Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: floodplains

15 Flood Risk Assessment in the Niger River Basin in Support of the Conception of a Flood Risk Management Plan: Case Study of the District of Malanville, Benin

Authors: Freddy Houndekindo


A study was carried out to evaluate the flood risk in the district of Malanville located along the Niger River. The knowledge produce by this study is useful in the implementation of adaptation and/or mitigation measures to alleviate the impact of the flooding on the populations, the economy and the environment. Over the course of the study, the lack of data in the area of interest has been one of the main challenges encountered. Therefore, in the analysis of the flood hazard different sources of remotely sensed data were used. Moreover, the flood hazard was analysed by applying a 1D hydraulic model: HEC-RAS. After setting up the model for the study area, the different flood scenarios considered were simulated and mapped using ArcGIS and the HEC-GEORAS extension. The result of the simulation gave information about the inundated areas and the water depths at each location. From the analysis of the flood hazard, it was found that between 47% and 50% of the total area of the district of Malanville would be flooded in the different flood scenarios considered, and the water depth varies between 1 and 7 m. The townships of Malanville most at risk of flooding are Momkassa and Galiel, located in a high-risk and very high-risk zone, respectively. Furthermore, the assessment of the flood risk showed that the most vulnerable sector to the inundations is the agricultural sector. Indeed, the cultivated floodplains were the most affected areas by the floodwater in every flood scenarios. Knowing that a high proportion of the population of the district relies on their farmlands in these floodplains for their livelihood, the floods pose a challenge not only to the food security in the area but also to its development.

Keywords: flood risk management, Niger, remote sensing, vulnerability

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14 Conservation Challenges of Wetlands Biodiversity in Northeast Region of Bangladesh

Authors: Anisuzzaman Khan, A. J. K. Masud


Bangladesh is the largest delta in the world predominantly comprising large network of rives and wetlands. Wetlands in Bangladesh are represented by inland freshwater, estuarine brakishwater and tidal salt-water coastal wetlands. Bangladesh possesses enormous area of wetlands including rivers and streams, freshwater lakes and marshes, haors, baors, beels, water storage reservoirs, fish ponds, flooded cultivated fields and estuarine systems with extensive mangrove swamps. The past, present, and future of Bangladesh, and its people’s livelihoods are intimately connected to its relationship with water and wetlands. More than 90% of the country’s total area consists of alluvial plains, crisscrossed by a complex network of rivers and their tributaries. Floodplains, beels (low-lying depressions in the floodplain), haors (deep depression) and baors (oxbow lakes) represent the inland freshwater wetlands. Over a third of Bangladesh could be termed as wetlands, considering rivers, estuaries, mangroves, floodplains, beels, baors and haors. The country’s wetland ecosystems also offer critical habitats for globally significant biological diversity. Of these the deeply flooded basins of north-east Bangladesh, known as haors, are a habitat of wide range of wild flora and fauna unique to Bangladesh. The haor basin lies within the districts of Sylhet, Sunamgonj, Netrokona, Kishoregonj, Habigonj, Moulvibazar, and Brahmanbaria in the Northeast region of Bangladesh comprises the floodplains of the Meghna tributaries and is characterized by the presence of numerous large, deeply flooded depressions, known as haors. It covers about around 8,568 km2 area of Bangladesh. The topography of the region is steep at around foothills in the north and slopes becoming mild and milder gradually at downstream towards south. Haor is a great reservoir of aquatic biological resources and acts as the ecological safety net to the nature as well as to the dwellers of the haor. But in reality, these areas are considered as wastelands and to make these wastelands into a productive one, a one sided plan has been implementing since long. The programme is popularly known as Flood Control, Drainage and Irrigation (FCDI) which is mainly devoted to increase the monoculture rice production. However, haor ecosystem is a multiple-resource base which demands an integrated sustainable development approach. The ongoing management approach is biased to only rice production through FCDI. Thus this primitive mode of action is diminishing other resources having more economic potential ever thought.

