Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: sprint

33 Correlation between Sprint Performance and Vertical Jump Height in Elite Female Football Players

Authors: Svetlana Missina, Anatoliy Shipilov, Alexandr Vavaev

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sprint and vertical jump performance in elite female football players. Twenty four professional female football players (age, 18.6±3.1 years; height, 168.3±6.3 cm, body mass 61.6±7.4 kg; mean±SD) were tested for 30-m sprint time, 10-m sprint time and vertical countermovement (CMJ) and squat (SJ) jumps height. Participants performed three countermovement jumps and three squat jumps for maximal height on a force platform. Mean values of three trials were used in statistical analysis. The displacement of center of mass (COM) during flight phase (e.g. jump height) was calculated using the vertical velocity of the COM at the moment of take-off. 30-m and 10-m sprint time were measured using OptoGait optical system. The best of three trials were used for analysis. A significant negative correlation was found between 30-m sprint time and CMJ, SJ height (r = -0.85, r = -0.79 respectively), between 10-m sprint time and CMJ, SJ height (r = -0.73, r = -0.8 respectively), and step frequency was significantly related to CMJ peak power (r = -0.57). Our study indicates that there is strong correlation between sprint and jump performance in elite female football players, thus vertical jump test can be considered as a good sprint and agility predictor in female football.

Keywords: agility, female football players, sprint performance, vertical jump height

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
32 Effects of Static Stretching Exercises on Flexibility and Sprint Performance in Inactive Healthy Girls

Authors: Gulsun Guven

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of static stretching exercises on the flexibility and sprint performance in 10-12 years old inactive healthy girls. A total of 27 girls were randomly divided into control group (n=15) and stretching group (n=12) who performed static stretching. Sit and reach flexibility and 30-meter sprint pre-tests were performed for both groups. Static stretching exercises were performed three times, 30 sec. practice and 15 sec. rest for each leg only on five muscle by stretching group. The post-tests were performed in five minutes after static stretching exercise. Paired t-test was used to analyze differentiations among the group parameters. According to research results, there is a significant difference between pre-test and post-test flexibility (p < 0.05) and sprint test results (p < 0.01). As a conclusion of the study, static stretching exercises improve flexibility but decrease sprint performance in 10-12 years old inactive healthy girls.

Keywords: flexibility, inactive girl, sprint, static stretching

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
31 Four-Week Plyometric and Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Sprint Performance in Wheelchair Racing Athletes

Authors: K. Thawichai, R. Pornthep

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a four week training period of combined plyometric and resistance training or resistance training alone on muscle strength and sprint performance in wheelchair racing athletes. The participants were sixteen healthy male wheelchair racing athletes of the Thai national team. All participants were randomly assignments into two groups in the plyometric and resistance training group (n = 8) performed plyometric exercises followed by resistance training, whereas the resistance training group (n = 8) performed static stretching and the same resistance training program. At baseline and after training all participants were tested on 1-RM bench press for muscle strength and 100-m cycling sprint performance. The results of this study show that the plyometric and resistance training group made significantly greater improvements in overall muscle strength and sprint performance than the resistance training group following training. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the addition of a four week plyometric and resistance training program more beneficial than resistance training alone on muscle strength and sprint performance in wheelchair racing athletes.

Keywords: plyometric, resistance training, strength, sprint, wheelchair athletes

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
30 The Three-Dimensional Kinematics of the Sprint Start in Young Elite Sprinters

Authors: Saeed Ilbeigi, Bart Van Gheluwe

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to identify the three-dimensional kinematics of the sprint start during the start phase of the sprint. The purpose of this study was to identify the three-dimensional kinematics of the sprint start during the start phase of the sprint. Moreover, the effect of anthropometrical factors such as skeletal muscle mass, thigh girth, and calf girth also were considered on the kinematics of the sprint start. Among all young sprinters involved in the national Belgium league, sixty sprinters (boys: 14.7 ± 1.8 years and girls: 14.8±1.5 years) were randomly selected. The kinematics data of the sprint start were collected with a Vicon® 620 motion analysis system equipped with 12 infrared cameras running at 250 Hz and running the Vicon Data Station software. For statistical analysis, T-tests and ANOVA׳s with Scheffé post hoc test were used and the significant level was set as p≤0.05. The results showed that the angular positions of the lower joints of the young sprinters in the set position were comparable with adult figures from literature, however, with a greater range of joint extension. The most significant difference between boys and girls was found in the set position, where the boys presented a more dorsiflexed ankle. No further gender effect was observed during the leaving the blocks and contact phase. The sprinters with a higher age, skeletal muscle mass, thigh girth, and calf girth displayed a better angular position of the lower joints (e.g. ankle, knee, hip) in the set position, a more optimal angular position for the foot and knee for absorbing impact forces at foot contact and finally a higher range of flexion/extension motion to produce force and power when leaving the blocks.

Keywords: anthropometry, kinematics, sprint start, young elite sprinters

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
29 Using Design Sprint For Software Engineering Undergraduate Student Projects: A Method Paper

Authors: Sobhani U. Pilapitiya, Tharanga Peiris

Abstract:

Software Engineering curriculums generally consist of industry-based practices such as project-based learning (PBL) which mainly focuses on efficient and innovative product development. These approaches can be tailored and used in project-based modules in software engineering curriculums. However, there are very limited attempts in the area especially related to the Sri Lankan context. This paper describes a tailored pedagogical approach and its results of using design sprint which can be used for project-based modules in SE curriculums. A controlled group of second-year software engineering students was selected for the study. The study results indicate that 100% of students agreed that the Design Sprint approach is effective in group-based projects and 83% of students stated that it minimized the re-work compared to traditional project approaches. The tailored process was effective, easy to implement and produced desired results at the end of the session while providing students an enjoyable experience.

