Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 131

Search results for: screw

131 Application of Modal Analysis for Commissioning of a Ball Screw System

Authors: T. D. Tran, H. Schlegel, R. Neugebauer


Ball screws are an important component in machine tools. In mechatronic systems and machine tools, a ball screw has to work usually at a high speed. Otherwise the axial compliance of the ball screw, in combination with the inertia of the slide, the motor, the coupling and the screw, will cause an oscillation resonance, which limits the systems bandwidth and consequently influences performance of the motion controller. In this paper, the modal analysis method by measuring and analysing the vibrating parameters of the ball screw system to determine the dynamic characteristic of existing structures is used. On the one hand, the results of this study were obtained by the theoretical analysis and the modal testing of a ball screw system test station with the help of an impact hammer, respectively using excitation by motor. The experimental study showed oscillating forms of the ball screw for each frequency and obtained eigenfrequencies of the ball screw system. On the other hand, in this research a simulation with the help of the numerical modal analysis in order to analyse the oscillation and to find the eigenfrequencies of the ball screw system is used. Furthermore, the model order reduction by modal reduction and also according to Guyan is carried out. On the basis of these results a secure and also rapid commissioning of the control loops with regard to operating in their optimal function is targeted.

Keywords: modal analysis, ball screw, controller system, machine tools

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
130 The Effect of Screw Parameters on Pullout Strength of Screw Fixation in Cervical Spine

Authors: S. Ritddech, P. Aroonjarattham, K. Aroonjarattham


The pullout strength had an effect on the stability of plate screw fixation when inserted in the cervical spine. Nine different titanium alloy bone screws were used to test the pullout strength through finite element analysis. The result showed that the Moss Miami I can bear the highest pullout force at 1,075 N, which causes the maximum von Mises stress at 858.87 MPa, a value over the yield strength of titanium. The bone screw should have large outer diameter, core diameter and proximal root radius to increase the pullout strength.

Keywords: pullout strength, screw parameter, cervical spine, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
129 Investigation of the Multiaxial Pedicle Screw Tulip Design Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: S. Daqiqeh Rezaei, S. Mohajerzadeh, M. R. Sharifi


Pedicle screws are used to stabilize vertebrae and treat several types of spinal diseases and injuries. Multiaxial pedicle screws are a type of pedicle screw that increase surgical versatility, but they also increase design complexity. Failure of multiaxial pedicle screws caused by static loading, dynamic loading and fatigue can lead to irreparable damage to the patient. Inappropriate deformation of the multiaxial pedicle screw tulip can cause system failure. Investigation of deformation and stress in these tulips can be employed to optimize multiaxial pedicle screw design. The sensitivity of this matter necessitates precise analyzing and modeling of pedicle screws. In this work, three commercial multiaxial pedicle screw tulips and a newly designed tulip are investigated using finite element analysis. Employing video measuring machine (VMM), tulips are modeled. Afterwards, utilizing ANSYS, static analysis is performed on these models. In the end, stresses and displacements of the models are compared.

Keywords: pedicle screw, multiaxial pedicle screw, finite element analysis, static analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
128 Temperature Distribution Enhancement in a Conical Diffuser Fitted with Helical Screw-Tape with and without Center-Rod

Authors: Ehan Sabah Shukri, Wirachman Wisnoe


Temperature distribution investigation in a conical diffuser fitted with helical screw-tape with and without center-rod is studied numerically. A helical screw-tape is inserted in the diffuser to create swirl flow that helps to enhance the temperature distribution rate with inlet Reynolds number 4.3 x 104. Three pitch lengths ratios (Y/L = 0.153, 0.23 and 0.307) for the helical screw-tape with and without center-rod are simulated and compared. The geometry of the conical diffuser and the inlet condition for both arrangements are kept constant. Numerical findings show that the helical screw-tape inserts without center-rod perform significantly better than the helical tape inserts with center-rod in the conical diffuser.

Keywords: diffuser, temperature distribution, CFD, pitch ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
127 Wind Fragility for Honeycomb Roof Cladding Panels Using Screw Pull-Out Capacity

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, Woo Young Jung


The failure of roof cladding mostly occurs due to the failing of the connection between claddings and purlins, which is the pull-out of the screw connecting the two parts when the pull-out load, i.e. typhoon, is higher than the resistance of the connection screw. As typhoon disasters in Korea are constantly on the rise, probability risk assessment (PRA) has become a vital tool to evaluate the performance of civil structures. In this study, we attempted to determine the fragility of roof cladding with the screw connection. Experimental study was performed to evaluate the pull-out resistance of screw joints between honeycomb panels and back frames. Subsequently, by means of Monte Carlo Simulation method, probability of failure for these types of roof cladding was determined. The results that the failure of roof cladding was depends on their location on the roof, for example, the edge most panel has the highest probability of failure.

Keywords: Monte Carlo Simulation, roof cladding, screw pull-out strength, wind fragility

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
126 Development of a Finite Element Model of the Upper Cervical Spine to Evaluate the Atlantoaxial Fixation Techniques

