Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2958

Search results for: renal disease

2958 Development of a Spatial Data for Renal Registry in Nigeria Health Sector

Authors: Adekunle Kolawole Ojo, Idowu Peter Adebayo, Egwuche Sylvester O


Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality across developed and developing nations and is associated with increased risk. There are no existing electronic means of capturing and monitoring CKD in Nigeria. The work is aimed at developing a spatial data model that can be used to implement renal registries required for tracking and monitoring the spatial distribution of renal diseases by public health officers and patients. In this study, we have developed a spatial data model for a functional renal registry.

Keywords: renal registry, health informatics, chronic kidney disease, interface

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2957 Clinical Profile of Renal Diseases in Children in Tertiary Care Centre

Authors: Jyoti Agrawal


Introduction: Renal diseases in children and young adult can be difficult to diagnose early as it may present only with few symptoms, tends to have different course than adult and respond variously to different treatment. The pattern of renal disease in children is different from developing countries as compared to developed countries. Methods: This study was a hospital based prospective observational study carried from March, 2014 to February 2015 at BP Koirala institute of health sciences. Patients with renal disease, both inpatient and outpatient from birth to 14 years of age were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of renal disease was be made on clinical and laboratory criteria. Results: Total of 120 patients were enrolled in our study which contributed to 3.74% % of total admission. The commonest feature of presentation was edema (75%), followed by fever (65%), hypertension (60%), decreased urine output (45%) and hematuria (25%). Most common diagnosis was acute glomerulonephritis (40%) followed by Nephrotic syndrome (25%) and urinary tract infection (25%). Renal biopsy was done for 10% of cases and most of them were steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome. 5% of our cases expired because of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome, sepsis and acute kidney injury. Conclusion: Renal disease contributes to a large part of hospital pediatric admission as well as mortality and morbidity to the children.

Keywords: glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, renal disease, urinary tract infection

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2956 Pattern of Biopsy Proven Renal Disease and Association between the Clinical Findings with Renal Pathology in Eastern Nepal

Authors: Manish Subedi, Bijay Bartaula, Ashok R. Pant, Purbesh Adhikari, Sanjib K. Sharma


Background: The pattern of glomerular disease varies worldwide. In absence of kidney disease/Kidney biopsy registry in Nepal, the exact etiology of different forms of glomerular disease is primarily unknown in our country. Method: We retrospectively analyzed 175 cases of renal biopsies performed from dated September 2014 to August 2016 at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Results: The commonest indication for renal biopsy was nephrotic syndrome (34.9%), followed by Systemic lupus erythematosus with suspected renal involvement (22.3%). Majority of patients were in the 30-60 year bracket (57.2%), with the mean age of the patients being 35.37 years. The average number of glomeruli per core was 13, with inadequate sampling in 5.1%. IgA nephropathy (17%) was found to be the most common primary glomerular disease, followed by membranous nephropathy (14.6%) and FSGS (14.6%). The commonest secondary glomerular disease was lupus nephritis. Complications associated with renal biopsy were pain at biopsy site in 18% of cases, hematuria in 6% and perinephric hematoma in 4% cases. Conclusion: The commonest primary and secondary glomerular disease was IgA nephropathy and lupus nephritis respectively. The high prevalence of Systemic lupus erythematosus with lupus nephritis among Nepalese in comparison with other developing countries warrants further evaluation. As an initial attempt towards documentation of glomerular diseases in the national context, this study should serve as a stepping stone towards the eventual establishment of a full-fledged national registry of glomerular diseases in Nepal.

Keywords: glomerular, Nepal, renal biopsy, systemic lupus erythematoses

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2955 Resilience in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Hemodialysis

Authors: Gomes C. C. Izabel, Lanzotti B. Rafaela, Orlandi S. Fabiana


Chronic Kidney Disease is considered a serious public health problem. The exploitation of resilience has been guided by studies conducted in various contexts, especially in hemodialysis, since the impact of diagnosis and restrictions produced during the treatment process because, despite advances in treatment, remains the stigma of the disease and the feeling of pain, hopelessness, low self-esteem and disability. The objective was to evaluate the level of resilience of patients in chronic renal dialysis. This is a descriptive, correlational, cross and quantitative research. The sample consisted of 100 patients from a Renal Replacement Therapy Unit in the countryside of São Paulo. For data collection were used the characterization instrument of Participants and the Resilience Scale. There was a predominance of males (70.0%) were Caucasian (45.0%) and had completed elementary education (34.0%). The average score obtained through the Resilience Scale was 131.3 (± 20.06) points. The resiliency level submitted may be considered satisfactory. It is expected that this study will assist in the preparation of programs and actions in order to avoid possible situations of crises faced by chronic renal patients.

Keywords: hemodialysis units, renal dialysis, renal insufficiency chronic, resilience psychological

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2954 Simulation Of A Renal Phantom Using the MAG 3

Authors: Ati Moncef


We describe in this paper the results of a phantom of dynamics renal with MAG3. Our phantom consisted of (tow shaped of kidneys, 1 liver). These phantoms were scanned with static and dynamic protocols and compared with clinical data. in a normal conditions we use our phantoms it's possible to acquire a renal images when we can be compared with clinical scintigraphy. In conclusion, Renal phantom also can use in the quality control of a renal scintigraphy.

Keywords: Renal scintigraphy, MAG3, Nuclear medicine, Gamma Camera.

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2953 Renal Complications in Patients with Falciparum Malaria

Authors: Saira Baloch, Mohsin Ali Baloch


Background: Malaria is a potentially life-threatening disease and also a major public health problem in Pakistan. Renal failure is an emerging problem correlated with morbidity and mortality, however can be diagnosed and treated in the early stages. Objectives: To elucidate the biochemical renal parameters in patients with falciparum malaria and comparison with healthy control subjects. Method: 80 patients, who were diagnosed to be affected by falciparum malaria. Detailed history, general physical and systemic examination and necessary pathological, biochemical renal laboratory parameters and investigations were done. Results: Among the 80 patients, 43 were males and 37 were females. All patients were infected with P. falciparum. All patients had increased serum creatinine and urea levels and urine output of less than 400 ml/day were categorized as suffering from renal failure. Conclusion: Patients infected with P. falciparum are at an increased risk of developing renal failure when compared to patients infected with other complications. P. vivax has massive potential to cause life threatening complications and even death. Further research is required to understand the exact pathogenesis of various complications encountered in vivax malaria.