Keywords: design sprint, PBL, software engineering, curriculum

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
28 The Characteristics of Static Plantar Loading in the First-Division College Sprint Athletes

Authors: Tong-Hsien Chow

Abstract:

Background: Plantar pressure measurement is an effective method for assessing plantar loading and can be applied to evaluating movement performance of the foot. The purpose of this study is to explore the sprint athletes’ plantar loading characteristics and pain profiles in static standing. Methods: Experiments were undertaken on 80 first-division college sprint athletes and 85 healthy non-sprinters. ‘JC Mat’, the optical plantar pressure measurement was applied to examining the differences between both groups in the arch index (AI), three regional and six distinct sub-regional plantar pressure distributions (PPD), and footprint characteristics. Pain assessment and self-reported health status in sprint athletes were examined for evaluating their common pain areas. Results: Findings from the control group, the males’ AI fell into the normal range. Yet, the females’ AI was classified as the high-arch type. AI values of the sprint group were found to be significantly lower than the control group. PPD were higher at the medial metatarsal bone of both feet and the lateral heel of the right foot in the sprint group, the males in particular, whereas lower at the medial and lateral longitudinal arches of both feet. Footprint characteristics tended to support the results of the AI and PPD, and this reflected the corresponding pressure profiles. For the sprint athletes, the lateral knee joint and biceps femoris were the most common musculoskeletal pains. Conclusions: The sprint athletes’ AI were generally classified as high arches, and that their PPD were categorized between the features of runners and high-arched runners. These findings also correspond to the profiles of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS)-related plantar pressure. The pain profiles appeared to correspond to the symptoms of high-arched runners and PFPS. The findings reflected upon the possible link between high arches and PFPS. The correlation between high-arched runners and PFPS development is worth further studies.

Keywords: sprint athletes, arch index, plantar pressure distributions, high arches, patellofemoral pain syndrome

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
27 Effects of Modified Low-Dye Taping on First Ray Mobility Test and Sprint Time

Authors: Yu-Ju Tsai, Ching-Chun Wang, Wen-Tzu Tang, Huei-Ming Chai

Abstract:

A pronated foot is frequently associated with a hypermobile first ray, then developing further severe foot problems. Low-Dye taping with athletic tape has been widely used to restrict excessive first ray motion and re-build height of the medial longitudinal arch in general population with pronated foot. It is not the case, however, for sprinters since they feel too much restriction of foot motions. Currently, the kinesio tape, more elastic than the athletic tape, has been widely used to re-adjust joint positions. It was interesting whether modified low-Dye taping using kinesio tape was beneficial for altering first ray mobility and still giving enough arch support. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of modified low-Dye taping on first ray mobility test and 60-m sprint time for sprinters with pronated foot. The significance of this study provides new insight into a treatment alternative of modified low-Dye taping for sprinter with pronated foot. Ten young male sprinters, aged 20.8±1.6 years, with pronated foot were recruited for this study. The pronated foot was defined as the foot that the navicular drop test was greater than 1.0 cm. Three optic shutters were placed at the start, 30-m, and 60-m sites to record sprint time. All participants were asked to complete 3 trials of the 60-m dash with both taping and non-taping conditions in a random order. The low-Dye taping was applied using the method postulated by Ralph Dye in 1939 except the kinesio tape was used instead. All outcome variables were recorded for taping and non-taping conditions. Paired t-tests were used to analyze all outcome variables between 2 conditions. Although there were no statistically significant differences in dorsal and plantar mobility between taping and non-taping conditions, a statistical significance was found in a total range of motion (dorsiflexion plus plantarflexion angle) of the first ray when a modified low-Dye taping was applied (p < 0.05). Time to complete 60-m sprint was significantly increased with low-Dye taping (p < 0.05) while no significance was found for time to 30-m. it indicated that modified low-Dye taping changed maximum sprint speed of 60-m dash. Conclusively, modified low-Dye taping was capable of increasing first ray mobility and further altered maximum sprint speed.

Keywords: first ray mobility, kinesio taping, pronated foot, sprint time

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
26 Effects of Sprint Training on Athletic Performance Related Physiological, Cardiovascular, and Neuromuscular Parameters

Authors: Asim Cengiz, Dede Basturk, Hakan Ozalp

Abstract:

Practicing recurring resistance workout such as may cause changes in human muscle. These changes may be because combination if several factors determining physical fitness. Thus, it is important to identify these changes. Several studies were reviewed to investigate these changes. As a result, the changes included positive modifications in amplified citrate synthase (CS) maximal activity, increased capacity for pyruvate oxidation, improvement on molecular signaling on human performance, amplified resting muscle glycogen and whole GLUT4 protein content, better health outcomes such as enhancement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Sprint training also have numerous long long-term changes inhuman body such as better enzyme action, changes in muscle fiber and oxidative ability. This is important because SV is the critical factor influencing maximal cardiac output and therefore oxygen delivery and maximal aerobic power.

Keywords: sprint, training, performance, exercise

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
25 2-Dimensional Kinematic Analysis on Sprint Start with Sprinting Performance of Novice Athletes

Authors: Satpal Yadav, Biswajit Basumatary, Arvind S. Sajwan, Ranjan Chakravarty

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of 2D kinematical selected variables on sprint start with sprinting performance of novice athletes. Six (3 National and 3 State level) athletes of sports authority of India, Guwahati has been selected for this study. The mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) of sprinters were age (17.44, 1.55), height (1.74m, .84m), weight (62.25 kg, 4.55), arm length (65.00 cm, 3.72) and leg length (96.35 cm, 2.71). Biokin-2D motion analysis system V4.5 can be used for acquiring two-dimensional kinematical data/variables on sprint start with Sprinting Performance. For the purpose of kinematic analysis a standard motion driven camera which frequency of the camera was 60 frame/ second i.e. handy camera of Sony Company were used. The sequence of photographic was taken under controlled condition. The distance of the camera from the athletes was 12 mts away and was fixed at 1.2-meter height. The result was found that National and State level athletes significant difference in there, trajectory knee, trajectory ankle, displacement knee, displacement ankle, linear velocity knee, linear velocity ankle, and linear acceleration ankle whereas insignificant difference was found between National and State level athletes in their linear acceleration knee joint on sprint start with sprinting performance. For all the Statistical test the level of significance was set at p<0.05.

