Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

Search results for: benthic macroinvertebrates

56 Hydraulic Analysis on Microhabitat of Benthic Macroinvertebrates at Riparian Riffles

Authors: Jin-Hong Kim

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Hydraulic analysis on microhabitat of Benthic Macro- invertebrates was performed at riparian riffles of Hongcheon River and Gapyeong Stream. As for the representative species, Ecdyonurus kibunensis, Paraleptophlebia cocorata, Chironomidae sp. and Psilotreta kisoensis iwata were chosen. They showed hydraulically different habitat types by flow velocity and particle diameters of streambed materials. Habitat conditions of the swimmers were determined mainly by the flow velocity rather than by flow depth or by riverbed materials. Burrowers prefer sand and silt, and inhabited at the riverbed. Sprawlers prefer cobble or boulder and inhabited for velocity of 0.05-0.15 m/s. Clingers prefer pebble or cobble and inhabited for velocity of 0.06-0.15 m/s. They were found to be determined mainly by the flow velocity.

Keywords: benthic macroinvertebrates, riffles, clinger, swimmer, burrower, sprawler

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55 Assessment of Spatial and Temporal Variations of Some Biological Water Quality Parameters in Mat River, Albania

Authors: Etleva Hamzaraj, Eva Kica, Anila Paparisto, Pranvera Lazo

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Worldwide demographic developments of recent decades have been associated with negative environmental consequences. For this reason, there is a growing interest in assessing the state of natural ecosystems or assessing human impact on them. In this respect, this study aims to evaluate the change in water quality of the Mat River for a period of about ten years to highlight human impact. In one year, period of study, several biological and environmental parameters are determined to evaluate river water quality, and the data collected are compared with those of a similar study in 2007. Samples are collected every month in five stations evenly distributed along the river. Total coliform bacteria, the number of heterotrophic bacteria in water, and benthic macroinvertebrates are used as biological parameters of water quality. The most probable number index is used for evaluation of total coliform bacteria in water, while the number of heterotrophic bacteria is determined by counting colonies on plates with Plate Count Agar, cultivated with 0.1 ml sample after series dilutions. Benthic macroinvertebrates are analyzed by the number of individuals per taxa, the value of biotic index, EPT Richness Index value and tolerance value. Environmental parameters like pH, temperature, and electrical conductivity are measured onsite. As expected, the bacterial load was higher near urban areas, and the pollution increased with the course of the river. The maximum concentration of fecal coliforms was 1100 MPN/100 ml in summer and near the most urbanized area of the river. The data collected during this study show that after about ten years, there is a change in water quality of Mat River. According to a similar study carried out in 2007, the water of Mat River was of ‘excellent’ quality. But, according to this study, the water was classified as of ‘excellent’ quality only in one sampling site, near river source, while in all other stations was of ‘good’ quality. This result is based on biological and environmental parameters measured. The human impact on the quality of water of Mat River is more than evident.

Keywords: water quality, coliform bacteria, MPN index, benthic macroinvertebrates, biotic index

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
54 Functional Feeding Groups and Trophic Levels of Benthic Macroinvertebrates Assemblages in Albertine Rift Rivers and Streams in South Western Uganda

Authors: Peace Liz Sasha Musonge

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Behavioral aspects of species nutrition such as feeding methods and food type are archetypal biological traits signifying how species have adapted to their environment. This concept of functional feeding groups (FFG) analysis is currently used to ascertain the trophic levels of the aquatic food web in a specific microhabitat. However, in Eastern Africa, information about the FFG classification of benthic macroinvertebrates in highland rivers and streams is almost absent, and existing studies have fragmented datasets. For this reason, we carried out a robust study to determine the feed type, trophic level and FFGs, of 56 macroinvertebrate taxa (identified to family level) from Albertine rift valley streams. Our findings showed that all five major functional feeding groups were represented; Gatherer Collectors (GC); Predators (PR); shredders (SH); Scrapers (SC); and Filterer collectors. The most dominant functional feeding group was the Gatherer Collectors (GC) that accounted for 53.5% of the total population. The most abundant (GC) families were Baetidae (7813 individuals), Chironomidae NTP (5628) and Caenidae (1848). Majority of the macroinvertebrate population feed on Fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) from the stream bottom. In terms of taxa richness the Predators (PR) had the highest value of 24 taxa and the Filterer Collectors group had the least number of taxa (3). The families that had the highest number of predators (PR) were Corixidae (1024 individuals), Coenagrionidae (445) and Libellulidae (283). However, Predators accounted for only 7.4% of the population. The findings highlighted the functional feeding groups and habitat type of macroinvertebrate communities along an altitudinal gradient.

Keywords: trophic levels, functional feeding groups, macroinvertebrates, Albertine rift

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53 Monitoring and Management of Aquatic Macroinvertebrates for Determining the Level of Water Pollution Catchment Basin of Debed River, Armenia

Authors: Inga Badasyan

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Every year we do monitoring of water pollution of catchment basin of Debed River. Next, the Ministry of Nature Protection does modeling programme. Finely, we are managing the impact of water pollution in Debed river. Ecosystem technologies efficiency performance were estimated based on the physical, chemical, and macrobiological analyses of water on regular base between 2012 to 2015. Algae community composition was determined to assess the ecological status of Debed river, while vegetation was determined to assess biodiversity. Last time, experts werespeaking about global warming, which is having bad impact on the surface water, freshwater, etc. As, we know that global warming is caused by the current high levels of carbon dioxide in the water. Geochemical modelling is increasingly playing an important role in various areas of hydro sciences and earth sciences. Geochemical modelling of highly concentrated aqueous solutions represents an important topic in the study of many environments such as evaporation ponds, groundwater and soils in arid and semi-arid zones, costal aquifers, etc. The sampling time is important for benthic macroinvertebrates, for that reason we have chosen in the spring (abundant flow of the river, the beginning of the vegetation season) and autumn (the flow of river is scarce). The macroinvertebrates are good indicator for a chromic pollution and aquatic ecosystems. Results of our earlier investigations in the Debed river reservoirs clearly show that management problem of ecosystem reservoirs is topical. Research results can be applied to studies of monitoring water quality in the rivers and allow for rate changes and to predict possible future changes in the nature of the lake.

