Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5662

Search results for: entrepreneurial education

5662 Impact of Entrepreneurial Education on Entrepreneurial Success through Entrepreneurial Mindset, Professional Growth, and Innovation

Authors: Hummaira Qudsia Yousaf, Sidra Munawar

Abstract:

The study aims to examine in which way entrepreneurial education and attitude affect the entrepreneur’s success with the help of an entrepreneurial mindset, professional growth, and innovation. The target population was the entrepreneurs of successful startups in Pakistan. Data was gathered through an e-questionnaire, and 230 responses were analyzed using the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Resultantly, entrepreneurial education is an essential component for the development of an entrepreneurial mindset. Also, an entrepreneurial attitude is responsible for the entrepreneurial mindset, which enhances professional growth. Moreover, the study highlighted that innovation is as necessary as mindset and education are for entrepreneurs. Furthermore, the findings confirmed that professional growth brings innovation to the success of entrepreneurs. This study provides proof of how entrepreneurial education and attitude influence pupils’ success in making entrepreneurs. This study extends the scope of education by incorporating predictors, such as professional growth, innovation, and entrepreneurial success. The study is unique due to the usage of innovative techniques for professional growth that ultimately bring career success.

Keywords: entrepreneurial education, entrepreneurial attitude, entrepreneurial mindset, professional growth, entrepreneurial success, innovation

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5661 Influence of Entrepreneurial Passion in the Relationship between the Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial Intention: The Case of Moroccan Students

Authors: Soukaina Boutaky, Abdelhak Sahibeddine

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A study was carried out among students who have especially a scientific and technical educational background and who had opportunities to benefit from a program entrepreneurship course of 50 hours; at Higher School of Technology Khenifra, Morocco. This article has as a goal to explain the relationship between entrepreneurial education, entrepreneurial passion and entrepreneurial intention. The authors chose Bandura’s theory of social cognition as a theoretical framework. The modeling methods equation is adopted to analyze the hypotheses by SMART PLS for 188 students. The results show a strong positive relationship between entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial passion. They also reveal that entrepreneurship education affects entrepreneurial intention through the effect of entrepreneurial passion, particularly among women than men. In addition, this study contributes in a theoretical way to the level of the relationship between entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial passion, and these results provide educators and public decision-makers with advice on the importance of entrepreneurship training based on emotional traits such as passion; which constitutes a key and essential element to encourage young graduates to choose an entrepreneurial career as an alternative option or to develop entrepreneurial passion among the business leaders of tomorrow.

Keywords: entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial passion, entrepreneurial intention, equation modeling methods

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5660 Adult and Non Formal Education for the Attainment of Enterprenuerial Skills in Nigeria

Authors: Zulaiha Maluma Ahmad

Abstract:

This paper attempted to examine adult and non formal education for the attainment of entrepreneurial skills in empowering the citizens with entrepreneurial skills, for Nigeria’s socioeconomic development. This paper highlighted the meaning of education in the context of skill acquisition, entrepreneurial education, adult and non formal education. It also examined the objectives, issues and challenges as well as prospects of this type of education. It further discussed the role of adult and non formal education for the attainment of socioeconomic development of a growing nation like Nigeria. The paper equally proffered some recommendations and eventually concluded that adult and non formal education can indeed make self reliance, personal satisfaction and the attainment of entrepreneurial education for the socioeconomic development of any nation, possible.

