Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Tariku Nefo Duke

18 Phytochemical Investigation of Berries of the Embelia schimperi Plant

Authors: Tariku Nefo Duke

Abstract:

Embelia is a genus of climbing shrubs in the family Myrsinaceae. Embelia schimperi is as important in traditional medicine as the other species in the genus. The plant has been much known as a local medicine for the treatment of tapeworms. In this project, extraction, phytochemical screening tests, isolation, and characterization of berries of the Embelia schimperi plant have been conducted. The chemical investigations of methanol and ethyl acetate (1:1) ratio extracts of the berries lead to the isolation of three new compounds. The compounds were identified to be alkaloids coded as AD, AN, and AG. Structural elucidations of the isolated compounds were accomplished using spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR, DEPT and 2D NMR, HPLC, and LC-MS). The alkaloid coded as (AN) has a wide MIC range of 6.31-25.46 mg/mL against all tested bacteria strains.

Keywords: Embelia schimper, HPLC, alkaloids, 2D NMR, MIC

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17 Corrosion Resistance of Mild Steel Coated with Different Polyimides/h-Boron Nitride Composite Films

Authors: Tariku Nefo Duke

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Herein, we synthesized three PIs/h-boron nitride composite films for corrosion resistance of mild steel material. The structures of these three polyimide/h-boron nitride composite films were confirmed using (FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and 2D NMR) spectroscopy techniques. The synthesized PIs composite films have high mechanical properties, thermal stability, high glass-transition temperature (Tg), and insulating properties. It has been shown that the presence of electroactive TiO2, SiO2, and h-BN, in polymer coatings effectively inhibits corrosion. The h-BN displays an admirable anti-corrosion barrier for the 6F-OD and BT-OD films. PI/ h-BN composite films of 6F-OD exhibited better resistance to water vapor, high corrosion resistance, and positive corrosion voltage. Only four wt. percentage of h-BN in the composite is adequate.

Keywords: polyimide, corrosion resistance, electroactive, Tg

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16 Plackett-Burman Design for Microencapsulation of Blueberry Bioactive Compounds

Authors: Feyza Tatar, Alime Cengiz, Dilara Sandikçi, Muhammed Dervisoglu, Talip Kahyaoglu

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Blueberries are known for their bioactive properties such as high anthocyanin contents, antioxidant activities and potential health benefits. However, anthocyanins are sensitive to environmental conditions during processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of spray drying conditions on the blueberry microcapsules by Plackett-Burman experimental design. Inlet air temperature (120 and 180°C), feed pump rate (20% and 40%), DE of maltodextrin (6 and 15 DE), coating concentration (10% and 30%) and source of blueberry (Duke and Darrow) were independent variables, tested at high (+1) and low (-1) levels. Encapsulation efficiency (based on total phenol) of blueberry microcapsules was the dependent variable. In addition, anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility, water activity and bulk density were measured for blueberry powders. The antioxidant activity of blueberry powders ranged from 72 to 265 mmol Trolox/g and anthocyanin content was changed from 528 to 5500 mg GAE/100g. Encapsulation efficiency was significantly affected (p<0.05) by inlet air temperature and coating concentration. Encapsulation efficiency increased with increasing inlet air temperature and decreasing coating concentration. The highest encapsulation efficiency could be produced by spray drying at 180°C inlet air temperature, 40% pump rate, 6 DE of maltodextrin, 13% maltodextrin concentration and source of duke blueberry.

Keywords: blueberry, microencapsulation, Plackett-Burman design, spray drying

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15 Quantifying the Impacts of Elevated CO2 and N Fertilization on Wood Density in Loblolly Pine

Authors: Y. Cochet, A. Achim, Tom Flatman, J-C. Domec, J. Ogée, L. Wingate, Ram Oren

Abstract:

It is accepted that atmospheric CO2 concentration will increase in the future. For the past 30 years, researchers have used FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) facilities to study the development of terrestrial ecosystems under elevated CO2 (eCO2). Forest responses to eCO2 are likely to impact timber industries with potential feedbacks towards the atmosphere. The main objectives of this study were to examine whether eCO2 alone or in combination with N-fertilization alter wood properties and to identify changes in wood anatomy related to water transport. Wood disks were sampled at breast height from mature loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.) harvested at the Duke FACE site (NC, USA). By measuring ring width and intra-ring changes in density (X-ray densitometry) and tracheid size (lumen and cell wall thickness) from pith to bark, the following hypotheses were tested: 1) eCO2 and N-fertilization interact positively to increase significantly above-ground primary productivity; 2) eCO2 and N-fertilization lead to a decrease in density; 3) eCO2 and N-fertilization increase lumen diameter and decrease cell wall thickness, thus affecting water transport capacity. Our results revealed a boost in earlywood tracheid production induced by eCO2 lasting a few years. The following decrease seemed to be buffered by N-fertilization. X-ray profiles did not show a marked decrease in wood density under eCO2 or N-fertilization, although there were changes in cell anatomical properties such as a reduction in cell-wall thickness and an increase in lumen diameter. If such effects of eCO2 are confirmed, forest management strategies for example N-fertilization should be redesigned.

Keywords: wood density, Duke FACE (free-air carbon dioxide enrichment), N fertilization, tree ring

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14 Sociocultural and Critical Approach for Summer Study Abroad Program in Higher Education

Authors: Magda Silva

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This paper presents the empirical and the theoretical principles associated with the Duke in Brazil Summer Program. Using a sociocultural model and critical theory, this study abroad maximizes students’ ability to enrich language competence, intercultural skills, and critical thinking. The fourteen-year implementation of this project demonstrates the global importance of foreign language teaching as the program unfolds into real life scenarios within the cultures of distinct regions of Brazil; Cosmopolitan Rio, in the southeast, and rural Belém, northern Amazon region.

Keywords: study abroad, critical thinking, sociocultural theory, foreign language, empirical, theoretical

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13 Investigating the Use of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies in the Assembly Type Manufacturing Companies in Trinidad and Tobago

Authors: Nadine Sangster, Akil James, Rondell Duke, Aaron Ameerali, Terrence Lalla

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The market place of the 21st century is evolving into one of merging national markets, fragmented consumer markets, and rapidly changing product technologies. The use of new technologies has become vital to the manufacturing industry for their survival and sustainability. This work focused on the assembly type industry in a small developing country and aimed at identifying the use of advanced manufacturing technologies and their impact on this sector of the manufacturing industry. It was found that some technologies were being used and that they had improved the effectiveness of those companies but there was still quite a bit of room for improvements. Some of the recommendations included benchmarking against international standards, the adoption of a “made in TT” campaign and the effective utilisation of the technologies to improve manufacturing effectiveness and thus improve competitive advantages and strategies.

Keywords: advanced manufacturing technology, Trinidad and Tobago, manufacturing, industrial engineering

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12 Evaluation of Bioactive Phenols in Blueberries from Different Cultivars

Authors: Christophe Gonçalves, Raquel P. F. Guiné, Daniela Teixeira, Fernando J. Gonçalves

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Blueberries are widely valued for their high content in phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity, and hence beneficial for the human health. In this way, a study was done to determine the phenolic composition (total phenols, anthocyanins and tannins) and antioxidant activity of blueberries from three cultivars (Duke, Bluecrop, and Ozarblue) grown in two different Portuguese farms. Initially two successive extractions were done with methanol followed by two extractions with aqueous acetone solutions. These extracts obtained were then used to evaluate the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity. The total phenols were observed to vary from 4.9 to 8.2 mg GAE/g fresh weight, with anthocyanin’s contents in the range 1.5-2.8 mg EMv3G/g and tannins contents in the range 1.5- 3.8 mg/g. The results for antioxidant activity ranged from 9.3 to 23.2 mol TE/g, and from 24.7 to 53.4 mol TE/g, when measured, respectively, by DPPH and ABTS methods. In conclusion it was observed that, in general, the cultivar had a visible effect on the phenols present, and furthermore, the geographical origin showed relevance either in the phenols contents or the antioxidant activity.