Keywords: ecohydrological monitoring, flood risk management, global warming, aquatic macroinvertebrates

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52 Macroinvertebrate Variation of Endorheic Depression Wetlands within North West and Mpumalanga Provinces, South Africa

Authors: Lee-Ann Foster, Wynand Malherbe, Martin Ferriera, Johan Van Vuren

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Aquatic macroinvertebrates are rarely used in wetland assessments due to their variability. However, in terms of biodiversity, these invertebrates form an important component of wetlands. The objective of this study was to compare the spatial and temporal variation of macroinvertebrate assemblages within endorheic depressions in Mpumalanga and North West Provinces of South Africa. Sampling was conducted over a period of two seasons during 2012 and 2013 at all sampling points to account for a wet and dry season. The identification of macroinvertebrate community samples resulted in 24 taxa for both provinces. Results showed similarities in the structure of communities in perennial endorheic depressions in both provinces with the exception of one or two species. Macroinvertebrates sampled in Mpumalanga depressions (locally called pans) were similar to those reported in previous studies completed in the area and most of the macroinvertebrates sampled in Mpumalanga and the North West are known to be commonly found in temporary habitats. The knowledge acquired can now be utilised to enhance the available literature on these systems. Long-term studies have to be implemented to better understand the ecological functioning of the pans in the North West Province.

Keywords: aquatic, macroinvertebrate assemblages, pans, spatial variation

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51 Macroinvertebrates of Paravani and Saghamo Lakes, South Georgia

Authors: Bella Japoshvili, Zhanetta Shubitidze, Ani Bikashvili, Sophio Gabelashvili, Marina Gioshvili, Levan Mumladze

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Paravani and Saghamo Lakes are oligotrophic lentic systems located in Javakheti plateau (South Georgia) at 2073 m and 1996 m a.s.l. respectively. Javakheti plateau is known as a lakes region as there are located almost 60 small and medium size lakes. Paravani Lake is the biggest lake by its surface area in Georgia, 37 km 2. The Saghamo Lake is smaller and its surface area consists 4.58 km2. These two lakes are connected with Paravani River, because of this the main hydrobiological and ichthyological features are the same. More than 15-30 years were not studied macroinvertebrates of these lakes. Even the existing information is lack and very limited. The aim of our study was to identify main macroinvertebrate groups inhabiting both lakes and to compare obtaining results to existing information. Our investigation was carried out during 2014 and 2015, in 3 seasons of the year, in winter because of severe condition samples were not taken. Kick-net and Petersen grab were used for material collecting, 4 sites from Paravani Lake and 3–from Saghamo Lake were sampled. Collected invertebrates were fixed in ethanol and late taken to the laboratory, where organisms were identified to the lowest taxon possible, usually family. By our results identified 14 taxa for Paravani Lake and 12 taxa for Saghamo Lake. Our results differ from previous information; for Saghamo Lake previously 13 taxa and for Paravani Lake 12 taxa were described. The percentage of the groups also differ from existing information. Our investigation showed that in Paravani Lake most abundant are Apmhipoda, Hydrachnidae, and Hemiptera, in our samples the number of individuals for those 3 taxa was more than thousand, in each. For Saghamo Lake numerous taxon was Amphipoda-36.3%, following by Ephemeroptera-11.37%, Chironomidae-10.5% and Hydrachnidae-7.03% respectively. We also identified the dominant taxon for all studied seasons. Autumn is the period when the diversity of macroinvertebrates are higher in both lakes.

Keywords: Georgia, lakes, macroinvertebrates, monitoring

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50 Diversity and Distribution of Benthic Invertebrates in the West Port, Malaysia

Authors: Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, Rosli Hashim, Majid Rezayi, Aishah Salleh, Omid Safari

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The purpose of this paper is to describe the main characteristics of macroinvertebrate species in response to environmental forcing factors. Overall, 23 species of Mollusca, 4 species of Arthropods, 3 species of Echinodermata and 3 species of Annelida were identified at the 9 sampling stations during four sampling periods. Individual species of Mollusca constituted 36.4% of the total abundance, followed by Arthropods (27.01%), Annelida (34.3%) and Echinodermata (2.4%). The results of Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that a significant difference (p <0.05) in the abundance, richness and diversity of the macro-benthic community in different stations. The correlation analysis revealed that anthropogenic pollution and natural variability caused by these variations in spatial scales.

Keywords: benthic invertebrates, diversity, abundance, West Port

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49 Benthic Foraminiferal Responses to Coastal Pollution for Some Selected Sites along Red Sea, Egypt

Authors: Ramadan M. El-Kahawy, M. A. El-Shafeiy, Mohamed Abd El-Wahab, S. A. Helal, Nabil Aboul-Ela

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Due to the economic importance of Safaga Bay, Quseir harbor and Ras Gharib harbor , a multidisciplinary approach was adopted to invistigate 27 surfecial sediment samples from the three sites and 9 samples for each in order to use the benthic foraminifera as bio-indicators for characterization of the environmental variations. Grain size analyses indicate that the bottom facies in the inner part of quseir is muddy while the inner part of Ras Gharib and Safaga is silty sand and those close to the entrance of Safaga bay and Ras Gharib is sandy facies while quseir still also muddy facies. geochemical data show high concentration of heavy-metals mainly in Ras Gharib due to oil leakage from the hydrocarbon oil field and Safaga bay due to the phosphate mining while quseir is medium concentration due to anthropocentric effect.micropaelontological analyses indicate the boundaries of the highest concentration of heavy metals and those of low concentration as well.the dominant benthic foraminifera in these three sites are Ammonia beccarii, Amphistigina and sorites. the study highlights the worsening of environmental conditions and also show that the areas in need of a priority recovery.

