Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 69

Search results for: LiDAR

69 Real-Time Visualization Using GPU-Accelerated Filtering of LiDAR Data

Authors: Sašo Pečnik, Borut Žalik

Abstract:

This paper presents a real-time visualization technique and filtering of classified LiDAR point clouds. The visualization is capable of displaying filtered information organized in layers by the classification attribute saved within LiDAR data sets. We explain the used data structure and data management, which enables real-time presentation of layered LiDAR data. Real-time visualization is achieved with LOD optimization based on the distance from the observer without loss of quality. The filtering process is done in two steps and is entirely executed on the GPU and implemented using programmable shaders.

Keywords: filtering, graphics, level-of-details, LiDAR, real-time visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
68 Obstacle Classification Method Based on 2D LIDAR Database

Authors: Moohyun Lee, Soojung Hur, Yongwan Park

Abstract:

In this paper is proposed a method uses only LIDAR system to classification an obstacle and determine its type by establishing database for classifying obstacles based on LIDAR. The existing LIDAR system, in determining the recognition of obstruction in an autonomous vehicle, has an advantage in terms of accuracy and shorter recognition time. However, it was difficult to determine the type of obstacle and therefore accurate path planning based on the type of obstacle was not possible. In order to overcome this problem, a method of classifying obstacle type based on existing LIDAR and using the width of obstacle materials was proposed. However, width measurement was not sufficient to improve accuracy. In this research, the width data was used to do the first classification; database for LIDAR intensity data by four major obstacle materials on the road were created; comparison is made to the LIDAR intensity data of actual obstacle materials; and determine the obstacle type by finding the one with highest similarity values. An experiment using an actual autonomous vehicle under real environment shows that data declined in quality in comparison to 3D LIDAR and it was possible to classify obstacle materials using 2D LIDAR.

Keywords: obstacle, classification, database, LIDAR, segmentation, intensity

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67 Optical Parametric Oscillators Lidar Sounding of Trace Atmospheric Gases in the 3-4 µm Spectral Range

Authors: Olga V. Kharchenko

Abstract:

Applicability of a KTA crystal-based laser system with optical parametric oscillators (OPO) generation to lidar sounding of the atmosphere in the spectral range 3–4 µm is studied in this work. A technique based on differential absorption lidar (DIAL) method and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is developed for lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases (TAG). The DIAL-DOAS technique is tested to estimate its efficiency for lidar sounding of atmospheric trace gases.

Keywords: atmosphere, lidar sounding, DIAL, DOAS, trace gases, nonlinear crystal

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
66 Application of Remote Sensing Technique on the Monitoring of Mine Eco-Environment

Authors: Haidong Li, Weishou Shen, Guoping Lv, Tao Wang

Abstract:

Aiming to overcome the limitation of the application of traditional remote sensing (RS) technique in the mine eco-environmental monitoring, in this paper, we first classified the eco-environmental damages caused by mining activities and then introduced the principle, classification and characteristics of the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technique. The potentiality of LiDAR technique in the mine eco-environmental monitoring was analyzed, particularly in extracting vertical structure parameters of vegetation, through comparing the feasibility and applicability of traditional RS method and LiDAR technique in monitoring different types of indicators. The application situation of LiDAR technique in extracting typical mine indicators, such as land destruction in mining areas, damage of ecological integrity and natural soil erosion. The result showed that the LiDAR technique has the ability to monitor most of the mine eco-environmental indicators, and exhibited higher accuracy comparing with traditional RS technique, specifically speaking, the applicability of LiDAR technique on each indicator depends on the accuracy requirement of mine eco-environmental monitoring. In the item of large mine, LiDAR three-dimensional point cloud data not only could be used as the complementary data source of optical RS, Airborne/Satellite LiDAR could also fulfill the demand of extracting vertical structure parameters of vegetation in large areas.

Keywords: LiDAR, mine, ecological damage, monitoring, traditional remote sensing technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
65 Application of Deep Learning in Colorization of LiDAR-Derived Intensity Images

Authors: Edgardo V. Gubatanga Jr., Mark Joshua Salvacion

Abstract:

Most aerial LiDAR systems have accompanying aerial cameras in order to capture not only the terrain of the surveyed area but also its true-color appearance. However, the presence of atmospheric clouds, poor lighting conditions, and aerial camera problems during an aerial survey may cause absence of aerial photographs. These leave areas having terrain information but lacking aerial photographs. Intensity images can be derived from LiDAR data but they are only grayscale images. A deep learning model is developed to create a complex function in a form of a deep neural network relating the pixel values of LiDAR-derived intensity images and true-color images. This complex function can then be used to predict the true-color images of a certain area using intensity images from LiDAR data. The predicted true-color images do not necessarily need to be accurate compared to the real world. They are only intended to look realistic so that they can be used as base maps.

