Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4754

Search results for: communities of practice

4754 Impact of Socio-Cultural Attributes of Imo Communities on Widowhood Practice in Imo State, Nigeria

Authors: Otuu O. Obasi, Jude C. Ajaraogu, Happiness C. Anthony-Ikpe

Abstract:

Women in Igbo land generally experience culture-related mistreatment in the event of the death of their husbands. The mistreatment ranges from scraping of widows’ hair to denial of the right to see their husbands’ corpses. The objectives of the study were to determine the forms and prevalence of widowhood practice in the studied communities, the effects of the socio-cultural attributes of the people on the practice, and the perceived effect of the practice on the victims. Data for the study were collected from 64 randomly selected communities out of 640 communities in Imo State, Nigeria. 450 copies of the researcher-made-questionnaire were distributed across the three senatorial zones of the State. A total of 418 or 92.8% were completely filled and returned. The result of the study showed, among other things, that the majority of males and females recognized widowhood practice as dehumanizing, but opined that it cannot be stopped because it is rooted in culture. However, 30.2% of the female population did not agree that the practice is dehumanizing to women since it was their cultural practice. The study also revealed that scrapping of widows’ hair was the commonest practice while sleeping alone with the husband’s corpse was the least practice. Regarding the effect which this practice has on widows, emotional trauma topped the list; and was followed by economic hardship and health deterioration. Also shown by the study was that the level of education and religion did not have a notable effect on widowhood practice. With regard to possible stoppage measures, greater number of the respondents (38%) indicated that a synergy of efforts was needed to curb the social scourge.

Keywords: widowhood practice, socio-cultural attributes, violence, impact

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4753 Communities of Practice as a Training Model for Professional Development of In-Service Teachers: Analyzing the Sharing of Knowledge by Teachers

Authors: Panagiotis Kosmas

Abstract:

The advent of new technologies in education inspires practitioners to approach teaching from a different angle with the aim to professionally develop and improve teaching practices. Online communities of practice among teachers seem to be a trend associated with the integration efforts for a modern and pioneering educational system and training program. This study attempted to explore the participation in online communities of practice and the sharing of knowledge between teachers with aims to explore teachers' incentives to participate in such a community of practice. The study aims to contribute to international research, bringing in global debate new concerns and issues related to the professional learning of current educators. One official online community was used as a case study for the purposes of research. The data collection was conducted from the content analysis of online portal, by questionnaire in 184 community members and interviews with ten active users of the portal. The findings revealed that sharing of knowledge is a key motivation of members of a community. Also, the active learning and community participation seem to be essential factors for the success of an online community of practice.

Keywords: communities of practice, teachers, sharing knowledge, professional development

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4752 Working Effectively with Muslim Communities in the West

Authors: Lisa Tribuzio

Abstract:

This paper explores the complexity of working with Muslim communities in Australia. It will draw upon the notions of belonging, social inclusion and effective community programming to engage Muslim communities in Western environments given the current global political climate. Factors taken into consideration for effective engagement include: family engagement, considering key practices such as Ramadan, fasting and prayer and food requirements, gender relations, core values around faith and spirituality, considering attitudes towards self disclosure in a counseling setting and the notion of Us and Them in the media and systems and its effect on minority communities. It will explore recent research in the field from Australian researchers as well as recommendations from United Nations in working with Muslim communities. It will also explore current practice models applied in Australia in engaging effectively with diverse communities and addressing racism and discrimination in innovative ways.

Keywords: Muslim, cultural diversity, social inclusion, racism

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
4751 Spatiotemporal Community Detection and Analysis of Associations among Overlapping Communities

Authors: JooYoung Lee, Rasheed Hussain

Abstract:

Understanding the relationships among communities of users is the key to blueprint the evolution of human society. Majority of people are equipped with GPS devices, such as smart phones and smart cars, which can trace their whereabouts. In this paper, we discover communities of device users based on real locations in a given time frame. We, then, study the associations of discovered communities, referred to as temporal communities, and generate temporal and probabilistic association rules. The rules describe how strong communities are associated. By studying the generated rules, we can automatically extract underlying hierarchies of communities and permanent communities such as work places.