Keywords: benthic foraminifera, Ras Gharib, Safaga, Quseir, Red Sea, Egypt

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48 Phylogenetic Analysis and a Review of the History of the Accidental Phytoplankter, Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (Bacillariophyta)

Authors: Jamal S. M. Sabir, Edward C. Theriot, Schonna R. Manning, Abdulrahman L. Al-Malki, Mohammad, Mumdooh J. Sabir, Dwight K. Romanovicz, Nahid H. Hajrah, Robert K. Jansen, Matt P. Ashworth

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The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has been used as a model for cell biologists and ecologists for over a century. We have incorporated several new raphid pennates into a three-gene phylogenetic dataset (SSU, rbcL, psbC), and recover Gomphonemopsis sp. as sister to P. tricornutum with 100% BS support. This is the first time a close relative has been identified for P. tricornutum with robust statistical support. We test and reject a succession of hypotheses for other relatives. Our molecular data are statistically significantly incongruent with placement of either or both species among the Cymbellales, an order of diatoms with which both have been associated. We believe that further resolution of the phylogenetic position of P. tricornutum will rely more on increased taxon sampling than increased genetic sampling. Gomphonemopsis is a benthic diatom, and its phylogenetic relationship with P. tricornutum is congruent with the hypothesis that P. tricornutum is a benthic diatom with specific adaptations that lead to active recruitment into the plankton. We hypothesize that other benthic diatoms are likely to have similar adaptations and are not merely passively recruited into the plankton.

Keywords: benthic, diatoms; ecology, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, phylogeny, tychoplankton

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47 Evaluation of Quality of Rhumel Wadi Waters by Physico-Chemical and Biological Parameters

Authors: Djeddi Hamssa, Kherief Necereddine Saliha, Mehennaoui Fatima Zohra

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The objectives of this study are to use different parameters to assess the current pollution status of sediments in Rhumel wadi located in the North-East of Algeria (Constantine), two stations were selected in strategic points and sampled at three occasions on Sptember 2014, Junary 2015 and April 2015. Parameters used in this study were a physico-chimical analysis of water (pH, CE, Dissolved O2), sediments (pH, CE, CaCo3, MO) and contamination level of sediments by cadmium, completed by biological testing and analysis of existing benthic community. The results of the physico-chemical parameters show that the water temperature is average and seasonal, the pH value is acidic, does not exceed 6.64. The amplitude variation may be important from upstream to downstream. The generally high electrical conductivity, for the carbonate nature of the watershed increases from upstream to downstream. The waters of the Rhumel wadi are excessively mineralized, dissolved oxygen, a vital factor for benthic community wildlife downstream decreases with increasing organic loading; oxygen is consumed by the microorganisms to its degradation. Analysis of the benthic fauna and calculating the biotic index show a clear excessive pollution for both upstream and downstream stations.

Keywords: biological analysis, benthic fauna, sediments contamination, cadmium

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46 Construction of Microbial Fuel Cells from Local Benthic Zones

Authors: Maria Luiza D. Ramiento, Maria Lissette D. Lucas

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Electricity is said to serve as the backbone of modern technology. Considering this, electricity consumption has dynamically grown due to the continuous demand. An alternative producer of energy concerning electricity must therefore be given focus. Microbial fuel cell wholly characterizes a new method of renewable energy recovery: the direct conversion of organic matter to electricity using bacteria. Electricity is produced as fuel or new food is given to the bacteria. The study concentrated in determining the feasibility of electricity production from local benthic zones. Microbial fuel cells were constructed to harvest the possible electricity and to test the presence of electricity producing microorganisms. Soil samples were gathered from Calumpang River, Palawan Mangrove Forest, Rosario River and Batangas Port. Eleven modules were constructed for the different trials of the soil samples. These modules were made of cathode and anode chambers connected by a salt bridge. For 85 days, the harvested voltage was measured daily. No parameter is added for the first 24 days. For the next 61 days, acetic acid was included in the first and second trials of the modules. Each of the trials of the soil samples gave a positive result in electricity production.There were electricity producing microbes in local benthic zones. It is observed that the higher the organic content of the soil sample, the higher the electricity harvested from it. It is recommended to identify the specific species of the electricity-producing microorganism present in the local benthic zone. Complement experiments are encouraged like determining the kind of soil particles to test its effect on the amount electricity that can be harvested. To pursue the development of microbial fuel cells by building a closed circuit in it is also suggested.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell, benthic zone, electricity, reduction-oxidation reaction, bacteria

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45 Benthic Cover in Coral Reef Environments under Influence of Submarine Groundwater Discharges

Authors: Arlett A. Rosado-Torres, Ismael Marino-Tapia

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Changes in benthic cover of coral dominated systems to macroalgae dominance are widely studied worldwide. Watershed pollutants are potentially as important as overfishing causing phase shift. In certain regions of the world most of the continental inputs are through submarine groundwater discharges (SGD), which can play a significant ecological role because the concentration of its nutrients is usually greater that the one found in surface seawater. These stressors have adversely affected coral reefs, particularly in the Caribbean. Measurements of benthic cover (with video tracing, through a Go Pro camera), reef roughness (acoustic estimates with an Acoustic Doppler Current Velocity profiler and a differential GPS), thermohaline conditions (conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) instrument) and nutrient measurements were taken in different sites in the reef lagoon of Puerto Morelos, Q. Roo, Mexico including those with influence of SGD and without it. The results suggest a link between SGD, macroalgae cover and structural complexity. Punctual water samples and data series from a CTD Diver confirm the presence of the SGD. On the site where the SGD is, the macroalgae cover is larger than in the other sites. To establish a causal link between this phase shift and SGD, the DELFT 3D hydrodynamic model (FLOW and WAVE modules) was performed under different environmental conditions and discharge magnitudes. The model was validated using measurements of oceanographic instruments anchored in the lagoon and forereef. The SGD is consistently favoring macroalgae populations and affecting structural complexity of the reef.