Keywords: aerial LiDAR, colorization, deep learning, intensity images

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
64 DIAL Measurements of Vertical Distribution of Ozone at the Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

Authors: Oleg A. Romanovskii, Vladimir D. Burlakov, Sergey I. Dolgii, Olga V. Kharchenko, Alexey A. Nevzorov, Alexey V. Nevzorov

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of DIAL measurements of the vertical ozone distribution. The ozone lidar operate as part of the measurement complex at Siberian Lidar Station (SLS) of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS, Tomsk (56.5ºN; 85.0ºE) and designed for study of the vertical ozone distribution in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere. Most suitable wavelengths for measurements of ozone profiles are selected. We present an algorithm for retrieval of vertical distribution of ozone with temperature and aerosol correction during DIAL lidar sounding of the atmosphere. The temperature correction of ozone absorption coefficients is introduced in the software to reduce the retrieval errors. Results of lidar measurement at wavelengths of 299 and 341 nm agree with model estimates, which point to acceptable accuracy of ozone sounding in the 6–18 km altitude range.

Keywords: lidar, ozone distribution, atmosphere, DIAL

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
63 Challenges and Opportunities: One Stop Processing for the Automation of Indonesian Large-Scale Topographic Base Map Using Airborne LiDAR Data

Authors: Elyta Widyaningrum

Abstract:

The LiDAR data acquisition has been recognizable as one of the fastest solution to provide the basis data for topographic base mapping in Indonesia. The challenges to accelerate the provision of large-scale topographic base maps as a development plan basis gives the opportunity to implement the automated scheme in the map production process. The one stop processing will also contribute to accelerate the map provision especially to conform with the Indonesian fundamental spatial data catalog derived from ISO 19110 and geospatial database integration. Thus, the automated LiDAR classification, DTM generation and feature extraction will be conducted in one GIS-software environment to form all layers of topographic base maps. The quality of automated topographic base map will be assessed and analyzed based on its completeness, correctness, contiguity, consistency and possible customization.

Keywords: automation, GIS environment, LiDAR processing, map quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
62 3D Building Model Utilizing Airborne LiDAR Dataset and Terrestrial Photographic Images

Authors: J. Jasmee, I. Roslina, A. Mohammed Yaziz & A.H Juazer Rizal

Abstract:

The need of an effective building information collection method is vital to support a diversity of land development activities. At present, advances in remote sensing such as airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is an established technology for building information collection, location, and elevation of the reflecting laser points towards the construction of 3D building models. In this study, LiDAR datasets and terrestrial photographic images of buildings towards the construction of 3D building models is explored. It is found that, the quantitative accuracy of the constructed 3D building model, namely in the horizontal and vertical components were ± 0.31m (RMSEx,y) and ± 0.145m (RMSEz) respectively. The accuracies were computed based on sixty nine (69) horizontal and twenty (20) vertical surveyed points. As for the qualitative assessment, it is shown that the appearance of the 3D building model is adequate to support the requirements of LOD3 presentation based on the OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standard CityGML.

Keywords: LiDAR datasets, DSM, DTM, 3D building models

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
61 Submarine Topography and Beach Survey of Gang-Neung Port in South Korea, Using Multi-Beam Echo Sounder and Shipborne Mobile Light Detection and Ranging System

Authors: Won Hyuck Kim, Chang Hwan Kim, Hyun Wook Kim, Myoung Hoon Lee, Chan Hong Park, Hyeon Yeong Park

Abstract:

We conducted submarine topography & beach survey from December 2015 and January 2016 using multi-beam echo sounder EM3001(Kongsberg corporation) & Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System. Our survey area were the Anmok beach in Gangneung, South Korea. We made Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System for these survey. Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System includes LiDAR (RIEGL LMS-420i), IMU ((Inertial Measurement Unit, MAGUS Inertial+) and RTKGNSS (Real Time Kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System, LEIAC GS 15 GS25) for beach's measurement, LiDAR's motion compensation & precise position. Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System scans beach on the movable vessel using the laser. We mounted Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System on the top of the vessel. Before beach survey, we conducted eight circles IMU calibration survey for stabilizing heading of IMU. This exploration should be as close as possible to the beach. But our vessel could not come closer to the beach because of latency objects in the water. At the same time, we conduct submarine topography survey using multi-beam echo sounder EM3001. A multi-beam echo sounder is a device observing and recording the submarine topography using sound wave. We mounted multi-beam echo sounder on left side of the vessel. We were equipped with a motion sensor, DGNSS (Differential Global Navigation Satellite System), and SV (Sound velocity) sensor for the vessel's motion compensation, vessel's position, and the velocity of sound of seawater. Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System was able to reduce the consuming time of beach survey rather than previous conventional methods of beach survey.

Keywords: Anmok, beach survey, Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System, submarine topography

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
60 LiDAR Based Real Time Multiple Vehicle Detection and Tracking

Authors: Zhongzhen Luo, Saeid Habibi, Martin v. Mohrenschildt

Abstract:

Self-driving vehicle require a high level of situational awareness in order to maneuver safely when driving in real world condition. This paper presents a LiDAR based real time perception system that is able to process sensor raw data for multiple target detection and tracking in dynamic environment. The proposed algorithm is nonparametric and deterministic that is no assumptions and priori knowledge are needed from the input data and no initializations are required. Additionally, the proposed method is working on the three-dimensional data directly generated by LiDAR while not scarifying the rich information contained in the domain of 3D. Moreover, a fast and efficient for real time clustering algorithm is applied based on a radially bounded nearest neighbor (RBNN). Hungarian algorithm procedure and adaptive Kalman filtering are used for data association and tracking algorithm. The proposed algorithm is able to run in real time with average run time of 70ms per frame.