Keywords: freshwater wetlands, biological diversity, biological resources, conservation and sustainable development

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13 Discharge Estimation in a Two Flow Braided Channel Based on Energy Concept

Authors: Amiya Kumar Pati, Spandan Sahu, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua


River is our main source of water which is a form of open channel flow and the flow in the open channel provides with many complex phenomena of sciences that needs to be tackled such as the critical flow conditions, boundary shear stress, and depth-averaged velocity. The development of society, more or less solely depends upon the flow of rivers. The rivers are major sources of many sediments and specific ingredients which are much essential for human beings. A river flow consisting of small and shallow channels sometimes divide and recombine numerous times because of the slow water flow or the built up sediments. The pattern formed during this process resembles the strands of a braid. Braided streams form where the sediment load is so heavy that some of the sediments are deposited as shifting islands. Braided rivers often exist near the mountainous regions and typically carry coarse-grained and heterogeneous sediments down a fairly steep gradient. In this paper, the apparent shear stress formulae were suitably modified, and the Energy Concept Method (ECM) was applied for the prediction of discharges at the junction of a two-flow braided compound channel. The Energy Concept Method has not been applied for estimating the discharges in the braided channels. The energy loss in the channels is analyzed based on mechanical analysis. The cross-section of channel is divided into two sub-areas, namely the main-channel below the bank-full level and region above the bank-full level for estimating the total discharge. The experimental data are compared with a wide range of theoretical data available in the published literature to verify this model. The accuracy of this approach is also compared with Divided Channel Method (DCM). From error analysis of this method, it is observed that the relative error is less for the data-sets having smooth floodplains when compared to rough floodplains. Comparisons with other models indicate that the present method has reasonable accuracy for engineering purposes.

Keywords: critical flow, energy concept, open channel flow, sediment, two-flow braided compound channel

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12 Influence of the Location of Flood Embankments on the Condition of Oxbow Lakes and Riparian Forests: A Case Study of the Middle Odra River Beds on the Example of Dragonflies (Odonata), Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and Plant Communities

Authors: Magda Gorczyca, Zofia Nocoń


Past and current studies from different countries showed that river engineering leads to environmental degradation and extinction of many species - often those protected by local and international wildlife conservation laws. Through the years, the main focus of rivers utilization has shifted from industrial applications to recreation and wildlife preservation with a focus on keeping the biodiversity which plays a significant role in preventing climate changes. Thus an opportunity appeared to recreate flooding areas and natural habitats, which are very rare in the scale of Europe. Additionally, river restoration helps to avoid floodings and periodic droughts, which are usually very damaging to the economy. In this research, the biodiversity of dragonflies and ground beetles was analyzed in the context of plant communities and forest stands structure. Results were enriched with data from past and current literature. A comparison was made between two parts of the Odra river. A part where oxbow lake and riparian forest were separated from the river bed by embankment and a part of the river with floodplains left intact. Validity assessment of embankments relocation was made based on the research results. In the period between May and September, insects were collected, phytosociological analysis were taken, and forest stand structure properties were specified. In the part of the river not separated by the embankments, rare and protected species of plants were spotted (e.g., Trapanatans, Salvinianatans) as well as greater species and quantitive diversity of dragonfly. Ground beetles fauna, though, was richer in the area separated by the embankment. Even though the research was done during only one season and in a limited area, the results can be a starting point for further extended research and may contribute to acquiring legal wildlife protection and restoration of the researched area. During the research, the presence of invasive species Impatiens parviflora, Echinocystislobata, and Procyonlotor were observed, which may lead to loss of the natural values of the researched areas.