Authors: Iman Zafarparandeh, Muzammil Mumtaz, Paniz Taherzadeh, Deniz Erbulut


The instability in the atlantoaxial joint may occur due to cervical surgery, congenital anomalies, and trauma. There are different types of fixation techniques proposed for restoring the stability and preventing harmful neurological deterioration. Application of the screw constructs has become a popular alternative to the older techniques for stabilizing the joint. The main difference between the various screw constructs is the type of the screw which can be lateral mass screw, pedicle screw, transarticular screw, and translaminar screw. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of three popular screw constructs fixation techniques on the biomechanics of the atlantoaxial joint using the finite element (FE) method. A three-dimensional FE model of the upper cervical spine including the skull, C1 and C2 vertebrae, and groups of the existing ligaments were developed. The accurate geometry of the model was obtained from the CT data of a 35-year old male. Three screw constructs were designed to compare; Magerl transarticular screw (TA-Screw), Goel-Harms lateral mass screw and pedicle screw (LM-Screw and Pedicle-Screw), and Wright lateral mass screw and translaminar screw (LM-Screw and TL-Screw). Pure moments were applied to the model in the three main planes; flexion (Flex), extension (Ext), axial rotation (AR) and lateral bending (LB). The range of motion (ROM) of C0-C1 and C1-C2 segments for the implanted FE models are compared to the intact FE model and the in vitro study of Panjabi (1988). The Magerl technique showed less effect on the ROM of C0-C1 than the other two techniques in sagittal plane. In lateral bending and axial rotation, the Goel-Harms and Wright techniques showed less effect on the ROM of C0-C1 than the Magerl technique. The Magerl technique has the highest fusion rate as 99% in all loading directions for the C1-C2 segment. The Wright technique has the lowest fusion rate in LB as 79%. The three techniques resulted in the same fusion rate in extension loading as 99%. The maximum stress for the Magerl technique is the lowest in all load direction compared to other two techniques. The maximum stress in all direction was 234 Mpa and occurred in flexion with the Wright technique. The maximum stress for the Goel-Harms and Wright techniques occurred in lateral mass screw. The ROM obtained from the FE results support this idea that the fusion rate of the Magerl is more than 99%. Moreover, the maximum stress occurred in each screw constructs proves the less failure possibility for the Magerl technique. Another advantage of the Magerl technique is the less number of components compared to other techniques using screw constructs. Despite the benefits of the Magerl technique, there are drawbacks to using this method such as reduction of the C1 and C2 before screw placement. Therefore, other fixation methods such as Goel-Harms and Wright techniques find the solution for the drawbacks of the Magerl technique by adding screws separately to C1 and C2. The FE model implanted with the Wright technique showed the highest maximum stress almost in all load direction.

Keywords: cervical spine, finite element model, atlantoaxial, fixation technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
125 Reverse Twin Block with Expansion Screw for Treatment of Skeletal Class III Malocclusion in Growing Patient: Case Report

Authors: Alfrina Marwan, Erna Sulistyawati


Class III malocclusion shows both skeletal and dentoalveolar component. Sketal Class III malocclusion can have variants in different region, maxilla or mandibular. Skeletal Class III malocclusion during growth period is considered to treat to prevent its severity in adulthood. Orthopedics treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion in growing patient can be treated by using reverse twin block with expansion screw to modify the growth pattern. The objective of this case report was to describe the functional correction of skeletal Class III maloclussion using reverse twin block with expansion screw in growing patient. A patient with concave profile came with a chief complaint of aesthetic problems. The cephalometric analysis showed that patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion (ANB -50, SNA 75º, Wits appraisal -3 mm) with anterior cross bite and deep bite (overjet -3 mm, overbite 6 mm). In this case report, the patient was treated with reverse twin block appliance with expansion screw. After three months of treatment, the skeletal problems have been corrected (ANB -1°), overjet, overbite and aesthetic were improved. Reverse twin block appliance with expansion screw can be used as orthopedics treatment for skeletal Class III malocclusion in growing patient and can improve the aesthetic with great satisfaction which was the main complaint in this patient.

Keywords: maxilla retrognatism, reverse twin block, skeletal class III malocclusion, growing patient

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
124 Determination of Failure Modes of Screwed Connections in Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Authors: Mahyar Maali, Merve Sagiroglu


Steel, which is one of the base materials we prefer in the building construction, is the material with the highest ratio to weight of carrying capacity. Due to the carrying capacity, lighter and better quality steel in smaller sections and sizes has recently been used as a frame system in cold-formed steel structures. While light steel elements used as secondary frame elements during the past, they have nowadays started to be preferred as the main frame in low/middle story buildings and detached houses with advantages such as quick and easy installation, time-saving, and small amount of scrap. It is also economically ideal because the weight of structure is lighter than other steel profiles. Structural performances and failure modes of cold-formed structures are different from conventional ones due to their thin-walled structures. One of the most important elements of light steel structures to ensure stability is the connection. The screwed connections, which have self-drilling properties with special drilling tools, are widely used in the installation of cold-formed profiles. The length of the screw is selected according to the total thickness of the elements after the screw thickness is determined according to the elements of connections. The thickness of the material depends on the length of the drilling portion at the end of the screw. The shear tests of plates connected with self-drilling screws are carried out depending on the screw length, and their failure modes were evaluated in this study.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, screwed connection, connection, screw length

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
123 The Effect of Extrusion Processing on Solubility and Molecular Weight of Water-Soluble Arabinoxylan

Authors: Abdulmannan Fadel


Arabinoxylan is a non-starch polysaccharide (NSP), which is one of the most important polysaccharides contained within cereal grains. Wheat endosperm pentosan and rice bran contain a significant amount of arabinoxylan (7% in rice bran and 10-12% in wheat endosperm pentosan). Several methods have been used for arabinoxylan extraction with varying degrees of success e.g. enzymatic and alkaline treatment. Yet, the use of extrusion alone as a pre-treatment to increase the yield and reduce the molecular weight in wheat endosperm pentosan and rice bran has not been investigated. The samples (wheat pentosan and rice bran) were extruded using a Twin-screw extruder at a range of screw speeds (80 and 160 rpm) and barrel temperatures range (80 to 140°C) with a throughput of 30 Kg hr-1 and moisture content of 25%. Arabinoxylans were extracted with water and the extraction yield and molecular weight was determined using size exclusion high-pressure liquid chromatography system. It was found that increasing screw speed from 80 rpm to 160 rpm, did not effect the extraction yield (p < 0.05) of arabinoxylan from either the wheat endosperm pentosan or the rice bran. However, the molecular weight of the extracted arabinoxylans from pentosan was found to decrease with increasing screw speed in wheat endosperm pentosan. These low molecular weight arabinoxylans have been suggested as immunomodulators.