Keywords: lidar, segmentation, clustering, tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
59 Cracks Detection and Measurement Using VLP-16 LiDAR and Intel Depth Camera D435 in Real-Time

Authors: Xinwen Zhu, Xingguang Li, Sun Yi

Abstract:

Crack is one of the most common damages in buildings, bridges, roads and so on, which may pose safety hazards. However, cracks frequently happen in structures of various materials. Traditional methods of manual detection and measurement, which are known as subjective, time-consuming, and labor-intensive, are gradually unable to meet the needs of modern development. In addition, crack detection and measurement need be safe considering space limitations and danger. Intelligent crack detection has become necessary research. In this paper, an efficient method for crack detection and quantification using a 3D sensor, LiDAR, and depth camera is proposed. This method works even in a dark environment, which is usual in real-world applications. The LiDAR rapidly spins to scan the surrounding environment and discover cracks through lasers thousands of times per second, providing a rich, 3D point cloud in real-time. The LiDAR provides quite accurate depth information. The precision of the distance of each point can be determined within around  ±3 cm accuracy, and not only it is good for getting a precise distance, but it also allows us to see far of over 100m going with the top range models. But the accuracy is still large for some high precision structures of material. To make the depth of crack is much more accurate, the depth camera is in need. The cracks are scanned by the depth camera at the same time. Finally, all data from LiDAR and Depth cameras are analyzed, and the size of the cracks can be quantified successfully. The comparison shows that the minimum and mean absolute percentage error between measured and calculated width are about 2.22% and 6.27%, respectively. The experiments and results are presented in this paper.

Keywords: LiDAR, depth camera, real-time, detection and measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
58 Real Time Lidar and Radar High-Level Fusion for Obstacle Detection and Tracking with Evaluation on a Ground Truth

Authors: Hatem Hajri, Mohamed-Cherif Rahal

Abstract:

Both Lidars and Radars are sensors for obstacle detection. While Lidars are very accurate on obstacles positions and less accurate on their velocities, Radars are more precise on obstacles velocities and less precise on their positions. Sensor fusion between Lidar and Radar aims at improving obstacle detection using advantages of the two sensors. The present paper proposes a real-time Lidar/Radar data fusion algorithm for obstacle detection and tracking based on the global nearest neighbour standard filter (GNN). This algorithm is implemented and embedded in an automative vehicle as a component generated by a real-time multisensor software. The benefits of data fusion comparing with the use of a single sensor are illustrated through several tracking scenarios (on a highway and on a bend) and using real-time kinematic sensors mounted on the ego and tracked vehicles as a ground truth.

Keywords: ground truth, Hungarian algorithm, lidar Radar data fusion, global nearest neighbor filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
57 Geomechanical Technologies for Assessing Three-Dimensional Stability of Underground Excavations Utilizing Remote-Sensing, Finite Element Analysis, and Scientific Visualization

Authors: Kwang Chun, John Kemeny

Abstract:

Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been a prevalent remote-sensing technology applied in the geological fields due to its high precision and ease of use. One of the major applications is to use the detailed geometrical information of underground structures as a basis for the generation of a three-dimensional numerical model that can be used in a geotechnical stability analysis such as FEM or DEM. To date, however, straightforward techniques in reconstructing the numerical model from the scanned data of the underground structures have not been well established or tested. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive approach integrating all the various processes, from LiDAR scanning to finite element numerical analysis. The study focuses on converting LiDAR 3D point clouds of geologic structures containing complex surface geometries into a finite element model. This methodology has been applied to Kartchner Caverns in Arizona, where detailed underground and surface point clouds can be used for the analysis of underground stability. Numerical simulations were performed using the finite element code Abaqus and presented by 3D computing visualization solution, ParaView. The results are useful in studying the stability of all types of underground excavations including underground mining and tunneling.

Keywords: finite element analysis, LiDAR, remote-sensing, scientific visualization, underground stability

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56 Extraction of Forest Plantation Resources in Selected Forest of San Manuel, Pangasinan, Philippines Using LiDAR Data for Forest Status Assessment

Authors: Mark Joseph Quinto, Roan Beronilla, Guiller Damian, Eliza Camaso, Ronaldo Alberto

Abstract:

Forest inventories are essential to assess the composition, structure and distribution of forest vegetation that can be used as baseline information for management decisions. Classical forest inventory is labor intensive and time-consuming and sometimes even dangerous. The use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) in forest inventory would improve and overcome these restrictions. This study was conducted to determine the possibility of using LiDAR derived data in extracting high accuracy forest biophysical parameters and as a non-destructive method for forest status analysis of San Manual, Pangasinan. Forest resources extraction was carried out using LAS tools, GIS, Envi and .bat scripts with the available LiDAR data. The process includes the generation of derivatives such as Digital Terrain Model (DTM), Canopy Height Model (CHM) and Canopy Cover Model (CCM) in .bat scripts followed by the generation of 17 composite bands to be used in the extraction of forest classification covers using ENVI 4.8 and GIS software. The Diameter in Breast Height (DBH), Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and Carbon Stock (CS) were estimated for each classified forest cover and Tree Count Extraction was carried out using GIS. Subsequently, field validation was conducted for accuracy assessment. Results showed that the forest of San Manuel has 73% Forest Cover, which is relatively much higher as compared to the 10% canopy cover requirement. On the extracted canopy height, 80% of the tree’s height ranges from 12 m to 17 m. CS of the three forest covers based on the AGB were: 20819.59 kg/20x20 m for closed broadleaf, 8609.82 kg/20x20 m for broadleaf plantation and 15545.57 kg/20x20m for open broadleaf. Average tree counts for the tree forest plantation was 413 trees/ha. As such, the forest of San Manuel has high percent forest cover and high CS.

