Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2186

Search results for: benefit sharing

2186 Sustainability of Widlife Community Based Natural Resource Management under Benefit Sharing Mechanism in Game Management Areas in Zambia

Authors: Darius Phiri, Moses Chibesa, Donald Zulu, Robby Kasubika

Abstract:

In Zambia, wildlife is co-managed by Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) and the local communities by sharing management responsibilities and benefits derived from harvesting wildlife resources under a benefit sharing mechanism. Although the benefit sharing mechanism has been formulated under good principles, it is still facing numerous challenges. In response to these challenges, a study on the sustainability of ZAWA benefit sharing mechanism was carried out in order to assess its potential and continuity in line with community empowerment and wildlife resources management. Systematic sampling was used with a sampling intensity of 4% to administer three types of questionnaires to community members in Mumbwa Game Management Area (GMA), ZAWA officers, and to the Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources (MTENR) staffs. The collected data was then analysed using SPSS version 16.5. The findings indicated that many people in the GMA do not participate fully because of lacking satisfactory benefits. However, the mechanism contribute to the community well-being and can still remain sustainable especially if measures to address the current challenges are put in place.

Keywords: benefit sharing, concessions, licenses, poaching, local communities, sustainability

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2185 Hydrological Benefits Sharing Concepts in Constructing Friendship Dams on Transboundary Tigris River Between Iraq and Turkey

Authors: Thair Mahmood Altaiee

Abstract:

Because of the increasing population and the growing water requirements from the transboundary water resources within riparian countries in addition to un-proper management of these transboundary water resources, it is likely that a conflicts on the water will be occurred. So it is mandatory to search solutions to mitigate the action and probabilities of these undesired conflicts. One of the solutions for these crises may be sharing the riparian countries in the management of their transboundary water resources and share benefit. Effective cooperation on a transboundary river is any action by the riparian countries that lead to improve management of the river to their mutual acceptance. In principle, friendship dams constructed by riparian countries may play an important role in preventing conflicts like the Turkish-Syrian friendship dam on Asi river (Orontes), Iranian-Tukmenistan dam on Hariroud river, Bulgarian-Turkish dam on Tundzha river, Brazil-Paraguay dam on Parana river, and Aras dam between Iran and Azerbaijan. The objective of this study is to focus the light on the hydrological aspects of cooperation in constructing dams on the transboundary rivers, which may consider an option to prevent conflicts on water between the riparian countries. The various kinds of benefits and external impacts associated with cooperation in dams construction on the transboundary rivers with a real examples will be presented and analyzed. The hydrological benefit sharing from cooperation in dams construction, which type of benefit sharing mechanisms are applicable to dams, and how they vary were discussed. The study considered the cooperative applicability to dams on shared rivers according to selected case study of friendship dams in the world to illustrate the relevance of the cooperation concepts and the feasibility of such propose cooperation between Turkey and Iraq within the Tigris river. It is found that the opportunities of getting benefit from cooperation depend mainly on the hydrological boundary and location of the dam in relation to them. The desire to cooperate on dams construction on transboundary rivers exists if the location of a dam upstream will increase aggregate net benefits. The case studies show that various benefit sharing mechanisms due to cooperation in constructing friendship dams on the riparian countries border are possible for example when the downstream state (Iraq) convinces the upstream state (Turkey) to share building a dam on Tigris river across the Iraqi –Turkish border covering the cost and sharing the net benefit derived from this dam. These initial findings may provide guidance for riparian states engaged in and donors facilitating negotiation on dam projects on transboundary rivers.

Keywords: friendship dams, transboundary rivers, water cooperation, benefit sharing

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2184 The Effect of Supply Chain Integration on Information Sharing

Authors: Khlif Hamadi

Abstract:

Supply chain integration has become a potentially valuable way of securing shared information and improving supply chain performance since competition is no longer between organizations but among supply chains. This research conceptualizes and develops three dimensions of supply chain integration (integration with customers, integration with suppliers, and the interorganizational integration) and tests the relationships between supply chain integration, information sharing, and supply chain performance. Furthermore, the four types of information sharing namely; information sharing with customers, information sharing with suppliers, inter-functional information sharing, and intra-organizational information sharing; and the four constructs of Supply Chain Performance represents expenses of costs, asset utilization, supply chain reliability, and supply chain flexibility and responsiveness. The theoretical and practical implications of the study, as well as directions for future research, are discussed.