Keywords: hydrodynamic model, macroalgae, nutrients, phase shift

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44 Bioelectronic System for Continuous Monitoring of Cardiac Activity of Benthic Invertebrates for the Assessment of a Surface Water Quality

Authors: Sergey Kholodkevich, Tatiana Kuznetsova

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The objective assessment of ecological state of water ecosystems is impossible without the use of biological methods of the environmental monitoring capable in the integrated look to reveal negative for biota changes of quality of water as habitats. Considerable interest for the development of such methods of environmental quality control represents biomarker approach. Measuring systems, by means of which register cardiac activity characteristics, received the name of bioelectronic. Bioelectronic systems are information and measuring systems in which animals (namely, benthic invertebrates) are directly included in structure of primary converters, being an integral part of electronic system of registration of these or those physiological or behavioural biomarkers. As physiological biomarkers various characteristics of cardiac activity of selected invertebrates have been used in bioelectronic system.lChanges in cardiac activity are considered as integrative measures of the physiological condition of organisms, which reflect the state of the environment of their dwelling. Greatest successes in the development of tools of biological methods and technologies of an assessment of surface water quality in real time. Essential advantage of bioindication of water quality by such tool is a possibility of an integrated assessment of biological effects of pollution on biota and also the expressness of such method and used approaches. In the report the practical experience of authors in biomonitoring and bioindication of an ecological condition of sea, brackish- and freshwater areas is discussed. Authors note that the method of non-invasive cardiac activity monitoring of selected invertebrates can be used not only for the advancement of biomonitoring, but also is useful in decision of general problems of comparative physiology of the invertebrates.

Keywords: benthic invertebrates, physiological state, heart rate monitoring, water quality assessment

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43 Characteristics of Meiofaunal Communities in Intertidal Habitats Along Albanian Adriatic Sea Coast

Authors: Fundime Miri, Emanuela Sulaj

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Benthic ecosystems constitute important ecological habitats, providing fundamental services for spawning, foraging, and sheltering aquatic organisms. Benthic faunal communities are characterized by a large biological diversity, supported by a great physical variety of benthic habitats. Until late, the study of meiobenthic communities in Albania has been neglectedthus excluding an important component of benthos. The present study aims to bring characteristics of distribution pattern of meiofaunal communities with further focus on nematode genus-based diversity from different intertidal habitats along Albanian Adriatic Sea Coast. The investigation area is extended from Shkodra to Vlora District, including six sandy sampling sites in beaches and areas near river estuaries. Sediment samples were collected manually in low intertidal zone by using a cylindrical corer, with an internal diameter of 5 cm. The richness onmeiofaunalmajor taxon level did not show any significant change between different sampling sites compare to significant changes in nematode diversity at genus level, with distinct nematode assemblages per sampling sites and presence of exclusive genera. All meiofaunal communities under study were dominated by nematodes. Further assessment of functional diversity on nematode assemblages exhibited changes as well on trophic groups and life strategies due to diverse feeding behaviors and c-p values of nematode genera. This study emphasize the need for lower level taxonomic identification of meiofaunal organisms and extending of ecological assessments on trophic diversity and life strategies to understanding functional consequences.

Keywords: benthos, meiofauna, nematode genus-based diversity, functional diversity, intertidal, albanian adriatic coast

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42 Ecosystem Response of a Semi-Enclosed Saline Bay to Damming and Sluice-Management: Case of Lake Grevelingen in the Netherlands

Authors: Marijn Tangelder, Ingeborg Mulder, Jeroen Wijsman, John Janssen, Tom Ysebaert

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The delta works in the Southwest Netherlands drastically changed the estuarine nature of this area. The Grevelingen estuary was dammed off and became a lake in 1971. Since 1978 a connection with the North Sea exists to keep the lake saline but management of the sluices varied over time. Our research of several decades of monitoring data shows that water management practices lead to drastic changes in water quality and consequent ecological shifts in benthic fauna, fish, and bird species. Benthic biomass, dominated by molluscs, showed major changes with an important role for invasive species. Fish migration and, therefore, fish stock in the lake changed with recently smaller fish species and lower biomass values, with consequences for fish eating birds. Implications are made towards future management to re-introduce micro-tide in connection with the North Sea to improve water quality and the ecological status of the lake, as well as consequences for the bordering Natura 2000 terrestrial habitats, including rare dune vegetations, are discussed.

Keywords: ecosystem study, Grevelingen, Natura 2000, water management, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
41 Seasonal Variations, Environmental Parameters, and Standing Crop Assessment of Benthic Foraminifera in Western Bahrain, Arabian Gulf

Authors: Muhammad Arslan, Michael A. Kaminski, Bassam S. Tawabini, Fabrizio Frontalini

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We conducted a survey of living benthic foraminifera in a relatively unpolluted site of Bahrain in the Arabian Gulf, with the aim of determining the seasonal variability in their populations, as well as various environmental parameters that affect their distribution. The maximum standing crop was observed during winter, with highest population of rotaliids, followed by a peak in miliolids. The highest population is attributed to an increasing number juveniles observed along the depth transect. A strong correlation between sediment grain size and the foraminiferal population indicates that juveniles were most abundant on coarser sandy substrate and less abundant on fine substrate. In spring, the total living population decreased, and lowest values are observed in the summer. The population started to increase again in the autumn with highest juveniles/adult ratios. Moreover, results of relative abundance and species consistency show that Ammonia is found to be consistent from the shallowest to the deepest station, whereas miliolids start appearing in the deeper stations. The average numbers of Peneroplis and Elphidium also increases along the depth transect. Environmental characterization reveals that although the site is subjected to eutrophication caused by nitrates and sulfates, pollution caused by hydrocarbons and heavy metals is not significant. The assessment of 63 heavy metals showed that none of the metals had concentrations that exceed internationally accepted norms [the devised level of Effect Range-Low], with the exception of strontium. The lack of a significant environmental effect of heavy metals is confirmed by a Foraminiferal Deformities Index value of less than 2%. Likewise, no hydrocarbon contamination was detected in the water or sediment samples. Lastly, observations of cytoplasmic streaming and pseudopodial activity in Petri dishes suggest that the foraminiferal population is not stressed. We conclude that the site in Bahrain is not yet adversely affected by human development, and therefore can provide baseline information for future comparison and assessment of foraminiferal assemblages in contaminated zones of the Arabian Gulf.