Keywords: 2D kinematic analysis, sprinting performance, novice athletes, sprint start

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
24 The Effect of Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Arginine, and Citrulline on Repeated Swimming Performance

Authors: Chun-Fang Hsueh, Chen-Kang Chang

Abstract:

Introduction: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) could reduce cerebral uptake of tryptophan, leading to decreased synthesis of serotonin in the brain. Arginine and citrulline could reduce exercise-induced hyperammonemia by increasing nitric oxide synthesis and the urea cycle. The combination of these supplements could reduce exercise-induced central fatigue. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of BCAA, arginine, and citrulline supplementation on repeated swimming performance in teenage athletes. Methods: Eight male and eight female high school swimmers ingested 0.085 g/kg BCAA, 0.05 g/kg arginine and 0.05 g/kg citrulline (AA trial) or placebo (PL trial) in a randomized cross-over design. One hour after the ingestion, the subjects performed a 50 m sprint with their best style every 2 min for 8 times in an indoor 25 m pool. The subjects were asked to swim with their maximal effort each time. The time, stroke frequency and stroke length in each sprint were recorded. Venous blood samples were collected before and after the exercise. The time for each sprint was analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance with repeated measurement. Results: When all subjects were pooled together, total time for the AA trial was significantly faster than the PL trial (AA: 244.02 ± 22.94 s; PL: 247.55 ± 24.17 s, p < .001). Individual sprint time showed significant trial (p= .001) and trial x time (p= .004) effects. The post-hoc analysis revealed that the AA trial was significantly faster than the PL trial in the 2nd, 5th, and 6th sprint. In female subjects, there is a significant trial effect (p= .004) with the AA trial being faster in the 1st, 2nd, and 5th sprint. On the other hand, the trial effect was not significant (p= .072) in male subjects. Conclusions: The combined supplementation could improve 8 x 50 m performance in high school swimmers. The blood parameters including BCAA, tryptophan, NH₃, nitric oxide, and urea, as well as the stroke frequency and length in each sprint, are being analyzed. The results will be presented in the conference.

Keywords: central fatigue, hyperammonemia, tryptophan, urea

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
23 Seasonal Variation in 25(OH)D Concentration and Sprint Performance in Elite Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: Robert C. Pritchett, Elizabeth Broad, Kelly L. Pritchett

Abstract:

Individuals a with spinal cord injuries have been suggested to be at risk for a 25(OH)D insufficiency. However, little is known regarding the relationship between seasonal Vitamin D status and performance in a spinally injured athletic population. Purpose: The purpose of this study was: 1) to examine the seasonal change in 25(OH)D concentrations and 2) to determine whether 25(OH)D status impacts athletic performance in US Paralympic athletes. Methods: 25 (OH)D concentrations were measured in 11 outdoor track athletes ( 5 men/6 females), between fall (October/November) and winter(February). Dietary intake and lifestyle habits were assessed via questionnaire, and performance measurements were assessed using a 20meter sprint test. 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed using a blood spot method (ZRT Laboratory). Results: There was no significant change in 25 (OH) D concentrations across seasons (P=0.505; 31 + 6.35 ng/mL, 29 + 8.72 ng/mL (mean + SD) for Fall and Winter, respectively. In the Fall,42% of the athletes had sufficient levels (>32ng/mL), and 58% were insufficient. (20ng/mL -31ng/mL) where as the winter levels dropped with 33% being sufficient and 58% being insufficient and 1% being deficient (<20ng/mL). There was a weak but significant correlation between a change in 25(OH)D concentrations, and change in 20m sprint time (p<0.05; r=0.408). Conclusion: A substantial proportion of elite athletes with an SCI have low vitamin D status. However, results suggest there was little seasonal variation in 25(OH)D status in elite track athletes with an SCI. Furthermore, any change that was observed demonstrated a very weak relationship with a change in performance.

Keywords: 25(oh)d, performance, spinal cord injuries, elite, sprint, concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
22 Sportomics Analysis of Metabolic Responses in Olympic Sprint Canoeists

Authors: A. Magno-França, A. M. Magalhães-Neto, F. Bachini, E. Cataldi, A. Bassini, L. C. Cameron

Abstract:

Sprint canoeing (SC) is part of the Olympic Games since 1936. Athletes compete in solo or double races of 200m and 1000m (40 sec and 240 sec, respectively). Due to its high intensity and duration, SC is extremely useful to study the blood kinetics of some metabolites in high energetic demand. Sportomics is a field of study combining “-omics” sciences with classical biochemical analyses in order to understand sports induced systemic changes. Here, we compare Sportomics findings during SC training sessions to describe metabolic responses of five top-level canoeists. Five Olympic world-class male athletes were evaluated during two days of training.

Keywords: biochemistry of exercise, metabolomics, injury markers, sportomics

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
21 Does Creatine Supplementation Improve Swimming Performance?

Authors: Catrin Morgan, Atholl Johnston

Abstract:

Creatine supplementation should theoretically increase total muscle creatine and so enhance the generation of intramuscular phosphocreatine and subsequent ATP formation. The use of creatine as a potential ergogenic aid in sport has been an area of significant scientific research for a number of years. However the effect of creatine supplementation and swimming performance is a relatively new area of research and is the subject of this review. In swimming creatine supplementation could help maintain maximal power output, aid recovery and increase lean body mass. After investigating the underlying theory and science behind creatine supplementation, a literature review was conducted to identify the best evidence looking at the effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance. The search identified 27 potential studies, and of these 17 were selected for review. The studies were then categorised into single sprint performance, which involves swimming a short distance race, or repeated interval performance, which involves swimming a series of sprints with intervals of rest between them. None of the studies on the effect of creatine controlled for the multiple confounding factors associated with measurement of swimming performance. The sample size in the studies was limited and this reduced the reliability of the studies and introduced the possibility of bias. The studies reviewed provided insufficient evidence to determine if creatine supplementation is beneficial to swimming performance. However, what data there was supported the use of creatine supplementation in repeated interval swimming rather than in single sprint swimming. From a review of the studies, it was calculated on average, there was a 1.37% increase in swimming performance with the use of creatine for repeated intervals and a 0.86% increase in performance for single sprint. While this may seem minor, it should be remembered that swimming races are often won by much smaller margins. In the 2012 London Olympics the Men’s 100 metres freestyle race was won by a margin of only 0.01 of a second. Therefore any potential benefit could make a dramatic difference to the final outcome of the race. Overall more research is warranted before the benefits of creatine supplementation in swimming performance can be further clarified.