Keywords: supply chain integration, supply chain management, information sharing, supply chain performance

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2183 Modeling Salam Contract for Profit and Loss Sharing

Authors: Dchieche Amina, Aboulaich Rajae

Abstract:

Profit and loss sharing suggests an equitable sharing of risks and profits between the parts involved in a financial transaction. Salam is a contract in which advance payment is made for goods to be delivered at a future date. The purpose of this work is to price a new contract for profit and loss sharing based on Salam contract, using Khiyar Al Ghabn which is an agreement of choice in case of misrepresent facts.

Keywords: Islamic finance, shariah compliance, profi t and loss sharing, derivatives, risks, hedging, salam contract

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2182 Cars Redistribution Optimization Problem in the Free-Float Car-Sharing

Authors: Amine Ait-Ouahmed, Didier Josselin, Fen Zhou

Abstract:

Free-Float car-sharing is an one-way car-sharing service where cars are available anytime and anywhere in the streets such that no dedicated stations are needed. This means that after driving a car you can park it anywhere. This car-sharing system creates an imbalance car distribution in the cites which can be regulated by staff agents through the redistribution of cars. In this paper, we aim to solve the car-reservation and agents traveling problem so that the number of successful cars’ reservations could be maximized. Beside, we also tend to minimize the distance traveled by agents for cars redistribution. To this end, we present a mixed integer linear programming formulation for the car-sharing problem.

Keywords: one-way car-sharing, vehicle redistribution, car reservation, linear programming

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2181 Research and Development of Net-Centric Information Sharing Platform

Authors: Wang Xiaoqing, Fang Youyuan, Zheng Yanxing, Gu Tianyang, Zong Jianjian, Tong Jinrong

Abstract:

Compared with traditional distributed environment, the net-centric environment brings on more demanding challenges for information sharing with the characteristics of ultra-large scale and strong distribution, dynamic, autonomy, heterogeneity, redundancy. This paper realizes an information sharing model and a series of core services, through which provides an open, flexible and scalable information sharing platform.

Keywords: net-centric environment, information sharing, metadata registry and catalog, cross-domain data access control

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2180 Knowledge Sharing and Organizational Performance: A System Dynamics Approach

Authors: Shachi Pathak

Abstract:

We are living in knowledge based economy where firms can gain competitive advantage with the help of managing knowledge within the organization. The purpose the study is to develop a conceptual model to explain the relationship between factors affecting knowledge sharing, called as knowledge enablers, in an organization, knowledge sharing activities and organizational performance, using system dynamics approach. This research is important since it will provide better understandings on what are the key knowledge enablers to support knowledge sharing activities, and how knowledge sharing activities will affect the capability of an organization to enhance the performance of the organization.

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge sharing, organizational performance, system dynamics

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2179 Knowledge and Information Sharing in the Opinion of the Polish Academic Community

Authors: Marzena Świgoń

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to describe the perceptions of knowledge and information sharing by the Polish academic community. An electronic questionnaire was used to gather opinions of respondents. The presented results are a part of the findings of empirical studies carried out amongst academics from various types of universities and academia located throughout Poland.

Keywords: academics, information sharing, knowledge sharing, scholarly communication

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2178 Organizational Climate being Knowledge Sharing Oriented: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis

Authors: Paulo Lopes Henriques, Carla Curado

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According to literature, knowledge sharing behaviors are influenced by organizational values and structures, namely organizational climate. The manuscript examines the antecedents of the knowledge sharing oriented organizational climate. According to theoretical expectations the study adopts the following explanatory conditions: knowledge sharing costs, knowledge sharing incentives, perceptions of knowledge sharing contributing to performance and tenure. The study confronts results considering two groups of firms: nondigital (firms without intranet) vs digital (firms with intranet). The paper applies fsQCA technique to analyze data by using fsQCA 2.5 software (www.fsqca.com) testing several conditional arguments to explain the outcome variable. Main results strengthen claims on the relevancy of the contribution of knowledge sharing to performance. Secondly, evidence brings tenure - an explanatory condition that is associated to organizational memory – to the spotlight. The study provides an original contribution not previously addressed in literature, since it identifies the sufficient conditions sets to knowledge sharing oriented organizational climate using fsQCA, which is, to our knowledge, a novel application of the technique.