Keywords: entrepreneurial education, adult education, non formal education skills, Nigeria

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5659 Digital Learning and Entrepreneurship Education: Changing Paradigms

Authors: Shivangi Agrawal, Hsiu-I Ting

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship is an essential source of economic growth and a prominent factor influencing socio-economic development. Entrepreneurship education educates and enhances entrepreneurial activity. This study aims to understand current trends in entrepreneurship education and evaluate the effectiveness of diverse entrepreneurship education programs. An increasing number of universities offer entrepreneurship education courses to create and successfully continue entrepreneurial ventures. Despite the prevalence of entrepreneurship education, research studies lack inconsistency about the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education to promote and develop entrepreneurship. Strategies to develop entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions among individuals are hindered by a lack of understanding of entrepreneurs' educational purposes, components, methodology, and resources required. Lack of adequate entrepreneurship education has been linked with low self-efficacy and lack of entrepreneurial intent. Moreover, in the age of digitisation and during the COVID-19 pandemic, digital learning platforms (e.g., online entrepreneurship education courses and programs) and other digital tools (e.g., digital game-based entrepreneurship education) have become more relevant to entrepreneurship education. This paper contributes to the continuation of academic literature in entrepreneurship education by evaluating and assessing current trends in entrepreneurship education programs, leading to better understanding to reduce gaps between entrepreneurial development requirements and higher education institutions.

Keywords: entrepreneurship education, digital technologies, academic entrepreneurship, COVID-19

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5658 The Mediating Impact of Entrepreneurial Alertness on Relationship between Entrepreneurial Education and Intentions

Authors: Altaf Hussain, Norashidah Hashim

Abstract:

An important aspect needed for promoting entrepreneurship is to encourage individuals for becoming entrepreneurs by endowing them with the required skills and knowledge for identifying the opportunities and turning these opportunities into successful ventures. Literature has recognized entrepreneurship education has significant role in motivating individual’s intention to become an entrepreneurs. Developing upon the insights based on dynamic view of human capital theory, this conceptual paper explores the role of entrepreneurial alertness in a linkage between entrepreneurial education and intentions to become an entrepreneur. Prior knowledge which can be acquired through entrepreneurship education and or experience is an antecedent for developing specific human capital of alertness for identifying the opportunities which impact on individual intentions. This suggests cause & effect relationship between entrepreneurship education and intentions through entrepreneurial alertness by impacting on the attitude, social norms and perceived behavioral control of an individual which can motivate individual intention of becoming an entrepreneur. Thus, alertness skill acquired through entrepreneurship education for identifying the profitable opportunities mediates the relationship between entrepreneurship education and intentions.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education, alertness, intentions, human capital

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5657 Institutional Levels Entrepreneurial Orientations and Social Entrepreneurial Intentions: Understanding the Mediating Role of Empathy

Authors: Paulson Young Ofenimu Okhawere

Abstract:

Research suggests that the main trait differentiating social entrepreneurs from traditional entrepreneurs is empathy. And although prior research has established the relevance of empathy in predicting social entrepreneurial intentions in different contexts, its usefulness at predicting social entrepreneurial intentions in emerging economy like Nigeria is yet to be well established. Whereas, it is well known that students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria (e.g. Universities, Polytechnics, and Colleges of Education) are given entrepreneurial orientations by being made to offer compulsory courses in entrepreneurship, research focusing on the effect of such students’ entrepreneurial orientation on entrepreneurial intentions is scant. To address this gap in the entrepreneurship literature, this study attempts to enhance our understanding by focusing on students selected from one University of Technology, one Polytechnic, and one College of Education in Niger State of Nigeria. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine the mechanism through which students’ institutional level entrepreneurial orientations affect their social entrepreneurial intentions and the role empathy plays in this relationship. Building on complexity theory (Satish & Streufert, 2003, 2001), this study proposes empathy as a proximal antecedent of social entrepreneurial intentions and that it is the mechanism through which the students’ entrepreneurial orientations affect their social entrepreneurial intentions. Data collected from 598 respondents were analyzed using multilevel structural equation modelling with Mplus version 7.3. The findings reveal that (i) although students’ entrepreneurial orientation directly relates to their social entrepreneurial intentions, this relationship differs according to the kind of institution; and (ii) students’ entrepreneurial orientations positively relates to social entrepreneurial intentions indirectly through empathy. Finally, the paper discusses the theoretical and practical implications of the findings, highlights the study’s strengths and limitations, and then maps out some directions for future research.

