Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2917

Search results for: early adolescence

2917 Externalizing Behavior Problems Influencing Social Behavior in Early Adolescence

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang

Abstract:

This study focuses on early adolescent externalizing behavioral problems which specifically concentrate on rule breaking behavior and aggressive behavior using the instrument of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). The purpose was to analyze the relationships between the externalizing behavioral problems and relevant background variables such as sports activities, hobbies, chores and the number of close friends. The stratified sampling method was used to collect data from 1975 participants. The results indicated that several background variables as predictors could significantly predict rule breaking behavior and aggressive behavior. Further, a hierarchical modeling method was used to explore the causal relations among background variables, breaking behavior variables and aggressive behavior variables.

Keywords: aggressive behavior, breaking behavior, early adolescence, externalizing problem

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2916 Schizophrenia in Childhood and Adolescence: Research Topics and Applied Methodology

Authors: Jhonas Geraldo Peixoto Flauzino, Pedro Pompeo Boechat Araujo, Alexia Allis Rocha Lima, Giovanna Biângulo Lacerda Chaves, Victor Ryan Ferrão Chaves

Abstract:

Schizophrenia is characterized as a set of psychiatric signs and symptoms (syndrome) that commonly erupt in the stages of adolescence or early adulthood, being recognized as one of the most serious diseases, as it causes important problems during the life of the patient. carrier - both in mental health and in physical health and in social life. Objectives: This is an integrative literature review that aimed to verify what has been produced of scientific knowledge in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry regarding schizophrenia in these stages of life, correlated to the most discussed themes and methodologies of choice for the preparation of studies. Methods: Articles were selected from the following databases: Virtual Health Library and CAPES Journal Portal, published in the last five years; and on Google Scholar, published in 2021, totaling 62 works, searched in September 2021. Results: The studies focus mainly on diagnosis through the DSM-V (25.8%), on drug treatment (25.8%) and in psychotherapy (24.2%), most of them in the literature review format: integrative (27.4%) and systematic (24.2%). Conclusion: The themes and study methods are redundant, and do not cover in depth the immense aspects that encompass Schizophrenia in Childhood and Adolescence, giving attention to the disease in a general way or focusing on the adult patient.

Keywords: schizophrenia, mental health, childhood, adolescence

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2915 Narrative Identity Predicts Borderline Personality Disorder Features in Inpatient Adolescents up to Six Months after Admission

Authors: Majse Lind, Carla Sharp, Salome Vanwoerden

Abstract:

Narrative identity is the dynamic and evolving story individuals create about their personal pasts, presents, and presumed futures. This storied sense of self develops in adolescence and is crucial for fostering a sense of self-unity and purpose in life. A growing body of work has shown that several characteristics of narrative identity are disturbed in adults suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD). Very little research, however, has explored the stories told by adolescents with BPD features. Investigating narrative identity early in the lifespan and in relation to personality pathology is crucial; BPD is a developmental disorder with early signs appearing already in adolescence. In the current study, we examine narrative identity (focusing on themes of agency and communion) coded from self-defining memories derived from the child attachment interview in 174 inpatient adolescents (M = 15.12, SD = 1.52) at the time of admission. The adolescents’ social cognition was further assessed on the basis of their reactions to movie scenes (i.e., the MASC movie task). They also completed a trauma checklist and self-reported BPD features at three different time points (i.e., at admission, at discharge, and 6 months after admission). Preliminary results show that adolescents who told stories containing themes of agency and communion evinced better social cognition, and lower emotional abuse on the trauma checklist. In addition, adolescents who disclosed stories containing lower levels of agency and communion demonstrated more BPD symptoms at all three time points, even when controlling for the occurrence of traumatic life events. Surprisingly, social cognitive abilities were not significantly associated with BPD features. These preliminary results underscore the importance of narrative identity as an indicator, and potential cause, of incipient personality pathology. Thus, focusing on diminished themes of narrative-based agency and communion in early adolescence could be crucial in preventing the development of personality pathology over time.

Keywords: borderline personality disorder, inpatient adolescents, narrative identity, follow-ups

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2914 The Causal Relationships between Educational Environments and Rule-Breaking Behavior Issues in Early Adolescence

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang

Abstract:

This study focused on early adolescent rule-breaking behavioral problems using the instrument of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). The purpose was to analyze the relationships between the rule-breaking behavioral problems and relevant background variables such as sports activities, hobbies, chores and the number of close friends. The stratified sampling method was used to collect data from 2532 participants. The results indicated that several background variables as predictors could significantly predict rule breaking behavior and aggressive behavior. Further, a path analysis method was used to explore the correlational and causal relationships among background variables and breaking behavior variables.