Keywords: association rules, community detection, evolution of communities, spatiotemporal

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4750 Endogenous Development and Sustainable Perspectives: The Case of Traditional Communities Located around the Area of Management of Precious Wood Amazon

Authors: Débora Ramos Santiago

Abstract:

Endogenous development usually apresent a deep approach to locational aspects, considering the potential, knowledge and the workforce, as encouragement to articulate the entire productive activity of a community. In the case of communities located around the area of management of the company Precious Wood Amazon (PWA), their endogenous development is subject to the dynamic of this company, which operates a certified way, seeking alternatives to mitigate and compensate the damages caused by its activities. This article soughts to present the socio-economic and environmental challenges to promote of the endogenous development of these communities, identifying the relationship of the PWA in this process. The communities analyzed emerge with poor socioeconomic conditions, futhermore, their ecosystem characteristics differ spatially from each other, which modifies the entire production dynamics. The family agriculture was an important source of income, but needs investment and technical assistance. The participation of PWA in the promotion of the endogenous development of the communities was proved significant, because of the intense sustainable actions practice by PWA. Many are the challenges that exist in these communities, so its fundamental to elaborate public policies to these specific areas.

Keywords: endogenous development, traditional communities, Amazon, PWA

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4749 Community Forest Management Practice in Nepal: Public Understanding of Forest Benefit

Authors: Chandralal Shrestha

Abstract:

In the developing countries like Nepal, the community based forest management approach has often been glorified as one of the best forest management alternatives to maximize the forest benefits. Though the approach has succeeded to construct a local level institution and conserve the forest biodiversity, how the local communities perceived about the forest benefits, the question always remains silent among the researchers and policy makers. The paper aims to explore the understanding of forest benefits from the perspective of local communities who used the forests in terms of institutional stability, equity and livelihood opportunity, and ecological stability. The paper revealed that the local communities have mixed understanding over the forest benefits. The institutional and ecological activities carried out by the local communities indicated that they have better understanding over the forest benefits. However, inequality while sharing the forest benefits, low pricing strategy and its negative consequences in valuation of forest products and limited livelihood opportunities indicated the poor understanding.

Keywords: community based forest management, forest benefits, lowland, Nepal

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4748 Whose Education Is It? Developing Communities Left Out in Framing Higher Education

Authors: Muwanga Zake, Johnnie Wycliffe Frank

Abstract:

Developing communities accommodating institutions of Higher Education (HE) often have no capacity to pay for HE and so do not contribute values and do not participate in Quality Assurance. Only governments, academia, employers and professional organisations determine values, QA and curricula in HE. A gap between the values in HE and those desirable in local communities and environments leads to erroneous conceptions of the purposes of HE, and to graduates who hardly fit into those local communities. Unemployment and under-utilization of local resources are thus expected. As a way to improve and make HE more relevant for local communities and environment, public perceptions, values and needs should be researched and HE courses should relate with local values and environments. Communities should participate in QA.

Keywords: values, quality assurance, higher education, utilization

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4747 Disaster Management and Resilience: A Conceptual Synthesis of Local

Authors: Oshienemen Albert, Dilanthi Amaratunga, Richard Haigh

Abstract:

Globally, disasters of any form can affect the environment, built environment, the waterways, societies, nations and communities in diverse areas. The such impacts could cut across, economic loss, social setting, cultural and livelihood structures of affected population. Thus, the raise of disaster impacts across developing nations are alarming with decades impact due to the lack of hard and soft infrastructural development across communities, inconsistency in the governmental policy and implementation, making it difficult for disaster affected communities to bounce back when necessary, especially in Nigeria. The Nigeria disasters, especially oil spillages have affected diverse communities across the Niger Delta region for decades with little or nothing as external support for the broken livelihood structure, cultural and economic damages of the people. Though, in the spirit of contribution to the communities affected by oil spill and negative consequence of petroleum production, the federal government at different times established some impressionistic bodies and agencies to oversee the affairs of the region as with regards to oil spillages and development. Thus, the agencies contributions are yet to manifest in practice. This amplifies the quest for the structural clarities of the management systems and the resilience’s of the communities, to better equip the communities for any such disaster. Therefore, the study sets to explore the Nigerian disaster management systems and resilience concept at local community level. Thus, desk-based approach and interviews are employed for the synthesis while, drawing conclusion and recommendations.

Keywords: disaster, community, management, resilience

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4746 The Antecedents of Continued Usage on Social-Oriented Virtual Communities Based on Automaticity Mechanism

Authors: Hsiu-Hua Cheng

Abstract:

In recent years, the number of social-oriented virtual communities users has increased significantly. Corporate investment in advertising on social-oriented virtual communities increases quickly. With the gigantic commercial value of the digital market, competitions between virtual communities are keen. In this context, how to retain existing customers to continue using social-oriented virtual communities is an urgent issue for virtual community managers. This study employs the perspective of automaticity mechanism and combines the social embeddedness theory with the literature of involvement and habit in order to explore antecedents of users’ continuous usage on social-oriented virtual communities. The results can be a reference for scholars and managers of social-oriented virtual communities.