Keywords: arabinoxylans, extrusion, wheat endosperm pentosan, rice bran

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
122 Vertical Uplift Capacity of a Group of Equally Spaced Helical Screw Anchors in Sand

Authors: Sanjeev Mukherjee, Satyendra Mittal


This paper presents the experimental investigations on the behaviour of a group of single, double and triple helical screw anchors embedded vertically at the same level in sand. The tests were carried out on one, two, three and four numbers of anchors in sand for different depths of embedment keeping shallow and deep mode of behaviour in mind. The testing program included 48 tests conducted on three model anchors installed in sand whose density kept constant throughout the tests. It was observed that the ultimate pullout load varied significantly with the installation depth of the anchor and the number of anchors. The apparent coefficient of friction (f*) between anchor and soil was also calculated based on the test results. It was found that the apparent coefficient of friction varies between 1.02 and 4.76 for 1, 2, 3, and 4 numbers of single, double and triple helical screw anchors. Plate load tests conducted on model soil showed that the value of ф increases from 35o for virgin soil to 48o for soil with four double screw helical anchors. The graphs of ultimate pullout capacity of a group of two, three and four no. of anchors with respect to one anchor were plotted and design equations have been proposed correlating them. Based on these findings, it has been concluded that the load-displacement relationships for all groups can be reduced to a common curve. A 3-D finite element model, PLAXIS, was used to confirm the results obtained from laboratory tests and the agreement is excellent.

Keywords: apparent coefficient of friction, helical screw anchor, installation depth, plate load test

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
121 Investigation on the Effect of Sugarcane Bagasse/HDPE Composition on the Screw Withdrawal Resistance of Injection Molded Parts

Authors: Seyed Abdol Mohammad Rezavand, Mohammad Nikbakhsh


Withdrawal resistance of screws driven into HDPE/Sugarcane Bagasse injection molded parts was investigated. After chemical treatment and drying, SCB was pre-mixed with HDPE using twin extruder. The resulting granules are used in producing samples in injection molding machine. SCB with the quantity of %10, %20, and %30 was used. By using a suitable fixture, screw heads can take with tensile test machine grips. Parts with screws in the center and edge were fasten together. Then, withdrawal resistance was measured with tensile test machine. Injection gate is at the one edge of the part. The results show that by increasing SCB content in composite, the withdrawal resistance is decreased. Furthermore, the withdrawal resistance at the edges (near injection gate and the end of the filling path of mold cavity) is more than that of the center.

Keywords: polyethylene, sugarcane bagasse, wood plastic, screw, withdrawal resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
120 Semi-Autonomous Surgical Robot for Pedicle Screw Insertion on ex vivo Bovine Bone: Improved Workflow and Real-Time Process Monitoring

Authors: Robnier Reyes, Andrew J. P. Marques, Joel Ramjist, Chris R. Pasarikovski, Victor X. D. Yang


Over the past three decades, surgical robotic systems have demonstrated their ability to improve surgical outcomes. The LBR Med is a collaborative robotic arm that is meant to work with a surgeon to streamline surgical workflow. It has 7 degrees of freedom and thus can be easily oriented. Position and torque sensors at each joint allow it to maintain a position accuracy of 150 µm with real-time force and torque feedback, making it ideal for complex surgical procedures. Spinal fusion procedures involve the placement of as many as 20 pedicle screws, requiring a great deal of accuracy due to proximity to the spinal canal and surrounding vessels. Any deviation from intended path can lead to major surgical complications. Assistive surgical robotic systems are meant to serve as collaborative devices easing the workload of the surgeon, thereby improving pedicle screw placement by mitigating fatigue related inaccuracies. Moreover, robotic spinal systems have shown marked improvements over conventional freehanded techniques in both screw placement accuracy and fusion quality and have greatly reduced the need for screw revision, intraoperatively and post-operatively. However, current assistive spinal fusion robots, such as the ROSA Spine, are limited in functionality to positioning surgical instruments. While they offer a small degree of improvement in pedicle screw placement accuracy, they do not alleviate surgeon fatigue, nor do they provide real-time force and torque feedback during screw insertion. We propose a semi-autonomous surgical robot workflow for spinal fusion where the surgeon guides the robot to its initial position and orientation, and the robot drives the pedicle screw accurately into the vertebra. Here, we demonstrate feasibility by inserting pedicle screws into ex-vivo bovine rib bone. The robot monitors position, force and torque with respect to predefined values selected by the surgeon to ensure the highest possible spinal fusion quality. The workflow alleviates the strain on the surgeon by having the robot perform the screw placement while the ability to monitor the process in real-time keeps the surgeon in the system loop. The approach we have taken in terms of level autonomy for the robot reflects its ability to safely collaborate with the surgeon in the operating room without external navigation systems.