Keywords: ASEBA, rule-breaking, path analysis, early adolescent

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2913 Trajectories of Conduct Problems and Cumulative Risk from Early Childhood to Adolescence

Authors: Leslie M. Gutman

Abstract:

Conduct problems (CP) represent a major dilemma, with wide-ranging and long-lasting individual and societal impacts. Children experience heterogeneous patterns of conduct problems; based on the age of onset, developmental course and related risk factors from around age 3. Early childhood represents a potential window for intervention efforts aimed at changing the trajectory of early starting conduct problems. Using the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 17,206 children), this study (a) identifies trajectories of conduct problems from ages 3 to 14 years and (b) assesses the cumulative and interactive effects of individual, family and socioeconomic risk factors from ages 9 months to 14 years. The same factors according to three domains were assessed, including child (i.e., low verbal ability, hyperactivity/inattention, peer problems, emotional problems), family (i.e., single families, parental poor physical and mental health, large family size) and socioeconomic (i.e., low family income, low parental education, unemployment, social housing). A cumulative risk score for the child, family, and socioeconomic domains at each age was calculated. It was then examined how the cumulative risk scores explain variation in the trajectories of conduct problems. Lastly, interactive effects among the different domains of cumulative risk were tested. Using group-based trajectory modeling, four distinct trajectories were found including a ‘low’ problem group and three groups showing childhood-onset conduct problems: ‘school-age onset’; ‘early-onset, desisting’; and ‘early-onset, persisting’. The ‘low’ group (57% of the sample) showed a low probability of conducts problems, close to zero, from 3 to 14 years. The ‘early-onset, desisting’ group (23% of the sample) demonstrated a moderate probability of CP in early childhood, with a decline from 3 to 5 years and a low probability thereafter. The ‘early-onset, persistent’ group (8%) followed a high probability of conduct problems, which declined from 11 years but was close to 70% at 14 years. In the ‘school-age onset’ group, 12% of the sample showed a moderate probability of conduct problems from 3 and 5 years, with a sharp increase by 7 years, increasing to 50% at 14 years. In terms of individual risk, all factors increased the likelihood of being in the childhood-onset groups compared to the ‘low’ group. For cumulative risk, the socioeconomic domain at 9 months and 3 years, the family domain at all ages except 14 years and child domain at all ages were found to differentiate childhood-onset groups from the ‘low’ group. Cumulative risk at 9 months and 3 years did not differentiate between the ‘school-onset’ group and ‘low’ group. Significant interactions were found between the domains for the ‘early-onset, desisting group’ suggesting that low levels of risk in one domain may buffer the effects of high risk in another domain. The implications of these findings for preventive interventions will be highlighted.

Keywords: conduct problems, cumulative risk, developmental trajectories, early childhood, adolescence

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2912 A Dialectical Behavioral Therapy Adaptation in Reducing Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Harm in Older Adults

Authors: Valerie Alexander, Amanda Gutierrez, Veronica Campbell, Dara Schwartz, B. Charles Tatum

Abstract:

It has long been assumed that personality disorders (PD) originate in adolescence or early adulthood and that the maladaptive behaviors significantly attenuate over time. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 supports early onset of PD and views the pattern of behaviors as enduring and stable. The premise of this study is that PD may not always begin early in life, that behaviors may change over the lifespan, and that current treatment modalities may be beneficial in seniors. Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) exhibited earlier in life may, in older adults, be manifested in less overt high-risk behaviors but by refusal to take medication and get necessary medical treatment. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is a well-known treatment modality for teaching emotional regulation and distress tolerance and thus reducing self-injurious behaviors yet very little has been studied about SIB and treatment in older adults. The population for this study was older adults, with a history of SIB, a PD, and depression and/or anxiety. Participants learned an adapted version of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) as developed by DBT trained therapists. The results provided clinical potentials for the efficacy of DBT to reduce SIB, decrease depression and anxiety in the older adult population.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, dialectical behavioral therapy, personality disorders, self-harm behavior, treatment in older adults

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2911 Impact of Early Father Involvement on Middle Childhood Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes

Authors: Jamel Slaughter

Abstract:

Father involvement across the development of a child has been linked to children’s psychological adjustment, fewer behavioral problems, and higher educational attainment. Conversely, there is much less research that highlights father involvement in relation to childhood development during early childhood period prior to preschool age (ages 1-3 years). Most research on fathers and child outcomes have been limited by its focus on the stages of adolescence, middle childhood, and infancy. This study examined the influence of father involvement, during the toddler stage, on 5th grade cognitive development, rule-breaking, and behavior outcomes measured by Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores. Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation (EHSRE) Study, 1996-2010: United States, a total of 3,001 children and families were identified in 17 sites (cities), representing a diverse demographic sample. An independent samples t-test was run to compare cognitive development, aggressive, and rule-breaking behavior mean scores among children who had early continuous father involvement for the first 14 – 36 months to children who did not have early continuous father involvement for the first 14 – 36 months. Multiple linear regression was conducted to determine if continuous, or non-continuous father involvement (14 month-36 months), can be used to predict outcome scores on the Child Behavior Checklist in aggressive behavior, rule-breaking behavior, and cognitive development, at 5th grade. A statistically significant mean difference in cognitive development scores were found for children who had continuous father involvement (M=1.92, SD=2.41, t (1009) =2.81, p =.005, 95% CI=.146 to .828) compared to those who did not (M=2.60, SD=3.06, t (1009) =-2.38, p=.017, 95% CI= -1.08 to -.105). There was also a statistically significant mean difference in rule-breaking behavior scores between children who had early continuous father involvement (M=1.95, SD=2.33, t (1009) = 3.69, p <.001, 95% CI= .287 to .940), compared to those that did not (M=2.87, SD=2.93, t (1009) = -3.49, p =.001, 95% CI= -1.30 to -.364). No statistically significant difference was found in aggressive behavior scores. Multiple linear regression was performed using continuous father involvement to determine which has the largest relationship to rule-breaking behavior and cognitive development based on CBCL scores. Rule-breaking behavior was found to be significant (F (2, 1008) = 8.353, p<.001), with an R2 of .016. Cognitive development was also significant (F (2, 1008) = 4.44, p=.012), with an R2 of .009. Early continuous father involvement was a significant predictor of rule-breaking behavior and cognitive development at middle childhood. Findings suggest early continuous father involvement during the first 14 – 36 months of their children’s life, may lead to lower levels of rule-breaking behaviors and thought problems at 5th grade.

Keywords: cognitive development, early continuous father involvement, middle childhood, rule-breaking behavior

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2910 Learning Environments in the Early Years: A Case Study of an Early Childhood Centre in Australia

Authors: Mingxi Xiao

Abstract:

Children’s experiences in the early years build and shape the brain. The early years learning environment plays a significantly important role in children’s development. A well-constructed environment will facilitate children’s physical and mental well-being. This case study used an early learning centre in Australia called SDN Hurstville as an example, describing the learning environment in the centre, as well as analyzing the functions of the affordances. In addition, this report talks about the sustainability of learning in the centre, and how the environment supports cultural diversity and indigenous learning. The early years for children are significant. Different elements in the early childhood centre should work together to help children develop better. This case study found that the natural environment and the artificial environment are both critical to children; only when they work together can children have better development in physical and mental well-being and have a sense of belonging when playing and learning in the centre.

Keywords: early childhood center, early childhood education, learning environment, Australia

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2909 Collaborative Early Warning System: An Integrated Framework for Mitigating Impacts of Natural Hazards in the UAE

Authors: Abdulla Al Hmoudi

Abstract:

The impacts and costs of natural disasters on people, properties and the environment is often severe when they occur on a large scale or when not prepared for. Factors such as impacts of climate change, urban growth, poor planning to mention a few, have continued to significantly increase the frequencies and aggravate the impacts of natural hazards across the world; the United Arab Emirates (UAE) inclusive. The lack of deployment of an early warning system, low risk and hazard knowledge and impact of natural hazard experienced in some communities in the UAE have emphasised the need for more effective early warning systems. This paper focuses on the collaborative approach taken to instituting and implementing an early warning system. Using mixed methods 888 people completed the questionnaire and eight people were interviewed in Abu Dhabi. The results indicate that the collaborative approach to early warning system is UAE is needed, but lacks essential principles of the early warning system and currently underutilised. It is recommended that the collaborative early warning system is applied at every stage of the early warning system with the specific responsibility of each stakeholder and actor.

Keywords: community, early warning system, emergency management, UAE

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2908 Early Warning Signals: Role and Status of Risk Management in Small and Medium Enterprises

Authors: Alexander Kelíšek, Denisa Janasová, Veronika Mitašová

Abstract:

Weak signals using is often associated with early warning. It is possible to find a link between early warning, respectively early problems detection and risk management. The idea of early warning is very important in the context of crisis management because of the risk prevention possibility. Weak signals are likened to risk symptoms. Nowadays, their usefulness as a tool of proactive problems solving is emphasized. Based on it, it is possible to use weak signals not only in strategic planning, project management, or early warning system, but also as a subsidiary element in risk management. The main question is how to effectively integrate weak signals into risk management. The main aim of the paper is to point out the possibilities of weak signals using in small and medium enterprises risk management.