Keywords: falciparum malaria, renal failure, biochemical parameters, pathogenesis

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2952 Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin as Diagnostic Biomarkers for Lupus Nephritis

Authors: Lorena GóMez Escorcia, Gustavo Aroca MartíNez, Jose Luiz Villarreal, Elkin Navarro Quiroz


Lupus nephritis (LN) is a high-cost disease, occurring in about half of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Renal biopsy constitutes the only protocol that, to date, allows a correct diagnosis of the level of renal involvement in these patients. However, this procedure can have various adverse effects such as kidney bleeding, muscle bleeding, infection, pain, among others. Therefore, the development of new diagnostic alternatives is required. The neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been emerging as a novel biomarker of acute kidney injury. The aim of this study was to assess urinary NGAL levels as a marker for disease activity in patients with lupus nephritis. For this work included 50 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, 50 with active lupus nephritis (LN), and 50 without autoimmune and renal disease as controls. TNGAL in urine samples was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results revealed that patients with kidney damage had an elevated urinary NGAL as compared to patients with lupus without kidney damage and controls (p <0.005), and the mean of uNGAL was (28.72 ± 4.53), (19.51 ± 4.72), (8.91 ± 3.37) respectively. Measurement of urinary NGAL levels showed a very good diagnostic performance for discriminating patients with Lupus nephritis from SLE without renal damage and of control individuals.

Keywords: lupus nephritis, biomarker, NGAL, urine samples

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2951 Total Plaque Area in Chronic Renal Failure

Authors: Hernán A. Perez, Luis J. Armando, Néstor H. García


Background and aims Cardiovascular disease rates are very high in patients with renal failure (CRF), but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not explain the increased risk, and observational studies have observed paradoxical or absent associations between classical risk factors and mortality in dialysis patients. A large randomized controlled trial, the 4D Study, the AURORA and the ALERT study found that statin therapy in CRF do not reduce cardiovascular events. These results may be the results of ‘accelerated atherosclerosis’ observed on these patients. The objective of this study was to investigate if carotid total plaque area (TPA), a measure of carotid plaque burden growth is increased at progressively lower creatinine clearance in patients with CRF. We studied a cohort of patients with CRF not on dialysis, reasoning that risk factor associations might be more easily discerned before end stage renal disease. Methods: The Blossom DMO Argentina ethics committee approved the study and informed consent from each participant was obtained. We performed a cohort study in 412 patients with Stage 1, 2 and 3 CRF. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained. TPA was determined using bilateral carotid ultrasonography. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease estimation formula was used to determine renal function. ANOVA was used when appropriate. Results: Stage 1 CRF group (n= 16, 43±2yo) had a blood pressure of 123±2/78±2 mmHg, BMI 30±1, LDL col 145±10 mg/dl, HbA1c 5.8±0.4% and had the lowest TPA 25.8±6.9 mm2. Stage 2 CRF (n=231, 50±1 yo) had a blood pressure of 132±1/81±1 mmHg, LDL col 125±2 mg/dl, HbA1c 6±0.1% and TPA 48±10mm2 ( p< 0.05 vs CRF stage 1) while Stage 3 CRF (n=165, 59±1 yo) had a blood pressure of 134±1/81±1, LDL col 125±3 mg/dl, HbA1c 6±0.1% and TPA 71±6mm2 (p < 0.05 vs CRF stage 1 and 2). Conclusion: Our data indicate that TPA increases along the renal function deterioration, and it is not related with the LDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels. We suggest that mechanisms other than the classics are responsible for the observed excess of cardiovascular disease in CKD patients and finally, determination of total plaque area should be used to measure effects of antiatherosclerotic therapy.

Keywords: hypertension, chronic renal failure, atherosclerosis, cholesterol

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2950 Interdialytic Acupuncture Is an Add-on Option for Preserving Residual Renal Function: A Case Series Report

Authors: Lai Tzu-Hsuan, Lai Jung-Nien, Lin Jaung-Geng, Kao Shung-Te, Hsuan-Kuang Jung


Background: Whether acupuncture therapy contributes to preserving residual renal function (RRF) remains largely unknown. This case series evidenced the potential beneficial effects of acupuncture for preserving RRF in five patients with the end-stage renal disease under hemodialysis (HD) treatment. Participants: Five patients on HD receiving eight sessions of weekly 30-min interdialytic acupuncture (Inter-A) with residual urine volume (rUV) and residual glomerular filtration rate (rGFR) recorded once every two weeks were included for analysis. Outcomes: Changes in rUV and rGFR calculated using 24-hour urine collection data were analyzed to assess RRF. Variations in hemoglobin, urea Kt/V and serum albumin levels measured monthly were analyzed to evaluate HD adequacy. Results: After eight Inter-A sessions, mean (standard deviation (SD)) rUV and rGFR increased from 612 (184) ml/day and 1.48 (.94) ml/min/1.73 m2 at baseline to 803(289) ml/day and 2.04(1.17) ml/min/1.73m2 at 2- and 4-week follow-up, respectively. The mean percentage difference increased by 31% in rUV and 38% in rGFR. Routine measurements on HD adequacy also showed improvement. Conclusions: Acupuncture might be an optional add-on treatment for HD population with poor control of water; however, further well-designed controlled trials are warranted.

Keywords: end-stage renal disease, hemodialysis, acupuncture, residual renal function, residual urine volume

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2949 Self-Efficacy Psychoeducational Programme for Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease

Authors: H.C. Chen, S. W. C. Chan, K. Cheng, A. Vathsala, H. K. Sran, H. He


Background: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is the last stage of chronic kidney disease. The numbers of patients with ESRD have increased worldwide due to the growing number of aging, diabetes and hypertension populations. Patients with ESRD suffer from physical illness and psychological distress due to complex treatment regimens, which often affect the patients’ social and psychological functioning. As a result, the patients may fail to perform daily self-care and self-management, and consequently experience worsening conditions. Aims: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of a self-efficacy psychoeducational programme on primary outcome (self-efficacy) and secondary outcomes (psychological wellbeing, treatment adherence, and quality of life) in patients with ESRD and haemodialysis in Singapore. Methodology: A randomised controlled, two-group pretest and repeated posttests design will be carried out. A total of 154 participants (n=154) will be recruited. The participants in the control group will receive a routine treatment. The participants in the intervention group will receive a self-efficacy psychoeducational programme in addition to the routine treatment. The programme is a two-session of educational intervention in a week. A booklet, two consecutive sessions of face-to-face individual education, and an abdominal breathing exercise are adopted in the programme. Outcome measurements include Dialysis Specific Self-efficacy Scale, Kidney Disease Quality of Life- 36 Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Renal Adherence Attitudes Questionnaire and Renal Adherence Behaviour Questionnaire. The questionnaires will be used to measure at baseline, 1- and 3- and 6-month follow-up periods. Process evaluation will be conducted with a semi-structured face to face interview. Quantitative data will be analysed using SPSS21.0 software. Qualitative data will be analysed by content analysis. Significance of the study: This study will identify a clinically useful and potentially effective approach to help patients with end-stage renal disease and haemodialysis by enhancing their self-efficacy in self-care behaviour, and therefore improving their psychological wellbeing, treatment adherence and quality of life. This study will provide information to develop clinical guidelines to improve patients’ disease self-management and to enhance health-related outcomes. Hopefully it will help reducing disease burden.

Keywords: end-stage renal disease (ESRD), haemodialysis, psychoeducation, self-efficacy

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2948 Hematuria Following Magnesium Sulfate Administration in a Pregnant Patient with Renal Tubular Acidosis

Authors: Jan Gayl Barcelon, N. Gorgonio


Renal tubular acidosis, a medical condition that involves the accumulation of acid in the body due to failure of the kidneys to maintain normal urine and blood pH, is rarely encountered in pregnancy. The effect of renal tubular acidosis in pregnancy is not fully established. It may worsen during pregnancy and cause maternal and fetal morbidity. A 30-year-old primigravida was diagnosed with renal tubular acidosis at age 7, but due to uncontrolled disease progression, she developed rickets at age 10. She was first seen in our institution at eight weeks gestation and maintained on bicarbonate and potassium supplementation. At 26 weeks gestation, she was diagnosed with polyhydramnios, causing on and off irregular uterine contractions. At 30 weeks gestation, despite oral Nifedipine, premature labor was uncontrolled; hence she was admitted for tocolysis. With elevated creatinine (123 umol/L) and a normal blood urea nitrogen level (6.70 mmol/L), she was referred to Nephrology Service, which cleared the patient prior to MgSO₄ drip. Dosing of 4g MgSO₄ over 20 minutes followed by a maintenance of 2g/hour x 24 hours for neuroprotection and tocolysis was ordered. Two hours after MgSO₄ drip initiation, hematuria developed with adequate urine output. The infusion was immediately stopped. The serum magnesium level was high normal at 6.7 mEq/L. After 4 hours of renal clearance, the repeat serum magnesium level was normal (2.7 mEq/L) and with clear urine output. The patient was then given Nifedipine 30mg/tab, 3x a day which controlled the uterine contractions. At 37 weeks gestation, the patient delivered via primary low transverse Cesarean Section to a live female with a birthweight of 2470gm, appropriate for gestational age. The use of MgSO₄ for the control of premature labor in patients with chronic renal disease secondary to renal tubular can cause hematuria.

Keywords: hematuria, magnesium sulfate, premature labor, renal tubular acidosis

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2947 The Effectiveness of a Self-Efficacy Psychoeducational Programme to Enhance Outcomes of Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

Authors: H. C. Chen, S. W. C. Chan, K. Cheng, A. Vathsala, H. K. Sran, H. He


Background: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is the last stage of chronic kidney disease. The numbers of patients with ESRD have increased worldwide due to the growing number of aging, diabetes and hypertension populations. Patients with ESRD suffer from physical illness and psychological distress due to complex treatment regimens, which often affect the patients’ social and psychological functioning. As a result, the patients may fail to perform daily self-care and self-management, and consequently experience worsening conditions. Aims: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of a self-efficacy psychoeducational programme on primary outcome (self-efficacy) and secondary outcomes (psychological wellbeing, treatment adherence, and quality of life) in patients with ESRD and haemodialysis in Singapore. Methodology: A randomised controlled, two-group pretest and repeated posttests design will be carried out. A total of 154 participants (n=154) will be recruited. The participants in the control group will receive a routine treatment. The participants in the intervention group will receive a self-efficacy psychoeducational programme in addition to the routine treatment. The programme is a two-session of educational intervention in a week. A booklet, two consecutive sessions of face-to-face individual education, and an abdominal breathing exercise are adopted in the programme. Outcome measurements include Dialysis Specific Self-efficacy Scale, Kidney Disease Quality of Life- 36 Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Renal Adherence Attitudes Questionnaire and Renal Adherence Behaviour Questionnaire. The questionnaires will be used to measure at baseline, 1- and 3- and 6-month follow-up periods. Process evaluation will be conducted with a semi-structured face to face interview. Quantitative data will be analysed using SPSS21.0 software. Qualitative data will be analysed by content analysis. Significance of the study: This study will identify a clinically useful and potentially effective approach to help patients with end-stage renal disease and haemodialysis by enhancing their self-efficacy in self-care behaviour, and therefore improving their psychological well-being, treatment adherence and quality of life. This study will provide information to develop clinical guidelines to improve patients’ disease self-management and to enhance health-related outcomes and it will help reducing disease burden.

Keywords: end-stage renal disease (ESRD), haemodialysis, psychoeducation, self-efficacy

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2946 Assessment of Association Between Microalbuminuria and Lung Function Test Among the Community of Jimma Town

Authors: Diriba Dereje


Background: Cardiac and renal disease are the most prevalent chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) affecting the community in a significant manner. The best and recommended method in halting CNCD is by working on prevention as early as possible. This is only possible if early surrogate markers are identified. As part of the stated solution, this study will identify an association between microalbuminuria (an early surrogate marker of renal and cardiac disease) and lung function test among adult in the community. Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess an association between microalbuminuria (an early surrogate marker of renal and cardiac disease) and lung function test among adult in the community. Methodology: Community based cross sectional study was conducted among 384 adult in Jimma town. A systematic sampling technique was used in selecting participants to the study. In searching for the possible association, binary and multivariate logistic regression and t-test was conducted. Finally, the association between microalbuminuria and lung function test was well stated in the form of figures and written description. Result and Conclusion: A significant association was found between microalbuminuria and different lung function test parameters.