Keywords: ex vivo bovine bone, pedicle screw, surgical robot, surgical workflow

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
119 The Capacity of Bolted and Screw Connections in Cold-Formed Steel Truss Structure through Analytical and Experimental Method

Authors: Slamet Setioboro, Rahutami Kusumaningsih, Prabowo Setiyawan, Danna Darmayadi


Designing of cold-formed steel capacity connections often based on the formula used for hot rolled steel. It makes the result of the actual capacity connection doesn’t accurate anymore. When the hot rolled steel receives the axial load pull, it will have different characteristics. As the result, there will be failure result when designing Truss structure made of hot rolled steel. This research aims to determine the capacity of actual cold-formed steel connections section which is loaded by the axial tensile force. It will test the appeal of the connection using bolt grafting tool and screw grafting tool. The variations of the test will be on the type of connection (single and double slap), the number of the connection tools and connection configuration. Bold and screw connections failure mode observed in this research are different each other. Failure mode of bolted connections includes sliding pivot plate, tearing at the plate and cutting of the bolt head. While the failure mode of screw connections includes tilting, hole-bearing, pull over and cutting the screw body out. This research was conducted using a laboratory test of HW2-600S Universal Testing Machine model with ASTM E8. It has done in the materials testing laboratory of Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering UNNES. The results obtained through the laboratory diversification towards theoretical calculations using the standards specified in ISO 7971-2013 Cold-Rolled Steel Structures. Based on the research, it can be concluded that the effective connection in receiving force strength is bolted connections neither single nor double plate. The method used is by applying 4 bolts through 2 parallel lines configuration. Furthermore, this connection deals with the consequences of holding the highest Pmaks, lowest failure risk and getting a little kind of mode of failure.

Keywords: axial load, cold-formed steel, capacity connections, bolted connections, screw connections

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
118 Process Optimization of Mechanochemical Synthesis for the Production of 4,4 Bipyridine Based MOFS using Twin Screw Extrusion and Multivariate Analysis

Authors: Ahmed Metawea, Rodrigo Soto, Majeida Kharejesh, Gavin Walker, Ahmad B. Albadarin


In this study, towards a green approach, we have investigated the effect of operating conditions of solvent assessed twin-screw extruder (TSE) for the production of 4, 4-bipyridine (1-dimensional coordinated polymer (1D)) based coordinated polymer using cobalt nitrate as a metal precursor with molar ratio 1:1. Different operating parameters such as solvent percentage, screw speed and feeding rate are considered. The resultant product is characterized using offline characterization methods, namely Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to investigate the product purity and surface morphology. A lower feeding rate increased the product’s quality as more resident time was provided for the reaction to take place. The most important influencing factor was the amount of liquid added. The addition of water helped in facilitating the reaction inside the TSE by increasing the surface area of the reaction for particles

Keywords: MOFS, multivariate analysis, process optimization, chemometric

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
117 Valorization of Sargassum: Use of Twin-Screw Extrusion to Produce Biomolecules and Biomaterials

Authors: Bauta J., Raynaud C., Vaca-Medina G., Simon V., Roully A., Vandenbossche V.


Sargassum is a brown algae, originally found in the Sargasso Sea, located in the Caribbean region and the Gulf of Mexico. The flow of Sargassum is becoming a critical environmental problem all over the Caribbean islands particularly. In Guadeloupe alone, around 80,000 tons of seaweed are stranded during the season. Since the appearance of the first waves of Sargassum algae, several measures have been taken to collect them to keep the beaches clean. Nevertheless, 90% of the collected algae are currently stored without recovery. The lack of research initiative demands a more in-depth exploration of Sargassum algae chemistry, targeted towards added value applications and their development. In this context, the aim of the study was to develop a biorefinery process to valorize Sargassum as a source of bioactive natural substances and as raw material to produce biomaterials simultaneously. The technology used was the twin-screw extrusion, which allows to achieve continuously in the same machine different unit fractionation operations. After the identification of the molecules of interest in Sargassum algae, different operating conditions of thermo-mechanical treatment were applied in a twin-screw extruder. The nature of the solvent, the configuration of the extruder, the screw profile, and the temperature profile were studied in order to fractionate the algal biomass and to allow the recovery of a bioactive liquid fraction of interest and a solid residue suitable for the production of biomaterials. Each bioactive liquid fraction was characterized and strategic ways of adding value were proposed. In parallel, the possibility of using the solid residue to produce biomaterials was studied by setting up Dynamic Vapour Sorption (DVS) and basic Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) analyses. The solid residue was molded by compression cooking. The obtained materials were finally characterized mechanically. The results obtained were very comforting and gave some perspectives to find an interesting valorization for the Sargassum algae.

Keywords: seaweeds, twin-screw extrusion, fractionation, bioactive compounds, biomaterials, biomass

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116 A Review on Development of Pedicle Screws and Characterization of Biomaterials for Fixation in Lumbar Spine

Authors: Shri Dubey, Jamal Ghorieshi


Instability of the lumbar spine is caused by various factors that include degenerative disc, herniated disc, traumatic injuries, and other disorders. Pedicle screws are widely used as a main fixation device to construct rigid linkages of vertebrae to provide a fully functional and stable spine. Various technologies and methods have been used to restore the stabilization. However, loosening of pedicle screws is the main cause of concerns for neurosurgeons. This could happen due to poor bone quality with osteoporosis as well as types of pedicle screw used. Compatibilities and stabilities of pedicle screws with bone depend on design (thread design, length, and diameter) and material. Grip length and pullout strength affect the motion and stability of the spine when it goes through different phases such as extension, flexion, and rotation. Pullout strength of augmented pedicle screws is increased in both primary and salvage procedures by 119% (p = 0.001) and 162% (p = 0.01), respectively. Self-centering pedicle screws at different trajectories (0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°) show the same pullout strength as insertion in a straight-ahead trajectory. The outer cylindrical and inner conical shape of pedicle screws show the highest pullout strength in Grades 5 and 15 foams (synthetic bone). An outer cylindrical and inner conical shape with a V-shape thread exhibit the highest pullout strength in all foam grades. The maximum observed pullout strength is at axial pullout configuration at 0°. For Grade 15 (240 kg/m³) foam, there is a decline in pull out strength. The largest decrease in pullout strength is reported for Grade 10 (160 kg/m³) foam. The maximum pullout strength of 2176 N (0.32-g/cm³ Sawbones) on all densities. Type 1 Pedicle screw shows the best fixation due to smaller conical core diameter and smaller thread pitch (Screw 2 with 2 mm; Screws 1 and 3 with 3 mm).