Keywords: early warning system, weak signals, risk management, small and medium enterprises (SMEs)

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2907 Sequential and Simultaneous Mixed Emotion Experiences for Self or Another Person in Adolescence

Authors: Burkitt E., Watling D., Cocks F.

Abstract:

There is growing evidence to suggest that young children and adults experience opposite valence mixed emotions in various simultaneous ways which vary in intensity for two emotions over an experience. Models of mixed emotion do not specify types of simultaneous experiences across adolescent populations. This study examined types of simultaneous mixed emotion experiences for the first time in adolescence. It also examined the impacts of high and low-intensity emotion pairs on types of mixed emotion experiences using an Analogue Emotion Scale (AES) which permits the graphical mapping of opposite valence emotions across an event duration. 163 participants were randomly allocated to two age groups (12 years, 5 months-16 years, 9 months vs. 16 years, 10 months-18 years, 8 months) across two conditions considering their own (n=83) or another adolescent’s (n= 80) experience divided equally for high (n=80) or low (n= 83) intensity mixed emotion experiences. Findings showed that children experienced mixed emotions both sequentially and simultaneously. In particular older adolescents recorded that others experience emotions in a more sequential manner, while they themselves would experience emotions in a highly simultaneous way. Emotion experience was different depending on the intensity of the emotion pair and age group. Findings are discussed in relation to an evaluative space model of mixed emotion and extended developmental models of emotion processing. Applications of the AES with adolescent populations are considered.

Keywords: adolescence, mixed emotions, graphing, AES

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2906 Characterization and Predictors of Paranoid Ideation in Youths

Authors: Marina Sousa, Célia Barreto Carvalho, Carolina da Motta, Joana Cabral, Vera Pereira, Suzana Nunes Caldeira, Ermelindo Peixoto

Abstract:

Paranoid ideation is a common thought process that constitutes a defense against perceived social threats. The current study aimed at the characterization of paranoid ideation in youths and to explore the possible predictors involved in the development of paranoid ideations. Paranoid ideation, shame, submission, early childhood memories and current depressive, anxious and stress symptomatology was assessed in a sample of 1516 Portuguese youths. Higher frequencies of paranoid ideation were observed, particularly in females and youths from lower socio-economic status. The main predictors identified relates to submissive behaviors and adverse childhood experiences, and especially to shame feelings. The current study emphasizes that the these predictors are similar to findings in adults and clinical populations, and future implications to research and clinical practice aiming at paranoid ideations are discussed, as well as the pertinence of the study of mediating factors that allow a wider understanding of this thought process in younger populations and the prevention of psychopathology in adulthood.

Keywords: adolescence, early memories, paranoid ideation, parenting styles, shame, submissiveness

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2905 Interpersonal Emotion Regulation in Adolescence: An Enhanced Critical Incident Study

Authors: Setareh Shayanfar

Abstract:

Given the increasing importance of peer relationships during adolescence, the present study aimed to examine peer interactions that facilitate or hinder adolescents’ regulation of negative emotions. Using the Enhanced Critical Incident Technique, 1-hour semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 junior high school adolescents. Participants were asked to recall situations when they experienced strong negative emotions during the past school year, indicate the peer interactions that helped or hindered their emotion regulation, and identify prospective interactions with the potential to help regulate their emotions. Data analysis extracted 182 critical incidents, including 109 helping incidents, 45 hindering incidents, and 28 wish list items, which generated 10 categories nested within four overarching themes: Positive Personal Support included (a) supportive presence, (b) expressing concern, (c) empathizing, and (d) encouraging and cheering up; while Strategy Transmission included (e) sharing perspective, and (f) giving advice; Activated Support included (g) taking action, and (h) distracting; while Negative Personal Interactions included (i) withdrawing and (j) punishing. Implications for mental health and service providers, as well as recommendations for future research, are presented.

Keywords: adolescence, emotion regulation, enhanced critical incident technique, peers

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2904 A Risk Pathway of Distal and Proximal Factors for Self-Injury among Adolescents

Authors: Sarit Gideoni Cohen

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to examine possible risk pathway which initiated by the distal risk factors of insecure attachment to the mother, the father and peers and then developed by means of proximal risk factors: stressful life events and emotional distress. 275 participants (aged 13-26) from high-schools, youth groups and university were requited. Twenty-two percent participants reported at least one episode of self-injury. The relationship between paternal and peer attachment were partly mediated by stressful life events and depressive symptoms. Paternal and peer attachment influences during adolescence as contributing to risk pathway for self-injury were acknowledged.

