi-use for public facilities land as flood-detention space with literature review. The factors can be divided into two categories: environmental factors and conditions of public facilities. Environmental factors including three factors: the terrain elevation, the inundation potential and the distance from the drainage system. In the other hand, there are six factors for conditions of public facilities, including area, building rate, the maximum of available ratio etc. Each of them will be according to it characteristic to given the weight for the land use suitability analysis. This research selects the rules of combination from the logical combination. After this process, it can be classified into three suitability levels. Then, three suitability levels will input to the physiographic inundation model for simulating the evaluation of flood-detention respectively. This study tries to respond the urgent issue in urban area and establishes a model of multi-use for public facilities land as flood-detention through the systematic research process of this study. The result of this study can tell which combination of the suitability level is more efficacious. Besides, The model is not only standing on the side of urban planners but also add in the point of view from water agency. Those findings may serve as basis for land use indicators and decision-making references for concerned government agencies.

Keywords: flooding management strategy, land use suitability analysis, multi-use for public facilities land, physiographic inundation model

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2 Development a Forecasting System and Reliable Sensors for River Bed Degradation and Bridge Pier Scouring

Authors: Fong-Zuo Lee, Jihn-Sung Lai, Yung-Bin Lin, Xiaoqin Liu, Kuo-Chun Chang, Zhi-Xian Yang, Wen-Dar Guo, Jian-Hao Hong

Abstract:

In recent years, climate change is a major factor to increase rainfall intensity and extreme rainfall frequency. The increased rainfall intensity and extreme rainfall frequency will increase the probability of flash flood with abundant sediment transport in a river basin. The floods caused by heavy rainfall may cause damages to the bridge, embankment, hydraulic works, and the other disasters. Therefore, the foundation scouring of bridge pier, embankment and spur dike caused by floods has been a severe problem in the worldwide. This severe problem has happened in many East Asian countries such as Taiwan and Japan because of these areas are suffered in typhoons, earthquakes, and flood events every year. Results from the complex interaction between fluid flow patterns caused by hydraulic works and the sediment transportation leading to the formation of river morphology, it is extremely difficult to develop a reliable and durable sensor to measure river bed degradation and bridge pier scouring. Therefore, an innovative scour monitoring sensor using vibration-based Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) was developed. This vibration-based MEMS sensor was packaged inside a stainless sphere with the proper protection of the full-filled resin, which can measure free vibration signals to detect scouring/deposition processes at the bridge pier. In addition, a friendly operational system includes rainfall runoff model, one-dimensional and two-dimensional numerical model, and the applicability of sediment transport equation and local scour formulas of bridge pier are included in this research. The friendly operational system carries out the simulation results of flood events that includes the elevation changes of river bed erosion near the specified bridge pier and the erosion depth around bridge piers. In addition, the system is developed with easy operation and integrated interface, the system can supplies users to calibrate and verify numerical model and display simulation results through the interface comparing to the scour monitoring sensors. To achieve the forecast of the erosion depth of river bed and main bridge pier in the study area, the system also connects the rainfall forecast data from Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute. The results can be provided available information for the management unit of river and bridge engineering in advance.

Keywords: flash flood, river bed degradation, bridge pier scouring, a friendly operational system

Procedia PDF Downloads 126