Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: swimmer

6 A Laboratory Study into the Effects of Surface Waves on Freestyle Swimming

Authors: Scott Draper, Nat Benjanuvatra, Grant Landers, Terry Griffiths, Justin Geldard


Open water swimming has been an Olympic sport since 2008 and is growing in popularity world-wide as a low impact form of exercise. Unlike pool swimming, open water swimmers experience a range of different environmental conditions, including surface waves, variable water temperature, aquatic life, and ocean currents. This presentation will describe experimental research to investigate how freestyle swimming behaviour and performance is influenced by surface waves. A group of 12 swimmers were instructed to swim freestyle in the 54 m long wave flume located at The University of Western Australia’s Coastal and Offshore Engineering Laboratory. A variety of different regular waves were simulated, varying in height (up to 0.3 m), period (1.25 – 4s), and direction (with or against the swimmer). Swimmer’s velocity and acceleration, respectively, were determined from video recording and inertial sensors attached to five different parts of the swimmer’s body. The results illustrate how the swimmers stroke rate and the wave encounter frequency influence their forward speed and how particular wave conditions can benefit or hinder performance. Comparisons to simplified mathematical models provide insight into several aspects of performance, including: (i) how much faster swimmers can travel when swimming with as opposed to against the waves, and (ii) why swimmers of lesser ability are expected to be affected proportionally more by waves than elite swimmers. These findings have implications across the spectrum from elite to ‘weekend’ swimmers, including how they are coached and their ability to win (or just successfully complete) iconic open water events such as the Rottnest Channel Swim held annually in Western Australia.

Keywords: open water, surface waves, wave height/length, wave flume, stroke rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
5 A Comparison of Two and Three Dimensional Motion Capture Methodologies in the Analysis of Underwater Fly Kicking Kinematics

Authors: Isobel M. Thompson, Dorian Audot, Dominic Hudson, Martin Warner, Joseph Banks


Underwater fly kick is an essential skill in swimming, which can have a considerable impact upon overall race performance in competition, especially in sprint events. Reduced wave drags acting upon the body under the surface means that the underwater fly kick will potentially be the fastest the swimmer is travelling throughout the race. It is therefore critical to understand fly kicking techniques and determining biomechanical factors involved in the performance. Most previous studies assessing fly kick kinematics have focused on two-dimensional analysis; therefore, the three-dimensional elements of the underwater fly kick techniques are not well understood. Those studies that have investigated fly kicking techniques using three-dimensional methodologies have not reported full three-dimensional kinematics for the techniques observed, choosing to focus on one or two joints. There has not been a direct comparison completed on the results obtained using two-dimensional and three-dimensional analysis, and how these different approaches might affect the interpretation of subsequent results. The aim of this research is to quantify the differences in kinematics observed in underwater fly kicks obtained from both two and three-dimensional analyses of the same test conditions. In order to achieve this, a six-camera underwater Qualisys system was used to develop an experimental methodology suitable for assessing the kinematics of swimmer’s starts and turns. The cameras, capturing at a frequency of 100Hz, were arranged along the side of the pool spaced equally up to 20m creating a capture volume of 7m x 2m x 1.5m. Within the measurement volume, error levels were estimated at 0.8%. Prior to pool trials, participants completed a landside calibration in order to define joint center locations, as certain markers became occluded once the swimmer assumed the underwater fly kick position in the pool. Thirty-four reflective markers were placed on key anatomical landmarks, 9 of which were then removed for the pool-based trials. The fly-kick swimming conditions included in the analysis are as follows: maximum effort prone, 100m pace prone, 200m pace prone, 400m pace prone, and maximum pace supine. All trials were completed from a push start to 15m to ensure consistent kick cycles were captured. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional kinematics are calculated from joint locations, and the results are compared. Key variables reported include kick frequency and kick amplitude, as well as full angular kinematics of the lower body. Key differences in these variables obtained from two-dimensional and three-dimensional analysis are identified. Internal rotation (up to 15º) and external rotation (up to -28º) were observed using three-dimensional methods. Abduction (5º) and adduction (15º) were also reported. These motions are not observed in the two-dimensional analysis. Results also give an indication of different techniques adopted by swimmers at various paces and orientations. The results of this research provide evidence of the strengths of both two dimensional and three dimensional motion capture methods in underwater fly kick, highlighting limitations which could affect the interpretation of results from both methods.