Keywords: self-injury, attachment, depression, stressful life-events, adolescence

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2903 Adolescent Gamers: The Relationship between Berzonsky’s Style of Identity and Immersion: Pilot Study

Authors: Monika Paleczna, Barbara Szmigielska

Abstract:

Adolescence is a developmental period, covering the period from 10 to 20 years of age, in which young people face many challenges. One of the most important tasks of the adolescence period is getting a structured identity. The development of identity is possible by undertaking various activities. Nowadays, virtual activities are very common among young people. One of the main adolescents’ activities in the online environment is playing computer games. The main aim of this work is to answer the question about the relationship between the identity style of adolescents and immersion, -a phenomenon often observed while playing computer games. The concept of identity created by Berzonsky is considered as one of the best-defined concepts of identity. He defines identity as both a structure and a process and distinguishes three styles of identity: informational, normative, and diffuse/avoidant. Immersion is a concept that can be applied in a broad context, but in the game environment, it is a specific psychological experience of being involved in a computer game. It refers to the relocation of the attention resources to the game world, with a limited or impossible perception of stimuli from reality. Considering how much time adolescents spend playing computer games, the question about the relationship between their identity and the immersion in the game seems to be extremely interesting. Fifty adolescents aged 15-17 participated in the study. They played a computer game and completed the Identity Style Inventory and the Immersion Questionaire.

Keywords: identity, immersion, computer games, adolescence

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2902 Risk Tolerance in Youth With Emerging Mood Disorders

Authors: Ange Weinrabe, James Tran, Ian B. Hickie

Abstract:

Risk-taking behaviour is common during youth. In the time between adolescence and early adulthood, young people (aged 15-25 years) are more vulnerable to mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression. What impact does an emerging mood disorder have on decision-making in youth at critical decision points in their lives? In this article, we explore the impact of risk and ambiguity on youth decision-making in a clinical setting using a well-known economic experiment. At two time points, separated by six to eight weeks, we measured risky and ambiguous choices concurrently with findings from three psychological questionnaires, the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), the 17-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Adolescent Version (QIDS-A17), and the 12-item Somatic and Psychological Health Report (SPHERE-12), for young help seekers aged 16-25 (n=30, mean age 19.22 years, 19 males). When first arriving for care, we found that 50% (n=15) of participants experienced severe anxiety (K10 ≥ 30) and were severely depressed (QIDS-A17 ≥ 16). In Session 2, taking attrition rates into account (n=5), we found that 44% (n=11) remained severe across the full battery of questionnaires. When applying multiple regression analyses of the pooled sample of observations (N=55), across both sessions, we found that participants who rated severely anxious avoided making risky decisions. We suggest there is some statistically significant (although weak) (p=0.09) relation between risk and severe anxiety scores as measured by K10. Our findings may support working with novel tools with which to evaluate youth experiencing an emerging mood disorder and their cognitive capacities influencing decision-making.

Keywords: anxiety, decision-making, risk, adolescence

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2901 Exploring 'Attachment Theory' in the Context of Early Childhood Education

Authors: Wendy Lee

Abstract:

From the mid-twentieth century onward, the notion of ‘attachment’ has been used to define the optimum relationship between young children and their carers; first applied to parents and young children and more recently with early childhood educators and children in their care. However, it is seldom, if ever, asked whether the notion of ‘attachment’ and more especially so-called Attachment Theory, as propounded by John Bowlby and others, provides a sound basis for conceptualising child-adult relationships in early years. Even if appropriate in the context of family, the use of the term raises a number of questions when used in early childhood education. Research has shown that our youngest children (infants) in early childhood centre based care settings, are given the utmost priority to build 'attachments' with their educators. But exactly when, how and why does this priority diminish - and should it (for preschoolers)? This presentation will elaborate on such issues and will argue that there is a need to reconceptualise and redefine how 'quality relationships' should be measured and implemented in the daily practices and pedagogical methods adopted by early childhood educators. Moreover, this presentation will include data collected from the empirical study conducted, that observed various early childhood educators and children in Australian early childhood centres. Lastly, the thoughts, feelings and desires of parents of children in early childhood centre-based care, regarding the term 'attachment' and 'quality relationships' will be shared in the hope that we can take one step closer in bridging the needs of families, children, early childhood centres, educators, and the wider community.