Keywords: fsQCA, knowledge sharing oriented organizational climate, knowledge sharing costs, knowledge sharing incentives

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2177 Knowledge Sharing within a Team: Exploring the Antecedents and Role of Trust

Authors: Li Yan Hei, Au Wing Tung

Abstract:

Knowledge sharing is a process in which individuals mutually exchange existing knowledge and co-create new knowledge. Previous research has confirmed that trust is positively associated with knowledge sharing. However, only few studies systematically examined the antecedents of trust and these antecedents’ impacts on knowledge sharing. In order to explore and understand the relationships between trust and knowledge sharing in depth, this study proposed a relationship maintenance-based model to examine the antecedents of trust in knowledge sharing in project teams. Three critical elements within a project team were measured, including the environment, project team partner and interaction. It was hypothesized that the trust would lead to knowledge sharing and in turn result in perceived good team performance. With a sample of 200 Hong Kong employees, the proposed model was evaluated with structural equation modeling. Expected findings are trust will contribute to knowledge sharing, resulting in better team performance. The results will also offer insights into antecedents of trust that play a heavy role in the focal relationship. The present study contributes to a more holistic understanding of relationship between trust and knowledge sharing by linking the antecedents and outcomes. The findings will raise the awareness of project managers on ways to promote knowledge sharing.

Keywords: knowledge sharing, project management, team, trust

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2176 An Examination of Factors Leading to Knowledge-Sharing Behavior of Sri Lankan Bankers

Authors: Eranga N. Somaratna, Pradeep Dharmadasa

Abstract:

In the current competitive environment, the factors leading to organization success are not limited to the investment of capital, labor, and raw material, but in the ability of knowledge innovation from all the members of an organization. However, knowledge on its own cannot provide organizations with its promised benefits unless it is shared, as organizations are increasingly experiencing unsuccessful knowledge sharing efforts. In such a backdrop and due to the dearth of research in this area in the South Asian context, the study set forth to develop an understanding of the factors that influence knowledge-sharing behavior within an organizational framework, using widely accepted social psychology theories. The purpose of the article is to discover the determinants of knowledge-sharing intention and actual knowledge sharing behaviors of bank employees in Sri Lanka using an aggregate model. Knowledge sharing intentions are widely discussed in literature through the application of Ajzen’s Theory of planned behavior (TPB) and Theory of Social Capital (SCT) separately. Both the theories are rich to explain knowledge sharing intention of workers with limitations. The study, therefore, combines the TPB with SCT in developing its conceptual model. Data were collected through a self-administrated paper-based questionnaire of 199 bank managers from 6 public and private banks of Sri Lanka and analyzed the suggested research model using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The study supported six of the nine hypotheses, where Attitudes toward Knowledge Sharing Behavior, Perceived Behavioral Control, Trust, Anticipated Reciprocal Relationships and Actual Knowledge Sharing Behavior were supported while Organizational Climate, Sense of Self-Worth and Anticipated Extrinsic Rewards were not, in determining knowledge sharing intentions. Furthermore, the study investigated the effect of demographic factors of bankers (age, gender, position, education, and experiences) to the actual knowledge sharing behavior. However, findings should be confirmed using a larger sample, as well as through cross-sectional studies. The results highlight the need for theoreticians to combined TPB and SCT in understanding knowledge workers’ intentions and actual behavior; and for practitioners to focus on the perceptions and needs of the individual knowledge worker and the need to cultivate a culture of sharing knowledge in the organization for their mutual benefit.

Keywords: banks, employees behavior, knowledge management, knowledge sharing

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2175 Influence Analysis of Profit Sharing Agreement and Financing Risk to Profitability in Islamic Bank of Indonesia

Authors: Irena Paramita Pramono

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Islamic bank is a financial industry with huge potential to grow in Indonesia. Profit-sharing agreement in the operations of Islamic banks distinguishes Islamic banks with conventional banks. Profit-sharing agreement allows sharing of benefits and risks between shahibul maal and mudharib in islamic bank. This study aimed to observe the patterns of influence between the risk-sharing agreement, financing risk and Profitability in Islamic banks. This research used several Islamic banks as sample and path analysis method. The empirical results of this research shows that the profit-sharing agreement in deposits structure has no direct significant effect to ROA, but it has indirect effect to ROA through profit-sharing financing. On the other hand, profit-sharing financing has direct and indirect influence to ROA through financing risk. This research shows that profit-sharing financing has a positive significant effect to the financing risk and also to the ROA. The research recommends Islamic banks to continue using and developing profit-sharing agreement in its operational activities, hence to create value.