Keywords: creatine supplementation, repeated interval, single sprint, swimming performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
20 Study of Performance Based Parameters on Sprint Interval Training and Steady State Run: Trained Young Female

Authors: Abdul Latif Shaikh, Osama Kattos

Abstract:

Purpose: The study compared the effects of intra and inter group short duration intensity training and long duration steady state-run training on the cardiovascular performance on female athletes. Method: Twenty trained young female athletes age between 17 to 20 years were randomly selected to participate in the test. The sprint interval training (n-10) program consisted of 5 min sprints and steady state run (n-10) conducted for 30 min. Both groups completed eight sessions of training within four weeks. Result: In intragroup distribution of mean % change in all the variables from week 4 to week 1 did not differ significantly (p-value > 0.05). The inter-group means value of post resting heart rate, max oxygen consumption (VO2max), and calorie expenditure in sprint interval training was higher with compared with steady state run. Conclusion: The comparative mean value of the intergroups program concludes that the SIT program is superior to SSR in performance-based variables in trained young females. The SIT program can be applied as a time-efficient program for improving performance.

Keywords: calorie expenditure, maximum rate of oxygen consumption, post recovery HR (1-4-7 min), time domain

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
19 Effect of High-Intensity Core Muscle Exercises Training on Sport Performance in Dancers

Authors: Che Hsiu Chen, Su Yun Chen, Hon Wen Cheng

Abstract:

Traditional core stability, core endurance, and balance exercises on a stable surface with isometric muscle actions, low loads, and multiple repetitions, which may not improvements the swimming and running economy performance. However, the effects of high intensity core muscle exercise training on jump height, sprint, and aerobic fitness remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether high intensity core muscle exercises training could improve sport performances in dancers. Thirty healthy university dancer students (28 women and 2 men; age 20.0 years, height 159.4 cm, body mass 52.7 kg) were voluntarily participated in this study, and each participant underwent five suspension exercises (e.g., hip abduction in plank alternative, hamstring curl, 45-degree row, lunge and oblique crunch). Each type of exercise was performed for 30-second, with 30-second of rest between exercises, two times per week for eight weeks and each exercise session was increased by 10-second every week. We measured agility, explosive force, anaerobic and cardiovascular fitness in dancer performance before and after eight weeks of training. The results showed that the 8-week high intensity core muscle training would significantly increase T-test agility (7.78%), explosive force of acceleration (3.35%), vertical jump height (8.10%), jump power (6.95%), lower extremity anaerobic ability (7.10%) and oxygen uptake efficiency slope (4.15%). Therefore, it can be concluded that eight weeks of high intensity core muscle exercises training can improve not only agility, sprint ability, vertical jump ability, anaerobic and but also cardiovascular fitness measures as well.

Keywords: balance, jump height, sprint, maximal oxygen uptake

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
18 A Case Study of Mobile Game Based Learning Design for Gender Responsive STEM Education

Authors: Raluca Ionela Maxim

Abstract:

Designing a gender responsive Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) mobile game based learning solution (mGBL) is a challenge in terms of content, gamification level and equal engagement of girls and boys. The goal of this case study was to research and create a high-fidelity prototype design of a mobile game that contains role-models as avatars that guide and expose girls and boys to STEM learning content. For this research purpose it was applied the methodology of design sprint with five-phase process that combines design thinking principles. The technique of this methodology comprises smart interviews with STEM experts, mind-map creation, sketching, prototyping and usability testing of the interactive prototype of the gender responsive STEM mGBL. The results have shown that the effect of the avatar/role model had a positive impact. Therefore, by exposing students (boys and girls) to STEM role models in an mGBL tool is helpful for the decreasing of the gender inequalities in STEM fields.

Keywords: design thinking, design sprint, gender-responsive STEM education, mobile game based learning, role-models

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
17 Impact of School-Based Gymnastic Program on Skill-Related Fitness in Early Adolescent Students

Authors: Dinko Vuleta, Dejan Madić, Goran Sporiš, Nebojša Trajković

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gymnastics program in school on skill-related fitness in early adolescent students. The study involved 58 adolescent students (12.82±0.54 years; Height 156.81±8.16 cm; 53.46±12.31 kg) from primary school divided into two groups, following the randomization. The gymnastic group was involved in a 12 week of gymnastics classes, while the control group only participated in usual PE classes which consisted of multi-sport activities. The variables were selected within the several fitness batteries, measuring coordination (polygon backwards), upper and lower body strength standing long jump and medicine ball throw), speed (20 m sprint) and agility (4x10 test). Pre-test to post-test values showed significant improvements in all tested variables (p<0.05), except for the 4x10m test, where there were no significant improvements in neither of the groups (p>0.05). Significant interactions of time by group were observed for coordination, sprint speed, standing long jump and medicine ball throw (p<0.05). The results showed significant increase in skill-related fitness of the participants in the gymnastic group compared to the control group. Therefore, participation in gymnastics must be recommended as a positive foundational activity for school-aged children, from early childhood to adulthood. Additionally, the results can provide useful information in optimizing the training loads of pupils involved in gymnastic training throughout PE classes.