Keywords: attachment, early childhood education, pedagogy, relationships

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2900 The Special Testimony as a Methodology for Social Workers to Ensure the Rights of Children and Adolescents Who Are Victims of Sexual Violence

Authors: Natany Rodrigues De Carvalho, Denise Bomtempo Birche De Carvalho

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The purpose of this study is to analyze the Special Testimony as a methodology for social workers to ensure the rights of children and adolescents who are victims of sexual violence. The specific objectives are: a) to contextualize, through the specialized literature, the social history of childhood and adolescence; b) to investigate, in the scientific literature, the sexual violence against children and adolescents as an analytical category; c) identify, with the social workers, if there is any defense of children and adolescents in the special testimony. To answer the research objectives we use qualitative research, in three axes that complement each other: a) participant observation through the insertion in the research field (supervised internship I and II); b) survey of literature on the subject; c) semi-structured interviews with social workers of the TJDFT. We used content analysis to systematize and interpret the collected data. The results of the research were organized into three chapters with the following contents: a) literature review, contextualizing the social history of childhood and adolescence to the present; b) sexual violence against children and adolescents and their categories of analysis; c) understanding of the special testimony in the Federal District and Territories in guaranteeing the rights of children and adolescents, identifying their main points from the perspective of social workers. The results showed how the lack of interdisciplinarity in the Special Testimony can lead to the non-integral protection of children and adolescents victims of sexual violence.

Keywords: childhood and adolescence, sexual violence, special testimony, social work

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2899 The Effects of Early Maternal Separation on Risky Choice in Rats

Authors: Osvaldo Collazo, Cristiano Valerio Dos Santos

Abstract:

Early maternal separation has been shown to bring about many negative effects on behavior in rats. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of early maternal separation on risky choice in rats. One group of male and female Wistar rats was exposed to an early maternal separation protocol while a control group was left undisturbed. Then both groups were exposed to a series of behavioral tests, including a test of risky choice, where one alternative offered a constant reward while the other offered a variable reward. There was a difference between groups when they chose between a variable and a constant reward delay, but no other difference was significant. These results suggest that early maternal separation may be related to a greater preference for shorter delays, which is characteristic of more impulsive choices.

Keywords: early maternal separation, impulsivity, risky choice, variability

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2898 Augmented Reality in Teaching Children with Autism

Authors: Azadeh Afrasyabi, Ali Khaleghi, Aliakbar Alijarahi

Abstract:

Training at an early age is so important, because of tremendous changes in adolescence, including the formation of character, physical changes and other factors. One of the most sensitive sectors in this field is the children with a disability and are somehow special children who have trouble in communicating with their environment. One of the emerging technologies in the field of education that can be effectively profitable called augmented reality, where the combination of real world and virtual images in real time produces new concepts that can facilitate learning. The purpose of this paper is to propose an effective training method for special and disabled children based on augmented reality. Of course, in particular, the efficiency of augmented reality in teaching children with autism will consider, also examine the various aspect of this disease and different learning methods in this area.

Keywords: technology in education, augmented reality, special education, teaching methods

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2897 Character Education Model for Early Childhood Based Javanese Culture

Authors: Rafika Bayu Kusumandari, Istyarini, Ispen Safrel

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Character education will be more meaningful if carried out since early childhood. This is because early childhood education is the foundation of the formation of character. This study intends to find a model of character education in early childhood based on Javanese culture. In keeping with the focus of the study, long-term goals to be achieved through this research is to find once described the development of a model of character education in early childhood Javanese culture based in Semarang are then applied across early childhood education institutions in Semarang City. The specific objective of the study is: Describe the character models and management education in early childhood Java-based culture in Semarang City. The benefits of this research are; Provide an overview of the model and describe the management of character education in early childhood Java-based culture in Semarang City. Referring to the objectives of the research program was designed with a "Research and Development", meaning that a program of research followed by development programs for improvement or refinement. To produce a prototype model of character education in early childhood Java-based culture in the city, taken systematic measures in the form of the action, reflection, evaluation and innovation by applying qualitative research methods, descriptive, development, experimentation, and evaluation. This study aims to gain in-depth description of the model of character education in early childhood Java-based culture in the city of Semarang. The reason for the use of the use of qualitative methods researcher's knowledge, no study results and empirical research specifically about the model of character education in early childhood Java-based culture in the city of Semarang. On the implementation of character education early childhood adapted to the characteristics of each school and the emphasis of each agency arrangements for early childhood education, culture-based Java. Javanese culture should be introduced early in order not to erode the cultural lost outside the entrance as the era of globalization. In addition, Java is promoting a culture of courtesy and manners are very appropriate for the character formation of children of early age.