Keywords: Islamic bank, profit-loss sharing agreement, financing risk, profitability

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2174 Investigating the Interaction of Individuals' Knowledge Sharing Constructs

Authors: Eugene Okyere-Kwakye

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Knowledge sharing is a practice where individuals commonly exchange both tacit and explicit knowledge to jointly create a new knowledge. Knowledge management literature vividly express that knowledge sharing is the keystone and perhaps it is the most important aspect of knowledge management. To enhance the understanding of knowledge sharing domain, this study is aimed to investigate some factors that could influence employee’s attitude and behaviour to share their knowledge. The researchers employed the social exchange theory as a theoretical foundation for this study. Three essential factors namely: Trust, mutual reciprocity and perceived enjoyment that could influence knowledge sharing behaviour has been incorporated into a research model. To empirically validate this model, data was collected from one hundred and twenty respondents. The multiple regression analysis was employed to analyse the data. The results indicate that perceived enjoyment and trust have a significant influence on knowledge sharing. Surprisingly, mutual reciprocity did not influence knowledge sharing. The paper concludes by highlight the practical implications of the findings and areas for future research to consider.

Keywords: perceived enjoyment, trust, knowledge sharing, knowledge management

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2173 Moderating Role of Positive External Factors in Relationship of Abusive Supervision and Knowledge Sharing

Authors: I.Hussain, A. Gulzar

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Knowledge sharing is very important in organizations for their future progress and survival. This study investigates the impact of destructive leadership (abusive supervision) on knowledge sharing in employees. Further, the authors want to investigate a context variable (group cohesion) and explore its cross level influence on the relationship of abusive supervision and knowledge sharing. Conservation of resource theory (COR) claims loss of psychological capital (an internal positive resource) in employees due to abusive supervision and hence decrease occurs in knowledge sharing. This study tests psychological capital as mediator and group cohesion as moderator in relationship of abusive supervision and knowledge sharing. Data was collected from 239 respondents from more than 40 different organizations and 50 different groups from all over Pakistan. Results show that abusive supervision has negative effect on knowledge sharing through reduction in psychological capital of employees, and increased group cohesion in employees reduces this negative effect improving psychological capital in employees.

Keywords: abusive supervision, knowledge sharing, psychological capital, group cohesion, conservation of resources

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2172 Knowledge Sharing Practices in the Healthcare Sector: Evidences from Primary Health Care Organizations in Indonesia

Authors: Galih Imaduddin

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Knowledge has been viewed as one of the most important resources in organizations, including those that operate in the healthcare sector. On that basis, Knowledge Management (KM) is crucial for healthcare organizations to improve their productivity and ensure effective utilization of their resources. Despite the growing interests to understand how KM might work for healthcare organizations, there is only a modest amount of empirical inquiries which have specifically focused on the tools and initiatives to share knowledge. Hence, the main purpose of this paper is to investigate the way healthcare organizations, particularly public sector ones, utilize knowledge sharing tools and initiatives for the benefit of patient-care. Employing a qualitative method, 13 (thirteen) Community Health Centers (CHCs) from a high-performing district health setting in Indonesia were observed. Data collection and analysis involved a repetition of document retrievals and interviews (n=41) with multidisciplinary health professionals who work in these CHCs. A single case study was cultivated reflecting on the means that were used to share knowledge, along with the factors that inhibited the exchange of knowledge among those health professionals. The study discovers that all of the thirteen CHCs exhibited and applied knowledge sharing means which included knowledge documents, virtual communication channels (i.e. emails and chatting applications), and social learning forums such as staff meetings, morning briefings, and communities of practices. However, the intensity of utilization was different among these CHCs, in which organizational culture, leadership, professional boundaries, and employees’ technological aptitude were presumed to be the factors that inhibit knowledge sharing processes. Making a distance with the KM literature of other sectors, this study denounces the primacy of technology-based tools, suggesting that socially-based initiatives could be more reliable for sharing knowledge. This suggestion is largely due to the nature of healthcare work which is still predominantly based on the tacit form of knowledge.