Keywords: microalbuminuria, lung function, association, test

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2945 Outcomes of Live Renal Donors with a History of Nephrolithiasis

Authors: Bin Mohamed Ebrahim, Aminesh Singla, Henry Pleass


Aim: There is an ongoing gap in renal transplantation between organs available for donation and recipients on the waiting list. Live donors with pre-existing or a history of renal calculi were thought to be a relative contraindication due to safety concerns for donors. We aim to review current literature assessing outcomes of donors who were found to have a history of renal calculi. Methods: Ovid and Embase were searched between 1960 to 2021 using key terms and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) – nephrolithiasis, renal stones, renal transplantation and renal graft. Articles included conference proceedings and journal articles and were not excluded based on patient numbers. Studies were excluded if the specific organ was not identified, duplicated reports found or if post-transplant outcomes were not recorded. Outcomes were donor’s renal function or renal calculi recurrence postoperatively. Results: Upon reviewing 344 articles, 14 manuscripts met inclusion criteria. A total of 152 live donors were identified as having pre-existing or with a history of renal calculi at pre-operative workup. The mean stone size was 2.6 4mm (1 – 16) with a mean follow-up duration of 31.8 months (1 – 96). Seven studies had both outcomes. None showed renal complications or stone recurrence. The remaining studies contained 2 out of 84 patients having recurrent nephrolithiasis. Conclusion: Data suggests minimal morbidity involved for live renal donors with a history of nephrolithiasis. This should encourage surgeons to continue recruiting such donors for kidney transplantation.

Keywords: renal transplantation, renal graft, nephrolithiasis, renal calculi, live donor

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2944 Quality of Life and Renal Biomarkers in Feline Chronic Kidney Disease

Authors: Bárbara Durão, Pedro Almeida, David Ramilo, André Meneses, Rute Canejo-Teixeira


The importance of quality of life (QoL) assessment in veterinary medicine is an integral part of patient care. This is especially true in cases of chronic diseases, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), where the ever more advanced treatment options prolong the patient’s life. Whether this prolongment of life comes with an acceptable quality of life remains has been called into question. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between CKD disease biomarkers and QoL in cats. Thirty-seven cats diagnosed with CKD and with no known concurrent illness were enrolled in an observational study. Through the course of several evaluations, renal biomarkers were assessed in blood and urine samples, and owners retrospectively described their cat’s quality of life using a validated instrument for this disease. Correlations between QoL scores (AWIS) and the biomarkers were assessed using Spearman’s rank test. Statistical significance was set at p-value < 0.05, and every serial sample was considered independent. Thirty-seven cats met the inclusion criteria, and all owners completed the questionnaire every time their pet was evaluated, giving a total of eighty-four questionnaires, and the average-weighted-impact-score was –0.5. Results showed there was a statistically significant correlation between the quality of life and most of 17 the studied biomarkers and confirmed that CKD has a negative impact on QoL in cats especially due to the management of the disease and secondary appetite disorders. To our knowledge, this is the attempt to assess the correlation between renal biomarkers and QoL in cats. Our results reveal a strong potential of this type of approach in clinical management, mainly in situations where it is not possible to measure biomarkers. Whilst health-related QoL is a reliable predictor of mortality and morbidity in humans; our findings can help improve the clinical practice in cats with CKD.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, biomarkers, quality of life, feline

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2943 Prevalence of Anxiety among End Stage Renal Disease Patients and Its Association with Patient Compliance to Hemodialysis and Physician Instructions

Authors: Mohammed Asiri, Saleh Alsuwayt, Mohammed Bin Mugren, Abdulmalik Almufarrih, Tariq Alotaibi, Saad Almodameg


Background: End-stage renal disease is a major public health concern with high incidence and mortality rate. Most of ESRD patients are on hemodialysis therapy which is a long-term treatment that disturbs patients’ lifestyle. As a result, he will be susceptible to develop psychiatric disorders like anxiety that may direct him to non-compliance on physician instructions and hemodialysis therapy. Although there are studies conducted on psychiatric issues in hemodialysis patients, but few studies focused on the effect of anxiety disorder and the patient’s compliance. Hence, we are interested in determining the prevalence of anxiety disorder among hemodialysis patients in Saudi Arabia, as well as in defining the correlation between anxiety disorder and compliance on physician instructions and hemodialysis therapy. We hypothesize that our study will show a higher prevalence of anxiety in hemodialysis patients than in general population. Also, we expect the anxiety to have a negative impact on their compliance. Methodology: We used a cross-sectional study design carried out at dialysis unit of four major hospitals in Riyadh, KSA. We interviewed 235 End Stage Renal Disease male and female patients who are on hemodialysis. We divided the patients into two categories according to their compliance. we used modified general questionnaire to get their demographic data, then we used a psychometric response scale called visual analog scale (VAS) to assess patient’s compliance to hemodialysis and physician’s instructions. Also, we used the Arabic validated version of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD scale) used mainly for anxiety assessment. Results: The overall response rate was 54%. Respondents included 147 (62.6%) males and 88 (37.4%) females. The prevalence of anxiety among hemodialysis patients is 13.3%. According to visual analog scale, we found that 189 compliant patients and 45 non-compliant patients. For HAD scale, the mean ± standard deviation of the total score for females was (4.44 ± 4.7) and it’s higher than males which was 2.65 ± 3.08 (P-value= 0.002). The mean ± standard deviation of HAD score in the non-compliant group was (5.88  4.88) and it was higher than the compliant group (2.7  3.32) (P-value= 0.004). Among non-complaint group, 33.3% of anxious patients were males and 66.6% were females. There was a negative correlation between HAD score of anxiety and visual analog scale (R= - 0.285). Conclusion: We conclude that there is a high prevalence of anxiety among patients with End Stage Renal Disease that was higher in females with association of non-compliance to physician’s instructions and hemodialysis therapy.