Keywords: Arabian Gulf, benthic foraminifera, standing crop, Western Bahrain

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40 [Keynote Speech]: Determination of Naturally Occurring and Artificial Radionuclide Activity Concentrations in Marine Sediments in Western Marmara, Turkey

Authors: Erol Kam, Z. U. Yümün

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Natural and artificial radionuclides cause radioactive contamination in environments, just as the other non-biodegradable pollutants (heavy metals, etc.) sink to the sea floor and accumulate in sediments. Especially the habitat of benthic foraminifera living on the surface of sediments or in sediments at the seafloor are affected by radioactive pollution in the marine environment. Thus, it is important for pollution analysis to determine the radionuclides. Radioactive pollution accumulates in the lowest level of the food chain and reaches humans at the highest level. The more the accumulation, the more the environment is endangered. This study used gamma spectrometry to investigate the natural and artificial radionuclide distribution of sediment samples taken from living benthic foraminifera habitats in the Western Marmara Sea. The radionuclides, K-40, Cs-137, Ra-226, Mn 54, Zr-95+ and Th-232, were identified in the sediment samples. For this purpose, 18 core samples were taken from depths of about 25-30 meters in the Marmara Sea in 2016. The locations of the core samples were specifically selected exclusively from discharge points for domestic and industrial areas, port locations, and so forth to represent pollution in the study area. Gamma spectrometric analysis was used to determine the radioactive properties of sediments. The radionuclide concentration activity values in the sediment samples obtained were Cs-137=0.9-9.4 Bq/kg, Th-232=18.9-86 Bq/kg, Ra-226=10-50 Bq/kg, K-40=24.4–670 Bq/kg, Mn 54=0.71–0.9 Bq/kg and Zr-95+=0.18–0.19 Bq/kg. These values were compared with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) data, and an environmental analysis was carried out. The Ra-226 series, the Th-232 series, and the K-40 radionuclides accumulate naturally and are increasing every day due to anthropogenic pollution. Although the Ra-226 values obtained in the study areas remained within normal limits according to the UNSCEAR values, the K-40, and Th-232 series values were found to be high in almost all the locations.

Keywords: Ra-226, Th-232, K-40, Cs-137, Mn 54, Zr-95+, radionuclides, Western Marmara Sea

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39 Biological Monitoring: Vegetation Cover, Bird Assemblages, Rodents, Terrestrial and Aquatic Invertebrates from a Closed Landfill

Authors: A. Cittadino, P. Gantes, C. Coviella, M. Casset, A. Sanchez Caro

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Three currently active landfills receive the waste from Buenos Aires city and the Great Buenos Aires suburbs. One of the first landfills to receive solid waste from this area was located in Villa Dominico, some 7 km south from Buenos Aires City. With an area of some 750 ha, including riparian habitats, divided into 14 cells, it received solid wastes from June 1979 through February 2004. In December 2010, a biological monitoring program was set up by CEAMSE and Universidad Nacional de Lujan, still operational to date. The aim of the monitoring program is to assess the state of several biological groups within the landfill and to follow their dynamics overtime in order to identify if any, early signs of damage the landfill activities might have over the biota present. Bird and rodent populations, aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates’ populations, cells vegetation coverage, and surrounding areas vegetation coverage and main composition are followed by quarterly samplings. Bird species richness and abundance were estimated by observation over walk transects on each environment. A total of 74 different species of birds were identified. Species richness and diversity were high for both riparian surrounding areas and within the landfill. Several grassland -typical of the 'Pampa'- bird species were found within the landfill, as well as some migratory and endangered bird species. Sherman and Tomahawk traps are set overnight for small mammal sampling. Rodent populations are just above detection limits, and the few specimens captured belong mainly to species common to rural areas, instead of city-dwelling species. The two marsupial species present in the region were captured on occasions. Aquatic macroinvertebrates were sampled on a watercourse upstream and downstream the outlet of the landfill’s wastewater treatment plant and are used to follow water quality using biological indices. Water quality ranged between weak and severe pollution; benthic invertebrates sampled before and after the landfill, show no significant differences in water quality using the IBMWP index. Insect biota from yellow sticky cards and pitfall traps showed over 90 different morphospecies, with Shannon diversity index running from 1.9 to 3.9, strongly affected by the season. An easy-to-perform non-expert demandant method was used to assess vegetation coverage. Two scales of determination are utilized: field observation (1 m resolution), and Google Earth images (that allow for a better than 5 m resolution). Over the eight year period of the study, vegetation coverage over the landfill cells run from a low 83% to 100% on different cells, with an average between 95 to 99% for the entire landfill depending on seasonality. Surrounding area vegetation showed almost 100% coverage during the entire period, with an average density from 2 to 6 species per sq meter and no signs of leachate damaged vegetation.

Keywords: biological indicators, biota monitoring, landfill species diversity, waste management

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38 Trophic Variations in Uptake and Assimilation of Cadmium, Manganese and Zinc: An Estuarine Food-Chain Radiotracer Experiment

Authors: K. O’Mara, T. Cresswell

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Nearly half of the world’s population live near the coast, and as a result, estuaries and coastal bays in populated or industrialized areas often receive metal pollution. Heavy metals have a chemical affinity for sediment particles and can be stored in estuarine sediments and become biologically available under changing conditions. Organisms inhabiting estuaries can be exposed to metals from a variety of sources including metals dissolved in water, bound to sediment or within contaminated prey. Metal uptake and assimilation responses can vary even between species that are biologically similar, making pollution effects difficult to predict. A multi-trophic level experiment representing a common Eastern Australian estuarine food chain was used to study the sources for Cd, Mn and Zn uptake and assimilation in organisms occupying several trophic levels. Sand cockles (Katelysia scalarina), school prawns (Metapenaeus macleayi) and sand whiting (Sillago ciliata) were exposed to radiolabelled seawater, suspended sediment and food. Three pulse-chase trials on filter-feeding sand cockles were performed using radiolabelled phytoplankton (Tetraselmis sp.), benthic microalgae (Entomoneis sp.) and suspended sediment. Benthic microalgae had lower metal uptake than phytoplankton during labelling but higher cockle assimilation efficiencies (Cd = 51%, Mn = 42%, Zn = 63 %) than both phytoplankton (Cd = 21%, Mn = 32%, Zn = 33%) and suspended sediment (except Mn; (Cd = 38%, Mn = 42%, Zn = 53%)). Sand cockles were also sensitive to uptake of Cd, Mn and Zn dissolved in seawater. Uptake of these metals from the dissolved phase was negligible in prawns and fish, with prawns only accumulating metals during moulting, which were then lost with subsequent moulting in the depuration phase. Diet appears to be the main source of metal assimilation in school prawns, with 65%, 54% and 58% assimilation efficiencies from Cd, Mn and Zn respectively. Whiting fed contaminated prawns were able to exclude the majority of the metal activity through egestion, with only 10%, 23% and 11% assimilation efficiencies from Cd, Mn and Zn respectively. The findings of this study support previous studies that find diet to be the dominant accumulation source for higher level trophic organisms. These results show that assimilation efficiencies can vary depending on the source of exposure; sand cockles assimilated more Cd, Mn, and Zn from the benthic diatom than phytoplankton and assimilation was higher in sand whiting fed prawns compared to artificial pellets. The sensitivity of sand cockles to metal uptake and assimilation from a variety of sources poses concerns for metal availability to predators ingesting the clam tissue, including humans. The high tolerance of sand whiting to these metals is reflected in their widespread presence in Eastern Australian estuaries, including contaminated estuaries such as Botany Bay and Port Jackson.