Keywords: carabidae, floodplains, middle Odra river, Odonata, oxbow lakes, riparian forests

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11 Impact of Ecosystem Engineers on Soil Structuration in a Restored Floodplain in Switzerland

Authors: Andreas Schomburg, Claire Le Bayon, Claire Guenat, Philip Brunner


Numerous river restoration projects have been established in Switzerland in recent years after decades of human activity in floodplains. The success of restoration projects in terms of biodiversity and ecosystem functions largely depend on the development of the floodplain soil system. Plants and earthworms as ecosystem engineers are known to be able to build up a stable soil structure by incorporating soil organic matter into the soil matrix that creates water stable soil aggregates. Their engineering efficiency however largely depends on changing soil properties and frequent floods along an evolutive floodplain transect. This study, therefore, aims to quantify the effect of flood frequency and duration as well as of physico-chemical soil parameters on plants’ and earthworms’ engineering efficiency. It is furthermore predicted that these influences may have a different impact on one of the engineers that leads to a varying contribution to aggregate formation within the floodplain transect. Ecosystem engineers were sampled and described in three different floodplain habitats differentiated according to the evolutionary stages of the vegetation ranging from pioneer to forest vegetation in a floodplain restored 15 years ago. In addition, the same analyses were performed in an embanked adjacent pasture as a reference for the pre-restored state. Soil aggregates were collected and analyzed for their organic matter quantity and quality using Rock Eval pyrolysis. Water level and discharge measurements dating back until 2008 were used to quantify the return period of major floods. Our results show an increasing amount of water stable aggregates in soil with increasing distance to the river and show largest values in the reference site. A decreasing flood frequency and the proportion of silt and clay in the soil texture explain these findings according to F values from one way ANOVA of a fitted mixed effect model. Significantly larger amounts of labile organic matter signatures were found in soil aggregates in the forest habitat and in the reference site that indicates a larger contribution of plants to soil aggregation in these habitats compared to the pioneer vegetation zone. Earthworms’ contribution to soil aggregation does not show significant differences in the floodplain transect, but their effect could be identified even in the pioneer vegetation with its large proportion of coarse sand in the soil texture and frequent inundations. These findings indicate that ecosystem engineers seem to be able to create soil aggregates even under unfavorable soil conditions and under frequent floods. A restoration success can therefore be expected even in ecosystems with harsh soil properties and frequent external disturbances.

Keywords: ecosystem engineers, flood frequency, floodplains, river restoration, rock eval pyrolysis, soil organic matter incorporation, soil structuration

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10 Human Behavioral Assessment to Derive Land-Use for Sustenance of River in India

Authors: Juhi Sah


Habitat is characterized by the inter-dependency of environmental elements. Anthropocentric development approach is increasing our vulnerability towards natural hazards. Hence, manmade interventions should have a higher level of sensitivity towards the natural settings. Sensitivity towards the environment can be assessed by the behavior of the stakeholders involved. This led to the establishment of a hypothesis: there exists a legitimate relationship between the behavioral sciences, land use evolution and environment conservation, in the planning process. An attempt has been made to establish this relationship by reviewing the existing set of knowledge and case examples pertaining to the three disciplines under inquiry. Understanding the scarce & deteriorating nature of fresh-water reserves of earth and experimenting the above concept, a case study of a growing urban center's river flood plain is selected, in a developing economy, India. Cases of urban flooding in Chennai, Delhi and other mega cities of India, imposes a high risk on the unauthorized settlement, on the floodplains of the rivers. The issue addressed here is the encroachment of floodplains, through psychological enlightenment and modification through knowledge building. The reaction of an individual or society can be compared to a cognitive process. This study documents all the stakeholders' behavior and perception for their immediate natural environment (water body), and produce various land uses suitable along a river in an urban settlement as per different stakeholder's perceptions. To assess and induce morally responsible behavior in a community (small scale or large scale), tools of psychological inquiry is used for qualitative analysis. The analysis will deal with varied data sets from two sectors namely: River and its geology, Land use planning and regulation. Identification of a distinctive pattern in the built up growth, river ecology degradation, and human behavior, by handling large quantum of data from the diverse sector and comments on the availability of relevant data and its implications, has been done. Along the whole river stretch, condition and usage of its bank vary, hence stakeholder specific survey questionnaires have been prepared to accurately map the responses and habits of the rational inhabitants. A conceptual framework has been designed to move forward with the empirical analysis. The classical principle of virtues says "virtue of a human depends on its character" but another concept defines that the behavior or response is a derivative of situations and to bring about a behavioral change one needs to introduce a disruption in the situation/environment. Owing to the present trends, blindly following the results of data analytics and using it to construct policy, is not proving to be in favor of planned development and natural resource conservation. Thus behavioral assessment of the rational inhabitants of the planet is also required, as their activities and interests have a large impact on the earth's pre-set systems and its sustenance.