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge sharing, knowledge sharing tools and initiatives, knowledge sharing inhibitors, primary health care organizations

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2171 The Impact of Motivation, Trust, and National Cultural Differences on Knowledge Sharing within the Context of Electronic Mail

Authors: Said Abdullah Al Saifi

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The goal of this research is to examine the impact of trust, motivation, and national culture on knowledge sharing within the context of electronic mail. This study is quantitative and survey based. In order to conduct the research, 200 students from a leading university in New Zealand were chosen randomly to participate in a questionnaire survey. Motivation and trust were found to be significantly and positively related to knowledge sharing. The research findings illustrated that face saving, face gaining, and individualism positively moderates the relationship between motivation and knowledge sharing. In addition, collectivism culture negatively moderates the relationship between motivation and knowledge sharing. Moreover, the research findings reveal that face saving, individualism, and collectivism culture positively moderate the relationship between trust and knowledge sharing. In addition, face gaining culture negatively moderates the relationship between trust and knowledge sharing. This study sets out several implications for researchers and practitioners. The study produces an integrative model that shows how attributes of national culture impact knowledge sharing through the use of emails. A better understanding of the relationship between knowledge sharing and trust, motivation, and national culture differences will increase individuals’ ability to make wise choices when sharing knowledge with those from different cultures.

Keywords: knowledge sharing, motivation, national culture, trust

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2170 Antecedents of Knowledge Sharing: Investigating the Influence of Knowledge Sharing Factors towards Postgraduate Research Supervision

Authors: Arash Khosravi, Mohamad Nazir Ahmad

Abstract:

Today’s economy is a knowledge-based economy in which knowledge is a crucial facilitator to individuals, as well as being an instigator of success. Due to the impact of globalization, universities face new challenges and opportunities. Accordingly, they ought to be more innovative and have their own competitive advantages. One of the most important goals of universities is the promotion of students as professional knowledge workers. Therefore, knowledge sharing and transferring at tertiary level between students and supervisors is vital in universities, as it decreases the budget and provides an affordable way of doing research. Knowledge-sharing impact factors can be categorized into three groups, namely: organizational, individual and technical factors. There are some individual barriers to knowledge sharing, namely: lack of time and trust, lack of communication skills and social networks. IT systems such as e-learning, blogs and portals can increase knowledge sharing capability. However, it must be stated that IT systems are only tools and not solutions. Individuals are still responsible for sharing information and knowledge. This paper proposes new research model to examine the effect of individual factors and organisational factors, namely: learning strategy, trust culture, supervisory support, as well as technological factor on knowledge sharing in a research supervision process at the University of Technology Malaysia.

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge sharing, research supervision, knowledge transferring

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2169 Prospect and Challenges of Public Bicycle Sharing System in Indian Cities

Authors: Anil Kumar

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Public Bicycle System (PBS), generally known as Public Bicycle Share System or Bike-Share, is a service provided to the everyday commuters in which several cycles are available on the shared system. The concept of PBS is new to the people of India and requires more study in the fields of essential requirements, major infrastructural requirements, social acceptability, and various challenges. In various Indian cities, MRTS, BRTS, Monorail, and other modes of transport have been adopted for the main haul of transport. These modes take more time, space and are also expensive to implement. At the same time, the PBS system is more economical and takes less time to implement. The main benefit of the PBS system is that it is more environmentally friendly. PBS is being implemented in many Indian cities for public use, but various challenges are associated with this. The study aims to determine what are the basic infrastructural requirements for PBS in India, as well as to determine to what extent a Public Bike Sharing System can provide a quality and efficient service to passengers as a primary method of transportation.

Keywords: public bicycle sharing system, sustainable transport, infrastructure, smart city

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2168 How Information Sharing Can Improve Organizational Performance?