Keywords: cadmium, food chain, metal, manganese, trophic, zinc

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37 Effects of Small Impoundments on Leaf Litter Decomposition and Methane Derived Carbon in the Benthic Foodweb in Streams

Authors: John Gichimu Mbaka, Jan Helmrich Martin von Baumbach, Celia Somlai, Denis Köpfer, Andreas Maeck, Andreas Lorke, Ralf Schäfer

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Leaf litter decomposition is an important process providing energy to biotic communities. Additionally, methane gas (CH4) has been identified as an important alternative source of carbon and energy in some freshwater food webs.Flow regulation and dams can strongly alter freshwater ecosystems, but little is known about the effect of small impoundments on leaf litter decomposition and methane derived carbon in streams. In this study, we tested the effect of small water storage impoundments on leaf litter decomposition rates and methane derived carbon. Leaf litter decomposition rates were assessed by comparing treatment sites located close to nine impoundments (Rheinland Pfalz state, Germany) and reference sites located far away from the impoundments.CH4 concentrations were measured in eleven impoundments and correlated with the δ13C values of two subfamilies of chironomid larvae (i.e. Chironomini and Tanypodinae). Leaf litter break down rates were significantly lower in study sites located immediately above the impoundments, especially associated with a reduction in the abundance of shredders. Chironomini larvae had the lower mean δ13C values (‒29.2 to ‒25.5 ‰), than Tanypodinae larvae (‒26.9 to ‒25.3 ‰).No significant relationships were established between CH4 concentrations and δ13C values of chironomids (p> 0.05).Mean δ13C values of chironomid larvae (mean: ‒26.8‰, range: ‒ 29.2‰ to ‒ 25.3‰) were similar to those of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) (mean: ‒28.4‰, range: ‒ 29.3‰ to ‒ 27.1‰) and tree leaf litter (mean: ‒29.8 ‰, range: ‒ 30.5‰ to ‒ 29.1‰). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that small impoundments may have a negative effect on leaf litter decomposition in forest streams and that CH4 has limited influence on the benthic food web in stream impoundments.

Keywords: river functioning, chironomids, Alder tree, stable isotopes, methane oxidation, shredder

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36 Distribution Patterns of the Renieramycin-M-Producing Blue Sponge, Xestospongia sp. (De Laubenfels, 1932) (Phylum: Porifera, Class: Demospongiae) in Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro, Philippines

Authors: Geminne Manzano, Clairecynth Yu, Lilibeth Salvador-Reyes, Viviene Santiago, Porfirio AliñO

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The distribution and abundance patterns of many marine sessile organisms such as sponges vary among and within reefs. Determining the factors affecting its distribution is essential especially for organisms that produce secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical importance. In this study, the small-scale distribution patterns of the Philippine blue sponge, Xestospongia sp. in relation to some ecological factors were examined. The relationship between the renieramycin-M production and their benthic attributes were also determined. Ecological surveys were conducted on two stations with varying depth and exposure located in Oriental Mindoro, Philippines. Three 30 by 6m belt transect were used to assess the sponge abundance at each station. The substratum of the sponges was also characterized. Fish visual census observations were also taken together with the photo transect methods benthic surveys. Sponge samples were also collected for the extraction of Renieramycin-M and for further chemical analysis. Varying distribution patterns were observed to be attributed to the combination of different ecological and environmental factors. The amount of Renieramycin-production also varied in each station. The common substratum for blue sponges includes hard and soft corals, as well as, dead coral with algal patches. Blue sponges from exposed habitat frequently grow associated with massive and branching corals, Porites sp., while the most frequent substrate found on sheltered habitats is the coral Pavona sp. Exploring the influence of ecological and environmental parameters on the abundance and distribution of sponge assemblages provide ecological insights and their potential applications to pharmaceutical studies. The results of this study provide further impetus in pursuing studies into patterns and processes of the Philippine blue sponge, Xestospongia sp. distribution in relation to the chemical ecology of its secondary metabolites.

Keywords: distribution patterns, Porifera, Renieramycin-M, sponge assemblages, Xestospongia sp.

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35 Effects of Oil Pollution on Euryglossa orientalis and Psettodes erumei in the Persian Gulf

Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour, Reza Khoshnood, Zahra Khoshnood, Rastin Afkhami

Abstract:

Marine pollution is a global environmental problem. Different human activities on land, in the water and in the air contribute to the contamination of seawater, sediments and organisms with potentially toxic substances. Contaminants can be natural substances or artificially produced compounds. After discharge into the sea, contaminants can stay in the water in dissolved form or they can be removed from the water column through sedimentation to the bottom sediments. Histopathological alterations can be used as indicators for the effects of various anthropogenic pollutants on organisms and are a reflection of the overall health of the entire population in the ecosystem. These histo pathological biomarkers are closely related to other biomarkers of stress since many pollutants have to undergo metabolic activation in order to be able to provoke cellular change in the affected organism. In order to make evaluation of the effects of oil pollution, some heavy metals bioaccumulation and explore their histopathological effects on hepatocytes of Oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis) and Deep flounder (Psettodes erumei), fishes caught from two areas of north coast of the Persian Gulf: Bandar Abbass and Bandar Lengeh. Concentrations of Ni and V in liver of both species in two sampling regions were in following order: Bandar abbass Bandar lengeh; also between two species, these quantities were higher in P. erumei than E. orientalis in both sampling regions. Histopathology of the liver shows some cellular alterations including: degeneration, necrosis and tissue disruption, and histopathological effects were severe in P. erumei than E. orientalis. Results showed that Bandar Abbass region was more polluted than Bandar Lengeh, and because Ni and V were oil pollution indicators, and two flat fishes were benthic, they can receive considerable amount of oil pollution through their biological activities like feeding. Also higher amounts of heavy metal concentrations and major histopathological effects in E. orientalis showed strong relationship between benthic habitat of the fish and amounts of received pollutants from water and sediments, because E. orientalis is more related to the bottom than P. erumei.