Keywords: anxiety, end-stage renal disease, renal failure, anxiety disorder

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2942 Awareness and Willingness of Signing 'Consent Form in Palliative Care' in Elderly Patients with End Stage Renal Disease

Authors: Hsueh Ping Peng


End-stage renal disease most commonly occurs in the elderly population. Elderly people are approaching the end of their lives, and when facing major life-threatening situations, apart from aggressive medical treatment, they can also choose treatment methods such as hospice care to improve their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with the awareness and willingness to sign hospice and palliative care consent forms in elderly with end-stage renal disease. This study used both quantitative, cross-sectional study designs. In the quantitative section, 110 elderly patients (aged 65 or above) with end-stage renal disease receiving conventional hemodialysis were recruited as study participants from a medical center in Taipei City. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. Study tools included basic demographic data, questionnaires on the awareness and perception of hospice and palliative care, etc. After collecting the data, data analysis was conducted using SPSS 20.0 statistical software, including descriptive statistics, chi-square test, logistic regression, and other inferential statistics. The results showed that the average age of participants was 71.6 years old, more males than females, average years of dialysis was 6.1 years and most subjects rated their self-perceived health status as fair. Results of the study are summarized as follows: Elderly people with end-stage renal disease did not have sufficient knowledge and awareness about hospice and palliative care. Influencing factors included level of education, marital status, years of dialysis and age, etc. Demographic factors influencing the signing of consent forms included gender, marital status, and age, which all showed significant impacts. Factors taken into consideration when signing consent forms included awareness of hospice care, understanding the relevant definitions of hospice care, and understanding that consent may be modified or cancelled at any time; it was predicted that people who knew more about ways to receive hospice care or more related definitions were more willing to sign the consent forms. In the qualitative study section, 10 participants who signed the consent form, five male, and 5 female, between the ages of 65-90, have completed the semi-structured interviews. Analysis of the interviews revealed six themes: (1) passing away peacefully, (2) autonomy on arrangements of life and death, (3) unwillingness to increase family and social burden, (4) friends and relatives’ experience influencing the decision to give consent, (5) sharing information to facilitate the giving of consent, (6) facing each day with ease, to reflect the experience and factors of consideration for elderly with end-stage renal disease when signing consent forms. The results of this study provides the awareness, thoughts and feelings of elderly with end-stage renal disease on signing consent forms, and serve as a future reference for the dialysis unit to enhance the promotion of hospice and palliative care and related caregiving measures, thereby improving the quality of life and care for elderly people with end-stage renal disease.

Keywords: end-stage renal disease, hemodialysis, hospice and palliative care, awareness, willingness

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2941 Comparison of Health Related Quality of Life in End Stage Renal Diseases Undergoing Twice and Thrice Hemodialysis

Authors: Anamika A. Sharma, Arezou Ahmadi R. A., Narendra B. Parihar, Manjusha Sajith


Introduction: Hemodialysis is the most effective therapeutic technique for patient with ESRD second to renal transplantation. However it is a lifelong therapy which requires frequent hospital, or dialysis centers visits mainly twice and thrice weekly, thus considerably changes the normal way of patient’s living. So this study aimed to Assess Health-Related Quality of life in End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Undergoing Twice and Thrice weekly Hemodialysis. Method: A prospective observational, cross-sectional study was carried out from September 2016 to April 2017 in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. Socio-demographic and clinical details of patients were obtained from the medical records. WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to Access Health-Related Quality Of Life. Quality of Life scores of Twice weekly and Thrice weekly hemodialysis was analyzed by Kruskal Wallis Test. Results: Majority of respondents were male (72.55%), married (89.31%), employed (58.02%), belong to middle class (71.00%) and resides in rural area (58.78%). The mean ages in the patient undergoing twice weekly and thrice weekly hemodialysis were 51.89 ± 15.64 years and 51.33 ± 15.70 years respectively. Average Quality of Life scores observed in twice weekly and thrice weekly hemodialysis was 52.07 ± 13.30 (p=0.0037) and 52.87 ± 13.47 (p=0.0004) respectively. The hemoglobin of thrice weekly dialysis patients (10.28 gm/dL) was high as compared to twice weekly dialysis (9.23 gm/dL). Patients undergoing thrice weekly dialysis had improved serum urea, serum creatinine values (95.85 mg/dL, 8.32 mg/dL) as compared to twice weekly hemodialysis ( 104.94 mg/dL, 8.68 mg/dL). Conclusion: Our study concluded that there was no significant difference between overall Health-Related Quality Of Life in twice weekly and thrice weekly hemodialysis. Frequent hemodialysis was associated with improved control of hypertension, serum urea, serum creatinine levels.

Keywords: end stage renal disease, health related quality of life, twice weekly hemodialysis, thrice weekly hemodialysis

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2940 Renal Amyloidosis in Domestic Iranian Sheep

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi, Fateme Behbahani, Sara Omidi, Nadia Shahi, Alireza Farkhonde


Amyloidosis represents a heterogenous group of diseases that have in common the deposition of fibrils composed of proteins of beta-pleated sheet structure, which can be specifically identified by histochemistry using the Congo red or similar stains. Between October 2013 to April 2014 (6 months) different patterns of renal amyloidosis was diagnosed on histopathological examination of kidneys belong to 196 out of 7065 slaughtered sheep subjected to postmortem examination. Microscopic examination of renal tissue sections stained with H&E and CR staining techniques revealed 3 patterns of renal amyloid deposition; including glomerular (22.72%), medullary (68.18%), and vascular (9.09%) were recognized. Renal medullary amyloidosis (RMA) was detected as the most prevalence pattern of renal amyloidosis in domestic sheep.

Keywords: sheep, amyloidosis, kidney, slaughterhouse

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2939 Prevalence of Lupus Glomerulonephritis in Renal Biopsies in an Eastern Region of the Arab World

Authors: M. Fayez Al Homsi, Reem Al Homsi


Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Glomerular diseases make a small portion of the renal disease. Lupus glomerulonephritis (GN) is the commonest among the GN of systemic diseases. More than a hundred and eighty-eight consecutive renal biopsies are performed and evaluated for clinically suspected glomerular diseases over a period of two years. As in a standard practice after receiving the ultrasound-guided renal biopsies, the fresh biopsy is divided to three parts, one part is frozen for immunofluorescence evaluation, the second part is placed in 4% glutaraldehyde for electron microscopic evaluation, and the third part is placed in 10% buffered formalin for light microscopic evaluation. Primary glomerular diseases are detected in 83 biopsies; glomerulonephritis (GN) of systemic diseases are identified in 88, glomerular lesions in vascular diseases in 3, glomerular lesions in metabolic diseases in 7, hereditary nephropathies in 2, end-stage kidney in 2, and glomerular lesions in transplantation in 3 biopsies. Among the primary lesions, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (28) and mesangial proliferative GN (26) were the most common. Lupus GN (67) and Ig A nephropathy (20) were the most common of the GN of systemic diseases. Lupus nephritis biopsies included one biopsy diagnosed as class 1 (normal), 17 biopsies class 2 (mesangial proliferation), 5 biopsies class 3 (focal proliferative GN), 39 biopsies class 4 diffuse proliferative GN), 3 biopsies class 5 (membranous GN), and 2 biopsies class 6 (crescentic GN). Lupus GN is the most common among GN of systemic diseases. While diabetes is very common here, diabetic GN (3 biopsies) is not as common as might one expects. Most likely this is due to sampling and reluctance on part of nephrologists and patients in sampling the kidney in diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: diabetes, glomerulonephritis, lupus, mesangial proliferation, nephropathy