Keywords: effects, PE classes, physical fitness, training

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
16 Gymnastics-Oriented Training Program: Impact of 6 weeks Training on the Fitness and Performance of Basketball Players

Authors: Syed Ibrahim, Syed Muneer Ahmed

Abstract:

It is a global phenomenon that fitness is a pre-requisite to the desired end of optimum efficiency in elite class basketballers achieved through appropriate conditioning program. This study was undertaken to find out the effect of gymnastic oriented training program on the physical fitness and the level of technical performance of basketball players. Method: 27 basketballers were divided into 12 experimental and 15 control groups aged between 19 to 25 years. Physical fitness tests comprising of vertical jump, push-ups, chin ups, sit ups, back strength, 30 m sprint, boomerangs test, 600 m run, sit and reach, bridge up and shoulder rotation and technical skill tests like dribbling, layup shots and rebound collection were used for the study. A pre- and post-test was conducted before and after the training program of 6 weeks. Results: The results indicated no significant difference in the anthropometric measurements of age, height and weight between the experimental and control group as the ‘t’ values observed were 0.28, 1.63 and 1.60 respectively . There were significant improvements in vertical jump, push-ups, sit-ups, modified boomerang test, bridge test and shoulder rotation index with the ‘t’ values being 2.60, 3.41, 3.91, 4.02, 3.55 and 2.33 respectively. However, no significant differences existed in chin-ups, back strength, 30 m sprint and 6000 m run with the ‘t’ values being 2.08, 1.77, 1.28 and 0.80 respectively. There was significant improvement in the post-test for the technical skills tests in the experimental group with ‘t’ values being 3.65, 2.57, and 3.62 for the dribble, layup shots and rebound collection respectively. There was no significant difference in the values of the control group except in the rebound collection which showed significant difference. Conclusion: It was found that both the physical fitness and skill proficiency of the basketballers increased through the participation in the gymnastics oriented program.

Keywords: gymnastic, technical, pre-requisite, elite class

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
15 The Effect of Core Training on Physical Fitness Characteristics in Male Volleyball Players

Authors: Sibel Karacaoglu, Fatma Ç. Kayapinar

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of the core training program on physical fitness characteristics and body composition in male volleyball players. 26 male university volleyball team players aged between 19 to 24 years who had no health problems and injury participated in the study. Subjects were divided into training (TG) and control groups (CG) as randomly. Data from twenty-one players who completed all training sessions were used for statistical analysis (TG,n=11; CG,n=10). A core training program was applied to the training group three days a week for 10 weeks. On the other hand, the control group did not receive any training. Before and after the 10-week training program, pre- and post-testing comprised of body composition measurements (weight, BMI, bioelectrical impedance analysis) and physical fitness measurements including flexibility (sit and reach test), muscle strength (back, leg and grip strength by dynamometer), muscle endurance (sit-ups and push-ups tests), power (one-legged jump and vertical jump tests), speed (20m sprint, 30m sprint) and balance tests (one-legged standing test) were performed. Changes of pre- and post- test values of the groups were determined by using dependent t test. According to the statistical analysis of data, no significant difference was found in terms of body composition in the both groups for pre- and post- test values. In the training group, all physical fitness measurements improved significantly after core training program (p<0.05) except 30m speed and handgrip strength (p>0.05). On the hand, only 20m speed test values improved after post-test period (p<0.05), but the other physical fitness tests values did not differ (p>0.05) between pre- and post- test measurement in the control group. The results of the study suggest that the core training program has positive effect on physical fitness characteristics in male volleyball players.

Keywords: body composition, core training, physical fitness, volleyball

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
14 Dataset Quality Index:Development of Composite Indicator Based on Standard Data Quality Indicators

Authors: Sakda Loetpiparwanich, Preecha Vichitthamaros

Abstract:

Nowadays, poor data quality is considered one of the majority costs for a data project. The data project with data quality awareness almost as much time to data quality processes while data project without data quality awareness negatively impacts financial resources, efficiency, productivity, and credibility. One of the processes that take a long time is defining the expectations and measurements of data quality because the expectation is different up to the purpose of each data project. Especially, big data project that maybe involves with many datasets and stakeholders, that take a long time to discuss and define quality expectations and measurements. Therefore, this study aimed at developing meaningful indicators to describe overall data quality for each dataset to quick comparison and priority. The objectives of this study were to: (1) Develop a practical data quality indicators and measurements, (2) Develop data quality dimensions based on statistical characteristics and (3) Develop Composite Indicator that can describe overall data quality for each dataset. The sample consisted of more than 500 datasets from public sources obtained by random sampling. After datasets were collected, there are five steps to develop the Dataset Quality Index (SDQI). First, we define standard data quality expectations. Second, we find any indicators that can measure directly to data within datasets. Thirdly, each indicator aggregates to dimension using factor analysis. Next, the indicators and dimensions were weighted by an effort for data preparing process and usability. Finally, the dimensions aggregate to Composite Indicator. The results of these analyses showed that: (1) The developed useful indicators and measurements contained ten indicators. (2) the developed data quality dimension based on statistical characteristics, we found that ten indicators can be reduced to 4 dimensions. (3) The developed Composite Indicator, we found that the SDQI can describe overall datasets quality of each dataset and can separate into 3 Level as Good Quality, Acceptable Quality, and Poor Quality. The conclusion, the SDQI provide an overall description of data quality within datasets and meaningful composition. We can use SQDI to assess for all data in the data project, effort estimation, and priority. The SDQI also work well with Agile Method by using SDQI to assessment in the first sprint. After passing the initial evaluation, we can add more specific data quality indicators into the next sprint.

Keywords: data quality, dataset quality, data quality management, composite indicator, factor analysis, principal component analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
13 A Study of Quality Assurance and Unit Verification Methods in Safety Critical Environment

Authors: Miklos Taliga

Abstract:

In the present case study we examined the development and testing methods of systems that contain safety-critical elements in different industrial fields. Consequentially, we observed the classical object-oriented development and testing environment, as both medical technology and automobile industry approaches the development of safety critical elements that way. Subsequently, we examined model-based development. We introduce the quality parameters that define development and testing. While taking modern agile methodology (scrum) into consideration, we examined whether and to what extent the methodologies we found fit into this environment.