Authors: Syed Abdul Rehman Khan

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In today’s world, information sharing plays a vital role in successful operations of supply chain; and boost to the profitability of the organizations (end-to-end supply chains). Many researches have been completed over the role of information sharing in supply chain. In this research article, we will investigate the ‘how information sharing can boost profitability & productivity of the organization; for this purpose, we have developed one conceptual model and check to that model through collected data from companies. We sent questionnaire to 369 companies; and will filled form received from 172 firms and the response rate was almost 47%. For the data analysis, we have used Regression in (SPSS software) In the research findings, our all hypothesis has been accepted significantly and due to the information sharing between suppliers and manufacturers ‘quality of material and timely delivery’ increase and also ‘collaboration & trust’ will become more stronger and these all factors will lead to the company’s profitability directly and in-directly. But unfortunately, companies could not avail the all fruitful benefits of information sharing due to the fear of ‘compromise confidentiality or leakage of information’.

Keywords: collaboration, information sharing, risk factor, timely delivery

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2167 Heritage Sharing Problems in Land Registry: Case Study of Konya, Turkey

Authors: Tayfun Cay, Sabahattin Akkus

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Due to inheritance, urban areas can not be arranged in a planned and programmed manner. As a result of this, the social fabric is disrupted and the hostility is increasing among the people. This contradicts the understanding of the social state. The Turkish Civil Code and the Urban Development Law are effective in sharing heritage in urban areas in Turkey. Within the framework of this legislation; How to make heritage sharing and services in the title deed. In this study, these laws, regulations, and statutes are examined. In the frame of this legislation, land registry problems on inheritance are examined and the province of Konya - Selçuk district, is selected as an application place to solve the problems. In this study, the problems of heritage sharing in the land registry were investigated. The evaluation of the work is done and the results are determined and possible solutions are proposed.

Keywords: land, land registry, heritage sharing, sharing problems of heritage

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2166 Local Pricing Strategy Should Be the Entry Point of Equitable Benefit Sharing and Poverty Reduction in Community Based Forest Management: Some Evidences from Lowland Community Forestry in Nepal

Authors: Dhruba Khatri

Abstract:

Despite the short history of community based forest management, the community forestry program of Nepal has produced substantial positive effects to organize the local people at a local level institution called Community Forest User Group and manage the local forest resources in the line of poverty reduction since its inception in 1970s. Moreover, each CFUG has collected a community fund from the sale of forest products and non-forestry sources as well and the fund has played a vital role to improve the livelihood of user households living in and around the forests. The specific study sites were selected based on the criteria of i) community forests having dominancy of Sal forests, and ii) forests having 3-5 years experience of community forest management. The price rates of forest products fixed by the CFUGs and the distribution records were collected from the respective community forests. Nonetheless, the relation between pricing strategy and community fund collection revealed that the small change in price of forest products could greatly affect in community fund collection and carry out of forest management, community development, and income generation activities in the line of poverty reduction at local level.

Keywords: benefit sharing, community forest, equitable, Nepal

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2165 The Relationship between Social Capital and Knowledge Sharing in the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance(Iran)

Authors: Narges Sadat Myrmousavy, Maryam Eslampanah

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between social capital and knowledge sharing is the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. They are descriptive correlation study. The study sample consisted of all the experts in the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance helping professionals headquarters in Tehran in the summer period is 2012, the number is 650. Random sampling is targeted. The sample size is 400. The data collection tool was a questionnaire that was used for the preparation of a standard questionnaire. They also examine the assumptions of the regression coefficient for the relationship between variables in order to investigate the main hypothesis test is used. The findings suggest that the structural and knowledge-sharing between components, there is a direct relationship. The components of the relationship between Impression management and knowledge sharing, there is a direct relationship. There was no significant relationship between Individual pro-social motives and knowledge sharing. Both components of the cognitive aspects of open mindedness and competence are directly related with knowledge sharing. Finally, the comparison between the different dimensions of social capital, the largest of its structure, and its relationship with knowledge sharing is the least relation.