Keywords: institutional level, entrepreneurial orientation, empathy, social entrepreneurial intentions

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5656 Training the Hospitality Entrepreneurship on the Account of Constructing Nascent Entrepreneurial Competence

Authors: Ching-Hsu Huang, Yao-Ling Liu

Abstract:

Over the past several decades there has been considerable research on the topics of entrepreneurship education and nascent entrepreneurial competence. The purpose of this study is to explore the nascent entrepreneurial competence within entrepreneurship education via the use of three studies. It will be a three-phrases longitudinal study and the effective plan will combine the qualitative and quantitative mixed research methodology in order to understand the issues of nascent entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial competence in hospitality industry in Taiwan. In study one, the systematic literature reviews and twelve nascent entrepreneurs who graduated from hospitality management department will be conducted simultaneously to construct the nascent entrepreneurial competence indicators. Nine subjects who are from industry, government, and academia will be the decision makers in terms of forming the systematic nascent entrepreneurial competence indicators. The relative importance of indicators to each decision maker will be synthesized and compared using the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. According to the results of study one, this study will develop the teaching module of nascent hospitality entrepreneurship. It will include the objectives, context, content, audiences, assessment, pedagogy and outcomes. Based on the results of the second study, the quasi-experiment will be conducted in third study to explore the influence of nascent hospitality entrepreneurship teaching module on learners’ learning effectiveness. The nascent hospitality entrepreneurship education program and entrepreneurial competence will be promoted all around the hospitality industry and vocational universities. At the end, the implication for designing the nascent hospitality entrepreneurship teaching module and training programs will be suggested for the nascent entrepreneurship education. All of the proposed hypotheses will be examined and major finding, implication, discussion, and recommendations will be provided for the government and education administration in hospitality field.

Keywords: entrepreneurial competence, hospitality entrepreneurship, nascent entrepreneurial, training in hospitality entrepreneurship

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5655 Entrepreneurship Education: A Panacea for Entrepreneurial Intention of University Undergraduates in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Adedayo Racheal Agbonna

Abstract:

The rising level of graduate unemployment in Nigeria has brought about the introduction of entrepreneurship education as a career option for self–reliance and self-employment. Sequel to this, it is important to have an understanding of the determining factors of entrepreneurial intention. Therefore this research empirically investigated the influence of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention of undergraduate students of selected universities in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study is significant to researchers, university policy makers, and the government. Survey research design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 17,659 final year undergraduate students universities in Ogun State. The study adopted stratified and random sampling technique. The table of sample size determination was used to determine the sample size for this study at 95% confidence level and 5% margin error to arrive at a sample size of 1877 respondents. The elements of population were 400 level students of the selected universities. A structured questionnaire titled 'Entrepreneurship Education and students’ Entrepreneurial intention' was administered. The result of the reliability test had the following values 0.716, 0.907 and 0.949 for infrastructure, perceived university support, and entrepreneurial intention respectively. In the same vein, from the construct validity test, the following values were obtained 0.711, 0.663 and 0.759 for infrastructure, perceived university support and entrepreneurial intention respectively. Findings of this study revealed that each of the entrepreneurship education variables significantly affected intention University infrastructure B= -1.200, R²=0.679, F (₁,₁₈₇₅) = 3958.345, P < 0.05) Perceived University Support B= -1.027, R²=0.502, F(₁,₁₈₇₅) = 1924.612, P < 0.05). The perception of respondents in public university and private university on entrepreneurship education have a statistically significant difference [F(₁,₁₈₇₅) = 134.614, p < 0.05) α F(₁,₁₈₇₅) = 363.439]. The study concluded that entrepreneurship education positively influenced entrepreneurial intention of undergraduate students in Ogun State, Nigeria. Also, university infrastructure and perceived university support have negative and significant effect on entrepreneurial intention. The study recommended that to promote entrepreneurial intention of university undergraduate students, infrastructures and the university support that can arouse entrepreneurial intention of students should be put in place.