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2938 Effects of Blood Pressure According to Age on End-Stage Renal Disease Development in Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

Authors: Eun Hui Bae, Sang Yeob Lim, Bongseong Kim, Tae Ryom Oh, Su Hyun Song, Sang Heon Suh, Hong Sang Choi, Eun Mi Yang, Chang Seong Kim, Seong Kwon Ma, Kyung-Do Han, Soo Wan Kim


Background: Recent hypertension guidelines have recommended lower blood pressure (BP) targets in high-risk patients. However, there are no specific guidelines based on age or systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively). We aimed to assess the effects of age-related BP on the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with diabetes. Methods: A total of 2,563,870 patients with DM aged >20 years were selected from the Korean National Health Screening Program from 2009 to 2012 and followed up until the end of 2019. Participants were categorized into age and BP groups, and the hazard ratios (HRs) for ESRD were calculated. Results: During a median follow-up of 7.15 years, the incidence rates of ESRD increased with increasing SBP and DBP. The HR for ESRD was the highest in patients younger than 40 years of age with DBP ≥ 100 mmHg. The effect of SBP and DBP on ESRD development was attenuated with age (interaction p-value was <0.0001 for age and SBP and 0.0022 for age and DBP). The subgroup analysis for sex, anti-hypertension medication, and history of chronic kidney disease (CKD) showed higher HRs for ESRD among males younger than 40 years, not taking anti-hypertension medications and CKD compared to those among females older than 40 years, anti-hypertension medication and non-CKD groups. Conclusions: Higher SBP and DBP increase the risk of developing ESRD in patients with diabetes, and in particular, younger individuals face greater risk. Therefore, intensive BP management is warranted in younger patients to prevent ESRD.

Keywords: hypertension, young adult, end-stage renal disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, blood pressure

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2937 Illness Roles and Coping Strategies in Aged Patients on Hemodialysis in Lahore

Authors: Zainab Bashir


There has been a lot of quantitative research on end-stage renal disease (ESRD), its implications, psychological effects and so on across the world, however little qualitative information is available on coping strategies and illness role adaptations specific to renal failure. This article attempts to learn about illness roles and coping strategies specific to aged ESRD patients on hemodialysis in Lahore. The patients were interviewed on a structured schedule and were asked questions on tasks and coping related to physical, psychological, and social consequences of renal failure. Standardised techniques and methods of grounded theory were used to analyse and code the information in this small-scale, in-depth study. An analysis of tasks faced by the ESRD patients and coping they employ to fulfill or overcome those tasks were done. This analysis was based on three different types of data: experiential accounts of ESRD patients with respect to tasks and strategies for coping, coping styles and illness roles typologies, and monographs of coping styles. In the information gathered using interviews with respondents, three styles of problem focused coping, and two styles of emotion focused coping could be identified. Problem focused coping included making physical adjustments to suit the requirements of the health condition, including dialysis and medical regime as integral part of patients’ lives, and altering future plans according to the course of the disease. Emotion focused coping included seeking help to manage stress/anxiety and resenting the disease condition and giving up. These coping styles are linked to the illness roles assigned to the respondents. In conclusion, there is no single formula to deal with the disease, however, some typologies can be established. In most of the cases discussed in the paper, adjustment to a regular dialysis routine, restriction in bodily function, inability to work and negative impacts on family life, especially spousal relationships have come to fore as common problems. A large part of coping with these problems had to do with mentally accepting the disease and carrying on despite. These cannot be seen as deviant adaptations to the depressive situation arising from renal failure, but more of patterned ways in which patients can approximate a close to normal lifestyle despite the terminal disease.

Keywords: coping strategies, ESRD patients, hemodialysis, illness roles

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2936 Correlation between Peripheral Arterial Disease and Coronary Artery Disease in Bangladeshi Population: A Five Years Retrospective Study

Authors: Syed Dawood M. Taimur


Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is under diagnosed in primary care practices, yet the extent of unrecognized PAD in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. Objective: To assess the prevalence of previously unrecognized PAD in patients undergoing coronary angiogram and to determine the relationship between the presence of PAD and severity of CAD. Material & Methods: This five years retrospective study was conducted at an invasive lab of the department of Cardiology, Ibrahim Cardiac Hospital & Research Institute from January 2010 to December 2014. Total 77 patients were included in this study. Study variables were age, sex, risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, smoking habit and positive family history for ischemic heart disease, coronary artery and peripheral artery profile. Results: Mean age was 56.83±13.64 years, Male mean age was 53.98±15.08 years and female mean age was 54.5±1.73years. Hypertension was detected in 55.8%, diabetes in 87%, dyslipidaemia in 81.8%, smoking habits in 79.2% and 58.4% had a positive family history. After catheterization 88.3% had peripheral arterial disease and 71.4% had coronary artery disease. Out of 77 patients, 52 had both coronary and peripheral arterial disease which was statistically significant (p < .014). Coronary angiogram revealed 28.6% (22) patients had triple vessel disease, 23.3% (18) had single vessel disease, 19.5% (15) had double vessel disease and 28.6% (22) were normal coronary arteries. The peripheral angiogram revealed 54.5% had superficial femoral artery disease, 26% had anterior tibial artery disease, 27.3% had posterior tibial artery disease, 20.8% had common iliac artery disease, 15.6% had common femoral artery disease and 2.6% had renal artery disease. Conclusion: There is a strong and definite correlation between coronary and peripheral arterial disease. We found that cardiovascular risk factors were in fact risk factors for both PAD and CAD.