Keywords: social capital, knowledge sharing, ministry of culture and Islamic guidance (Iran), open mindedness, pro-social motives

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2164 The Nexus of Decentralized Policy, social Heterogeneity and Poverty in Equitable Forest Benefit Sharing in the Lowland Community Forestry Program of Nepal

Authors: Dhiraj Neupane

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Decentralized policy and practices have largely concentrated on the transformation of decision-making authorities from central to local institutions (or people) in the developing world. Such policy and practices always aimed for the equitable and efficient management of resources in the line of poverty reduction. The transformation of forest decision-making autonomy has also glorified as the best forest management alternatives to maximize the forest benefits and improve the livelihood of local people living nearby the forests. However, social heterogeneity and poor decision-making capacity of local institutions (or people) pose a nexus while managing the resources and sharing the forest benefits among the user households despite the policy objectives. The situation is severe in the lowland of Nepal, where forest resources have higher economic potential and user households have heterogeneous socio-economic conditions. The study discovered that utilizing the power of decision-making autonomy, user households were putting low values of timber considering the equitable access of timber to all user households as it is the most valuable product of community forest. Being the society is heterogeneous by socio-economic conditions, households of better economic conditions were always taking higher amount of forest benefits. The low valuation of timber has negative consequences on equitable benefit sharing and poor support to livelihood improvement of user households. Moreover, low valuation has possibility to increase the local demands of timber and increase the human pressure on forests.

Keywords: decentralized forest policy, Nepal, poverty, social heterogeneity, Terai

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2163 Partners Sharing Resources, Costs, and Risks

Authors: Lee Li

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The strategic management literature posits that the major motive of strategic alliances is to share resources, costs and risks. However, the literature also indicates that such sharing leads to transaction costs which are positively correlated with environmental dynamism. As such, it is not clear why firms are willing to cover high transaction costs for sharing resources, costs and risks. This study categorizes resources into firm-specific and general resource; costs into accounting and non-accounting cost; and risks into visible and invisible risks. Using data from 167 Canadian firms in technology industries, we find that sharing firm-specific resources and non-accounting costs are negatively correlated with environmental dynamism but sharing general resources, accounting costs and visible risks are positively correlated with environmental dynamism. Findings suggest that sharing certain resources, costs and risks do not necessarily incur high transaction costs.

Keywords: environmental dynamism, strategic alliances, resource/cost/risk sharing

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2162 Forest Products Pricing System in Community Forestry Program: An Analysis of Its Impacts on Forest Resources Management and Livelihood Improvement of Local People

Authors: Mohan Bikram Thapa

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Despite the successful implementation of community forestry program, a number of pros and cons have been raised on Terai community forestry in the case of lowland locally called Terai region of Nepal, which climatically belongs to tropical humid and possessed high-quality forests in terms of ecology and economy. The study aims to investigate the local pricing strategy of forest products and its impacts on equitable forest benefits sharing, the collection of community fund and carrying out livelihood improvement activities. The study was carried out on six community forests revealed that local people have substantially benefited from the community forests. However, being the region is heterogeneous by socio-economic conditions and forest resources have higher economic potential, the decision of low pricing strategy made by the local people have created inequality problems while sharing the forest benefits, and poorly contributed to community fund collection and consequently carrying out limited activities of livelihood improvement. The paper argued that the decision of low pricing strategy of forest products is counterproductive to promote the equitable benefit-sharing in the areas of heterogeneous socio-economic conditions with high-value forests. The low pricing strategy has been increasing accessibility of better off households at a higher rate than poor, as such households always have the higher affording capacity. It is also defective to increase the community fund and carry out activities of livelihood improvement effectively. The study concluded that unilateral decentralized forest policy and decision-making autonomy to the local people seems questionable unless their decision-making capacities are enriched sufficiently. Therefore, it is recommended that empowerments of decision-making capacity of local people and their respective institutions together with policy and program formulation are prerequisite for efficient and equitable community forest management and its long-term sustainability.

Keywords: benefit sharing, community forest, livelihood, pricing mechanism, Nepal

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2161 Economized Sensor Data Processing with Vehicle Platooning

Authors: Henry Hexmoor, Kailash Yelasani

Abstract:

We present vehicular platooning as a special case of crowd-sensing framework where sharing sensory information among a crowd is used for their collective benefit. After offering an abstract policy that governs processes involving a vehicular platoon, we review several common scenarios and components surrounding vehicular platooning. We then present a simulated prototype that illustrates efficiency of road usage and vehicle travel time derived from platooning. We have argued that one of the paramount benefits of platooning that is overlooked elsewhere, is the substantial computational savings (i.e., economizing benefits) in acquisition and processing of sensory data among vehicles sharing the road. The most capable vehicle can share data gathered from its sensors with nearby vehicles grouped into a platoon.