Keywords: anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, blueberry cultivar, geographical origin, phenolic compounds

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11 "Epitaph" Charles Mingus’ Foresight of Jazz

Authors: Christel Elisabeth Bonin

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The score of the 2 ½ hour ‘magnum opus’ named ‘Epitaph’ was reconstructed 10 years after Charles Mingus’ death in 1979. Most of the movements were probably composed in the late 1950s. As the finale was missing, Gunther Schuller, the conductor of the world premiere in 1989, decided to improvise one with the orchestra, using Mingus as a guide. The aim of this paper is to analyze ‘Main Score Part I ‘ and ‘Main Score Part II’ and to look into the score of Mingus’ reconstructed compositions under particular observation of the new finale, ‘Main Score Reprise’. There, Mingus left instructions for a return to the opening section of ‘Epitaph’. By examining ‘Epitaph’ in the historical context of Jazz between 1955 to 1967 and the 1980s and comparing the finale of ‘Epitaph’, created - or better said: improvised - by the musicians of the 1989 world premiere with the opening section, at first it will be interesting to discover at which point Gunther Schuller followed Mingus creative process and brought it to life in 1989. Finally, it will be speculated if Charles Mingus composition still represents a foresight of Jazz nearly 30 years after its creation.

Keywords: epitaph, Charles Mingus, Gunter Schuller, jazz reception, bebop, hardbop, Duke Ellington, black, brown and beige, African-American music, free-jazz

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10 Impact of Belongingness, Relational Communication, Religiosity and Screen Time of College Student Levels of Anxiety

Authors: Cherri Kelly Seese, Renee Bourdeaux, Sarah Drivdahl

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Emergent adults in the United States are currently experiencing high levels of anxiety. It is imperative to uncover insulating factors which mitigate the impact of anxiety. This study aims to explore how constructs such as belongingness, relational communication, screen time and religiosity impact anxiety levels of emerging adults. Approximately 250 college students from a small, private university on the West Coast were given an online assessment that included: the General Belongingness Scale, Relational Communication Scale, Duke University Religion Index (DUREL), a survey of screen time, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. A MANOVA statistical test was conducted by assessing the effects of multiple dependent variables (scores on GBS, RCS, self-reported screen time and DUREL) on the four different levels of anxiety as measured on the BAI (minimal = 1, mild =2, moderate = 3, or severe = 4). Results indicated a significant relationship between one’s sense of belonging and one’s reported level of anxiety. These findings have implications for systems, like universities, churches, and corporations that want to improve young adults’ level of anxiety.

Keywords: anxiety, belongingness, relational communication, religiosity, screen time

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9 Prevalence of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection and Rifampicin Resistance among Presumptive Tuberculosis Cases Visiting Tuberculosis Clinic of Adare General Hospital, Southern Ethiopia

Authors: Degineh Belachew Andarge, Tariku Lambiyo Anticho, Getamesay Mulatu Jara, Musa Mohammed Ali

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Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable chronic disease causedby Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). About one-third of the world’s population is latently infected with MTB. TB is among the top 10 causes of mortality throughout the globe from a single pathogen. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis,rifampicin-resistant/multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and associated factors among presumptive tuberculosis cases attending the tuberculosis clinic of Adare General Hospital located in Hawassa city. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 321 tuberculosis suspected patients from April toJuly 2018. Socio-demographic, environmental, and behavioral data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Sputumspecimens were analyzed using GeneXpert. Data entry was made using Epi info version 7 and analyzed by SPSS version 20. Logistic regression models were used to determine the risk factors. A p-value less than 0.05 was taken as a cut point. Results: In this study, the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was 98 (30.5%) with 95% confidence interval (25.5–35.8), and the prevalence of rifampicin-resistant/multidrug-resistantMycobacterium tuberculosis among the 98 Mycobacteriumtuberculosis confirmed cases was 4 (4.1%). The prevalence of rifampicin-resistant/multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosisamong the tuberculosis suspected patients was 1.24%. Participants who had a history of treatment with anti-tuberculosisdrugs were more likely to develop rifampicin-resistant/multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusions: This study identified relatively high rifampicin-resistant/multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis amongtuberculosis suspected patients in the study area. Early detection of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis should be givenenough attention to strengthen the management of tuberculosis cases and improve direct observation therapy short-course and eventually minimize the spread of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis strain in the community.