Keywords: behavioral assessment, flood plain encroachment, land use planning, river sustenance

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9 Impact of Global Warming on the Total Flood Duration and Flood Recession Time in the Meghna Basin Using Hydrodynamic Modelling

Authors: Karan Gupta


The floods cause huge loos each year, and their impact gets manifold with the increase of total duration of flood as well as recession time. Moreover, floods have increased in recent years due to climate change in floodplains. In the context of global climate change, the agreement in Paris convention (2015) stated to keep the increase in global average temperature well below 2°C and keep it at the limit of 1.5°C. Thus, this study investigates the impact of increasing temperature on the stage, discharge as well as total flood duration and recession time in the Meghna River basin in Bangladesh. This study considers the 100-year return period flood flows in the Meghna river under the specific warming levels (SWLs) of 1.5°C, 2°C, and 4°C. The results showed that the rate of increase of duration of flood is nearly 50% lesser at ∆T = 1.5°C as compared to ∆T = 2°C, whereas the rate of increase of duration of recession is 75% lower at ∆T = 1.5°C as compared to ∆T = 2°C. Understanding the change of total duration of flood as well as recession time of the flood gives a better insight to effectively plan for flood mitigation measures.

Keywords: flood, climate change, Paris convention, Bangladesh, inundation duration, recession duration

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8 Sustainable Resource Use as a Means of Preserving the Integrity of the Eco-System and Environment

Authors: N. Hedayat, E. Karamifar


Sustainable food and fiber production is emerging as an irresistible option in agrarian planning. Although one should not underestimate the successes of the Green Revolution in enhancing crop production, its adverse environmental and ecosystem consequences have also been remarkable. The aim of this paper is to identify ways of improving crop production to ensure agricultural sustainability and environmental integrity. Systematic observations are used for data collection on intensive farming, deforestation and the environmental implications of industrial pollutants on agricultural sustainability at national and international levels. These were achieved within a comparative analytical model of data interpretation. Results show that while multiple factors enhance yield, they have a simultaneous effect in undermining the ecosystem and environmental integrity. Results show that application of excessive agrichemical have been one of the major cause of polluting the surface and underground water bodies as well as soil layers in affected croplands. Results consider rapid deforestation in the tropical regions has been the underlying cause of impairing the integrity of biodiversity and oxygen-generation regime. These, coupled with production of greenhouse gasses, have contributed to global warming and hydrological irregularities. Continuous production of pollutants and effluents has affected marine and land biodiversity arising from acid rains generated by modern farming and deforestation. Continuous production of greenhouse gases has also been instrumental in affecting climatic behavior manifested in recurring draughts and contraction of lakes and ponds as well as emergence of potential flooding of waterways and floodplains in the future.

Keywords: agricultural sustainability, environmental integrity, pollution, eco-system

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7 Depollution of the Pinheiros River in the City of São Paulo: Mapping the Dynamics of Conflicts and Coalitions between Actors in Two Recent Depollution Projects