Keywords: entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial intention, perceived university support, university infrastructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
5654 Entrepreneurial Passion: A Literature Review and Framework

Authors: Erica Engel, Andreas Bausch

Abstract:

The construct of passion, which for decades has spurred people to rise above themselves and achieve top performance, has become an increasingly important realm in entrepreneurial literature. In particular, the development process, which represents a great interplay of personality traits and cognitive processes, and the influence of passion in entrepreneurial processes, is receiving more and more scholarly intention. A wide range of different research foci exploring the creation and influence of passion within entrepreneurial processes has yielded a variety of scientific findings. By providing an integrative framework, this study aims to review the different research results systematically, to contribute not only to the understanding of entrepreneurial passion but also to the theoretical body of knowledge in entrepreneurial research. In addition, the authors identify personal-related and work-related boundary conditions, which influence both the occurrence of entrepreneurial passion and its impact.

Keywords: entrepreneur, entrepreneurial passion, framework of entrepreneurial passion, passion, passion in an entrepreneurial context

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5653 Predicting Entrepreneurial Intentions among Undergraduates Using Theory of Planned Behaviour

Authors: Mohammed Abubakar Mawoli

Abstract:

Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is a useful tool for predicting entrepreneurial intentions among individuals or groups of people. In view of the Nigerian government’s renewed educational policies and programs to prepare Nigerian undergraduates towards self-reliance and employers of labor after graduation, it becomes pertinent to empirically examine and predict the undergraduate’s entrepreneurial intentions at graduation. Thus, this study primarily examines the undergraduates entrepreneurial intentions using TPB, which includes perceived desirability, perceived social norm, and perceived feasibility factors. In so doing, a questionnaire research method was adopted in which 219 copies of a questionnaire distributed to final year undergraduates were belonging to five departments with a total population of 487 students. A combination of relative frequency, mean standard deviation and multiple regression statistical tools were employed for data analysis. The study found that TPB components exert a significant composite effect on undergraduate’s entrepreneurial intentions. Based on individual contribution of the independent variables, Perceived Desirability is the strongest predictor of the undergraduate’s entrepreneurial intentions, while Perceived Social Norm is a strong predictor of the undergraduate’s entrepreneurial intentions. However, Perceived Feasibility is not a strong predictor of student’s entrepreneurial intentions. The study therefore, recommends that the Perceived desirability, which is formed and shaped by ones level of education and skills acquisition, be improved upon to create the expected positive impact on graduates entrepreneurial intentions and possible venture creation.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial intentions, planned behaviour, prediction, Nigeria

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5652 Six Steps of Entrepreneurial Finance and Development, from Idea to Corporation Case of Kuwait

Authors: Andri Ottesen, Sam Toglaw, Mirna Safa

Abstract:

Entrepreneurial companies on their developing path from an idea to a corporation go through a similar six-step process. Each of these six development steps is supported by a distinctive financing path. This paper explores the Kuwait model for Entrepreneurial Finance and Development through in-depth interviews with ten successful Kuwaiti entrepreneurs. This paper offers insight into the development and financing of entrepreneurial companies in this oil-rich, predominantly Islamic country that are in many ways different from the steps. Western entrepreneurial companies go through. This model could be used to understand the commonalities and the difference between entrepreneurial development and financing and could be used to bridge the gap.