Keywords: swimming, underwater fly kick, performance, motion capture

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
4 Hydraulic Analysis on Microhabitat of Benthic Macroinvertebrates at Riparian Riffles

Authors: Jin-Hong Kim


Hydraulic analysis on microhabitat of Benthic Macro- invertebrates was performed at riparian riffles of Hongcheon River and Gapyeong Stream. As for the representative species, Ecdyonurus kibunensis, Paraleptophlebia cocorata, Chironomidae sp. and Psilotreta kisoensis iwata were chosen. They showed hydraulically different habitat types by flow velocity and particle diameters of streambed materials. Habitat conditions of the swimmers were determined mainly by the flow velocity rather than by flow depth or by riverbed materials. Burrowers prefer sand and silt, and inhabited at the riverbed. Sprawlers prefer cobble or boulder and inhabited for velocity of 0.05-0.15 m/s. Clingers prefer pebble or cobble and inhabited for velocity of 0.06-0.15 m/s. They were found to be determined mainly by the flow velocity.

Keywords: benthic macroinvertebrates, riffles, clinger, swimmer, burrower, sprawler

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
3 Prototype Development of Knitted Buoyant Swimming Vest for Children

Authors: Nga-Wun Li, Chu-Po Ho, Kit-Lun Yick, Jin-Yun Zhou


The use of buoyant vests incorporated with swimsuits can develop children’s confidence in the water, particularly for novice swimmers. Consequently, parents intend to purchase buoyant swimming vests for the children to reduce their anxiety to water. Although the conventional buoyant swimming vests can provide the buoyant function to the wearer, their bulkiness and hardness make children feel uncomfortable and not willing to wear. This study aimed to apply inlay knitting technology to design new functional buoyant swimming vests for children. This prototype involved a shell and a buoyant knitted layer, which is the main media to provide buoyancy. Polypropylene yarn and 6.4 mm of Expandable Polyethylene (EPE) foam were fabricated in Full needle stitch with inlay knitting technology and were then linked by sewing to form the buoyant layer. The shell of the knitted buoyant vest was made of Polypropylene circular knitted fabric. The structure of knitted fabrics of the buoyant swimsuit makes them inherently stretchable, and the arrangement of the inlaid material was designed based on the body movement that can improve the ease with which the swimmer moves. Further, the shoulder seam is designed at the back to minimize the irritation of the wearer. Apart from maintaining the buoyant function to them, this prototype shows its contribution in reducing bulkiness and improving softness to the conventional buoyant swimming vest by taking the advantages of a knitted garment. The results in this study are significant to the development of the buoyant swimming vest for both the textile and the fast-growing sportswear industry.

Keywords: knitting technology, buoyancy, inlay, swimming vest, functional garment

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
2 Neonatology Clinical Routine in Cats and Dogs: Cases, Main Conditions and Mortality

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenço, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, João C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado


The neonatal care of cats and dogs represents a challenge to veterinarians due to the small size of the newborns and their physiological particularities. In addition, many Veterinary Medicine colleges around the world do not include neonatology in the curriculum, which makes it less likely for the veterinarian to have basic knowledge regarding neonatal care and worsens the clinical care these patients receive. Therefore, lack of assistance and negligence have become frequent in the field, which contributes towards the high mortality rates. This study aims at describing cases and the main conditions pertaining to the neonatology clinical routine in cats and dogs, highlighting the importance of specialized care in this field of Veterinary Medicine. The study included 808 neonates admitted to the São Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, between January 2018 and November 2019. Of these, 87.3% (705/808) were dogs and 12.7% (103/808) were cats. Among the neonates admitted, 57.3% (463/808) came from emergency c-sections due to dystocia, 8.7% (71/808) cane from vaginal deliveries with obstetric maneuvers due to dystocia, and 34% (274/808) were admitted for clinical care due to neonatal conditions. Among the neonates that came from emergency c-sections and vaginal deliveries, 47.3% (253/534) was born in respiratory distress due to severe hypoxia or persistent apnea and required resuscitation procedure, such as the Jen Chung acupuncture point (VG26), oxygen therapy with mask, pulmonary expansion with resuscitator, heart massages and administration of emergency medication, such as epinephrine. On the other hand, in the neonatal clinical care, the main conditions and alterations observed in the newborns were omphalophlebitis, toxic milk syndrome, neonatal conjunctivitis, swimmer puppy syndrome, neonatal hemorrhagic syndrome, pneumonia, trauma, low weight at birth, prematurity, congenital malformations (cleft palate, cleft lip, hydrocephaly, anasarca, vascular anomalies in the heart, anal atresia, gastroschisis, omphalocele, among others), neonatal sepsis and other local and systemic bacterial infections, viral infections (feline respiratory complex, parvovirus, canine distemper, canine infectious traqueobronchitis), parasitical infections (Toxocara spp., Ancylostoma spp., Strongyloides spp., Cystoisospora spp., Babesia spp. and Giardia spp.) and fungal infections (dermatophytosis by Microsporum canis). The most common clinical presentation observed was the neonatal triad (hypothermia, hypoglycemia and dehydration), affecting 74.6% (603/808) of the patients. The mortality rate among the neonates was 10.5% (85/808). Being knowledgeable about neonatology is essential for veterinarians to provide adequate care for these patients in the clinical routine. Adding neonatology to college curriculums, improving the dissemination of information on the subject, and providing annual training in neonatology for veterinarians and employees are important to improve immediate care and reduce the mortality rates.

Keywords: neonatal care, puppies, neonatal, conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
1 Assessment of Efficiency of Underwater Undulatory Swimming Strategies Using a Two-Dimensional CFD Method

Authors: Dorian Audot, Isobel Margaret Thompson, Dominic Hudson, Joseph Banks, Martin Warner


In competitive swimming, after dives and turns, athletes perform underwater undulatory swimming (UUS), copying marine mammals’ method of locomotion. The body, performing this wave-like motion, accelerates the fluid downstream in its vicinity, generating propulsion with minimal resistance. Through this technique, swimmers can maintain greater speeds than surface swimming and take advantage of the overspeed granted by the dive (or push-off). Almost all previous work has considered UUS when performed at maximum effort. Critical parameters to maximize UUS speed are frequently discussed; however, this does not apply to most races. In only 3 out of the 16 individual competitive swimming events are athletes likely to attempt to perform UUS with the greatest speed, without thinking of the cost of locomotion. In the other cases, athletes will want to control the speed of their underwater swimming, attempting to maximise speed whilst considering energy expenditure appropriate to the duration of the event. Hence, there is a need to understand how swimmers adapt their underwater strategies to optimize the speed within the allocated energetic cost. This paper develops a consistent methodology that enables different sets of UUS kinematics to be investigated. These may have different propulsive efficiencies and force generation mechanisms (e.g.: force distribution along with the body and force magnitude). The developed methodology, therefore, needs to: (i) provide an understanding of the UUS propulsive mechanisms at different speeds, (ii) investigate the key performance parameters when UUS is not performed solely for maximizing speed; (iii) consistently determine the propulsive efficiency of a UUS technique. The methodology is separated into two distinct parts: kinematic data acquisition and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. For the kinematic acquisition, the position of several joints along the body and their sequencing were either obtained by video digitization or by underwater motion capture (Qualisys system). During data acquisition, the swimmers were asked to perform UUS at a constant depth in a prone position (facing the bottom of the pool) at different speeds: maximum effort, 100m pace, 200m pace and 400m pace. The kinematic data were input to a CFD algorithm employing a two-dimensional Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The algorithm adopted was specifically developed in order to perform quick unsteady simulations of deforming bodies and is therefore suitable for swimmers performing UUS. Despite its approximations, the algorithm is applied such that simulations are performed with the inflow velocity updated at every time step. It also enables calculations of the resistive forces (total and applied to each segment) and the power input of the modeled swimmer. Validation of the methodology is achieved by comparing the data obtained from the computations with the original data (e.g.: sustained swimming speed). This method is applied to the different kinematic datasets and provides data on swimmers’ natural responses to pacing instructions. The results show how kinematics affect force generation mechanisms and hence how the propulsive efficiency of UUS varies for different race strategies.

Keywords: CFD, efficiency, human swimming, hydrodynamics, underwater undulatory swimming

Procedia PDF Downloads 119