Keywords: education character, Javanese culture, childhood, character

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2896 Early Requirement Engineering for Design of Learner Centric Dynamic LMS

Authors: Kausik Halder, Nabendu Chaki, Ranjan Dasgupta

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We present a modelling framework that supports the engineering of early requirements specifications for design of learner centric dynamic Learning Management System. The framework is based on i* modelling tool and Means End Analysis, that adopts primitive concepts for modelling early requirements (such as actor, goal, and strategic dependency). We show how pedagogical and computational requirements for designing a learner centric Learning Management system can be adapted for the automatic early requirement engineering specifications. Finally, we presented a model on a Learner Quanta based adaptive Courseware. Our early requirement analysis shows that how means end analysis reveals gaps and inconsistencies in early requirements specifications that are by no means trivial to discover without the help of formal analysis tool.

Keywords: adaptive courseware, early requirement engineering, means end analysis, organizational modelling, requirement modelling

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2895 Towards a Model of Support in the Areas of Services of Educational Assistance and Mentoring in Middle Education in Mexico

Authors: Margarita Zavala, Gabriel Chavira, José González, Jorge Orozco, Julio Rolón, Roberto Pichardo

Abstract:

Adolescence is a neuralgic stage in the formation of every human being, generally this stage is when the middle school level is studied. In 2006, Mexico incorporated 'mentoring' space to assist students in their integration and participation in life. In public middle schools, it is sometimes difficult to be aware of situations that affect students because of the number of them and traditional records management. With this, they lose the opportunity to provide timely support as a preventive way. In order to provide this support, it is required to know the students by detecting the relevant information that has greater impact on their learning process. This research is looking to check if it is possible to identify student’s relevant information to detect when it is at risk, and then to propose a model to manage in a proper way such information.

Keywords: adolescence, mentoring, middle school students, mentoring system support

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2894 The Family Sense of Coherence of Early Childhood Education Students

Authors: M. Demir, A. Demir

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The aim of this study is to examine the family sense of coherence of early childhood education students. The Family Sense of Coherence Inventory has applied to 233 (108 girls and 125 boys) early childhood education students in Turkey. At the stage of data collection, with the aim of determining the family sense of coherence of early childhood education students, Family Sense of Coherence Inventory which was developed by Çeçen (2007) was used. In the process of the analysis of data, independent samples t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used. According to the results of the study, there were significant differences between some demographic variables in terms of the family sense of coherence.

Keywords: family sense of coherence, early childhood education students

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2893 Emerging Issues in Early Childhood Care and Development in Nigeria

Authors: Evelyn Fabian

Abstract:

The focus of this discussion centres on the emerging issues in Early Childhood Care and development in Nigeria. Early childhood care is the bedrock of Nigeria’s educational system. However, there are critical issues that had not been addressed and it is frustrating the entire educational process. Thus, this paper will show the inter-connectedness between these issues such as poor funding, trained skillful teachers that would supervise the learning process of the kids, unconducive learning environment and lack of relevant facilities. For a clear grasp of these issues, the researcher visited 36 early childhood centres distributed across the 36 spates of Nigeria. The findings which were expressed in simple percentages revealed a near total absence or government neglect of these critical areas. The findings equally showed a misplaced priority in the government allocation of funds to early child care education and development. The study concludes that this mismatch in the training of these categories of pupils, government should expedite action in addressing these emerging issues in early childhood care and development in Nigeria.

Keywords: early childhood, ECCE, education, emerging issues

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2892 Towards a Model of Support in the Areas of Services of Educational Assistance and Tutoring in Middle Education in Mexico

Authors: Margarita Zavala, Julio Rolón, Gabriel Chavira, José González, Jorge Orozco, Roberto Pichardo

Abstract:

Adolescence is a neuralgic stage in the formation of every human being, generally at this stage is when the middle school level is studied. In 2006 in Mexico incorporated “mentoring" space to assist students in their integration and participation in life. In public middle schools, is sometimes difficult to be aware of situations that affect students because of the number of them and traditional records management. Whit this they lose the opportunity to provide timely support as a preventive way. In order to provide this support, it is required to know the students by detecting the relevant information that has greater impact on their learning process. This research is looking to check if it is possible to identify student’s relevant information to detect when it is at risk, and then to propose a model to manage in a proper way such information.