Keywords: continued usage, habit, social embeddedness, involvement, virtual community

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4745 Classroom Readiness of Open and Distance Learning Student Teachers

Authors: E. C. du Plessis

Abstract:

Teaching practice is a major component of teacher education and the preparation of teachers for the real-life classroom throughout the world. Learning is seen as a constructive process, whether it is classroom based or takes place by means of distance education. Blending theory and practice with effective education in distance context as part of situated learning is crucial. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine distance education student teachers' classroom readiness on completion of the teaching practice modules of their Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) course. A qualitative research approach was used for the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. A total of 15 student teachers enrolled at the College of Education of an ODL (Open and Distance Learning) institution were selected and volunteered to participate in the research. In the light of the results of the research, it is recommended that more attention is given to the interaction between mentor teachers, academic lecturers, and student teachers, as well as the expectations and responsibilities of these role-players.

Keywords: communities of practice, mentor teachers, open and distance learning, practicum, professional development, student teachers, teaching practice

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4744 Gas Flaring in the Niger Delta Nigeria: An Act of Inhumanity to Man and His Environment

Authors: Okorowo Cyril Agochi

Abstract:

The Niger Delta Region of Nigeria is home to about 20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups. The region has an area of seventy thousand square kilometers (70,000 KM2) of wetlands, formed primarily by sediments deposition and makes up 7.5 percent of Nigeria's total landmass. The notable ecological zones in this region includes: coastal barrier islands; mangrove swamp forests; fresh water swamps; and lowland rainforests. This incredibly naturally-endowed ecosystem region, which contains one of the highest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet, in addition to supporting abundant flora and fauna, is threatened by the inhuman act known as gas flaring. Gas flaring is the combustion of natural gas that is associated with crude oil when it is pumped up from the ground. In petroleum-producing areas such as the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where insufficient investment was made in infrastructure to utilize natural gas, flaring is employed to dispose of this associated gas. This practice has impoverished the communities where it is practiced, with attendant environmental, economic and health challenges. This paper discusses the adverse environmental and health implication associated with the practice, the role of Government, Policy makers, Oil companies and the Local communities aimed at bring this inhuman practice to a prompt end.

Keywords: natural combustion, emission, environment, flaring, gas, health, Niger Delta

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
4743 ID + PD: Training Instructional Designers to Foster and Facilitate Learning Communities in Digital Spaces

Authors: Belkis L. Cabrera

Abstract:

Contemporary technological innovations have reshaped possibility, interaction, communication, engagement, education, and training. Indeed, today, a high-quality technology enhanced learning experience can be transformative as much for the learner as for the educator-trainer. As innovative technologies continue to facilitate, support, foster, and enhance collaboration, problem-solving, creativity, adaptiveness, multidisciplinarity, and communication, the field of instructional design (ID) also continues to develop and expand. Shifting its focus from media to the systematic design of instruction, or rather from the gadgets and devices themselves to the theories, models, and impact of implementing educational technology, the evolution of ID marks a restructuring of the teaching, learning, and training paradigms. However, with all of its promise, this latter component of ID remains underdeveloped. The majority of ID models are crafted and guided by learning theories and, therefore, most models are constructed around student and educator roles rather than trainer roles. Thus, when these models or systems are employed for training purposes, they usually have to be re-fitted, tweaked, and stretched to meet the training needs. This paper is concerned with the training or professional development (PD) facet of instructional design and how ID models built on teacher-to-teacher interaction and dialogue can support the creation of professional learning communities (PLCs) or communities of practice (CoPs), which can augment learning and PD experiences for all. Just as technology is changing the face of education, so too can it change the face of PD within the educational realm. This paper not only provides a new ID model but using innovative technologies such as Padlet and Thinkbinder, this paper presents a concrete example of how a traditional body-to-body, brick, and mortar learning community can be transferred and transformed into the online context.

Keywords: communities of practice, e-learning, educational reform, instructional design, professional development, professional learning communities, technology, training

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
4742 Examining Moderating Mechanisms of Alignment Practice and Community Response through the Self-Construal Perspective

Authors: Chyong-Ru Liu, Wen-Shiung Huang, Wan-Ching Tang, Shan-Pei Chen

Abstract:

Two of the biggest challenges companies involved in sports and exercise information services face are how to strengthen participation in virtual sports/exercise communities and how to increase the ongoing participatoriness of those communities. In the past, relatively little research has explored mechanisms for strengthening alignment practice and community response from the perspective of self-construal, and as such this study seeks to explore the self-construal of virtual sports/exercise communities, the role it plays in the emotional commitment of forming communities, and the factor that can strengthen alignment practice. Moreover, which factor of the emotional commitment of forming virtual communities have the effect of strengthening interference in the process of transforming customer citizenship behaviors? This study collected 625 responses from the two leading websites in terms of fan numbers in the provision of information on road race and marathon events in Taiwan, with model testing conducted through linear structural equation modelling and the bootstrapping technique to test the proposed hypotheses. The results proved independent construal had a stronger positive direct effect on affective commitment to fellow customers than did interdependent construal, and the influences of affective commitment to fellow customers in enhancing customer citizenship behavior. Public self-consciousness moderates the relationships among independent self-construal and interdependent self-construal on effective commitment to fellow customers. Perceived playfulness moderates the relationships between effective commitment to fellow customers and customer citizenship behavior. The findings of this study provide significant insights for the researchers and related organizations. From the theoretical perspective, this is empirical research that investigated the self-construal theory and responses (i.e., affective commitment to fellow customers, customer citizenship behavior) in virtual sports/exercise communities. We further explore how to govern virtual sports/exercise community participants’ heterogeneity through public self-consciousness mechanism to align participants’ affective commitment. Moreover, perceived playfulness has the effect of strengthening effective commitment to fellow customers with customer citizenship behaviors. The results of this study can provide a foundation for the construction of future theories and can be provided to related organizations for reference in their planning of virtual communities.

Keywords: self-construal theory, public self-consciousness, affective commitment, customer citizenship behavior

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4741 Developing a Model for Information Giving Behavior in Virtual Communities

Authors: Pui-Lai To, Chechen Liao, Tzu-Ling Lin

Abstract:

Virtual communities have created a range of new social spaces in which to meet and interact with one another. Both as a stand-alone model or as a supplement to sustain competitive advantage for normal business models, building virtual communities has been hailed as one of the major strategic innovations of the new economy. However for a virtual community to evolve, the biggest challenge is how to make members actively give information or provide advice. Even in busy virtual communities, usually, only a small fraction of members post information actively. In order to investigate the determinants of information giving willingness of those contributors who usually actively provide their opinions, we proposed a model to understand the reasons for contribution in communities. The study will definitely serve as a basis for the future growth of information giving in virtual communities.

Keywords: information giving, social identity, trust, virtual community

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4740 Detecting Geographically Dispersed Overlay Communities Using Community Networks

Authors: Madhushi Bandara, Dharshana Kasthurirathna, Danaja Maldeniya, Mahendra Piraveenan

Abstract:

Community detection is an extremely useful technique in understanding the structure and function of a social network. Louvain algorithm, which is based on Newman-Girman modularity optimization technique, is extensively used as a computationally efficient method extract the communities in social networks. It has been suggested that the nodes that are in close geographical proximity have a higher tendency of forming communities. Variants of the Newman-Girman modularity measure such as dist-modularity try to normalize the effect of geographical proximity to extract geographically dispersed communities, at the expense of losing the information about the geographically proximate communities. In this work, we propose a method to extract geographically dispersed communities while preserving the information about the geographically proximate communities, by analyzing the ‘community network’, where the centroids of communities would be considered as network nodes. We suggest that the inter-community link strengths, which are normalized over the community sizes, may be used to identify and extract the ‘overlay communities’. The overlay communities would have relatively higher link strengths, despite being relatively apart in their spatial distribution. We apply this method to the Gowalla online social network, which contains the geographical signatures of its users, and identify the overlay communities within it.

Keywords: social networks, community detection, modularity optimization, geographically dispersed communities

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4739 Quantifying Stability of Online Communities and Its Impact on Disinformation

Authors: Victor Chomel, Maziyar Panahi, David Chavalarias

Abstract:

Misinformation has taken an increasingly worrying place in social media. Propagation patterns are closely linked to the structure of communities. This study proposes a method of community analysis based on a combination of centrality indicators for the network and its main communities. The objective is to establish a link between the stability of the communities over time, the social ascension of its members internally, and the propagation of information in the community. To this end, data from the debates about global warming and political communities on Twitter have been collected, and several tens of millions of tweets and retweets have helped us better understand the structure of these communities. The quantification of this stability allows for the study of the propagation of information of any kind, including disinformation. Our results indicate that the most stable communities over time are the ones that enable the establishment of nodes capturing a large part of the information and broadcasting its opinions. Conversely, communities with a high turnover and social ascendancy only stabilize themselves strongly in the face of adversity and external events but seem to offer a greater diversity of opinions most of the time.

Keywords: community analysis, disinformation, misinformation, Twitter

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4738 Relationship Quality, Value Creation Practices and Brand Loyalty in Virtual Communities: Evidence from Facebook Communities

Authors: Zoya Khan, Amina Muzaffar

Abstract:

Social media based brand communities are communities that are developed around a brand. In the highly globalized world of today, Facebook is undoubtedly being regarded and has been widely recognized as a trendy and well-accepted medium of marketing. By means of a Facebook fan page, organizations can effectually create, enhance, and sustain customer-brand relationship. In this article, we explore whether brand communities based on social media (a special type of online brand communities) have positive effects on the main community elements and value creation practices in the communities as well as on brand trust and brand loyalty. A survey was conducted and 201 valid responses were used for analysis. The results of structural equation modeling show that brand communities established on social media have positive effects on value creation practices. Brand use, impression management practices and brand identification has an impact on brand trust and this brand trust then further leads to brand loyalty.