Keywords: safety-critical elements, quality managent, unit verification, model base testing, agile methods, scrum, metamodel, object-oriented programming, field specific modelling, sprint, user story, UML Standard

Procedia PDF Downloads 512
12 The Beneficial Effects of Hydrotherapy for Recovery from Team Sport – A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Trevor R. Higgins

Abstract:

To speed/enhance recovery from sport, cold water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT) have become common practice within the high-level team sport. Initially, research into CWI and CWT protocols and recovery was sparse; athletes relied solely upon an anecdotal support. However, an increase into recovery research has occurred. A number of reviews have subsequently been conducted to clarify scientific evidence. However, as the nature of physiological stress and training status of participants will impact on results, an opportunity existed to narrow the focus to a more exacting review evaluating hydrotherapy for recovery in a team sport. A Boolean logic [AND] keyword search of databases was conducted: SPORTDiscus; AMED; CINAHL; MEDLINE. Data was extracted and the standardized mean differences were calculated with 95% CI. The analysis of pooled data was conducted using a random-effect model, with Heterogeneity assessed using I2. 23 peer reviewed papers (n=606) met the criteria. Meta-analyses results indicated CWI was likely beneficial for recovery at 24h (Countermovement Jump (CMJ): p= 0.05, CI -0.004 to 0.578; All-out sprint: p=0.02, -0.056 to 0.801; DOMS: p=0.08, CI -0.092 to 1.936) and at 72h (accumulated sprinting: p=0.07, CI -0.062 to 1.209; DOMS: p=0.09, CI -0.121 to 1.555) following team sport. Whereas CWT was likely beneficial for recovery at 1h (CMJ: p= 0.07, CI -0.004 to 0.863) and at 48h (fatigue: p=0.04, CI 0.013 to 0.942) following team sport. Athlete’s perceptions of muscle soreness and fatigue are enhanced with CWI and/or CWT, however even though CWI and CWT were beneficial in attenuating decrements in neuromuscular performance 24 hours following team sport, indications are those benefits were no longer Sydney evident 48 hours following team sport.

Keywords: cold water immersion, contrast water therapy, recovery, team sport

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
11 The Comparison of Movement and Physical Fitness in Secondary Male Students in Altitude and Coastal Areas

Authors: Esmaeil Zabihi, Seyed Hossein Alavi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is a comparison of movement and physical fitness in athlete's male students in altitude and sea-level. The samples consist of 450 subjects in altitude and sea-level in Iran in years of 2013 which were selected randomly from the population. We investigated the effect of high altitude on the tests activity profile of youth high altitude and sea level residents. Methods 450 Sea Level (Mahmood Abad) and 450 Altitude-resident (Shahre-Kord) athlete students tests of physical fitness near sea level (-5 m) and in Altitude (2100 m). This study is Descriptive Research (causal-comparative research). The tests of physical fitness include pull-ups test, sit-ups test, agility test(4 9), 45 sprint test, 1600 m running, long jump, and flexibility test. For determining of different between the physical fitness of altitude and sea-level students was used t-test (P ≤ 0.05). The result of this study show that there is no significant difference between the average of pull-ups test, flexibility, 45 sprints, and agility (4 9) test of students in sea-level and altitude. But there is a significant difference between the average of sit-ups, 1600 m running and long jump in altitude. The students of altitude have higher power rather than sea-level. But the students of sea-level have stronger abdominal muscles and cardio-respiratory endurance rather than altitude. High altitude reduces the distance covered by youth athlete students during tests. Neither acclimatisation nor lifelong residence at high altitude protects against detrimental effects of altitude on tests activity profile.

Keywords: physical fitness, sea level, altitude areas, AAHPERD test

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
10 The Effects of a Circuit Training Program on Muscle Strength, Agility, Anaerobic Performance and Cardiovascular Endurance

Authors: Wirat Sonchan, Pratoom Moungmee, Anek Sootmongkol

Abstract:

This study aimed to examine the effects of a circuit training program on muscle strength, agility, anaerobic performance and cardiovascular endurance. The study involved 24 freshmen (age 18.87+0.68 yr.) male students of the Faculty of Sport Science, Burapha University. They sample study were randomly divided into two groups: Circuit Training group (CT; n=12) and a Control group (C; n=12). Baseline data on height, weight, muscle strength (hand grip dynamometer and leg strength dynamometer), agility (agility T-Test), and anaerobic performance (Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test) and cardiovascular endurance (20 m Endurance Shuttle Run Test) were collected. The circuit training program included one circuit of eight stations of 30/60 seconds of work/rest interval with two cycles in Week 1-4, and 60/90 seconds of work/rest interval with three cycles in Week 5-8, performed three times per week. Data were analyzed using paired t-tests and independent sample t-test. Statistically significance level was set at 0.05. The results show that after 8 weeks of a training program, muscle strength, agility, anaerobic capacity and cardiovascular endurance increased significantly in the CT Group (p < 0.05), while significant increase was not observed in the C Group (p < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that the circuit training program improved muscle strength, agility, anaerobic capacity and cardiovascular endurance of the study subjects. This program may be used as a guideline for selecting a set of exercise to improve physical fitness.

Keywords: circuit training, physical fitness, cardiovascular endurance, anaerobic performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
9 Manganese Contamination Exacerbates Reproductive Stress in a Suicidally-Breeding Marsupial

Authors: Ami Fadhillah Amir Abdul Nasir, Amanda C. Niehaus, Skye F. Cameron, Frank A. Von Hippel, John Postlethwait​, Robbie S. Wilson

Abstract:

For suicidal breeders, the physiological stresses and energetic costs of breeding are fatal. Environmental stressors such as pollution should compound these costs, yet suicidal breeding is so rare among mammals that this is unknown. Here, we explored the consequences of metal contamination to the health, aging and performance of endangered, suicidally-breeding northern quolls (Dasyurus hallucatus) living near an active manganese mine on Groote Eylandt, Northern Territory, Australia. We found respirable manganese dust at levels exceeding international recommendations even 20km from mining sites and substantial accumulation of manganese within quolls’ hair, testes, and in two brain regions—the neocortex and cerebellum, responsible for sensory perception and motor function, respectively. Though quolls did not differ in sprint speeds, motor skill, or manoeuvrability, those with higher accumulation of manganese crashed at lower speeds during manoeuvrability tests, indicating a potential effect on sight or cognition. Immune function and telomere length declined over the breeding season, as expected with ageing, but manganese contamination exacerbated immune declines and suppressed cortisol. Unexpectedly, male quolls with higher levels of manganese had longer telomeres, supporting evidence of unusual telomere dynamics among Dasyurids—though whether this affects their lifespan is unknown. We posit that sublethal contamination via pollution, mining, or urbanisation imposes physiological costs on wildlife that may diminish reproductive success or survival.