Keywords: rifampicin resistance, mycobacterium tuberculosis, risk factors, prevalence of TB

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8 Postpartum Depression and Its Association with Food Insecurity and Social Support among Women in Post-Conflict Northern Uganda

Authors: Kimton Opiyo, Elliot M. Berry, Patil Karamchand, Barnabas K. Natamba

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Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major psychiatric disorder that affects women soon after birth and in some cases, is a continuation of antenatal depression. Food insecurity (FI) and social support (SS) are known to be associated with major depressive disorder, and vice versa. This study was conducted to examine the interrelationships among FI, SS, and PPD among postpartum women in Gulu, a post-conflict region in Uganda. Methods: Cross-sectional data from postpartum women on depression symptoms, FI and SS were, respectively, obtained using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, Individually Focused FI Access scale (IFIAS) and Duke-UNC functional social support scale. Standard regression methods were used to assess associations among FI, SS, and PPD. Results: A total of 239 women were studied, and 40% were found to have any PPD, i.e., with depressive symptom scores of ≥ 17. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) for FI score and SS scores were 6.47 ± 5.02 and 19.11 ± 4.23 respectively. In adjusted analyses, PPD symptoms were found to be positively associated with FI (unstandardized beta and standardized beta of 0.703 and 0.432 respectively, standard errors =0.093 and p-value < 0.0001) and negatively associated with SS (unstandardized beta and standardized beta of -0.263 and -0.135 respectively, standard errors = 0.111 and p-value = 0.019). Conclusions: Many women in this post-conflict region reported experiencing PPD. In addition, this data suggest that food security and psychosocial support interventions may help mitigate women’s experience of PPD or its severity.

Keywords: postpartum depression, food insecurity, social support, post-conflict region

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7 Investigating the Minimum RVE Size to Simulate Poly (Propylene carbonate) Composites Reinforced with Cellulose Nanocrystals as a Bio-Nanocomposite

Authors: Hamed Nazeri, Pierre Mertiny, Yongsheng Ma, Kajsa Duke

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The background of the present study is the use of environment-friendly biopolymer and biocomposite materials. Among the recently introduced biopolymers, poly (propylene carbonate) (PPC) has been gaining attention. This study focuses on the size of representative volume elements (RVE) in order to simulate PPC composites reinforced by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as a bio-nanocomposite. Before manufacturing nanocomposites, numerical modeling should be implemented to explore and predict mechanical properties, which may be accomplished by creating and studying a suitable RVE. In other studies, modeling of composites with rod shaped fillers has been reported assuming that fillers are unidirectionally aligned. But, modeling of non-aligned filler dispersions is considerably more difficult. This study investigates the minimum RVE size to enable subsequent FEA modeling. The matrix and nano-fillers were modeled using the finite element software ABAQUS, assuming randomly dispersed fillers with a filler mass fraction of 1.5%. To simulate filler dispersion, a Monte Carlo technique was employed. The numerical simulation was implemented to find composite elastic moduli. After commencing the simulation with a single filler particle, the number of particles was increased to assess the minimum number of filler particles that satisfies the requirements for an RVE, providing the composite elastic modulus in a reliable fashion.

Keywords: biocomposite, Monte Carlo method, nanocomposite, representative volume element

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6 Comparison of an Anthropomorphic PRESAGE® Dosimeter and Radiochromic Film with a Commercial Radiation Treatment Planning System for Breast IMRT: A Feasibility Study