Keywords: carbon stock, forest inventory, LiDAR, tree count

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55 Multimedia Container for Autonomous Car

Authors: Janusz Bobulski, Mariusz Kubanek

Abstract:

The main goal of the research is to develop a multimedia container structure containing three types of images: RGB, lidar and infrared, properly calibrated to each other. An additional goal is to develop program libraries for creating and saving this type of file and for restoring it. It will also be necessary to develop a method of data synchronization from lidar and RGB cameras as well as infrared. This type of file could be used in autonomous vehicles, which would certainly facilitate data processing by the intelligent autonomous vehicle management system. Autonomous cars are increasingly breaking into our consciousness. No one seems to have any doubts that self-driving cars are the future of motoring. Manufacturers promise that moving the first of them to showrooms is the prospect of the next few years. Many experts believe that creating a network of communicating autonomous cars will be able to completely eliminate accidents. However, to make this possible, it is necessary to develop effective methods of detection of objects around the moving vehicle. In bad weather conditions, this task is difficult on the basis of the RGB(red, green, blue) image. Therefore, in such situations, you should be supported by information from other sources, such as lidar or infrared cameras. The problem is the different data formats that individual types of devices return. In addition to these differences, there is a problem with the synchronization of these data and the formatting of this data. The goal of the project is to develop a file structure that could be containing a different type of data. This type of file is calling a multimedia container. A multimedia container is a container that contains many data streams, which allows you to store complete multimedia material in one file. Among the data streams located in such a container should be indicated streams of images, films, sounds, subtitles, as well as additional information, i.e., metadata. This type of file could be used in autonomous vehicles, which would certainly facilitate data processing by the intelligent autonomous vehicle management system. As shown by preliminary studies, the use of combining RGB and InfraRed images with Lidar data allows for easier data analysis. Thanks to this application, it will be possible to display the distance to the object in a color photo. Such information can be very useful for drivers and for systems in autonomous cars.

Keywords: an autonomous car, image processing, lidar, obstacle detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
54 Topographic Mapping of Farmland by Integration of Multiple Sensors on Board Low-Altitude Unmanned Aerial System

Authors: Mengmeng Du, Noboru Noguchi, Hiroshi Okamoto, Noriko Kobayashi

Abstract:

This paper introduced a topographic mapping system with time-saving and simplicity advantages based on integration of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and Post Processing Kinematic Global Positioning System (PPK GPS) data. This topographic mapping system used a low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) as a platform to conduct land survey in a low-cost, efficient, and totally autonomous manner. An experiment in a small-scale sugarcane farmland was conducted in Queensland, Australia. Subsequently, we synchronized LiDAR distance measurements that were corrected by using attitude information from gyroscope with PPK GPS coordinates for generation of precision topographic maps, which could be further utilized for such applications like precise land leveling and drainage management. The results indicated that LiDAR distance measurements and PPK GPS altitude reached good accuracy of less than 0.015 m.

Keywords: land survey, light detection and ranging, post processing kinematic global positioning system, precision agriculture, topographic map, unmanned aerial vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
53 Identification of Landslide Features Using Back-Propagation Neural Network on LiDAR Digital Elevation Model

Authors: Chia-Hao Chang, Geng-Gui Wang, Jee-Cheng Wu

Abstract:

The prediction of a landslide is a difficult task because it requires a detailed study of past activities using a complete range of investigative methods to determine the changing condition. In this research, first step, LiDAR 1-meter by 1-meter resolution of digital elevation model (DEM) was used to generate six environmental factors of landslide. Then, back-propagation neural networks (BPNN) was adopted to identify scarp, landslide areas and non-landslide areas. The BPNN uses 6 environmental factors in input layer and 1 output layer. Moreover, 6 landslide areas are used as training areas and 4 landslide areas as test areas in the BPNN. The hidden layer is set to be 1 and 2; the hidden layer neurons are set to be 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8; the learning rates are set to be 0.01, 0.1 and 0.5. When using 1 hidden layer with 7 neurons and the learning rate sets to be 0.5, the result of Network training root mean square error is 0.001388. Finally, evaluation of BPNN classification accuracy by the confusion matrix shows that the overall accuracy can reach 94.4%, and the Kappa value is 0.7464.