Authors: Adalberto Gregorio Back


Historically, the Pinheiros River, which crosses the urban area of the largest South American metropolis, the city of São Paulo, has been the subject of several interventions involving different interests and multiple demands, including the implementation of road axes and industrial occupation in the city, following its floodplains. the dilution of sewers; generation of electricity, with the reversal of its waters to the Billings Dam; and urban drainage. These processes, together with the exclusionary and peripheral urban sprawl with high population density in the peripheries, result in difficulties for the collection and treatment of household sewage, which flow into the tributaries and the Pinheiros River itself. In the last 20 years, two separate projects have been undertaken to clean up its waters. The first one between 2001-2011 was the flotation system, aimed at cleaning the river in its own gutter with equipment installed near the Bilings Dam; and, more recently, from 2019 to 2022, the proposal to connect about 74 thousand dwellings to the sewage collection and treatment system, as well as to install treatment plants in the tributaries of Pinheiros where the connection to the system is impracticable, given the irregular occupations. The purpose of this paper is to make a comparative analysis on the dynamics of conflicts, interests and opportunities of coalitions between the actors involved in the two referred projects of pollution of the Pinheiros River. For this, we use the analysis of documents produced by the state government; as well as documents related to the legal disputes that occurred in the first attempt of decontamination involving the sanitation company; the Billings Dam management company interested in power generation; the city hall and regular and irregular dwellings not linked to the sanitation system.

Keywords: depollution of the Pinheiros River, interests groups, São Paulo, water energy nexus

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6 The Effects of Climate Change and Upstream Dam Development on Sediment Distribution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta

Authors: Trieu Anh Ngoc, Nguyen Quang Kim


Located at the downstream of the Mekong Delta, the Vietnamese Mekong Delta is well-known as 'rice bowl' of Vietnam. The Vietnamese Mekong Delta experiences widespread flooding annually where is habitat for about 17 million people. The economy of this region mainly depends on the agricultural productivities. The suspended sediment load in the Mekong River plays an important role in carrying contaminants and nutrients to the delta and changing the geomorphology of the delta river system. In many past decades, flooding and suspended sediment were considered as indispensable factors in agricultural cultivations. Although flooding in the wet season caused serious inundation in paddy field and affected livelihoods, it is an effective facility for flushing acid and saline to this area - alluvial soil heavily contaminated with acid and salt intrusion. In addition, sediment delivery to this delta contained rich-nutrients distributed and deposited on the fields through flooding process. In recent decades, the changing of flow and sediment transport have been strongly and clearly occurring due to upstream dam development and climate change. However, effects of sediment delivery on agricultural cultivations were less attention. This study investigated the impacts of upstream flow on sediment distribution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. Flow fluctuation and sediment distribution were simulated by the Mike 11 model, including hydrodynamics model and advection-dispersion model. Various scenarios were simulated based on anticipated upstream discharges. Our findings indicated that sediment delivery into the Vietnamese Mekong Delta come from not only Tien River but also border of Cambodia floodplains. Sediment distribution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta is dramatically changed by the distance from the main rivers and the secondary channels. The dam development in the upstream is one of the major factors leading a decrease in sediment discharge as well as sediment deposition. Moreover, sea level rise partially contributed to decrease in sediment transport and change of sediment distribution between upstream and downstream of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta.

Keywords: sediment transport, sea level rise, climate change, Mike Model

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5 Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Brahmaputra River Basin: A Water Quality Assessment in Jorhat (Assam), India