Authors: Khalid Iqbal

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This work presents a comparison of an anthropomorphic PRESAGE® dosimeter and radiochromic film measurements with a commercial treatment planning system to determine the feasibility of PRESAGE® for 3D dosimetry in breast IMRT. An anthropomorphic PRESAGE® phantom was created in the shape of a breast phantom. A five-field IMRT plan was generated with a commercially available treatment planning system and delivered to the PRESAGE® phantom. The anthropomorphic PRESAGE® was scanned with the Duke midsized optical CT scanner (DMOS-RPC) and the OD distribution was converted to dose. Comparisons were performed between the dose distribution calculated with the Pinnacle3 treatment planning system, PRESAGE®, and EBT2 film measurements. DVHs, gamma maps, and line profiles were used to evaluate the agreement. Gamma map comparisons showed that Pinnacle3 agreed with PRESAGE® as greater than 95% of comparison points for the PTV passed a ± 3%/± 3 mm criterion when the outer 8 mm of phantom data were discluded. Edge artifacts were observed in the optical CT reconstruction, from the surface to approximately 8 mm depth. These artifacts resulted in dose differences between Pinnacle3 and PRESAGE® of up to 5% between the surface and a depth of 8 mm and decreased with increasing depth in the phantom. Line profile comparisons between all three independent measurements yielded a maximum difference of 2% within the central 80% of the field width. For the breast IMRT plan studied, the Pinnacle3 calculations agreed with PRESAGE® measurements to within the ±3%/± 3 mm gamma criterion. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the PRESAGE® to be fashioned into anthropomorphic shape, and establishes the accuracy of Pinnacle3 for breast IMRT. Furthermore, these data have established the groundwork for future investigations into 3D dosimetry with more complex anthropomorphic phantoms.

Keywords: 3D dosimetry, PRESAGE®, IMRT, QA, EBT2 GAFCHROMIC film

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5 Controlled Digital Lending, Equitable Access to Knowledge and Future Library Services

Authors: Xuan Pang, Alvin L. Lee, Peggy Glatthaar

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Libraries across the world have been an innovation engine of creativity and opportunityin many decades. The on-going global epidemiology outbreak and health crisis experience illuminates potential reforms, rethinking beyond traditional library operations and services. Controlled Digital Lending (CDL) is one of the emerging technologies libraries used to deliver information digitally in support of online learning and teachingand make educational materials more affordable and more accessible. CDL became a popular term in the United States of America (USA) as a result of a white paper authored by Kyle K. Courtney (Harvard University) and David Hansen (Duke University). The paper gave the legal groundwork to explore CDL: Fair Use, First Sale Doctrine, and Supreme Court rulings. Library professionals implemented this new technology to fulfill their users’ needs. Three libraries in the state of Florida (University of Florida, Florida Gulf Coast University, and Florida A&M University) started a conversation about how to develop strategies to make CDL work possible at each institution. This paper shares the stories of piloting and initiating a CDL program to ensure students have reliable, affordable access to course materials they need to be successful. Additionally, this paper offers an overview of the emerging trends of Controlled Digital Lending in the USA and demonstrates the development of the CDL platforms, policies, and implementation plans. The paper further discusses challenges and lessons learned and how each institution plans to sustain the program into future library services. The fundamental mission of the library is providing users unrestricted access to library resources regardless of their physical location, disability, health status, or other circumstances. The professional due diligence of librarians, as information professionals, is to makeeducational resources more affordable and accessible.CDL opens a new frontier of library services as a mechanism for library practice to enhance user’s experience of using libraries’ services. Libraries should consider exploring this tool to distribute library resources in an effective and equitable way. This new methodology has potential benefits to libraries and end users.

Keywords: controlled digital lending, emerging technologies, equitable access, collaborations

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4 Bandgap Engineering of CsMAPbI3-xBrx Quantum Dots for Intermediate Band Solar Cell