Keywords: entrepreneurial-financing, entrepreneurial-developing, Kuwait, Vancouver school

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5651 The Origin and Development of Entrepreneurial Cognition: The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Cognitive Style and Subsequent Entrepreneurial Intention

Authors: Salma Hussein, Hadia Aziz

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship plays a significant and imperative role in economic and social growth, and therefore, is stimulated and encouraged by governments and academics as a mean of creating job opportunities, innovation, and wealth. Indicative of its importance, it is essential to identify factors that encourage and promote entrepreneurial behavior. This is particularly true for developing countries where the need for entrepreneurial development is high and the resources are scarce, thus, there is a need to maximize the outcomes of investing in entrepreneurial development. Entrepreneurial education has been the center of attention and interest among researchers as it is believed to be one of the most critical factors in promoting entrepreneurship over the long run. Accordingly, the urgency to encourage entrepreneurship education and develop an enterprise culture is now a main concern in Egypt. Researchers have postulated that cognition has the potential to make a significant contribution to the study of entrepreneurship. One such contribution that future studies need to consider in entrepreneurship research is the cognitive processes that occur within the individual such as cognitive style. During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in cognitive style among researchers and practitioners specifically in innovation and entrepreneurship field. Limited studies pay attention to study the antecedent dynamics that fuel entrepreneurial cognition to better understand its role in entrepreneurship. Moreover, while many studies were conducted on entrepreneurship education, scholars are still hesitant regarding the teachability of entrepreneurship due to the lack of clear evidence of its impact. Furthermore, the relation between cognitive style and entrepreneurial intentions, has yet to be discovered. Hence, this research aims to test the impact of entrepreneurship education on cognitive style and subsequent intention in order to evaluate whether student’s and potential entrepreneur’s cognitive styles are affected by entrepreneurial education and in turn affect their intentions. Understanding the impact of Entrepreneurship Education on ways of thinking and intention is critical for the development of effective education and training in entrepreneurship field. It is proposed that students who are exposed to entrepreneurship education programs will have a more balanced thinking style compared to those students who are not exposed. Moreover, it is hypothesized that students having a balanced cognitive style will exhibit higher levels of entrepreneurial intentions than students having an intuitive or analytical cognitive style. Finally, it is proposed that non-formal entrepreneurship education will be more positively associated with entrepreneurial intentions than will formal entrepreneurship education. The proposed methodology is a pre and post Experimental Design. The sample will include young adults, their age range from 18 till 35 years old including both students enrolled in formal entrepreneurship education programs in private universities as well as young adults who are willing to participate in a Non-Formal entrepreneurship education programs in Egypt. Attention is now given on how far individuals are analytical or intuitive in their cognitive style, to what extent it is possible to have a balanced thinking style and whether or not this can be aided by training or education. Therefore, there is an urge need for further research on entrepreneurial cognition in educational contexts.

Keywords: cognitive style, entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurship education, experimental design

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5650 A New Profile of Engineer: From Management Engineering to Entrepreneurial Engineering

Authors: Roberto Cerchione, Emilio Esposito, Mario Raffa

Abstract:

The relevance and the strategic importance of engineering skills in innovation and in the development of businesses and organizations push to investigate the role of the engineer in society today. In the twentieth century the emergence of a variety of technical and scientific knowledge has led to the rise of new areas of skills going from a "all-comprehensive" engineering to an engineering characterized by many specializations. Organizational and structural changes within companies and the emergence of an industrial society based on multiple interrelationships led to the transformation of engineering education. The objective of this work is to report main steps and many pioneering experiences, both national and international, that have led to establish a graduate degree program in Engineering Management and its subsequent evolution in Entrepreneurial Engineering. The first section of this article focuses on the origins and precursors of Engineering Management education. The second section concerns main Italian education programs. Then the attention is focused on the evolution of Engineering Management in Naples, on the intersectoral nature of this degree program, on the relationship with business community, associations, labor market, small businesses and environment. Finally, the discussion of recent years about the skills that characterize entrepreneurial engineer in society are presented.