Keywords: relationship quality, impression management practices, brand identification, brand trust, brand loyalty

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4737 Transforming Professional Learning Communities and Centers: A Case Study of Luck Now District, Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: Sarvada Nand

Abstract:

Teacher quality is directly proportional to the achievement level of students. Recent researches reveal that the teacher learning communities enhance the quality of teacher. It is a proven fact that community does help in enhancing teachers’ self-esteem as professionals, their teaching skills and enhancing classroom transaction that results in the higher achievement of students. The purpose of this study is to develop TLC and provide them platform where they share their views and ideas on various academic issues. The study examines how teachers conceptualize TLCs, up to what extent TLC help in developing professionalism among teachers and how they prepare themselves for the days to come. In this study, pre-test in five subjects, Hindi, English, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies was conducted and a questionnaire was designed to judge the teachers' attitude towards teaching practice. After completion of the project duration of three and a half-month, an exercise of post-test was conducted in all the above subjects. The post tests show tremendous improvements in achievement level of those students who were regular in their classes and were attended through this new method. A visible shift in teacher’s attitude is seen for the better. They were able to realize their own potentials. There was a group of Facilitators formed to perform continuously supervision and monitor in regular intervals so that they could easily handle the challenges, and factors much important for the attainment towards the fulfillment of the objectives.

Keywords: teacher learning communities, best practice, teacher professionalism, student achievement

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4736 Active Development of Tacit Knowledge Using Social Media and Learning Communities

Authors: John Zanetich

Abstract:

This paper uses a pragmatic research approach to investigate the relationships between Active Development of Tacit Knowledge (ADTK), social media (Facebook) and classroom learning communities. This paper investigates the use of learning communities and social media as the context and means for changing tacit knowledge to explicit and presents a dynamic model of the development of a classroom learning community. The goal of this study is to identify the point that explicit knowledge is converted to tacit knowledge and to test a way to quantify the exchange using social media and learning communities.

Keywords: tacit knowledge, knowledge management, college programs, experiential learning, learning communities

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4735 Exploring the Cross-Cultural Practice of Transnational Community in Taiwan

Authors: Ya-Hsuan Wang

Abstract:

This project of intercultural education aimed to explore pluricultural people’s interpretation and evaluation of the transnational community in Taiwan. Based on transnationalism and transculturalism, this study concerns the human right issues for immigrants and pluricultural people. Research participants as immigrants in Taiwan were asked about their typical thinking styles in the transnational community, their cultural integration in terms of transnational behaviors, and their collective memory of the transnational community. Interview questions included what key factors were involved in their identity negotiation, what roles the transnational community and collective memory would be for their identity negotiation and what were the positive or negative aspects impacting cross-border identity. Based on the experiences of pluricultural people and transnational communities, this project expected to enhance the depth and width of developing transcultural knowledge in textbook reform on History in K-12 schools. It is to transform cross-border identity into knowledge embedded with local culture in response to globalization and localization. The purpose of this paper is to portrait the cross-cultural practice of transnational community for Taiwan’s immigrants. It is to report their external socio-cultural expectation of ethnic economics, to understand their internal life course of national identity, and to clarify transnational community in relation to their cross-border identity. In conclusion, the cross-cultural practice of transnational community combined the external contexts such as ethnic economic interaction among transnational communities, social report and ethnic industry, and the internal contexts such as ethnic identity, language use, and collective memory in ethnic history.

Keywords: cross-cultural practice, immigrants, pluricultural people, transnational community

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4734 A Quantitative Study of the Evolution of Open Source Software Communities

Authors: M. R. Martinez-Torres, S. L. Toral, M. Olmedilla

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Typically, virtual communities exhibit the well-known phenomenon of participation inequality, which means that only a small percentage of users is responsible of the majority of contributions. However, the sustainability of the community requires that the group of active users must be continuously nurtured with new users that gain expertise through a participation process. This paper analyzes the time evolution of Open Source Software (OSS) communities, considering users that join/abandon the community over time and several topological properties of the network when modeled as a social network. More specifically, the paper analyzes the role of those users rejoining the community and their influence in the global characteristics of the network.