Authors: Kruti Jaruriya


Distribution of arsenic (As) and its compound and related toxicology are serious concerns. This is particularly so since millions worldwide are suffering from toxicity due to drinking of As-contaminated groundwater. The Bengal delta plain, formed by the Ganga– Padma–Meghna–Brahmaputra river basin, covering several districts of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh is considered as the worst As affected alluvial basin. However, some equally affected, if not more, areas are emerging in upper Brahmaputra plains. The present study was carried out to examine As contamination trends in the worst affected part of Assam, India. Arsenic (As) mobilization to the groundwater of Brahmaputra floodplains was investigated in Titabor, Jorhat District, located in the North Eastern part of India. The groundwater and the aquifer geochemistry were characterized. The groundwater is characterized by high dissolved Fe, Mn, and HCO-3 and low concentrations of NO-3 and SO2-4 indicating anoxic conditions prevailing in the groundwater. Fifty groundwater samples collected from shallow and deep tubewells of Titabor, Jorhat district (Assam) were examined. Along with total As, examination of concentration levels of other key parameters, viz., pH, EC, Fe, Mn , Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+, PO43- , HCO-3 , NO3- ,Cl - and SO42- was also carried out. In respect to the permissible guideline of World Health Organization (WHO: As 0.01 ppm, Fe 1.0 ppm, and Mn 0.3 ppm for potable water), the range of As concentration in the groundwater varied from 0.014 to 0.604 mg/L with mean concentration 0.184 mg/L. The present study showed that out of the 50 groundwater samples,100%, 54%, and 42% were found contaminated with higher metal contents (for total As, Fe, and Mn, respectively). The results of hydrogeochemical study revealed that the reductive dissolution of MnOOH and FeOOH represents an important mechanism of arsenic release in the study area along with major cations playing an important role in leaching of As into the groundwater. Arsenic released by oxidation of pyrite, as water levels are drawn down and air enters the aquifer, contributes negligibly to the problem of As pollution. Identification of the mechanism of As release to groundwater helps to provide a framework to guide the placement of new water wells so that they will have acceptable concentrations of As.

Keywords: arsenic, assam, brahmaputra floodplain, groundwater, hydrogeochemistry

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4 Understanding the Reasons for Flooding in Chennai and Strategies for Making It Flood Resilient

Authors: Nivedhitha Venkatakrishnan


Flooding in urban areas in India has become a usual ritual phenomenon and a nightmare to most cities, which is a consequence of man-made disruption resulting in disaster. The City planning in India falls short of withstanding hydro generated disasters. This has become a barrier and challenge in the process of development put forth by urbanization, high population density, expanding informal settlements, environment degradation from uncollected and untreated waste that flows into natural drains and water bodies, this has disrupted the natural mechanism of hazard protection such as drainage channels, wetlands and floodplains. The magnitude and the impact of the mishap was high because of the failure of development policies, strategies, plans that the city had adopted. In the current scenario, cities are becoming the home for future, with economic diversification bringing in more investment into cities especially in domains of Urban infrastructure, planning and design. The uncertainty of the Urban futures in these low elevated coastal zones faces an unprecedented risk and threat. The study on focuses on three major pillars of resilience such as Recover, Resist and Restore. This process of getting ready to handle the situation bridges the gap between disaster response management and risk reduction requires a shift in paradigm. The study involved a qualitative research and a system design approach (framework). The initial stages involved mapping out of the urban water morphology with respect to the spatial growth gave an insight of the water bodies that have gone missing over the years during the process of urbanization. The major finding of the study was missing links between traditional water harvesting network was a major reason resulting in a manmade disaster. The research conceptualized the ideology of a sponge city framework which would guide the growth through institutional frameworks at different levels. The next stage was on understanding the implementation process at various stage to ensure the shift in paradigm. Demonstration of the concepts at a neighborhood level where, how, what are the functions and benefits of each component. Quantifying the design decision with rainwater harvest, surface runoff and how much water is collected and how it could be collected, stored and reused. The study came with further recommendation for Water Mitigation Spaces that will revive the traditional harvesting network.

Keywords: flooding, man made disaster, resilient city, traditional harvesting network, waterbodies

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3 Culvert Blockage Evaluation Using Australian Rainfall And Runoff 2019