Keywords: education, engineering management, entrepreunerial engineering, engineering skills, managerial skills, entrepreneurial skills

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5649 Conceptual Model Design for E-Readiness of Entrepreneurial City Case Study: Entrepreneurial Cities in Iran

Authors: Mohsen Yaghmoor, Sima Radmanesh, Ameneh Gholami

Abstract:

Cities are the principal ground for manifestation of an information society. To create an entrepreneurial city, it is required that just and equal access to opportunities are provided for all segments of the city and technologies are intelligently employed. Furthermore, it is necessary for us to be electronically ready in all political, economic, social, cultural, and technological aspects. Also e-city creates enormous potentials and opportunities for development of the entrepreneurial city. After improvement of e-readiness for establishment of entrepreneurial e-city, potentials, and capitals of the city become productive and more suitable opportunities are offered to citizens, state sectors, and private sectors in order to become entrepreneurs. To create and develop an entrepreneurial city, we need to have readiness to detection and creation of entrepreneurial opportunities and finally exploitation of these opportunities which, in turn, lead to use of entrepreneurial events and their quality in the city. In this model, the quality of entrepreneurial events, the productivity of activities, the necessity of reducing the digital gap, positive and active attendance in information society and compatibility and aligning with the global society are emphasized. In an entrepreneurial city, citizens are not help seekers, private sector is not passive, and the government is entrepreneurial.

Keywords: e-city, e-readiness, entrepreneurial city, entrepreneurial events, technological entrepreneurship

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5648 Families’ Entrepreneurial Background as a Moderator between Entrepreneurial Intentions and Its Antecedents among Undergraduate Students in Ethiopia

Authors: Messele Kumilachew Aga, Amanpreet Singh

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect of attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control on entrepreneurial intentions and examines the moderating role of families’ entrepreneurial background in this causal relationship. Three hundred thirty-five undergraduate students from four universities in Ethiopia filled and returned a self-administrated questionnaire which was analyzed through independent sample t-test and process macro. The result obtained indicated that there was no mean difference in entrepreneurial intentions and its antecedents between students who have families with an entrepreneurial background and not. Besides, the study shows that families’ entrepreneurial background has no moderating effect on entrepreneurial intentions due to attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Hence, the study suggests no need of considering families’ entrepreneurial background in nurturing entrepreneurship for undergraduate students in Ethiopian universities.

Keywords: attitude toward entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intentions, families’ entrepreneurial background, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm

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5647 Level up Entrepreneurial Behaviors: A Case Study on the Use of Gamification to Encourage Entrepreneurial Acting and Thinking

Authors: Lena Murawski

Abstract:

Currently, researchers and experts from the business world recognize entrepreneurial behaviors as a decisive factor for economic success, allowing firms to adapt to changing internal and external needs. The purpose of this study is to explore how gamification can enhance entrepreneurial behaviors, reporting on a gamification project in a new venture operating in the IT sector in Germany. This article is based on data gathered from observations of pre‐ and post‐implementation in the case company. Results have indicated that the use of gamification encourages entrepreneurial behaviors, especially relating to seeking ways on how to integrate new employees, improve teamwork and communication, and to adapt existing processes to increase productivity. The interdisciplinary dialogue furthers our understanding of factors that foster entrepreneurial behaviors. The matter is of practical relevance, guiding practitioners on how to exploit the potentials of gamification to exhibit an entrepreneurial orientation in organizations.

Keywords: case study, entrepreneurial behaviors, gamification, new venture

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5646 Building Knowledge-Based Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in the Beginning of a Startup Nation: Case of Vietnam

Authors: Ngoc T. B. Hoang

Abstract:

With a young population showing a greatly entrepreneurial spirit, Vietnam has become a potential land for a growing knowledge-based entrepreneurial ecosystem (KBEE). KBEE is the key to new job formation, and well solution for the crisis of unemployment of higher education graduates and powerful engine for knowledge-based development and building the knowledge based economy in Vietnam. Consequently, Vietnam is attempting to build a healthy KBEE, giving local entrepreneurs more opportunities to develop their businesses. The purpose of the research article is to sketch up a general map to show the current situation of Vietnam's startup ecosystem in the beginning of a startup nation and take into consideration the influence of socio-cultural norms, institutional landscape and socio-economic factors on motivation to develop a KBEE. This paper also proposes a qualitative approach to explore the relationship between these and other elements of Vietnamese entrepreneurial ecosystems. Eventually, viable recommendations are drawn for Vietnamese entrepreneurs and policymakers to improve the quality of the knowledge-based entrepreneurial ecosystem in Vietnam.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, knowledge-based entrepreneurial ecosystem, startup ecosystem, Vietnam