Keywords: digital elevation model, DEM, environmental factors, back-propagation neural network, BPNN, LiDAR

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
52 A Simple Approach to Establish Urban Energy Consumption Map Using the Combination of LiDAR and Thermal Image

Authors: Yu-Cheng Chen, Tzu-Ping Lin, Feng-Yi Lin, Chih-Yu Chen

Abstract:

Due to the urban heat island effect caused by highly development of city, the heat stress increased in recent year rapidly. Resulting in a sharp raise of the energy used in urban area. The heat stress during summer time exacerbated the usage of air conditioning and electric equipment, which caused more energy consumption and anthropogenic heat. Therefore, an accurate and simple method to measure energy used in urban area can be helpful for the architectures and urban planners to develop better energy efficiency goals. This research applies the combination of airborne LiDAR data and thermal imager to provide an innovate method to estimate energy consumption. Owing to the high resolution of remote sensing data, the accurate current volume and total floor area and the surface temperature of building derived from LiDAR and thermal imager can be herein obtained to predict energy used. In the estimate process, the LiDAR data will be divided into four type of land cover which including building, road, vegetation, and other obstacles. In this study, the points belong to building were selected to overlay with the land use information; therefore, the energy consumption can be estimated precisely with the real value of total floor area and energy use index for different use of building. After validating with the real energy used data from the government, the result shows the higher building in high development area like commercial district will present in higher energy consumption, caused by the large quantity of total floor area and more anthropogenic heat. Furthermore, because of the surface temperature can be warm up by electric equipment used, this study also applies the thermal image of building to find the hot spots of energy used and make the estimation method more complete.

Keywords: urban heat island, urban planning, LiDAR, thermal imager, energy consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
51 Using 3D Satellite Imagery to Generate a High Precision Canopy Height Model

Authors: M. Varin, A. M. Dubois, R. Gadbois-Langevin, B. Chalghaf

Abstract:

Good knowledge of the physical environment is essential for an integrated forest planning. This information enables better forecasting of operating costs, determination of cutting volumes, and preservation of ecologically sensitive areas. The use of satellite images in stereoscopic pairs gives the capacity to generate high precision 3D models, which are scale-adapted for harvesting operations. These models could represent an alternative to 3D LiDAR data, thanks to their advantageous cost of acquisition. The objective of the study was to assess the quality of stereo-derived canopy height models (CHM) in comparison to a traditional LiDAR CHM and ground tree-height samples. Two study sites harboring two different forest stand types (broadleaf and conifer) were analyzed using stereo pairs and tri-stereo images from the WorldView-3 satellite to calculate CHM. Acquisition of multispectral images from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was also realized on a smaller part of the broadleaf study site. Different algorithms using two softwares (PCI Geomatica and Correlator3D) with various spatial resolutions and band selections were tested to select the 3D modeling technique, which offered the best performance when compared with LiDAR. In the conifer study site, the CHM produced with Corelator3D using only the 50-cm resolution panchromatic band was the one with the smallest Root-mean-square deviation (RMSE: 1.31 m). In the broadleaf study site, the tri-stereo model provided slightly better performance, with an RMSE of 1.2 m. The tri-stereo model was also compared to the UAV, which resulted in an RMSE of 1.3 m. At individual tree level, when ground samples were compared to satellite, lidar, and UAV CHM, RMSE were 2.8, 2.0, and 2.0 m, respectively. Advanced analysis was done for all of these cases, and it has been noted that RMSE is reduced when the canopy cover is higher when shadow and slopes are lower and when clouds are distant from the analyzed site.

Keywords: very high spatial resolution, satellite imagery, WorlView-3, canopy height models, CHM, LiDAR, unmanned aerial vehicle, UAV

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50 Geographical Data Visualization Using Video Games Technologies

Authors: Nizar Karim Uribe-Orihuela, Fernando Brambila-Paz, Ivette Caldelas, Rodrigo Montufar-Chaveznava

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the advances corresponding to the implementation of a strategy to visualize geographical data using a Software Development Kit (SDK) for video games. We use multispectral images from Landsat 7 platform and Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data from The National Institute of Geography and Statistics of Mexican (INEGI). We select a place of interest to visualize from Landsat platform and make some processing to the image (rotations, atmospheric correction and enhancement). The resulting image will be our gray scale color-map to fusion with the LIDAR data, which was selected using the same coordinates than in Landsat. The LIDAR data is translated to 8-bit raw data. Both images are fused in a software developed using Unity (an SDK employed for video games). The resulting image is then displayed and can be explored moving around. The idea is the software could be used for students of geology and geophysics at the Engineering School of the National University of Mexico. They will download the software and images corresponding to a geological place of interest to a smartphone and could virtually visit and explore the site with a virtual reality visor such as Google cardboard.

Keywords: virtual reality, interactive technologies, geographical data visualization, video games technologies, educational material

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
49 High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Lidar Data for Object-Based Tree Species Classification in Quebec, Canada

Authors: Bilel Chalghaf, Mathieu Varin

Abstract:

Forest characterization in Quebec, Canada, is usually assessed based on photo-interpretation at the stand level. For species identification, this often results in a lack of precision. Very high spatial resolution imagery, such as DigitalGlobe, and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), have the potential to overcome the limitations of aerial imagery. To date, few studies have used that data to map a large number of species at the tree level using machine learning techniques. The main objective of this study is to map 11 individual high tree species ( > 17m) at the tree level using an object-based approach in the broadleaf forest of Kenauk Nature, Quebec. For the individual tree crown segmentation, three canopy-height models (CHMs) from LiDAR data were assessed: 1) the original, 2) a filtered, and 3) a corrected model. The corrected CHM gave the best accuracy and was then coupled with imagery to refine tree species crown identification. When compared with photo-interpretation, 90% of the objects represented a single species. For modeling, 313 variables were derived from 16-band WorldView-3 imagery and LiDAR data, using radiance, reflectance, pixel, and object-based calculation techniques. Variable selection procedures were employed to reduce their number from 313 to 16, using only 11 bands to aid reproducibility. For classification, a global approach using all 11 species was compared to a semi-hierarchical hybrid classification approach at two levels: (1) tree type (broadleaf/conifer) and (2) individual broadleaf (five) and conifer (six) species. Five different model techniques were used: (1) support vector machine (SVM), (2) classification and regression tree (CART), (3) random forest (RF), (4) k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), and (5) linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Each model was tuned separately for all approaches and levels. For the global approach, the best model was the SVM using eight variables (overall accuracy (OA): 80%, Kappa: 0.77). With the semi-hierarchical hybrid approach, at the tree type level, the best model was the k-NN using six variables (OA: 100% and Kappa: 1.00). At the level of identifying broadleaf and conifer species, the best model was the SVM, with OA of 80% and 97% and Kappa values of 0.74 and 0.97, respectively, using seven variables for both models. This paper demonstrates that a hybrid classification approach gives better results and that using 16-band WorldView-3 with LiDAR data leads to more precise predictions for tree segmentation and classification, especially when the number of tree species is large.

Keywords: tree species, object-based, classification, multispectral, machine learning, WorldView-3, LiDAR

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48 A Review on 3D Smart City Platforms Using Remotely Sensed Data to Aid Simulation and Urban Analysis

Authors: Slim Namouchi, Bruno Vallet, Imed Riadh Farah

Abstract:

3D urban models provide powerful tools for decision making, urban planning, and smart city services. The accuracy of this 3D based systems is directly related to the quality of these models. Since manual large-scale modeling, such as cities or countries is highly time intensive and very expensive process, a fully automatic 3D building generation is needed. However, 3D modeling process result depends on the input data, the proprieties of the captured objects, and the required characteristics of the reconstructed 3D model. Nowadays, producing 3D real-world model is no longer a problem. Remotely sensed data had experienced a remarkable increase in the recent years, especially data acquired using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). While the scanning techniques are developing, the captured data amount and the resolution are getting bigger and more precise. This paper presents a literature review, which aims to identify different methods of automatic 3D buildings extractions either from LiDAR or the combination of LiDAR and satellite or aerial images. Then, we present open source technologies, and data models (e.g., CityGML, PostGIS, Cesiumjs) used to integrate these models in geospatial base layers for smart city services.

Keywords: CityGML, LiDAR, remote sensing, SIG, Smart City, 3D urban modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
47 Passively Q-Switched 914 nm Microchip Laser for LIDAR Systems

Authors: Marco Naegele, Klaus Stoppel, Thomas Dekorsy

Abstract:

Passively Q-switched microchip lasers enable the great potential for sophisticated LiDAR systems due to their compact overall system design, excellent beam quality, and scalable pulse energies. However, many near-infrared solid-state lasers show emitting wavelengths > 1000 nm, which are not compatible with state-of-the-art silicon detectors. Here we demonstrate a passively Q-switched microchip laser operating at 914 nm. The microchip laser consists of a 3 mm long Nd:YVO₄ crystal as a gain medium, while Cr⁴⁺:YAG with an initial transmission of 98% is used as a saturable absorber. Quasi-continuous pumping enables single pulse operation, and low duty cycles ensure low overall heat generation and power consumption. Thus, thermally induced instabilities are minimized, and operation without active cooling is possible while ambient temperature changes are compensated by adjustment of the pump laser current only. Single-emitter diode pumping at 808 nm leads to a compact overall system design and robust setup. Utilization of a microchip cavity approach ensures single-longitudinal mode operation with spectral bandwidths in the picometer regime and results in short laser pulses with pulse durations below 10 ns. Beam quality measurements reveal an almost diffraction-limited beam and enable conclusions concerning the thermal lens, which is essential to stabilize the plane-plane resonator. A 7% output coupler transmissivity is used to generate pulses with energies in the microjoule regime and peak powers of more than 600 W. Long-term pulse duration, pulse energy, central wavelength, and spectral bandwidth measurements emphasize the excellent system stability and facilitate the utilization of this laser in the context of a LiDAR system.

Keywords: diode-pumping, LiDAR system, microchip laser, Nd:YVO4 laser, passively Q-switched

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46 Airborne CO₂ Lidar Measurements for Atmospheric Carbon and Transport: America (ACT-America) Project and Active Sensing of CO₂ Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons 2017-2018 Field Campaigns

Authors: Joel F. Campbell, Bing Lin, Michael Obland, Susan Kooi, Tai-Fang Fan, Byron Meadows, Edward Browell, Wayne Erxleben, Doug McGregor, Jeremy Dobler, Sandip Pal, Christopher O'Dell, Ken Davis

Abstract:

The Active Sensing of CO₂ Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) is a NASA Langley Research Center instrument funded by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate that seeks to advance technologies critical to measuring atmospheric column carbon dioxide (CO₂ ) mixing ratios in support of the NASA ASCENDS mission. The ACES instrument, an Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar, was designed for high-altitude aircraft operations and can be directly applied to space instrumentation to meet the ASCENDS mission requirements. The ACES design demonstrates advanced technologies critical for developing an airborne simulator and spaceborne instrument with lower platform consumption of size, mass, and power, and with improved performance. The Atmospheric Carbon and Transport – America (ACT-America) is an Earth Venture Suborbital -2 (EVS-2) mission sponsored by the Earth Science Division of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. A major objective is to enhance knowledge of the sources/sinks and transport of atmospheric CO₂ through the application of remote and in situ airborne measurements of CO₂ and other atmospheric properties on spatial and temporal scales. ACT-America consists of five campaigns to measure regional carbon and evaluate transport under various meteorological conditions in three regional areas of the Continental United States. Regional CO₂ distributions of the lower atmosphere were observed from the C-130 aircraft by the Harris Corp. Multi-Frequency Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL) and the ACES lidar. The airborne lidars provide unique data that complement the more traditional in situ sensors. This presentation shows the applications of CO₂ lidars in support of these science needs.

Keywords: CO₂ measurement, IMCW, CW lidar, laser spectroscopy

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45 3D Classification Optimization of Low-Density Airborne Light Detection and Ranging Point Cloud by Parameters Selection

Authors: Baha Eddine Aissou, Aichouche Belhadj Aissa

Abstract:

Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is an active remote sensing technology used for several applications. Airborne LiDAR is becoming an important technology for the acquisition of a highly accurate dense point cloud. A classification of airborne laser scanning (ALS) point cloud is a very important task that still remains a real challenge for many scientists. Support vector machine (SVM) is one of the most used statistical learning algorithms based on kernels. SVM is a non-parametric method, and it is recommended to be used in cases where the data distribution cannot be well modeled by a standard parametric probability density function. Using a kernel, it performs a robust non-linear classification of samples. Often, the data are rarely linearly separable. SVMs are able to map the data into a higher-dimensional space to become linearly separable, which allows performing all the computations in the original space. This is one of the main reasons that SVMs are well suited for high-dimensional classification problems. Only a few training samples, called support vectors, are required. SVM has also shown its potential to cope with uncertainty in data caused by noise and fluctuation, and it is computationally efficient as compared to several other methods. Such properties are particularly suited for remote sensing classification problems and explain their recent adoption. In this poster, the SVM classification of ALS LiDAR data is proposed. Firstly, connected component analysis is applied for clustering the point cloud. Secondly, the resulting clusters are incorporated in the SVM classifier. Radial basic function (RFB) kernel is used due to the few numbers of parameters (C and γ) that needs to be chosen, which decreases the computation time. In order to optimize the classification rates, the parameters selection is explored. It consists to find the parameters (C and γ) leading to the best overall accuracy using grid search and 5-fold cross-validation. The exploited LiDAR point cloud is provided by the German Society for Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing, and Geoinformation. The ALS data used is characterized by a low density (4-6 points/m²) and is covering an urban area located in residential parts of the city Vaihingen in southern Germany. The class ground and three other classes belonging to roof superstructures are considered, i.e., a total of 4 classes. The training and test sets are selected randomly several times. The obtained results demonstrated that a parameters selection can orient the selection in a restricted interval of (C and γ) that can be further explored but does not systematically lead to the optimal rates. The SVM classifier with hyper-parameters is compared with the most used classifiers in literature for LiDAR data, random forest, AdaBoost, and decision tree. The comparison showed the superiority of the SVM classifier using parameters selection for LiDAR data compared to other classifiers.

Keywords: classification, airborne LiDAR, parameters selection, support vector machine

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44 Hazardous Vegetation Detection in Right-Of-Way Power Transmission Lines in Brazil Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Light Detection and Ranging

Authors: Mauricio George Miguel Jardini, Jose Antonio Jardini

Abstract:

Transmission power utilities participate with kilometers of circuits, many with particularities in terms of vegetation growth. To control these rights-of-way, maintenance teams perform ground, and air inspections, and the identification method is subjective (indirect). On a ground inspection, when identifying an irregularity, for example, high vegetation threatening contact with the conductor cable, pruning or suppression is performed immediately. In an aerial inspection, the suppression team is mobilized to the identified point. This work investigates the use of 3D modeling of a transmission line segment using RGB (red, blue, and green) images and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) sensor data. Both sensors are coupled to unmanned aerial vehicle. The goal is the accurate and timely detection of vegetation along the right-of-way that can cause shutdowns.

Keywords: 3D modeling, LiDAR, right-of-way, transmission lines, vegetation

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43 Shallow Water Lidar System in Measuring Erosion Rate of Coarse-Grained Materials

Authors: Ghada S. Ellithy, John. W. Murphy, Maureen K. Corcoran

Abstract:

Erosion rate of soils during a levee or dam overtopping event is a major component in risk assessment evaluation of breach time and downstream consequences. The mechanism and evolution of dam or levee breach caused by overtopping erosion is a complicated process and difficult to measure during overflow due to accessibility and quickly changing conditions. In this paper, the results of a flume erosion tests are presented and discussed. The tests are conducted on a coarse-grained material with a median grain size D50 of 5 mm in a 1-m (3-ft) wide flume under varying flow rates. Each test is performed by compacting the soil mix r to its near optimum moisture and dry density as determined from standard Proctor test in a box embedded in the flume floor. The box measures 0.45 m wide x 1.2 m long x 0.25 m deep. The material is tested several times at varying hydraulic loading to determine the erosion rate after equal time intervals. The water depth, velocity are measured at each hydraulic loading, and the acting bed shear is calculated. A shallow water lidar (SWL) system was utilized to record the progress of soil erodibility and water depth along the scanned profiles of the tested box. SWL is a non-contact system that transmits laser pulses from above the water and records the time-delay between top and bottom reflections. Results from the SWL scans are compared with before and after manual measurements to determine the erosion rate of the soil mix and other erosion parameters.