Authors: Rob Leslie, Taher Karimian


The blockage of cross drainage structures is a risk that needs to be understood and managed or lessened through the design. A blockage is a random event, influenced by site-specific factors, which needs to be quantified for design. Under and overestimation of blockage can have major impacts on flood risk and cost associated with drainage structures. The importance of this matter is heightened for those projects located within sensitive lands. It is a particularly complex problem for large linear infrastructure projects (e.g., rail corridors) located within floodplains where blockage factors can influence flooding upstream and downstream of the infrastructure. The selection of the appropriate blockage factors for hydraulic modeling has been subject to extensive research by hydraulic engineers. This paper has been prepared to review the current Australian Rainfall and Runoff 2019 (ARR 2019) methodology for blockage assessment by applying this method to a transport corridor brownfield upgrade case study in New South Wales. The results of applying the method are also validated against asset data and maintenance records. ARR 2019 – Book 6, Chapter 6 includes advice and an approach for estimating the blockage of bridges and culverts. This paper concentrates specifically on the blockage of cross drainage structures. The method has been developed to estimate the blockage level for culverts affected by sediment or debris due to flooding. The objective of the approach is to evaluate a numerical blockage factor that can be utilized in a hydraulic assessment of cross drainage structures. The project included an assessment of over 200 cross drainage structures. In order to estimate a blockage factor for use in the hydraulic model, a process has been advanced that considers the qualitative factors (e.g., Debris type, debris availability) and site-specific hydraulic factors that influence blockage. A site rating associated with the debris potential (i.e., availability, transportability, mobility) at each crossing was completed using the method outlined in ARR 2019 guidelines. The hydraulic results inputs (i.e., flow velocity, flow depth) and qualitative factors at each crossing were developed into an advanced spreadsheet where the design blockage level for cross drainage structures were determined based on the condition relating Inlet Clear Width and L10 (average length of the longest 10% of the debris reaching the site) and the Adjusted Debris Potential. Asset data, including site photos and maintenance records, were then reviewed and compared with the blockage assessment to check the validity of the results. The results of this assessment demonstrate that the estimated blockage factors at each crossing location using ARR 2019 guidelines are well-validated with the asset data. The primary finding of the study is that the ARR 2019 methodology is a suitable approach for culvert blockage assessment that has been validated against a case study spanning a large geographical area and multiple sub-catchments. The study also found that the methodology can be effectively coded within a spreadsheet or similar analytical tool to automate its application.

Keywords: ARR 2019, blockage, culverts, methodology

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2 The Stable Isotopic Composition of Pedogenic Carbonate in the Minusinsk Basin, South Siberia

Authors: Jessica Vasil'chuk, Elena Ivanova, Pavel Krechetov, Vladimir Litvinsky, Nadine Budantseva, Julia Chizhova, Yurij Vasil'chuk


Carbonate minerals’ isotopic composition is widely used as a proxy for environmental parameters of the past. Pedogenic carbonate coatings on lower surfaces of coarse rock fragments are studied in order to indicate the climatic conditions and predominant vegetation under which they were formed. The purpose of the research is to characterize the isotopic composition of carbonate pedofeatures in soils of Minusink Hollow and estimate its correlation with isotopic composition of soil pore water, precipitation, vegetation and parent material. The samples of pedogenic carbonates, vegetation, carbonate parent material, soil water and precipitation water were analyzed using the Delta-V mass spectrometer with options of a gas bench and element analyser. The soils we studied are mainly Kastanozems that are poorly moisturized, therefore soil pore water was extracted by ethanol. Oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonates was analyzed in 3 key sites. Kazanovka Khakass state national reserve, Hankul salt lake, region of Sayanogorsk aluminum smelter. Vegetation photosynthetic pathway in the region is mainly C3. δ18O values of carbonate coatings in soils of Kazanovka vary in a range from −7.49 to −10.5‰ (vs V-PDB), and the smallest value −13.9‰ corresponds the coatings found between two buried soil horizons which 14C dates are 4.6 and 5.2 kyr BP. That may indicate cooler conditions of late Holocene than nowadays. In Sayanogorsk carbonates’ δ18O range is from −8.3 to −11.1‰ and near the Hankul Lake is from −9.0 to −10.2‰ all ranges are quite similar and may indicate coatings’ uniform formation conditions. δ13C values of carbonate coatings in Kazanovka vary from −2.5 to −6.7‰, the highest values correspond to the soils of Askiz and Syglygkug rivers former floodplains. For Sayanogorsk the range is from −4.9 to −6.8‰ and for Hankul from −2.3 to −5.7‰, where the highest value is for the modern salt crust. δ13C values of coatings strongly decrease from inner (older) to outer (younger) layers of coatings, that can indicate differences connected with the diffusion of organic material. Carbonate parent material δ18O value in the region vary from −11.1 to −12.0‰ and δ13C values vary from −4.9 to −5.7‰. Soil pore water δ18O values that determine the oxygen isotope composition of carbonates vary due to the processes of transpiration and mixing in the studied sites in a wide range of −2.0 to −13.5‰ (vs V-SMOW). Precipitation waters show δ18O values from -6.6‰ in May and -19.0‰ in January (snow) due to the temperature difference. The main conclusions are as follows: pedogenic carbonates δ13C values (−7…−2,5‰) show no correlation with modern C3 vegetation δ13C values (−30…−26‰), expected values under such vegetation are (−19…−15‰) but are closer to C4 vegetation. Late Holocene climate for the Minusinsk Hollow according to obtained data on isotope composition of carbonates and soil pore water chemical composition was dryer and cooler than present, that does not contradict with paleocarpology data obtained for the region. The research was supported by Russian Science Foundation (grant №14-27-00083).