Keywords: polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA, classical pedicle screws, CPS, expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell, EPEEKS, includes translaminar facet screw, TLFS, poly-ether-ether-ketone, PEEK, transfacetopedicular screw, TFPS

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
115 3-D Numerical Simulation of Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger with Helical Screw

Authors: Rabeb Triki, Hassene Djemel, Mounir Baccar


Surface scraping is a passive heat transfer enhancement technique that is directly used in scraped surface heat exchanger (SSHE). The scraping action prevents the accumulation of the product on the inner wall, which intensifies the heat transfer and avoids the formation of dead zones. SSHEs are widely used in industry for several applications such as crystallization, sterilization, freezing, gelatinization, and many other continuous processes. They are designed to deal with products that are viscous, sticky or that contain particulate matter. This research work presents a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the coupled thermal and hydrodynamic behavior within a SSHE which includes Archimedes’ screw instead of scraper blades. The finite volume Fluent 15.0 was used to solve continuity, momentum and energy equations using multiple reference frame formulation. The process fluid investigated under this study is the pure glycerin. Different geometrical parameters were studied in the case of steady, non-isothermal, laminar flow. In particular, attention is focused on the effect of the conicity of the rotor and the pitch of Archimedes’ screw on temperature and velocity distribution and heat transfer rate. Numerical investigations show that the increase of the number of turns in the screw from five to seven turns leads to amelioration of heat transfer coefficient, and the increase of the conicity of the rotor from 0.1 to 0.15 leads to an increase in the rate of heat transfer. Further studies should investigate the effect of different operating parameters (axial and rotational Reynolds number) on the hydrodynamic and thermal behavior of the SSHE.

Keywords: ANSYS-Fluent, hydrodynamic behavior, scraped surface heat exchange, thermal behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
114 Effectiveness Evaluation of a Machine Design Process Based on the Computation of the Specific Output

Authors: Barenten Suciu


In this paper, effectiveness of a machine design process is evaluated on the basis of the specific output calculus. Concretely, a screw-worm gear mechanical transmission is designed by using the classical and the 3D-CAD methods. Strength analysis and drawing of the designed parts is substantially aided by employing the SolidWorks software. Quality of the design process is assessed by manufacturing (printing) the parts, and by computing the efficiency, specific load, as well as the specific output (work) of the mechanical transmission. Influence of the stroke, travelling velocity and load on the mechanical output, is emphasized. Optimal design of the mechanical transmission becomes possible by the appropriate usage of the acquired results.

Keywords: mechanical transmission, design, screw, worm-gear, efficiency, specific output, 3D-printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
113 Preparation of Corn Flour Based Extruded Product and Evaluate Its Physical Characteristics

Authors: C. S. Saini


The composite flour blend consisting of corn, pearl millet, black gram and wheat bran in the ratio of 80:5:10:5 was taken to prepare the extruded product and their effect on physical properties of extrudate was studied. The extrusion process was conducted in laboratory by using twin screw extruder. The physical characteristics evaluated include lateral expansion, bulk density, water absorption index, water solubility index, rehydration ratio and moisture retention. The Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was used to decide the level of processing variables i.e. feed moisture content (%), screw speed (rpm), and barrel temperature (oC) for the experiment. The data obtained after extrusion process were analyzed by using response surface methodology. A second order polynomial model for the dependent variables was established to fit the experimental data. The numerical optimization studies resulted in 127°C of barrel temperature, 246 rpm of screw speed, and 14.5% of feed moisture as optimum variables to produce acceptable extruded product. The responses predicted by the software for the optimum process condition resulted in lateral expansion 126 %, bulk density 0.28 g/cm3, water absorption index 4.10 g/g, water solubility index 39.90 %, rehydration ratio 544 % and moisture retention 11.90 % with 75 % desirability.

Keywords: black gram, corn flour, extrusion, physical characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
112 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation Approach for Developing New Powder Dispensing Device

Authors: Revanth Rallapalli


Manually dispensing solids and powders can be difficult as it requires gradually pour and check the amount on the scale to be dispensed. Current systems are manual and non-continuous in nature and are user-dependent and difficult to control powder dispensation. Recurrent dosing of powdered medicines in precise amounts quickly and accurately has been an all-time challenge. Various new powder dispensing mechanisms are being designed to overcome these challenges. A battery-operated screw conveyor mechanism is being innovated to overcome the above problems faced. These inventions are numerically evaluated at the concept development level by employing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) of gas-solids multiphase flow systems. CFD has been very helpful in development of such devices saving time and money by reducing the number of prototypes and testing. Furthermore, this paper describes a simulation of powder dispensation from the trocar’s end by considering the powder as secondary flow in air, is simulated by using the technique called Dense Discrete Phase Model incorporated with Kinetic Theory of Granular Flow (DDPM-KTGF). By considering the volume fraction of powder as 50%, the transportation of powder from the inlet side to trocar’s end side is done by rotation of the screw conveyor. Thus, the performance is calculated for a 1-sec time frame in an unsteady computation manner. This methodology will help designers in developing design concepts to improve the dispensation and also at the effective area within a quick turnaround time frame.