Keywords: heavy metals, flatfishes, Persian Gulf, oil pollution

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34 Diversity, Biochemical and Genomic Assessment of Selected Benthic Species of Two Tropical Lagoons, Southwest Nigeria

Authors: G. F. Okunade, M. O. Lawal, R. E. Uwadiae, D. Portnoy

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The diversity, physico-chemical, biochemical and genomics assessment of Macrofauna species of Ologe and Badagry Lagoons were carried out between August 2016 and July 2018. The concentrations of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cd, Cr, and Pb in water were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Particle size distribution was determined with wet-sieving and sedimentation using hydrometer method. Genomics analyses were carried using 25 P. fusca (quadriseriata) and 25 P.fusca from each lagoon due to abundance in both lagoons all through the two years of collection. DNA was isolated from each sample using the Mag-Bind Blood and Tissue DNA HD 96 kit; a method designed to isolate high quality. The biochemical characteristics were analysed in the dominanat species (P.aurita and T. fuscatus) using ELISA kits. Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and TDS were analysed using APHA standard protocols. The Physico-chemical parameters of the water quality recorded with mean values of 32.46 ± 0.66mg/L and 41.93 ± 0.65 for COD, 27.28 ± 0.97 and 34.82 ± 0.1 mg/L for BOD, 0.04 ± 4.71 mg/L for DO, 6.65 and 6.58 for pH in Ologe and Badagry lagoons with significant variations (p ≤ 0.05) across seasons. The mean and standard deviation of salinity for Ologe and Badagry Lagoons ranged from 0.43 ± 0.30 to 0.27 ± 0.09. A total of 4210 species belonging to a phylum, two classes, four families and a total of 2008 species in Ologe lagoon while a phylum, two classes, 5 families and a total of 2202 species in Badagry lagoon. The percentage composition of the classes at Ologe lagoon had 99% gastropod and 1% bivalve, while Gastropod contributed 98.91% and bivalve 1.09% in Badagry lagoon. Particle size was distributed in 0.002mm to 2.00mm, particle size distribution in Ologe lagoon recorded 0.83% gravels, 97.83% sand, and 1.33% silt particles while Badagry lagoon recorded 7.43% sand, 24.71% silt, and 67.86% clay particles hence, the excessive dredging activities going on in the lagoon. Maximum percentage of sand (100%) was seen in station 6 in Ologe lagoon while the minimum (96%) was found in station 1. P. aurita (Ologe Lagoon) and T. fuscastus (Badagry Lagoon) were the most abundant benthic species in which both contributed 61.05% and 64.35%, respectively. The enzymatic activities of P. aurita observed with mean values of 21.03 mg/dl for AST, 10.33 mg/dl for ALP, 82.16 mg/dl for ALT and 73.06 mg/dl for CHO in Ologe Lagoon While T. fuscatus observed mean values of Badagry Lagoon) recorded mean values 29.76 mg/dl, ALP with 11.69mg/L, ALT with 140.58 mg/dl and CHO with 45.98 mg/dl. There were significant variations (P < 0.05) in AST and CHO levels of activities in the muscles of the species.

Keywords: benthos, biochemical responses, genomics, metals, particle size

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
33 Spatial Variability of Renieramycin-M Production in the Philippine Blue Sponge, Xestospongia Sp.

Authors: Geminne Manzano, Porfirio Aliño, Clairecynth Yu, Lilibeth Salvador-Reyes, Viviene Santiago

Abstract:

Many marine benthic organisms produce secondary metabolites that serve as ecological roles to different biological and environmental factors. The secondary metabolites found in these organisms like algae, sponges, tunicates and worms exhibit variation at different scales. Understanding the chemical variation can be essential in deriving the evolutionary and ecological function of the secondary metabolites that may explain their patterns. Ecological surveys were performed on two collection sites representing from two Philippine marine biogeographic regions – in Oriental Mindoro located on the West Philippine Sea (WPS) and in Zamboanga del Sur located at Celebes Sea (CS), where a total of 39 Xestospongia sp. sponges were collected using SCUBA. The sponge samples were transported to the laboratory for taxonomic identification and chemical analysis. Biological and environmental factors were investigated to determine their relation to the abundance and distribution patterns and its spatial variability of their secondary metabolite production. Extracts were subjected to thin-layer chromatography and anti-proliferative assays to confirm the presence of Renieramycin-M and to test its cytotoxicity. The blue sponges were found to be more abundant on the WPS than in CS. Both the benthic community and the fish community in Oriental Mindoro, WPS and Zamboanga del Sur, CS sites are characterized by high species diversity and abundance and a very high biomass category. Environmental factors like depth and monsoonal exposure were also compared showing that wave exposure and depth are associated with the abundance and distribution of the sponges. Renieramycin-M presence using the TLC profiles between the sponge extracts from WPS and from CS showed differences in the Reniermycin-M presence and the presence of other functional groups were observed between the two sites. In terms of bioactivity, different responses were also exhibited by the sponge extracts coming from the different region. Different responses were also noted on its bioactivity depending on the cell lines tested. Exploring the influence of ecological parameters on the chemical variation can provide deeper chemical ecological insights in the knowledge and their potential varied applications at different scales. The results of this study provide further impetus in pursuing studies into patterns and processes of the chemical diversity of the Philippine blue sponge, Xestospongia sp. and the chemical ecological significance of the coral triangle.

Keywords: chemical ecology, porifera, renieramycin-m, spatial variability, Xestospongia sp.