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5645 A Conceptual Model of Social Entrepreneurial Intention Based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory

Authors: Anh T. P. Tran, Harald Von Korflesch

Abstract:

Entrepreneurial intention play a major role in entrepreneurship academia and practice. The spectrum ranges from the first model of the so-called Entrepreneurial Event, then the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Theory of Planned Behavior Entrepreneurial Model, and the Social Cognitive Career Theory to some typical empirical studies with more or less diverse results. However, little is known so far about the intentions of entrepreneurs in the social areas of venture creation. It is surprising that, since social entrepreneurship is an emerging field with growing importance. Currently, all around the world, there is a big challenge with a lot of urgent soaring social and environmental problems such as poor households, people with disabilities, HIV/AIDS infected people, the lonely elderly, or neglected children, some of them even actual in the Western countries. In addition, the already existing literature on entrepreneurial intentions demonstrates a high level of theoretical diversity in general, especially the missing link to the social dimension of entrepreneurship. Seeking to fill the mentioned gaps in the social entrepreneurial intentions literature, this paper proposes a conceptual model of social entrepreneurial intentions based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory with two main factors influencing entrepreneurial intentions namely self-efficacy and outcome expectation. Moreover, motives, goals and plans do not arise from empty nothingness, but are shaped by interacting with the environment. Hence, personalities (i.e., agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, openness) as well as contextual factors (e.g., role models, education, and perceived support) are also considered as the antecedents of social entrepreneurship intentions.

Keywords: entrepreneurial intention, social cognitive career theory, social entrepreneurial intention, social entrepreneurship

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5644 The Impact of Team Heterogeneity and Team Reflexivity on Entrepreneurial Decision -Making - Empirical Study in China

Authors: Chang Liu, Rui Xing, Liyan Tang, Guohong Wang

Abstract:

Entrepreneurial actions are based on entrepreneurial decisions. The quality of decisions influences entrepreneurial activities and subsequent new venture performance. Uncertainty of surroundings put heightened demands on the team as a whole, and each team member. Diverse team composition provides rich information, which a team can draw when making complex decisions. However, team heterogeneity may cause emotional conflicts, which is adverse to team outcomes. Thus, the effects of team heterogeneity on team outcomes are complex. Although team heterogeneity is an essential factor influencing entrepreneurial decision-making, there is a lack of empirical analysis on under what conditions team heterogeneity plays a positive role in promoting decision-making quality. Entrepreneurial teams always struggle with complex tasks. How a team shapes its teamwork is key in resolving constant issues. As a collective regulatory process, team reflexivity is characterized by continuous joint evaluation and discussion of team goals, strategies, and processes, and adapt them to current or anticipated circumstances. It enables diversified information to be shared and overtly discussed. Instead of hostile interpretation of opposite opinions team members take them as useful insights from different perspectives. Team reflexivity leads to better integration of expertise to avoid the interference of negative emotions and conflict. Therefore, we propose that team reflexivity is a conditional factor that influences the impact of team heterogeneity on high-quality entrepreneurial decisions. In this study, we identify team heterogeneity as a crucial determinant of entrepreneurial decision quality. Integrating the literature on decision-making and team heterogeneity, we investigate the relationship between team heterogeneity and entrepreneurial decision-making quality, treating team reflexivity as a moderator. We tested our hypotheses using the hierarchical regression method and the data gathered from 63 teams and 205 individual members from 45 new firms in China's first-tier cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. This research found that both teams' education heterogeneity and teams' functional background heterogeneity were significantly positively related to entrepreneurial decision-making quality, and the positive relation was stronger in teams with a high level of team reflexivity. While teams' specialization of education heterogeneity was negatively related to decision-making quality, and the negative relationship was weaker in teams with a high level of team reflexivity. We offer two contributions to decision-making and entrepreneurial team literatures. Firstly, our study enriches the understanding of the role of entrepreneurial team heterogeneity in entrepreneurial decision-making quality. Different from previous entrepreneurial decision-making literatures, which focus more on decision-making modes of entrepreneurs and the top management team, this study is a significant attempt to highlight that entrepreneurial team heterogeneity makes a unique contribution to generating high-quality entrepreneurial decisions. Secondly, this study introduced team reflexivity as the moderating variable, to explore the boundary conditions under which the entrepreneurial team heterogeneity play their roles.