Keywords: ecotoxicology, heavy metal, manganese, telomere length, cortisol, locomotor

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
8 Physical Fitness Factors of School Badminton Players in Kandy District

Authors: P. Cinthuja, J. A. O. A Jayakody, M. P. M. Perera, W. V. D. N. Weerarathna, S.E. Nirosha, D. K. D. C. Indeewari, T. Kaethieswaran, S. B. Adikari

Abstract:

The aims of the study was to measure physical fitness parameters of school badminton players in the Kandy district and determine the factors contributing to improve the physical fitness. Height, weight, handgrip was measured and sit and reach test, shoulder flexibility test, standing long jump test, 20m sprint speed test, agility T-test and 20 m multistage shuttle run test were performed on 183 school badminton players. Linear regression and correlation tests were performed using body mass index, practiced duration, age category, level of performance, additional sports involvement as independent variables and physical fitness parameter as dependent variables. Results: The present study showed that the upper body power, upper body strength and endurance and speed depended on body mass index both in male and female school badminton players. Speed, agility, flexibility of shoulders, explosive power of shoulder and aerobic endurance depended on the duration of practiced. Furthermore, involvement in additional sports other than badminton did not enhance the performance of badminton players. But it decreased player’s performance by decreasing agility and speed. Age had an effect on the upper body power, explosive power of lower limb, agility and speed both in both males and females. Conclusions: The performance of badminton players could be enhanced by maintaining a proper body mass index. Badminton specific parameter could be improved by increasing the duration of practiced. Involvement in other sports does not give an added advantage to badminton players to improve their performance.

Keywords: agility, Body Mass Index, endurance, badminton

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
7 Testing Serum Proteome between Elite Sprinters and Long-Distance Runners

Authors: Hung-Chieh Chen, Kuo-Hui Wang, Tsu-Lin Yeh

Abstract:

Proteomics represent the performance of genomic complement proteins and the protein level on functional genomics. This study adopted proteomic strategies for comparing serum proteins among three groups: elite sprinter (sprint runner group, SR), long-distance runners (long-distance runner group, LDR), and the untrained control group (control group, CON). Purposes: This study aims to identify elite sprinters and long-distance runners’ serum protein and to provide a comparison of their serum proteome’ composition. Methods: Serum protein fractionations that separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and analyzed by a quantitative nano-LC-MS/MS-based proteomic profiling. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe post hoc comparison (α= 0.05) was used to determine whether there is any significant difference in each protein level among the three groups. Results: (1) After analyzing the 307 identified proteins, there were 26 unique proteins in the SR group, and 18 unique proteins in the LDR group. (2) For the LDR group, 7 coagulation function-associated proteins’ expression levels were investigated: vitronectin, serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1, fibulin-1, complement C3, vitamin K-dependent protein, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H3 and von Willebrand factor, and the findings show the seven coagulation function-associated proteins were significantly lower than the group of SR. (3) Comparing to the group of SR, this study found that the LDR group’s expression levels of the 2 antioxidant proteins (afamin and glutathione peroxidase 3) were also significantly lower. (4) The LDR group’s expression levels of seven immune function-related proteins (Ig gamma-3 chain C region, Ig lambda-like polypeptide 5, clusterin, complement C1s subcomponent, complement factor B, complement C4-A, complement C1q subcomponent subunit A) were also significantly lower than the group of SR. Conclusion: This study identified the potential serum protein markers for elite sprinters and long-distance runners. The changes in the regulation of coagulation, antioxidant, or immune function-specific proteins may also provide further clinical applications for these two different track athletes.

Keywords: biomarkers, coagulation, immune response, oxidative stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
6 Engage, Connect, Empower: Agile Approach in the University Students' Education

Authors: D. Bjelica, T. Slavinski, V. Vukimrovic, D. Pavlovic, D. Bodroza, V. Dabetic

Abstract:

Traditional methods and techniques used in higher education may be significantly persuasive on the university students' perception about quality of the teaching process. Students’ satisfaction with the university experience may be affected by chosen educational approaches. Contemporary project management trends recognize agile approaches' beneficial, so modern practice highlights their usage, especially in the IT industry. A key research question concerns the possibility of applying agile methods in youth education. As agile methodology pinpoint iteratively-incremental delivery of results, its employment could be remarkably fruitful in education. This paper demonstrates the agile concept's application in the university students’ education through the continuous delivery of student solutions. Therefore, based on the fundamental values and principles of the agile manifest, paper will analyze students' performance and learned lessons in their encounter with the agile environment. The research is based on qualitative and quantitative analysis that includes sprints, as preparation and realization of student tasks in shorter iterations. Consequently, the performance of student teams will be monitored through iterations, as well as the process of adaptive planning and realization. Grounded theory methodology has been used in this research, as so as descriptive statistics and Man Whitney and Kruskal Wallis test for group comparison. Developed constructs of the model will be showcase through qualitative research, then validated through a pilot survey, and eventually tested as a concept in the final survey. The paper highlights the variability of educational curricula based on university students' feedbacks, which will be collected at the end of every sprint and indicates to university students' satisfaction inconsistency according to approaches applied in education. Values delivered by the lecturers will also be continuously monitored; thus, it will be prioritizing in order to students' requests. Minimal viable product, as the early delivery of results, will be particularly emphasized in the implementation process. The paper offers both theoretical and practical implications. This research contains exceptional lessons that may be applicable by educational institutions in curriculum creation processes, or by lecturers in curriculum design and teaching. On the other hand, they can be beneficial regarding university students' satisfaction increscent in respect of teaching styles, gained knowledge, or even educational content.