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32 Development of Macrobenthic Communities in the North Port, West Coastal Water of Malaysia

Authors: Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, Rosli Hashim, Majid Rezayi, Aishah Salleh

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The primary objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution and composition of the macrobenthic community and their response to environmental parameters in the North Port, west coastal waters of Malaysia. A total of 25 species were identified, including 13 bivalvia, 4 gastropoda, and 3 crustacea. The other taxa were less diversified. There were no temporal changes in the macrobenthic community composition, but significant effects (p < 0.05) on the benthic community composition were found on a spatial scale. The correlation analyses and similarity tests were in good agreement, confirming the significant response of macrobenthic community composition to variations of environmental parameters.

Keywords: distribution, macrobenthic community, diversity, North Port, Malaysia

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31 Feeding Habits and Condition Factor of Oreochromis niloticus in Lake Alau, Northeastern Nigeria

Authors: Zahra Ali Lawan, Ali Abdulhakim

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The stomach contents of 100 Oreochromis niloticus, sampled between April and August, 2011 in Alau Lake, northeastern Nigeria, were examined. Herbs and algae were the main contents representing 40.15%, 23.36% followed by some mud / sand components, insect parts and fish remains representing 14.60%, 13.87% and 8.03% respectively. Oreochromis niloticus was affirmed as an herbivore and a benthic feeder due to the presence of both herbs and mud/sand among its stomach content. The mean stomach fullness percentage was 70.94% and stomach emptiness was 29.06%. The average condition factor of the fishes was 1.69 with the best conditions recorded in the dry months of April and May at 1.74 and 1.94 respectively. The general trend in the condition factor for this species in this study is that relatively higher condition factors were recorded for relatively higher lengths.

Keywords: stomach contents, oreochromis niloticus, herbivores, Lake Alau

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30 Foraminiferal Associations and Paleoecology of the Oligocene Sediments in Zagros Basin, SW Iran

Authors: Tahereh Habibi

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The Oligocene carbonates are widespread along Fars Province, Zagros Basin, SW Iran. Distribution of planktonic and larger benthic foraminfera, stratal patterns and facies architecture are used as a tool to define microfacies and foraminiferal associations of these strata at Kavar Section. The presence of Nummulites spp. indicated the age of the sequence as Rupelian-Chattian (Nummulites vascus-Nummulites fichteli and Archaias asmaricus/hensoni-Miogypsinoides complanatus assemblage zones). The paleoenvironmental setting is interpreted as a homoclinal ramp environment according to the recognition of eight microfacies types. Four foraminiferal associations are recognized in the investigated ramp setting. They represent a salinity of 34-40 to 50 psu and higher than 50 psu in more restricted conditions. The depth ranges from 200 m as evidenced by the presence of planktonic foraminifera and to less than 30m in the more restricted inner ramp environment. Warm tropical and subtropical water with temperature of 18-25° C is proposed.

Keywords: foraminiferal associations, microfacies, oligocene, paleoecology

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29 Using Sea Cucumber for Mitigation of Marine Pollution

Authors: A. Al-Yaqout, A. Al-Alawi, T. Al-Said, E. Al-Enezi, M. Al-Roumi

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Kuwait’s marine environment suffers from increased organic pollution. Sea cucumbers play an important role in the marine environment. They create a healthier environment for many types of benthic micro-organisms through their slow movement and feeding mechanism on micro-organisms and organic material. A preliminary study has been conducted in Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research to assess the possibility of using sea cucumbers for mitigation of the coastal pollution. Sediments were collected from locations identified to be heavily loaded with organic pollutants. Ten aquaria glass tanks, 65x 40x 30cm will be supplied with 10 cm height (14 kg) of the sediments added in each tank and filled with 70 L of filtered seawater. Two species were used in this study, Stichopus hermanni, and Holothuria atra. Water and sediment samples were analyzed weekly. The results showed promising possibility for using sea cucumber to lower the organic load in sediments.

Keywords: organic pollution, sea cucumbers, mitigation, Stichopus hermanni, Holothuria atra

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28 Effects of Epinephrine on Gene Expressions during the Metamorphosis of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

Authors: Fei Xu, Guofan Zhang, Xiao Liu

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Many major marine invertebrate phyla are characterized by indirect development. These animals transit from planktonic larvae to benthic adults via settlement and metamorphosis, which has many advantages for organisms to adapt marine environment. Studying the biological process of metamorphosis is thus a key to understand the origin and evolution of indirect development. Although the mechanism of metamorphosis has been largely studied on their relationships with the marine environment, microorganisms, as well as the neurohormones, little is known on the gene regulation network (GRN) during metamorphosis. We treated competent oyster pediveligers with epinephrine, which was known to be able to effectively induce oyster metamorphosis, and analyzed the dynamics of gene and proteins with transcriptomics and proteomics methods. The result indicated significant upregulation of protein synthesis system, as well as some transcription factors including Homeobox, basic helix-loop-helix, and nuclear receptors. The result suggested the GRN complexity of the transition stage during oyster metamorphosis.

Keywords: indirect development, gene regulation network, protein synthesis, transcription factors

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27 The Results of Longitudinal Water Quality Monitoring of the Brandywine River, Chester County, Pennsylvania by High School Students

Authors: Dina L. DiSantis

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Strengthening a sense of responsibility while relating global sustainability concepts such as water quality and pollution to a local water system can be achieved by teaching students to conduct and interpret water quality monitoring tests. When students conduct their own research, they become better stewards of the environment. Providing outdoor learning and place-based opportunities for students helps connect them to the natural world. By conducting stream studies and collecting data, students are able to better understand how the natural environment is a place where everything is connected. Students have been collecting physical, chemical and biological data along the West and East Branches of the Brandywine River, in Pennsylvania for over ten years. The stream studies are part of the advanced placement environmental science and aquatic science courses that are offered as electives to juniors and seniors at the Downingtown High School West Campus in Downingtown, Pennsylvania. Physical data collected includes: temperature, turbidity, width, depth, velocity, and volume of flow or discharge. The chemical tests conducted are: dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, nitrates, alkalinity and phosphates. Macroinvertebrates are collected with a kick net, identified and then released. Students collect the data from several locations while traveling by canoe. In the classroom, students prepare a water quality data analysis and interpretation report based on their collected data. The summary of the results from longitudinal water quality data collection by students, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of student data collection will be presented.

Keywords: place-based, student data collection, sustainability, water quality monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 79