Keywords: carbon, oxygen, pedogenic carbonates, South Siberia, stable isotopes

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1 Climate Change Adaptation Success in a Low Income Country Setting, Bangladesh

Authors: Tanveer Ahmed Choudhury


Background: Bangladesh is one of the largest deltas in the world, with high population density and high rates of poverty and illiteracy. 80% of the country is on low-lying floodplains, leaving the country one of the most vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change: sea level rise, cyclones and storms, salinity intrusion, rising temperatures and heavy monsoon downpours. Such climatic events already limit Economic Development in the country. Although Bangladesh has had little responsibility in contributing to global climatic change, it is vulnerable to both its direct and indirect impacts. Real threats include reduced agricultural production, worsening food security, increased incidence of flooding and drought, spreading disease and an increased risk of conflict over scarce land and water resources. Currently, 8.3 million Bangladeshis live in cyclone high risk areas. However, by 2050 this is expected to grow to 20.3 million people, if proper adaptive actions are not taken. Under a high emissions scenario, an additional 7.6 million people will be exposed to very high salinity by 2050 compared to current levels. It is also projected that, an average of 7.2 million people will be affected by flooding due to sea level rise every year between 2070-2100 and If global emissions decrease rapidly and adaptation interventions are taken, the population affected by flooding could be limited to only about 14,000 people. To combat the climate change adverse effects, Bangladesh government has initiated many adaptive measures specially in infrastructure and renewable energy sector. Government is investing huge money and initiated many projects which have been proved very success full. Objectives: The objective of this paper is to describe some successful measures initiated by Bangladesh government in its effort to make the country a Climate Resilient. Methodology: Review of operation plan and activities of different relevant Ministries of Bangladesh government. Result: The following initiative projects, programs and activities are considered as best practices for Climate Change adaptation successes for Bangladesh: 1. The Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL); 2. Climate Change and Health Promotion Unit (CCHPU); 3. The Climate Change Trust Fund (CCTF); 4. Community Climate Change Project (CCCP); 5. Health, Population, Nutrition Sector Development Program (HPNSDP, 2011-2016)- "Climate Change and Environmental Issues"; 6. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Bangladesh and WHO Collaboration; - National Adaptation Plan. -"Building adaptation to climate change in health in least developed countries through resilient WASH". 7. COP-21 “Climate and health country profile -2015 Bangladesh. Conclusion: Due to a vast coastline, low-lying land and abundance of rivers, Bangladesh is highly vulnerable to climate change. Having extensive experience with facing natural disasters, Bangladesh has developed a successful adaptation program, which led to a significant reduction in casualties from extreme weather events. In a low income country setting, Bangladesh had successfully adapted various projects and initiatives to combat future Climate Change challenges.

Keywords: climate, change, success, Bangladesh

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