Keywords: academic performances, agile, high education, university students' satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
5 The Effect of Hypertrophy Strength Training Using Traditional Set vs. Cluster Set on Maximum Strength and Sprinting Speed

Authors: Bjornar Kjellstadli, Shaher A. I. Shalfawi

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of strength training Cluster set-method compared to traditional set-method 30 m sprinting time and maximum strength in squats and bench-press. Thirteen Physical Education students, 7 males and 6 females between the age of 19-28 years old were recruited. The students were random divided in three groups. Traditional set group (TSG) consist of 2 males and 2 females aged (±SD) (22.3 ± 1.5 years), body mass (79.2 ± 15.4 kg) and height (177.5 ± 11.3 cm). Cluster set group (CSG) consist of 3 males and 2 females aged (22.4 ± 3.29 years), body mass (81.0 ± 24.0 kg) and height (179.2 ± 11.8 cm) and a control group (CG) consist of 2 males and 2 females aged (21.5 ± 2.4 years), body mass (82.1 ± 17.4 kg) and height (175.5 ± 6.7 cm). The intervention consisted of performing squat and bench press at 70% of 1RM (twice a week) for 8 weeks using 10 repetition and 4 sets. Two types of strength-training methods were used , cluster set (CS) where the participants (CSG) performed 2 reps 5 times with a 10 s recovery in between reps and 50 s recovery between sets, and traditional set (TS) where the participants (TSG) performed 10 reps each set with 90 s recovery in between sets. The pre-tests and post-tests conducted were 1 RM in both squats and bench press, and 10 and 30 m sprint time. The 1RM test were performed with Eleiko XF barbell (20 kg), Eleiko weight plates, rack and bench from Hammerstrength. The speed test was measured with the Brower speed trap II testing system (Brower Timing Systems, Utah, USA). The participants received an individualized training program based on the pre-test of the 1RM. In addition, a mid-term test of 1RM was carried out to adjust training intensity. Each training session were supervised by the researchers. Beast sensors (Milano, Italy) were also used to monitor and quantify the training load for the participants. All groups had a statistical significant improvement in bench press 1RM (TSG 1RM from 56.3 ± 28.9 to 66 ± 28.5 kg; CSG 1RM from 69.8 ± 33.5 to 77.2 ± 34.1 kg and CG 1RM from 67.8 ± 26.6 to 72.2 ± 29.1 kg), whereas only the TSG (1RM from 84.3 ± 26.8 to 114.3 ± 26.5 kg) and CSG (1RM from 100.4 ± 33.9 to 129 ± 35.1 kg) had a statistical significant improvement in Squats 1RM (P < 0.05). However, a between groups examination reveals that there were no marked differences in 1RM squat performance between TSG and CSG (P > 0.05) and both groups had a marked improvements compared to the CG (P < 0.05). On the other hand, no differences between groups were observed in Bench press 1RM. The within groups results indicate that none of the groups had any marked improvement in the distances from 0-10 m and 10-30 m except the CSG which had a notable improvement in the distance from 10-30 m (-0.07 s; P < 0.05). Furthermore, no differences in sprinting abilities were observed between groups. The results from this investigation indicate that traditional set strength training at 70% of 1RM gave close results compared to Cluster set strength training at the same intensity. However, the results indicate that the cluster set had an effect on flying time (10-30 m) indicating that the velocity at which those repetitions were performed could be the explanation factor of this this improvement.

Keywords: physical performance, 1RM, pushing velocity, velocity based training

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
4 The Global Children’s Challenge Program: Pedometer Step Count in an Australian School

Authors: D. Hilton

Abstract:

The importance and significance of this research is based upon the fundamental knowledge reported in the scientific literature that physical activity is inversely associated with obesity. In addition, it is recognized there is a global epidemic of sedentariness while at the same time it is known that morbidity and mortality are associated with physical inactivity and as a result of overweight or obesity. Hence this small study in school students is an important area of research in our community. An application submitted in 2005 for the inaugural Public Health Education Research Trust [PHERT] Post Graduate Research Scholarship scheme organized by the Public Health Association of Australia [PHAA] was awarded 3rd place within Australia. The author and title was: D. Hilton, Methods to increase physical activity in school aged children [literature review, a trial using pedometers and a policy paper]. Third place is a good result, however this did not secure funding for the project, as only first place received $5000 funding. Some years later within Australia, a program commenced called the Global Children's Challenge [GCC]. Given details of the 2005 award above were included an application submission prepared for Parkhill Primary School [PPS] which is located in Victoria, Australia was successful. As a result, an excited combined grade 3/ 4 class at the school [27 students] in 2012 became recipients of these free pedometers. Ambassadors for the program were Mrs Catherine Freeman [OAM], Olympic Gold Medalist – Sydney 2000 [400 meters], while another ambassador was Mr Colin Jackson [CBE] who is a Welsh former sprint and hurdling athlete. In terms of PPS and other schools involved in 2012, website details show that the event started on 19th Sep 2012 and students were to wear the pedometer every day for 50 days [at home and at school] aiming for the recommended 15,000 steps/day recording steps taken in a booklet provided. After the finish, an analysis of the average step count for this school showed that the average steps taken / day was 14, 003 [however only a small percentage of students returned the booklets and units] as unfortunately the dates for the program coincided with school holidays so some students either forgot or misplaced the units / booklets. Unfortunately funding for this program ceased in 2013, however the lasting impact of the trial on student’s knowledge and awareness remains and in fact becomes a good grounding for students in how to monitor basic daily physical activity using a method that is easy, fun, low cost and readily accessible.

Keywords: walking, physical activity, exercise, Australian school

Procedia PDF Downloads 225