Keywords: open source communities, social network Analysis, time series, virtual communities

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4733 The Threat of International Terrorism and Its Impact on UK Migration Policy and Practice

Authors: Baljit Soroya

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Transnational communities are as a consequence of greater mobility of people, globalization and digitization have had a major impact on international relations and diasporas in the context of external conflicts. To a significant extent conflicts are becoming deterritorialised and informed by both internal (state politics) and external (foreign policy) players such as in Iraq and Syria leading to forced migration of unprecedented levels within the last two decades. The situation of forced migrants has, it is suggested, worsened as a consequence of the neo-liberal policies and requirements of organizations such as the European Bank. A case example of this being that of Greece, and the exacerbation of insecurity for Greek nationals and the demonization of refugees seeking sanctuary. This has been as a consequence, in part, of the neoliberal dogma of the European Bank. The article analyses the complex intersection of the real and perceived threats of international terrorism and the manner in which UK migration policy and Practice is unfolding. The policy and practice developments are explored in the context of the shift in politics in both the UK and wider Europe to the far right and the drift of main stream political parties to the right. In many cases, the mainstream political groupings, have co-opted the fears as presented by far right organization for political their own political gains, such as in the UK and France In its analysis it will be argued that, whilst international terrorism is an issue of concern, however in the context of the UK it is not of the same scale as the effects of climate change or indeed domestic violence. Given that, the question has to be asked why the threat of international terrorism is having such an impact on UK migration policy and practice and, specifically refugees. Furthermore, it is argued that this policy and practice are being formulated within a narrative that portrays migrants as the problem both in relation to terrorism and the disenfranchisement of ‘ordinary white communities’. The intersectionality of social, economic inequalities, fear of international terrorism, increase in conflicts and the political climate have contributed to a lack of trust of political establishments that have in turn sought to impress the public with their anti-immigrant rhetoric and policy agendas. The article ends by suggesting that whilst politics and political affiliations have become fractured there are nevertheless spaces for collective action, particularly in relation to issues of refugees.

Keywords: international terrorism, migration policy, conflict, media, community, politics

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4732 Coming Closer to Communities of Practice through Situated Learning: The Case Study of Polish-English, English-Polish Undergraduate BA Level Language for Specific Purposes of Translation Class

Authors: Marta Lisowska

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The growing trend of market specialization imposes upon translators the need for proficiency in the working knowledge of specialist discourse. The notion of specialization differs from a broad general category to a highly specialized narrow field. The specialised discourse is used in the channel of communication based upon distinctive features typical for communities of practice whose co-existence is codified and hermetically locked against outsiders. Consequently, any translator deprived of professional discourse competence and social skills is incapable of providing competent translation product from source language into target language. In this paper, we report on research that explores the pedagogical practices aiming to bridge the dichotomy between the professionals and the specialist translators, while accounting for the reality of the world of professional communities entered by undergraduates on two levels: the text-based generic, and the social one. Drawing from the functional social constructivist approach, seen here as situated learning, this paper reports on the case of English-Polish, Polish-English undergraduate BA Level LSP of law translation class run in line with the simulated classroom-based and the reality-based (apprenticeship) approach. This blended method serves the purpose of introducing the young trainees to the professional world. The research provides new insights into how the LSP translation undergraduates become legitimized through discursive and social participation and engagement. The undergraduates, situated peripherally at the outset, experience their own transformation towards becoming members of these professional groups. With subjective evaluation, the trainees take a stance on this dual mode class and development of their skills. Comparing and contrasting their own work done in line with two models of translation teaching: authentic and near-authentic, the undergraduates answer research questions devised by a questionnaire survey The responses take us closer to how students feel about their LSP translation competence development. The major findings show how the trainees perceive the benefits and hardships of their functional translation class. In terms of skills, they related to communication as the most enhanced one; they highly valued the fact of being ‘exposed’ to a variety of texts (cf. multi literalism), team work, learning how to schedule work, IT skills boost and the ability to learn how to work individually. Another finding indicates that students struggled most with specialized language, and co-working with other students. The short-term research shows the momentum when the undergraduate LSP translation trainees entered the path of transformation i.e. gained consciousness of ‘how it is’ to be a participant-translator of real-life communities of practice, gaining pragmatic dint of the social and linguistic skills understood here as discursive competence (text > genre > discourse > professional practice). The undergraduates need to be aware of the work they have to do and challenges they are to face before arriving at the expert level of professional translation competence.