Keywords: coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease(PVD), risk, factors, correlation, cathetarization

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2935 Correlation between Microalbuminuria and Hypertension in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Authors: Alia Ali, Azeem Taj, Muhammed Joher Amin, Farrukh Iqbal, Zafar Iqbal


Background: Hypertension is commonly found in patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD). Microalbuminuria is the first clinical sign of involvement of kidneys in patients with type 2 diabetes. Uncontrolled hypertension induces a higher risk of cardiovascular events, including death, increasing proteinuria and progression to kidney disease. Objectives: To determine the correlation between microalbuminuria and hypertension and their association with other risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: One hundred and thirteen type 2 diabetic patients were screened for microalbuminuria and raised blood pressure, attending the diabetic clinic of Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. The study was conducted from November 2012 to June 2013. Results: Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1, those with normoalbuminuria (n=63) and Group 2, those having microalbuminuria (n=50). Group 2 patients showed higher blood pressure values as compared to Group 1. The results were statistically significant and showed poor glycemic control as a contributing risk factor. Conclusion: The study concluded that there is high frequency of hypertension among type 2 diabetics but still much higher among those having microalbuminuria. So, early recognition of renal dysfunction through detection of microalbuminuria and to start treatment without any delay will confer future protection from end-stage renal disease as well as hypertension and its complications in type 2 diabetic patients.

Keywords: hypertension, microalbuminuria, diabetic kidney disease, type 2 Diabetes mellitus

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2934 Renal Transplant, Pregnancy, and Complications: A Literature Review

Authors: Sara Iqbal


Introduction:Renal transplant is increasingly one of the most popular transplants within the UK; with an aging population along with obesity epidemic we are witnessing increasing rates of diabetes – one of the commonest indications for renal transplant. However, the demand is far greater than supply. Many donors are provided by women of child-bearing age; however the long-term effects are still uncertain. Aim:Determine pregnancy outcomes and complications of women of child-bearing age following renal donation. Methods: A review of the current available literature was preformed using MEDLINE and EMBASE up to 2014. Search criteria included key terms such as pregnancy outcome post-renal donor, pregnancy outcomes and complications. Relevant articles were selected based on pure methodological medical research, after careful analysis, they were recorded within this review. Results: Out of 1141 women involved in transplant studies, 574 pregnancies reported having donated a single-renal donor prior to pregnancy. Of which a staggering miscarriage rate 32.4% (n=186) was reported, amongst this other complications included gestational hypertension of 10% (n=59) and gestational diabetes 2.3% (n=13). Other significantly noted complications included chronic hypertension, low-birth weights, and pregnancy-related death. Conclusions: After unilateral renal donor transplant, haemodynamics change along with pregnancy, predisposing women to developing several complications compared to pregnancies with no history any renal-donor transplant. Despite this, further investigation is required in order to accurately determine the safety of renal-donors in women of child-bearing age.

Keywords: renal transplant, pregnancy, complications, medical and health sciences

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2933 Cardiovascular Disease Is Common among Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Authors: Fathia Ehmouda Zaid, Reim Abudelnbi


Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients and method: Cross-section study (68) patients diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who visited the outpatient clinic of rheumatology, these patients were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about their past and current clinically for presence of Cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus and use SLEDAI, specific tests [ECG –ECHO –CXRAY] the data are analyzed statistically by Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated and statistical significance was defined as P< 0.05,during period (2013-2014). Objective: Estimation Cardiovascular disease manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus, correlation with disease activity, morbidity, and mortality. Result: (68) Patients diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus' age range from (18-48 years), M=(13±29Y), Sex were female 66/68 (97.1%), male 2/68 (2.9%),duration of disease range[1-15year], M =[7±8y], we found Cardiovascular disease manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus 32/68 (47.1%), correlation with disease activity use SLEDAI,(r= 476** p=0.000),Morbidity,(r= .554**; p=0.000) and mortality (r=.181; p=.139), Cardiovascular disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus are pericarditis 8/68 (11.8%), pericardial effusion 6/68 (8.8%), myocarditis 4/68 (5.9 %), valvular lesions (endocarditis) 1/68 (1.5%), pulmonary hypertension (PAH) 12/68 (17.6%), coronary artery disease 1/68 (1.5%), none of patients have conduction abnormalities involvement. Correlation with disease activity use SLEDAI, pericarditis (r= .210, p=.086), pericardial effusion (r= 0.079, p=.520), myocarditis (r= 272*, p=.027), valvular lesions (endocarditis) (r= .112, p= .362), pulmonary hypertension (PAH) (r= .257*, p=.035) and coronary artery disease (r=.075, p=.544) correlation between cardiovascular disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus and specific organ involvement we found Mucocutaneous (r=.091 p= .459), musculoskeletal (MSK) (r=.110 p=.373), Renal disease (r=.278*, p=.022), neurologic disease (r=.085, p=.489) and Hematologic disease (r=-.264*, p=.030). Conclusion: Cardiovascular manifestation is more frequent symptoms with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is 47 % correlation with disease activity and morbidity but not with mortality. Recommendations: Focus research to evaluation and an adequate assessment of cardiovascular complications on the morbidity and mortality of the patients with SLE are still required.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, disease activity, mortality

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2932 Hemodialysis Technique in a Diabetic Population

Authors: Daniel Thompson, Sophie Cerutti, Muhammad Peerbux, Hansraj Bookun


Introduction: Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause end stage renal failure in Australia, responsible for 36% of cases. Patients who require dialysis may be suitable for haemodialysis through an arteriovenous fistula (AVF), and preoperatively careful planning is required to select suitable vessels for a long-lasting fistula that provides suitable dialysis access. Due to high levels of vascular disease in diabetic patients, we sought to investigate whether there is a difference in the types of autologous AVFs created for diabetic patients in renal failure compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. Method: Data was collected from the Australasian Vascular Audit, for all vascular surgery completed at St. Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne between 2011-2020. Patients were selected by operative type, creation of AVF, and compared in two groups, diabetic patients and patients without diabetes. Chi-squared test was utilised to determine significance. Results: Data analysis is ongoing and will be complete with updated abstract in time for the conference. Discussion: Diabetic nephropathy is the cause for roughly a third of end stage renal failure in Australia. Diabetic patients present with a unique set of challenges when it comes to dialysis access due to increased risk of peripheral vascular disease and arterial calcification. Care must be taken in the creation of fistulas to minimise complications and increase the chance of long-lasting access. Our study investigates the difference in autologous AVFs between diabetics and non-diabetics, and results may be used to influence location of fistula creation. Further research may be used to investigate patency rates of fistulas in diabetics vs non-diabetics which would further influence treatment decisions.