Keywords: adolescence, mentoring, middle school students, mentoring system support

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2891 Early versus Late Percutaneous Tracheostomy in Critically Ill Adult Mechanically Ventilated Patients

Authors: Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed, Ahmed Yehia Mousa, Ahmed Samir ElSawy, Adel Mohamed Saleem

Abstract:

Introduction: Critically ill patients frequently require tracheostomy to simplify long term air way management. While tracheostomy indications have remained unchanged, the timing of elective tracheostomy for the ventilated patient has been questioned. Aim of the work: This study was performed to compare the differences between early and late percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) regarding, mechanical ventilation duration (MVD), length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia and hospital outcome. Patients and methods: Forty patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into early PDT who had the tracheostomy within the first 10 days of mechanical ventilation (MV) and the late PDT who had the tracheostomy after 10 days of MV. On admission, demographic data and Acute Physiology and Chronic ill Health II and GCS were collected. The duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay (LOS) and hospital LOS were all calculated. Results: Total of 40 patients were randomized to either early PDT (n= 20) or late PDT (n= 20). There were no significant differences between both groups regarding demographic data or the scores: APACHE II (22.75± 7 vs 24.35 ± 8) and GCS (6.10 ±2 vs 7.10 ± 2.71). An early PDT showed fewer complications vs late procedure, however it was insignificant. There were significant differences between the two groups regarding mean (MVD) which was shorter in early PDT than the late PDT group (32.2± 10.5) vs (20.6 ± 13 days; p= 0.004). Mean ICU stay was shorter in early PDT than late PDT (21 .0± 513.4) vs (40.15 ±12.7 days; p 6 0.001). Mean hospital stay was shorter in early PDT than late PDT (34.60± 18.37) vs (55.60± 25.73 days; p=0.005). Patients with early PDT suffered less sepsis and VAP than late PDT, there was no difference regarding the mortality rate between the two groups. Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

Keywords: intensive care unit, early PDT, late PDT, intubation

Procedia PDF Downloads 503
2890 Decision Support System for a Pilot Flash Flood Early Warning System in Central Chile

Authors: D. Pinto, L. Castro, M. L. Cruzat, S. Barros, J. Gironás, C. Oberli, M. Torres, C. Escauriaza, A. Cipriano

Abstract:

Flash floods, together with landslides, are a common natural threat for people living in mountainous regions and foothills. One way to deal with this constant menace is the use of Early Warning Systems, which have become a very important mitigation strategy for natural disasters. In this work, we present our proposal for a pilot Flash Flood Early Warning System for Santiago, Chile, the first stage of a more ambitious project that in a future stage shall also include early warning of landslides. To give a context for our approach, we first analyze three existing Flash Flood Early Warning Systems, focusing on their general architectures. We then present our proposed system, with main focus on the decision support system, a system that integrates empirical models and fuzzy expert systems to achieve reliable risk estimations.

Keywords: decision support systems, early warning systems, flash flood, natural hazard

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2889 EGFR Signal Induced-Nuclear Translocation of Beta-catenin and PKM2 Promotes HCC Malignancy and Indicates Early Recurrence After Curative Resection

Authors: Fangtian Fan, Zhaoguo Liu, Yin Lu

Abstract:

Early recurrence (ER) (< 1 year) after liver resection is one of the most important factors that impacts the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanisms and predictive indexes of ER after curative resection remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to exploit the role of EGFR signaling in EMT and early recurrence of HCC after curative resection and elucidate the molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that nuclear beta-catenin / PKM2 was a independent predictor of early recurrence after curative resection in EGFR-overexpressed HCC. Mechanistic investigation indicated that nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin and PKM2 induced by EGFR signal promoted HCC cell invasion and proliferation, which were required for early recurrence of HCC. These effects were mediated by PI3K/AKT and ERK pathways rather than the canonical Wnt signaling. In conclusions, EGFR signal induced-nuclear translocation of beta-catenin and PKM2 promotes HCC malignancy and indicates early recurrence after curative resection.

Keywords: beta-catenin, early recurrence, hepatocellular carcinoma, malignancy, PKM2

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2888 A Unique Immunization Card for Early Detection of Retinoblastoma

Authors: Hiranmoyee Das

Abstract:

Aim. Due to late presentation and delayed diagnosis mortality rate of retinoblastoma is more than 50% in developing counties. So to facilitate the diagnosis, to decrease the disease and treatment burden and to increase the disease survival rate, an attempt was made for early diagnosis of Retinoblastoma by including fundus examination in routine immunization programs. Methods- A unique immunization card is followed in a tertiary health care center where examination of pupillary reflex is made mandatory in each visit of the child for routine immunization. In case of any abnormality, the child is referred to the ophthalmology department. Conclusion- Early detection is the key in the management of retinoblastoma. Every child is brought to the health care system at least five times before the age of 2 years for routine immunization. We should not miss this golden opportunity for early detection of retinoblastoma.

Keywords: retinoblastoma, immunization, unique, early

Procedia PDF Downloads 109