Keywords: coarse-grained materials, erosion rate, LIDAR system, soil erosion

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42 High Resolution Sandstone Connectivity Modelling: Implications for Outcrop Geological and Its Analog Studies

Authors: Numair Ahmed Siddiqui, Abdul Hadi bin Abd Rahman, Chow Weng Sum, Wan Ismail Wan Yousif, Asif Zameer, Joel Ben-Awal

Abstract:

Advances in data capturing from outcrop studies have made possible the acquisition of high-resolution digital data, offering improved and economical reservoir modelling methods. Terrestrial laser scanning utilizing LiDAR (Light detection and ranging) provides a new method to build outcrop based reservoir models, which provide a crucial piece of information to understand heterogeneities in sandstone facies with high-resolution images and data set. This study presents the detailed application of outcrop based sandstone facies connectivity model by acquiring information gathered from traditional fieldwork and processing detailed digital point-cloud data from LiDAR to develop an intermediate small-scale reservoir sandstone facies model of the Miocene Sandakan Formation, Sabah, East Malaysia. The software RiScan pro (v1.8.0) was used in digital data collection and post-processing with an accuracy of 0.01 m and point acquisition rate of up to 10,000 points per second. We provide an accurate and descriptive workflow to triangulate point-clouds of different sets of sandstone facies with well-marked top and bottom boundaries in conjunction with field sedimentology. This will provide highly accurate qualitative sandstone facies connectivity model which is a challenge to obtain from subsurface datasets (i.e., seismic and well data). Finally, by applying this workflow, we can build an outcrop based static connectivity model, which can be an analogue to subsurface reservoir studies.

Keywords: LiDAR, outcrop, high resolution, sandstone faceis, connectivity model

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41 Comparison of Data Reduction Algorithms for Image-Based Point Cloud Derived Digital Terrain Models

Authors: M. Uysal, M. Yilmaz, I. Tiryakioğlu

Abstract:

Digital Terrain Model (DTM) is a digital numerical representation of the Earth's surface. DTMs have been applied to a diverse field of tasks, such as urban planning, military, glacier mapping, disaster management. In the expression of the Earth' surface as a mathematical model, an infinite number of point measurements are needed. Because of the impossibility of this case, the points at regular intervals are measured to characterize the Earth's surface and DTM of the Earth is generated. Hitherto, the classical measurement techniques and photogrammetry method have widespread use in the construction of DTM. At present, RADAR, LiDAR, and stereo satellite images are also used for the construction of DTM. In recent years, especially because of its superiorities, Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) has an increased use in DTM applications. A 3D point cloud is created with LiDAR technology by obtaining numerous point data. However recently, by the development in image mapping methods, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for photogrammetric data acquisition has increased DTM generation from image-based point cloud. The accuracy of the DTM depends on various factors such as data collection method, the distribution of elevation points, the point density, properties of the surface and interpolation methods. In this study, the random data reduction method is compared for DTMs generated from image based point cloud data. The original image based point cloud data set (100%) is reduced to a series of subsets by using random algorithm, representing the 75, 50, 25 and 5% of the original image based point cloud data set. Over the ANS campus of Afyon Kocatepe University as the test area, DTM constructed from the original image based point cloud data set is compared with DTMs interpolated from reduced data sets by Kriging interpolation method. The results show that the random data reduction method can be used to reduce the image based point cloud datasets to 50% density level while still maintaining the quality of DTM.

Keywords: DTM, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), uniform, random, kriging

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40 Data Recording for Remote Monitoring of Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: Rong-Terng Juang

Abstract:

Autonomous vehicles offer the possibility of significant benefits to social welfare. However, fully automated cars might not be going to happen in the near further. To speed the adoption of the self-driving technologies, many governments worldwide are passing laws requiring data recorders for the testing of autonomous vehicles. Currently, the self-driving vehicle, (e.g., shuttle bus) has to be monitored from a remote control center. When an autonomous vehicle encounters an unexpected driving environment, such as road construction or an obstruction, it should request assistance from a remote operator. Nevertheless, large amounts of data, including images, radar and lidar data, etc., have to be transmitted from the vehicle to the remote center. Therefore, this paper proposes a data compression method of in-vehicle networks for remote monitoring of autonomous vehicles. Firstly, the time-series data are rearranged into a multi-dimensional signal space. Upon the arrival, for controller area networks (CAN), the new data are mapped onto a time-data two-dimensional space associated with the specific CAN identity. Secondly, the data are sampled based on differential sampling. Finally, the whole set of data are encoded using existing algorithms such as Huffman, arithmetic and codebook encoding methods. To evaluate system performance, the proposed method was deployed on an in-house built autonomous vehicle. The testing results show that the amount of data can be reduced as much as 1/7 compared to the raw data.

Keywords: autonomous vehicle, data compression, remote monitoring, controller area networks (CAN), Lidar

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