Keywords: communities of practice in LSP translation teaching, learning LSP translation as situated experience, peripheral participation, professional discourse for LSP translation teaching, professional translation competence

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4731 An Examination of Economic Evaluation Approaches in Mental Health Promotion Initiatives Targeted at Black and Asian Minority Ethnic Communities in the UK: A Critical Discourse Analysis

Authors: Phillipa Denise Peart

Abstract:

Black Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) people are more at risk of developing mental health disorders because they are more exposed to unfavorable social, economic, and environmental circumstances. These include housing, education, employment, community development, stigma, and discrimination. However, the majority of BAME mental health intervention studies focus on treatment with therapeutically effective drugs and use basic economic methods to evaluate their effectiveness; as a result, little is invested in the economic assessment of psychosocial interventions in BAME mental health. The UK government’s austerity programme and reduced funds for mental health services, has increased the need for the evaluation and assessment of initiatives to focus on value for money. The No Health without Mental Health policy (2011) provides practice guidance to practitioners, but there is little or no mention of the need to provide mental health initiatives targeted at BAME communities that are effective in terms of their impact and the cost-effectiveness. This, therefore, appears to contradict with and is at odds with the wider political discourse, which suggests there should be an increasing focus on health economic evaluation. As a consequence, it could be argued that whilst such policies provide direction to organisations to provide mental health services to the BAME community, by not requesting effective governance, assurance, and evaluation processes, they are merely paying lip service to address these problems and not helping advance knowledge and practice through evidence-based approaches. As a result, BAME communities suffer due to lack of efficient resources that can aid in the recovery process. This research study explores the mental health initiatives targeted at BAME communities, and analyses the techniques used when examining the cost effectiveness of mental health initiatives for BAME mental health communities. Using critical discourse analysis as an approach and method, mental health services will be selected as case studies, and their evaluations will be examined, alongside the political drivers that frame, shape, and direct their work. In doing so, it will analyse what the mental health policies initiatives are, how the initiatives are directed and demonstrate how economic models of evaluation are used in mental health programmes and how the value for money impacts and outcomes are articulated by mental health programme staff. It is anticipated that this study will further our understanding in order to provide adequate mental health resources and will deliver creative, supportive research to ensure evaluation is effective for the government to provide and maintain high quality and efficient mental health initiatives targeted at BAME communities.

Keywords: black, Asian and ethnic minority, economic models, mental health, health policy

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4730 Characteristics of Domestic Sewage in Small Urban Communities

Authors: Shohreh Azizi, Memory Tekere, Wag Nel

Abstract:

An evaluation of the characteristics of wastewater generated from small communities was carried out in relation to decentralized approach for domestic sewage treatment plant and design of biological nutrient removal system. The study included the survey of the waste from various individual communities such as a hotel, a residential complex, an office premise, and an educational institute. The results indicate that the concentration of organic pollutant in wastewater from the residential complex is higher than the waste from all the other communities with COD 664 mg/l, BOD 370.2 mg/l and TSS 248.8 mg/l. And the waste water from office premise indicates low organic load with COD428 mg/l, BOD 232mg/l and TSS 157mg/l. The wastewater from residential complex was studied under activated sludge process to evaluate this technology for decentralized wastewater treatment. The Activated sludge process was operated at different 12to 4 hrs hydraulic retention times and the optimum 6 hrs HRT was selected, therefore the average reduction of COD (85.92%) and BOD (91.28 %) was achieved. The issue of sludge recycling, maintenance of biomass concentration and high HRT reactor (10 L) volume are making the system non-practical for smaller communities.

Keywords: wastewater, small communities, activated sludge process, decentralized system

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4729 Detecting Port Maritime Communities in Spain with Complex Network Analysis

Authors: Nicanor Garcia Alvarez, Belarmino Adenso-Diaz, Laura Calzada Infante

Abstract:

In recent years, researchers have shown an interest in modelling maritime traffic as a complex network. In this paper, we propose a bipartite weighted network to model maritime traffic and detect port maritime communities. The bipartite weighted network considers two different types of nodes. The first one represents Spanish ports, while the second one represents the countries with which there is major import/export activity. The flow among both types of nodes is modeled by weighting the volume of product transported. To illustrate the model, the data is segmented by each type of traffic. This will allow fine tuning and the creation of communities for each type of traffic and therefore finding similar ports for a specific type of traffic, which will provide decision-makers with tools to search for alliances or identify their competitors. The traffic with the greatest impact on the Spanish gross domestic product is selected, and the evolution of the communities formed by the most important ports and their differences between 2019 and 2009 will be analyzed. Finally, the set of communities formed by the ports of the Spanish port system will be inspected to determine global similarities between them, analyzing the sum of the membership of the different ports in communities formed for each type of traffic in particular.

Keywords: bipartite networks, competition, infomap, maritime traffic, port communities

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4728 Children's Literature As Pedagogy: Lessons For Literacy Practice

Authors: Alicia Curtin, Kathy Hall

Abstract:

This paper explores research and practice shared on a masters University module entitled Children's Literature as Pedagogy. Issues explored include the meaning of childhood and literature; the definition of what counts as text, textual and literacy practice for children and adolescents. A sociocultural framework is used to define literacy practice from this perspective and student voice and experience remains central. Lessons from classroom experience and the use of innovative, multi modal and non traditional texts and pedagogical approaches are offered as examples of innovative and inclusive pedagogy in the field of literacy practice.