Keywords: DDPM-KTGF, gas-solids multiphase flow, screw conveyor, Unsteady

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
111 CFD Simulation Approach for Developing New Powder Dispensing Device

Authors: Revanth Rallapalli


Manually dispensing powders can be difficult as it requires gradually pouring and checking the amount on the scale to be dispensed. Current systems are manual and non-continuous in nature and are user-dependent and difficult to control powder dispensation. Recurrent dosing of powdered medicines in precise amounts quickly and accurately has been an all-time challenge. Various new powder dispensing mechanisms are being designed to overcome these challenges. A battery-operated screw conveyor mechanism is being innovated to overcome the above problems faced. These inventions are numerically evaluated at the concept development level by employing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) of gas-solids multiphase flow systems. CFD has been very helpful in the development of such devices saving time and money by reducing the number of prototypes and testing. This paper describes a simulation of powder dispensation from the trocar’s end by considering the powder as secondary flow in the air, is simulated by using the technique called Dense Discrete Phase Model incorporated with Kinetic Theory of Granular Flow (DDPM-KTGF). By considering the volume fraction of powder as 50%, the transportation of powder from the inlet side to the trocar’s end side is done by rotation of the screw conveyor. The performance is calculated for a 1-sec time frame in an unsteady computation manner. This methodology will help designers in developing design concepts to improve the dispensation and the effective area within a quick turnaround time frame.

Keywords: multiphase flow, screw conveyor, transient, dense discrete phase model (DDPM), kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF)

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
110 Development of Extruded Prawn Snack Using Prawn Flavor Powder from Prawn Head Waste

Authors: S. K. Sharma, P. Kumar, Pratibha Singh


Consumption of SNACK is growing its popularity every day in India and a broad range of these items are available in the market. The end user interest in ready-to-eat snack foods is constantly growing mainly due to their ease, ample accessibility, appearance, taste and texture. Food extrusion has been practiced for over fifty years. Its role was initially limited to mixing and forming cereal products. Although thermoplastic extrusion has been successful for starch products, extrusion of proteins has achieved only limited success. In this study, value-added extruded prawn product was prepared with prawn flavor powder and corn flour using a twin-screw extruder. Prawn flavor concentrates prepared from fresh prawn head (Solenocera indica). To prepare flavor concentrate prawn head washed with potable water and blended with 200ml 3% salt solution per 250gm head weight to make the slurry, which was further put in muslin cloth and boiled with salt and starch solution for 10 minutes, cooled to room temperature and filtered, starch added to the filtrate and made into powder in an electrically drier at 43-450c. The mixture was passed through the twin-screw extruder (co-rotating twin screw extruder - basic technology Pvt. Ltd., Kolkata) which was operated at a particular speed of rotation, die diameter, temperature, moisture, and fish powder concentration. Many trial runs were conducted to set up the process variables. The different extrudes produced after each trail were examined for the quality and characteristics. The effect of temperature, moisture, screw speed, protein, fat, ash and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) number and expansion ratio were studied. In all the four trials, moisture, temperature, speed and die diameter used was 20%, 100°C, 350 rpm and 4 mm, respectively. The ratio of prawn powder and cornstarch used in different trials ranged between 2:98 and 10:90. The storage characteristics of the final product were studied using three different types of packaging under nitrogen flushing, i.e. a- 12-pm polyester, 12-pm metalized polyester, 60-11m polyethylene (metalized polyester a), b- 12-11m metalized polyester, 37.5-11m polyethylene (metalized polyester b), c- 12-11m polyethylene, 9-11m aluminium foil, 37.5-11m polyethylene (aluminium foil). The organoleptic analysis was carried out on a 9-point hedonic scale. The study revealed that the fried product packed in aluminum foil under nitrogen flushing would remain acceptable for more than three months.

Keywords: extruded product, prawn flavor, twin-screw extruder, storage characteristics

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109 The Experimental Study of Cold-Formed Steel Truss Connections Capacity: Screw and Adhesive Connection

Authors: Indra Komara, Kıvanç Taşkin, Endah Wahyuni, Priyo Suprobo


A series of connection tests that were composed of Cold-Formed Steel (CFS) sections were made to investigate the capacity of connections in a roof truss frame. The connection is controlled by using the two-different type of connection i.e. screws connection and adhesive. The variation of screws is also added applying 1 screw, 2 screws, and 3 screws. On the other hand, the percentage of adhesively material is increased by the total area of screws connection which is 50%, 75%, and 100%. Behaviors illustrated by each connection are examined, and the design capacities projected from the current CFS design codes are appealed to the experimental results of the connections. This research analyses the principal factors assisting in the ductile response of the CFS truss frame connection measured to propose recommendations for connection design, and novelty so that the connection respond plastically with a significant capacity for no brittle failure. Furthermore, the comparison connection was considered for the analysis of the connection capacity, which was estimated from the specimen’s maximum load capacity and the load-deformation behavior.

Keywords: adhesive, bolts, capacity, cold-formed steel, connections, truss

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108 Preparation of Water Hyacinth and Oil Palm Fiber for Plastic Waste Composite

Authors: Pattamaphorn Phuangngamphan, Rewadee Anuwattana, Narumon Soparatana, Nestchanok Yongpraderm, Atiporn Jinpayoon, Supinya Sutthima, Saroj Klangkongsub, Worapong Pattayawan


This research aims to utilize the agricultural waste and plastic waste in Thailand in a study of the optimum conditions for preparing composite materials from water hyacinth and oil palm fiber and plastic waste in landfills. The water hyacinth and oil palm fiber were prepared by alkaline treatment with NaOH (5, 15 wt%) at 25-60 °C for 1 h. The treated fiber (5 and 10 phr) was applied to plastic waste composite. The composite was prepared by using a screw extrusion process from 185 °C to 200 °C with a screw speed of 60 rpm. The result confirmed that alkaline treatment can remove lignin, hemicellulose and other impurities on the fiber surface and also increase the cellulose content. The optimum condition of composite material is 10 phr of fiber coupling with 3 wt% PE-g-MA as compatibilizer. The composite of plastic waste and oil palm fiber has good adhesion between fiber and plastic matrix. The PE-g-MA has improved fiber-plastic interaction. The results suggested that the composite material from plastic waste and agricultural waste has the potential to be used as value-added products.