Authors: Deborah Eric, Abbas Ahmad Khan

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Lead halide perovskites quantum dots have attracted immense scientific and technological interest for successful photovoltaic applications because of their remarkable optoelectronic properties. In this paper, we have simulated CsMAPbI3-xBrx based quantum dots to implement their use in intermediate band solar cells (IBSC). These types of materials exhibit optical and electrical properties distinct from their bulk counterparts due to quantum confinement. The conceptual framework provides a route to analyze the electronic properties of quantum dots. This layer of quantum dots optimizes the position and bandwidth of IB that lies in the forbidden region of the conventional bandgap. A three-dimensional MAPbI3 quantum dot (QD) with geometries including spherical, cubic, and conical has been embedded in the CsPbBr3 matrix. Bound energy wavefunction gives rise to miniband, which results in the formation of IB. If there is more than one miniband, then there is a possibility of having more than one IB. The optimization of QD size results in more IBs in the forbidden region. One band time-independent Schrödinger equation using the effective mass approximation with step potential barrier is solved to compute the electronic states. Envelope function approximation with BenDaniel-Duke boundary condition is used in combination with the Schrödinger equation for the calculation of eigen energies and Eigen energies are solved for the quasi-bound states using an eigenvalue study. The transfer matrix method is used to study the quantum tunneling of MAPbI3 QD through neighbor barriers of CsPbI3. Electronic states are computed using Schrödinger equation with effective mass approximation by considering quantum dot and wetting layer assembly. Results have shown the varying the quantum dot size affects the energy pinning of QD. Changes in the ground, first, second state energies have been observed. The QD is non-zero at the center and decays exponentially to zero at boundaries. Quasi-bound states are characterized by envelope functions. It has been observed that conical quantum dots have maximum ground state energy at a small radius. Increasing the wetting layer thickness exhibits energy signatures similar to bulk material for each QD size.

Keywords: perovskite, intermediate bandgap, quantum dots, miniband formation

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3 Evidence-Based in Telemonitoring of Users with Pacemakers at Five Years after Implant: The Poniente Study

Authors: Antonio Lopez-Villegas, Daniel Catalan-Matamoros, Remedios Lopez-Liria

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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical data, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and functional capacity of patients using a telemonitoring follow-up system (TM) compared to patients followed-up through standard outpatient visits (HM) 5 years after the implantation of a pacemaker. Methods: This is a controlled, non-randomised, nonblinded clinical trial, with data collection carried out at 5 years after the pacemakers implant. The study was developed at Hospital de Poniente (Almeria, Spain), between October 2012 and November 2013. The same clinical outcomes were analyzed in both follow-up groups. Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Capacity was assessed through EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire and Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics and clinical data were also analyzed. Results: 5 years after pacemaker implant, 55 of 82 initial patients finished the study. Users with pacemakers were assigned to either a conventional follow-up group at hospital (HM=34, 50 initials) or a telemonitoring system group (TM=21, 32 initials). No significant differences were found between both groups according to sociodemographic characteristics, clinical data, Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Capacity according to medical record and EQ5D and DASI questionnaires. In addition, conventional follow-up visits to hospital were reduced in 44,84% (p < 0,001) in the telemonitoring group in relation to hospital monitoring group. Conclusion: Results obtained in this study suggest that the telemonitoring of users with pacemakers is an equivalent option to conventional follow-up at hospital, in terms of Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Capacity. Furthermore, it allows for the early detection of cardiovascular and pacemakers-related problem events and significantly reduces the number of in-hospital visits. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02234245. The PONIENTE study has been funded by the General Secretariat for Research, Development and Innovation, Regional Government of Andalusia (Spain), project reference number PI/0256/2017, under the research call 'Development and Innovation Projects in the Field of Biomedicine and Health Sciences', 2017.

Keywords: cardiovascular diseases, health-related quality of life, pacemakers follow-up, remote monitoring, telemedicine

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2 Engaging Medical Students in Research through Student Research Mentorship Programme