Keywords: non traditional, pedagogy, practice, sociocultural

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4727 Making a Resilient Livable City: Explorations of Smart Management Mechanism for Aging Society’s Disaster Prevention

Authors: Wei-Kuang Liu, Ya-Hsu Chiang

Abstract:

In the coming of an aging society, the issues of living quality, health care, and social security for the elderly have been gradually taken seriously. In order to maintain favorable living condition, urban societies are also facing the challenge of disasters caused by extreme climate change. However, in the practice of disaster prevention, elderly people are always weak due to their physiological conditions. That is to say, in the planning of resilient urbanism, the aging society is relatively in need of more care. Thus, this research aims to map areas where have high-density elderly population and fragile environmental condition in Taiwan, and to understand the actual situation of disaster prevention management in these areas, so as to provide suggestions for the development of intellectual resilient urban management. The research takes the cities of Taoyuan and Taichung as examples for explorations. According to GIS mapping of areas with high aging index, high-density population and high flooding potential, the communities of Sihai and Fuyuan in Taoyuan and the communities of Taichang and Nanshih in Taichung are highlighted. In these communities, it can be found that there are more elderly population and less labor population with high-density living condition. In addition, they are located in the areas where they have experienced severe flooding in the recent past. Based on a series of interviews with community organizations, there is only one community out of the four using flood information mobile app and Line messages for the management of disaster prevention, and the others still rely on the traditional approaches that manage the works of disaster prevention by their community security patrol teams and community volunteers. The interview outcome shows that most elderly people are not interested in learning the use of intellectual devices. Therefore, this research suggests to keep doing the GIS mapping of areas with high aging index, high-density population and high flooding potential for grasping the high-risk communities and to help develop smart monitor and forecast systems for disaster prevention practice in these areas. Based on case-study explorations, the research also advises that it is important to develop easy-to-use bottom-up and two-way immediate communication mechanism for the management of aging society’s disaster prevention.

Keywords: aging society, disaster prevention, GIS, resilient, Taiwan

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4726 Teachers as Agents of Change: A Qualitative Study of Master of Education Graduates from Pakistan

Authors: Mir Afzal Tajik

Abstract:

The 'Strengthening Teacher Education in Pakistan' (STEP) is an innovative programme jointly funded by the Government of Canada and the Aga Khan Foundation Canada and implemented by the Aga Khan University - Institute for Educational Development (AKU-IED) in partnership with the local governments, education departments and communities in the provinces of Balochistan, Sindh and Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan. One of the key components of the programme is professional development of teachers, head teachers and teacher educators through a variety of teacher education programmes including a two-year Masters of Education (MEd) Programme offered by AKU-IED. A number of teachers, head teachers and teacher educators from these provinces have been developed through the MEd Programme. This paper discusses a qualitative research study conducted to explore the nature, relevance, rigor and richness of the experiences of the MEd graduates, and how these experiences have fostered their own professional development and their ability to bring about positive changes in their schools. The findings of the study provide useful insights into the graduates’ self-actualization, transformation of their professional beliefs and practices, the difference they have made in their schools, and the challenges they face. The study also provides evidences of how the implementation of this multi-stakeholders and multi-partners STEP programme has led to the development of ‘communities of practice’ in schools. The study then makes a number of recommendations for policy and practice related to teacher education programmes as well as for partnerships in education.

Keywords: STEP, change agents, Pakistan, Canada, teacher education, MEd

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4725 Natural Emergence of a Core Structure in Networks via Clique Percolation

Authors: A. Melka, N. Slater, A. Mualem, Y. Louzoun

Abstract:

Networks are often presented as containing a “core” and a “periphery.” The existence of a core suggests that some vertices are central and form the skeleton of the network, to which all other vertices are connected. An alternative view of graphs is through communities. Multiple measures have been proposed for dense communities in graphs, the most classical being k-cliques, k-cores, and k-plexes, all presenting groups of tightly connected vertices. We here show that the edge number thresholds for such communities to emerge and for their percolation into a single dense connectivity component are very close, in all networks studied. These percolating cliques produce a natural core and periphery structure. This result is generic and is tested in configuration models and in real-world networks. This is also true for k-cores and k-plexes. Thus, the emergence of this connectedness among communities leading to a core is not dependent on some specific mechanism but a direct result of the natural percolation of dense communities.

Keywords: cliques, core structure, percolation, phase transition

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