Keywords: agricultural waste, waste utilization, biomaterials, cellulose fiber, composite material

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107 Comparison of the Effects of Rod Types of Rigid Fixation Devices on the Loads in the Lumbar Spine: A Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Bokku Kang, Changsoo Chon, Han Sung Kim


We developed new design of rod of pedicle screw system that is beneficial in maintaining the spacing between the vertebrae and assessed the performance of the posterior fixation screw systems by numerical analysis according to the range of motion (flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation) of the vertebral column after inserting the pedicle screws. The simulation results showed that the conventional rod was the most low equivalent stress value among implant units in the case of flexion, extension and lateral bending of the vertebrae. In all cases except the torsional rotation, the results showed that the stress level of the single and double rounded rod exceeded about 30% to 70% compare to the conventional rod. Therefore, this product is not suitable for actual application in the field yet and it seems that product design optimization is necessary. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE), Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology (KIAT) through the Encouragement Program for The Industries of Economic Cooperation Region.

Keywords: lumber spine, internal fixation device, finite element method, biomechanics

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106 Synthesis and Characterisation of Different Blends of Virgin Polyethylene Modified by Naturel Fibres Alfa

Authors: Benalia Kouini


The basic idea of this study is to promote a polyethylene recycle and local vegetable fiber (alfa) in the development and characterization of a new composite material. In this work, different sizes of fiber alfa (<63 microns, between 63 and 125 microns, 125 and 250 microns) were incorporated into the blends (HDPE / recycled HDPE) with different methods elaboration (extruder twin-screw and twin-cylinder mixer). The fiber was modified by sodium hydroxide in order to evaluate the effect of alkaline treatment on the interfacial adhesion and therefore the properties of composites prepared. These were characterized by various techniques: mechanical (tensile and Charpy impact test), Rheological (melt flow), morphological (SEM). The demonstration of the effect of alkali treatment on alfa fiber was examined by FTIR spectroscopy and morphological analysis. The introduction of alfa treated fiber in the (HDPE/recycled HDPE) increased stress, impact strength and Young's modulus on the contrary, the elongation at break decreased. The results of the mechanical properties showed an improvement is better in extrusion twin-screw mixer than two cylinders.

Keywords: naturel fiber, alfa, recycling, blends, polyethylene

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105 Attitudes Towards the Supernatural in Benjamin Britten’s The Turn of the Screw

Authors: Yaou Zhang


Background: Relatively little scholarly attention has been paid to the production of Benjamin Britten’s chamber opera The Turn of the Screw. As one of Britten’s most remarkable operas. The story of the libretto was from Henry James’s novella of the same name. The novella was created in 1898 and one of the primary questions addressed to people in the story is “how real the ghosts are,” which leads the story to a huge ambiguity in readers’ minds. Aims: This research focuses on the experience of seeing the opera on stage over several decades. This study of opera productions over time not only provides insight into how stage performances can alter audience members' perceptions of the opera in the present but also reveals a landscape of shifting aesthetics and receptions. Methods: To examine the hypotheses in interpretation and reception, the qualitative analysis is used to examine the figures of ghosts in different productions across the time from 1954 to 2021 in the UK: by accessing recordings, newspapers, and reviews for the productions that are sourced from online and physical archives. For instance, the field research is conducted on the topic by arranging interviews with the creative team and visiting Opera North in Leeds and Britten-Pears Foundation. The collected data reveals the “hidden identity” in creative teams’ interpretations, social preferences, and rediscover that have previously remained unseen. Results: This research presents an angle of Britten’s Screw by using the third position; it shows how the attention moved from the stage of “do the ghosts really exist” to “traumatised children.” Discussion: Critics and audiences have debated whether the governess hallucinates the ghosts in the opera for decades. While, in recent years, directors of new productions have given themselves the opportunity to go deeper into Britten's musical structure and offer the opera more space to be interpreted, rather than debating if "ghosts actually exist" or "the psychological problems of the governess." One can consider and reflect that the questionable actions of the children are because they are suffering from trauma, whether the trauma comes from the ghosts, the hallucinating governess, or some prior experiences: various interpretations cause one result that children are the recipients of trauma. Arguably, the role of the supernatural is neither simply one of the elements of a ghost story nor simply one of the parts of the ambiguity between the supernatural and the hallucination of the governess; rather, the ghosts and the hallucinating governess can exist at the same time - the combination of the supernatural’s and the governess’s behaviours on stage generates a sharper and more serious angle that draws our attention to the traumatized children.

Keywords: benjamin britten, chamber opera, production, reception, staging, the turn of the screw

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104 Liquefaction Potential Assessment Using Screw Driving Testing and Microtremor Data: A Case Study in the Philippines

Authors: Arturo Daag


The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) is enhancing its liquefaction hazard map towards a detailed probabilistic approach using SDS and geophysical data. Target sites for liquefaction assessment are public schools in Metro Manila. Since target sites are in highly urbanized-setting, the objective of the project is to conduct both non-destructive geotechnical studies using Screw Driving Testing (SDFS) combined with geophysical data such as refraction microtremor array (ReMi), 3 component microtremor Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), and ground penetrating RADAR (GPR). Initial test data was conducted in liquefaction impacted areas from the Mw 6.1 earthquake in Central Luzon last April 22, 2019 Province of Pampanga. Numerous accounts of liquefaction events were documented areas underlain by quaternary alluvium and mostly covered by recent lahar deposits. SDS estimated values showed a good correlation to actual SPT values obtained from available borehole data. Thus, confirming that SDS can be an alternative tool for liquefaction assessment and more efficient in terms of cost and time compared to SPT and CPT. Conducting borehole may limit its access in highly urbanized areas. In order to extend or extrapolate the SPT borehole data, non-destructive geophysical equipment was used. A 3-component microtremor obtains a subsurface velocity model in 1-D seismic shear wave velocity of the upper 30 meters of the profile (Vs30). For the ReMi, 12 geophone array with 6 to 8-meter spacing surveys were conducted. Microtremor data were computed through the Factor of Safety, which is the quotient of Cyclic Resistance Ratio (CRR) and Cyclic Stress Ratio (CSR). Complementary GPR was used to study the subsurface structure and used to inferred subsurface structures and groundwater conditions.