Authors: Qi En Han, Si En Wai, Eugene Quek

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As one of the two Academic Medical Centres (AMCs) in Singapore, SingHealth Duke-NUS AMC strives to improve patients’ lives through excellent clinical care, research and education. These efforts are enhanced with the establishment of Academic Clinical Programmes (ACPs). Each ACP brings together specialists in a particular discipline from different institutions to maximize the power of shared knowledge and resources. Initiated by Surgery ACP, the student research mentorship programme is a programme designed to facilitate engagement between medical students and the surgical faculty. The programme offers mentors not only the opportunity to supervise research but also to nurture future clinician scientists. In turn, medical students acquire valuable research experience which may be useful in their future careers. The programme typically lasts one year, depending on the students’ commitment. Surgery ACP matches students’ research interests with the mentor's area of expertise whenever possible. Surgery ACP organizes informal tea sessions to bring students and prospective mentors together. Once a match is made, the pair is required to submit a project proposal which includes the title, proposed start and end dates, ethical and biosafety considerations and project details. The mentees either think of their own research question with guidance from the mentors or join an existing project. The mentees may participate in data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing and conference presentation. The progress of each research project is monitored through half-yearly progress report. The mentees report problems encountered or changes made to existing proposal on top of the progress made. A total of 18 mentors were successfully paired with 36 mentees since 2013. Currently, there are 23 on-going and 13 completed projects. The mentees are encouraged to present their projects at conferences and to publish in peer-reviewed journals. Six mentees have presented their completed projects at local or international conferences and one mentee has her work published. To further support student research, Surgery ACP organized a Research Day in 2015 to recognize their research efforts and to showcase their wide-range of research. Surgery ACP recognizes that early exposure of medical students to research is important in developing them into clinician scientists. As interest in research take time to develop and are usually realized during various research attachments, it is crucial that programmes such as the student research mentorship programme exist. Surgery ACP will continue to build on this programme.

Keywords: academic clinical programme, clinician scientist, medical student, mentoring

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1 Dosimetric Comparison among Different Head and Neck Radiotherapy Techniques Using PRESAGE™ Dosimeter

Authors: Jalil ur Rehman, Ramesh C. Tailor, Muhammad Isa Khan, Jahnzeeb Ashraf, Muhammad Afzal, Geofferry S. Ibbott

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Purpose: The purpose of this analysis was to investigate dose distribution of different techniques (3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT) of head and neck cancer using 3-dimensional dosimeter called PRESAGETM Dosimeter. Materials and Methods: Computer tomography (CT) scans of radiological physics center (RPC) head and neck anthropomorphic phantom with both RPC standard insert and PRESAGETM insert were acquired separated with Philipp’s CT scanner and both CT scans were exported via DICOM to the Pinnacle version 9.4 treatment planning system (TPS). Each plan was delivered twice to the RPC phantom first containing the RPC standard insert having TLD and film dosimeters and then again containing the Presage insert having 3-D dosimeter (PRESAGETM) by using a Varian True Beam linear accelerator. After irradiation, the standard insert including point dose measurements (TLD) and planar Gafchromic® EBT film measurement were read using RPC standard procedure. The 3D dose distribution from PRESAGETM was read out with the Duke Midsized optical scanner dedicated to RPC (DMOS-RPC). Dose volume histogram (DVH), mean and maximal doses for organs at risk were calculated and compared among each head and neck technique. The prescription dose was same for all head and neck radiotherapy techniques which was 6.60 Gy/friction. Beam profile comparison and gamma analysis were used to quantify agreements among film measurement, PRESAGETM measurement and calculated dose distribution. Quality assurances of all plans were performed by using ArcCHECK method. Results: VMAT delivered the lowest mean and maximum doses to organ at risk (spinal cord, parotid) than IMRT and 3DCRT. Such dose distribution was verified by absolute dose distribution using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) system. The central axial, sagittal and coronal planes were evaluated using 2D gamma map criteria(± 5%/3 mm) and results were 99.82% (axial), 99.78% (sagital), 98.38% (coronal) for VMAT plan and found the agreement between PRESAGE and pinnacle was better than IMRT and 3D-CRT plan excludes a 7 mm rim at the edge of the dosimeter. Profile showed good agreement for all plans between film, PRESAGE and pinnacle and 3D gamma was performed for PTV and OARs, VMAT and 3DCRT endow with better agreement than IMRT. Conclusion: VMAT delivered lowered mean and maximal doses to organs at risk and better PTV coverage during head and neck radiotherapy. TLD, EBT film and PRESAGETM dosimeters suggest that VMAT was better for the treatment of head and neck cancer than IMRT and 3D-CRT.

Keywords: RPC, 3DCRT, IMRT, VMAT, EBT2 film, TLD, PRESAGETM

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