Keywords: dialysis, diabetes, renal access, fistula

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2931 Cognitive Impairment in Chronic Renal Patients on Hemodialysis

Authors: Fabiana Souza Orlandi, Juliana Gomes Duarte, Gabriela Dutra Gesualdo


Chronic renal disease (CKD), accompanied by hemodialysis, causes chronic renal failure in a number of situations that compromises not only physical, personal and environmental aspects, but also psychological, social and family aspects. Objective: To verify the level of cognitive impairment of chronic renal patients on hemodialysis. Methodology: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. The present study was performed in a Dialysis Center of a city in the interior of the State of São Paulo. The inclusion criteria were: being 18 years or older; have a medical diagnosis of CKD; being in hemodialysis treatment in this unit; and agree to participate in the research, with the signature of the Informed Consent (TCLE). A total of 115 participants were evaluated through the Participant Characterization Instrument and the Addenbrooke Cognitive Exam - Revised Version (ACE-R), being scored from 0 to 100, stipulating the cut-off note for the complete battery <78 and subdivided into five domains: attention and guidance; memory; fluency; language; (66.9%) and caucasian (54.7%), 53.7 (±14.8) years old. Most of the participants were retired (74.7%), with incomplete elementary schooling (36.5%) and the average time of treatment was 46 months. Most of the participants (61.3%) presented impairment in the area of attention and orientation, 80.4% in the spatial visual domain. Regarding the total ACE-R score, 75.7% of the participants presented scores below the established cut grade. Conclusion: There was a high percentage (75.7%) below the cut-off score established for ACE-R, suggesting that there may be some cognitive impairment among these participants, since the instrument only performs a screening on cognitive health. The results of the study are extremely important so that possible interventions can be traced in order to minimize impairment, thus improving the quality of life of chronic renal patients.

Keywords: cognition, chronic renal insufficiency, adult health, dialysis

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2930 Evaluation of the Pain of Patients with Chronic Renal Disease in Hemodialysis

Authors: Fabiana Souza Orlandi, Izabel Cristina Chavez Gomes, Barbara Isabela De Paula Morais, Ana Carolina Ottaviani


Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is considered a public health problem. Patients who present CKD in their more advanced stages usually present several biopsychosocial changes, which may include pain. Pain can be considered subjective and personal, and its perception is characterized as a multidimensional experience. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level and descriptors of pain of adults and elderly patients with chronic kidney disease, through the Multidimensional Pain Evaluation Scale (EMADOR). This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. The sample consisted of 100 subjects with CKD in hemodialysis treatment at a Renal Replacement Therapy Service in the interior of the state of São Paulo. Data were collected through an individual interview, using a Sociodemographic Characterization and Multidimensional Pain Evaluation Scale (EMADOR). All ethical precepts were respected. The majority of the respondents were men (61.0%), white (56.0%) and with a high school education (34.0%). Regarding the pain of the individuals, 89 patients reported pain, with Chronic Pain predominating (50.0%, n = 50), followed by Acute Pain (39.0%, n = 39). Of the subjects who presented acute pain most of the 89.0% described the pain felt as unbearable, and of those who presented chronic pain, 35.0% described the pain felt as painful, unbearable and uncomfortable. It was concluded that there was a significant presence of pain, being the chronic pain dominant in the studied population. Faced with such factors, the present study motivates researches in this population, in order to establish interventions with the objective of improving the quality of life of these individuals.

Keywords: pain, chronic kidney disease, dialysis, evaluation

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2929 Influence of Spirituality on Health Outcomes and General Well-Being in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

Authors: Ali A Alshraifeen, Josie Evans, Kathleen Stoddart


End-stage renal disease (ESRD) introduces physical, psychological, social, emotional and spiritual challenges into patients’ lives. Spirituality has been found to contribute to improved health outcomes, mainly in the areas of quality of life (QOL) and well-being. No studies exist to explore the influence of spirituality on the health outcomes and general well-being in patients with end-stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis (HD) treatment in Scotland. This study was conducted to explore spirituality in the daily lives of among these patients and how it may influence their QOL and general well-being. The study employed a qualitative method. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with a sample of 21 patients. A thematic approach using Framework Analysis informed the qualitative data analysis. Participants were recruited from 11 dialysis units across four Health Boards in Scotland. The participants were regular patients attending the dialysis units three times per week. Four main themes emerged from the qualitative interviews: ‘Emotional and Psychological Turmoil’, ‘Life is Restricted’, ‘Spirituality’ and ‘Other Coping Strategies’. The findings suggest that patients’ QOL might be affected because of the physical challenges such as unremitting fatigue, disease unpredictability and being tied down to a dialysis machine, or the emotional and psychological challenges imposed by the disease into their lives such as wholesale changes, dialysis as a forced choice and having a sense of indebtedness. The findings also revealed that spirituality was an important coping strategy for the majority of participants who took part in the qualitative component (n=16). Different meanings of spirituality were identified including connection with God or Supernatural Being, connection with the self, others and nature/environment. Spirituality encouraged participants to accept their disease and offered them a sense of protection, instilled hope in them and helped them to maintain a positive attitude to carry on with their daily lives, which may have had a positive influence on their health outcomes and general well-being. The findings also revealed that humor was another coping strategy that helped to diffuse stress and anxiety for some participants and encouraged them to carry on with their lives. The findings from this study provide a significant contribution to a very limited body of work. The study contributes to our understanding of spirituality and how people receiving dialysis treatment use it to manage their daily lives. Spirituality is of particular interest due to its connection with health outcomes in patients with chronic illnesses. The link between spirituality and many chronic illnesses has gained some recognition, yet the identification of its influence on the health outcomes and well-being in patients with ESRD is still evolving. There is a need to understand patients’ experiences and examine the factors that influence their QOL and well-being to ensure that the services available are adequately tailored to them. Hence, further research is required to obtain a better understanding of the influence of spirituality on the health outcomes and general well-being of patients with ESRD.

Keywords: end-stage renal disease, general well-being, quality of life, spirituality

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