Keywords: screw drive testing, microtremor, ground penetrating RADAR, liquefaction

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103 Mechanism Design and Dynamic Analysis of Active Independent Front Steering System

Authors: Cheng-Chi Yu, Yu-Shiue Wang, Kei-Lin Kuo


Active Independent Front Steering system is a steering system which can according to vehicle driving situation adjusts the relation of steering angle between inner wheel and outer wheel. In low-speed cornering, AIFS sets the steering angles of inner and outer wheel into Ackerman steering geometry to make vehicle has less cornering radius. Besides, AIFS changes the steering geometry to parallel or even anti-Ackerman steering geometry to keep vehicle stability in high-speed cornering. Therefore, based on the analysis of the vehicle steering behavior from different steering geometries, this study develops a new screw type of active independent front steering system to make vehicles best cornering performance at any speeds. The screw type of active independent front steering system keeps the pinion and separates the rack into main rack and second rack. Two racks connect by a screw. Extra screw rotated motion powered by assistant motor through coupler makes second rack move relative to main rack, which can adjust both steering ratio and steering geometry. First of all, this study distinguishes the steering geometry by using Ackerman percentage and utilizes the software of ADAMS/Car to construct diverse steering geometry models. The different steering geometries are compared at low-speed and high-speed cornering, and then control strategies of the active independent front steering systems could be formulated. Secondly, this study applies closed loop equation to analyze tire steering angles and carries out optimization calculations to make the steering geometry from traditional rack and pinion steering system near to Ackerman steering geometry. Steering characteristics of the optimum steering mechanism and motion characteristics of vehicle installed the steering mechanism are verified by ADAMS/Car models of front suspension and full vehicle respectively. By adding dual auxiliary rack and dual motor to the optimum steering mechanism, the active independent front steering system could be developed to achieve the functions of variable steering ratio and variable steering geometry. At last, this study uses ADAMS/Car and Matlab/Simulink to co-simulate the cornering motion of vehicles confirms the vehicle installed the Active Independent Front Steering (AIFS) system has better handling performance than that with Active Independent Steering (AFS) system or with Electric Power Steering (EPS) system. At low-speed cornering, the vehicles with AIFS system and with AFS system have better maneuverability, less cornering radius, than the traditional vehicle with EPS system because that AIFS and AFS systems both provide function of variable steering ratio. However, there is a slight penalty in the motor(s) power consumption. In addition, because of the capability of variable steering geometry, the vehicle with AIFS system has better high-speed cornering stability, trajectory keeping, and even less motor(s) power consumption than that with EPS system and also with AFS system.

Keywords: active front steering system, active independent front steering system, steering geometry, steering ratio

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102 Effect of Rapeseed Press Cake on Extrusion System Parameters and Physical Pellet Quality of Fish Feed

Authors: Anna Martin, Raffael Osen


The demand for fish from aquaculture is constantly growing. Concurrently, due to a shortage of fishmeal caused by extensive overfishing, fishmeal substitution by plant proteins is getting increasingly important for the production of sustainable aquafeed. Several research studies evaluated the impact of plant protein meals, concentrates or isolates on fish health and fish feed quality. However, these protein raw materials often require elaborate and expensive manufacturing and their availability is limited. Rapeseed press cake (RPC) – a side product of de-oiling processes – exhibits a high potential as a plant-based fishmeal alternative in fish feed for carnivorous species due to its availability, low costs and protein content. In order to produce aquafeed with RPC, it is important to systematically assess i) inclusion levels of RPC with similar pellet qualities compared to fishmeal containing formulations and ii) how extrusion parameters can be adjusted to achieve targeted pellet qualities. However, the effect of RPC on extrusion system parameters and pellet quality has only scarcely been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of feed formulation, extruder barrel temperature (90, 100, 110 °C) and screw speed (200, 300, 400 rpm) on extrusion system parameters and the physical properties of fish feed pellets. A co-rotating pilot-scale twin screw extruder was used to produce five iso-nitrogenous feed formulations: a fish meal based reference formulation including 16 g/100g fishmeal and four formulations in which fishmeal was substituted by RPC to 25, 50, 75 or 100 %. Extrusion system parameters, being product temperature, pressure at the die, specific mechanical energy (SME) and torque, were monitored while samples were taken. After drying, pellets were analyzed regarding to optical appearance, sectional and longitudinal expansion, sinking velocity, bulk density, water stability, durability and specific hardness. In our study, the addition of minor amounts of RPC already had high impact on pellet quality parameters, especially on expansion but only marginally affected extrusion system parameters. Increasing amounts of RPC reduced sectional expansion, sinking velocity, bulk density and specific hardness and increased longitudinal expansion compared to a reference formulation without RPC. Water stability and durability were almost not affected by RPC addition. Moreover, pellets with rapeseed components showed a more coarse structure than pellets containing only fishmeal. When the adjustment of barrel temperature and screw speed was investigated, it could be seen that the increase of extruder barrel temperature led to a slight decrease of SME and die pressure and an increased sectional expansion of the reference pellets but did almost not affect rapeseed containing fish feed pellets. Also changes in screw speed had little effects on the physical properties of pellets however with raised screw speed the SME and the product temperature increased. In summary, a one-to-one substitution of fishmeal with RPC without the adjustment of extrusion process parameters does not result in fish feed of a designated quality. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of raw materials and their behavior under thermal and mechanical stresses as applied during extrusion is required.

Keywords: extrusion, fish feed, press cake, rapeseed

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