Keywords: cloud network, collaboration, internet of things, social network

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2160 A Principal-Agent Model for Sharing Mechanism in Integrated Project Delivery Context

Authors: Shan Li, Qiuwen Ma

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Integrated project delivery (IPD) is a project delivery method distinguished by a shared risk/rewards mechanism and multiparty agreement. IPD has drawn increasingly attention from construction industry because of its efficiency of solving adversarial problems and reliability to deliver high-performing buildings. However, some evidence showed that some project participants obtained less profit from IPD projects than the typical projects. They attributed it to the unfair IPD sharing mechanism, which resulted in additional time and cost of negotiation on the sharing fractions among project participants. The study is aimed to investigate the reward distribution by constructing a principal-agent model. Based on cooperative game theory, it is examined how to distribute the shared project rewards between client and non-client parties, and identify the sharing fractions among non-client parties. It is found that at least half of the project savings should be allocated to the non-client parties to motivate them to create more project value. Second, the client should raise his sharing fractions when the integration among project participants is efficient. In addition, the client should allocate higher sharing fractions to the non-client party who is more able. This study can help the IPD project participants make fair and motivated sharing mechanisms.

Keywords: cooperative game theory, IPD, principal agent model, sharing mechanism

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2159 Support of Knowledge Sharing in Manufacturing Companies: A Case Study

Authors: Zuzana Crhová, Karel Kolman, Drahomíra Pavelková

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Knowledge is considered as an important asset which can help organizations to create competitive advantage. The necessity of taking care of these assets is more important in these days – in days of turbulent changes in business environment. Knowledge could facilitate adaption to constant changes. The aim of this paper is to describe how the knowledge sharing can be supported in the manufacturing companies. The methods of case studies and grounded theory were used to present information gained by carrying out semi-structured interviews. Results show that knowledge sharing is supported in very similar ways in respondent companies.

Keywords: case study, human resource management, knowledge, knowledge sharing

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2158 Analyzing the Critical Factors Influencing Employees' Tacit and Explicit Knowledge Sharing Intentions for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: A Systematic Review and a Conceptual Framework

Authors: Made Ayu Aristyana Dewi

Abstract:

Due to the importance of knowledge in today’s competitive world, an understanding of how to enhance employee knowledge sharing has become critical. This study discerning employees’ knowledge sharing intentions according to the type of knowledge to be shared, whether tacit or explicit. This study provides a critical and systematic review of the current literature on knowledge sharing, with a particular focus on the most critical factors influencing employees’ tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intentions. The extant literature was identified through four electronic databases, from 2006 to 2016. The findings of this review reveal that most of the previous studies only focus on individual and social factors as the antecedents of knowledge sharing intention. Therefore, those previous studies did not consider some other potential factors, like organizational and technological factors that may hinder the progress of knowledge sharing processes. Based on the findings of the critical review, a conceptual framework is proposed, which presents the antecedents of employees’ tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intentions and its impact on innovation and sustainable competitive advantage.

Keywords: antecedents, explicit knowledge, individual factors, innovation, intentions, knowledge sharing, organizational factors, social factors, sustainable competitive advantage, tacit knowledge, technological factors

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2157 Top Management Support as an Enabling Factor for Academic Innovation through Knowledge Sharing

Authors: Sawsan J. Al-husseini, Talib A. Dosa

Abstract:

Educational institutions are today facing increasing pressures due to economic, political and social upheaval. This is only exacerbated by the nature of education as an intangible good which relies upon the intellectual assets of the organisation, its staff. Top management support has been acknowledged as having a positive general influence on knowledge management and creativity. However, there is a lack of models linking top management support, knowledge sharing, and innovation within higher education institutions, in general within developing countries, and particularly in Iraq. This research sought to investigate the impact of top management support on innovation through the mediating role of knowledge sharing in Iraqi private HEIs. A quantitative approach was taken and 262 valid responses were collected to test the causal relationships between top management support, knowledge sharing, and innovation. Employing structural equation modelling with AMOS v.25, the research demonstrated that knowledge sharing plays a pivotal role in the relationship between top management support and innovation. The research has produced some guidelines for researchers as well as leaders, and provided evidence to support the use of knowledge sharing to increase innovation within the higher education environment in developing countries, particularly Iraq.

Keywords: top management support, knowledge sharing, innovation, structural equation modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 261