Keywords: decision-making quality, entrepreneurial teams, education heterogeneity, functional background heterogeneity, specialization of education heterogeneity

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5643 Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Innovation Systems: An Appraisal of Literature

Authors: Jose Carlos Rodriguez, Mario Gomez

Abstract:

In the last years, the concept of entrepreneurial ecosystems has gained popularity. It reveals the importance of a supportive community and adequate economic environment for entrepreneurial activity, and thus the possibility of developing a different perspective on the innovation system. On the other hand, the (regional/technology) innovation system approach lacks in its analyses the presence of an entrepreneur as a key actor that develops innovations. In this regard, this paper examines the foundations of both theoretical approaches (the entrepreneurial ecosystems and the regional/technology systems of innovation) and their contributions to understand entrepreneurial activity at different levels of analyses, namely national, regional or local. The paper makes a literature review on both perspectives of innovation stressing the role played by entrepreneurs in these theoretical approaches. It concludes remarking that the regional/technology innovation systems approach and the entrepreneurial ecosystem approach have established themselves in their own right, but the regional/technology innovation system approach is a predecessor of the entrepreneurial ecosystem approach.

Keywords: entrepreneurial ecosystems, innovation systems, entrepreneurial activity, comparative analysis

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5642 Achieving Maximum Performance through the Practice of Entrepreneurial Ethics: Evidence from SMEs in Nigeria

Authors: S. B. Tende, H. L. Abubakar

Abstract:

It is acknowledged that small and medium enterprises (SMEs) may encounter different ethical issues and pressures that could affect the way in which they strategize or make decisions concerning the outcome of their business. Therefore, this research aimed at assessing entrepreneurial ethics in the business of SMEs in Nigeria. Secondary data were adopted as source of corpus for the analysis. The findings conclude that a sound entrepreneurial ethics system has a significant effect on the level of performance of SMEs in Nigeria. The Nigerian Government needs to provide both guiding and physical structures; as well as learning systems that could inculcate these entrepreneurial ethics.

Keywords: culture, entrepreneurial ethics, performance, SME

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
5641 Entrepreneurship Education: A Pre-Requisite for Graduate Entrepreneurship, a Study of Entrepreneurs in Yenagoa City

Authors: Kurotimi M. Fems, Francis D. W. Poazi, Helen Opigo

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship education and graduate entrepreneurship have taken centre stage in many countries as a 21st century strategy for economic growth and development. Entrepreneurship education has been viewed as a pre-requisite tool for a more effective and successful business operation. The purpose of this study is to ascertain if entrepreneurship education is a foundational requirement for graduate entrepreneurial engagement or, if other factors such as personality trait, need for achievement, situational circumstances or experience and competence played a more vital role in stimulating graduate entrepreneurial engagement. The scope of the research study is entrepreneurs within Yenagoa metropolis in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. The sample target is graduates engaged in entrepreneurship activities (graduates who own and run businesses). Stratified sampling technique was used and 101 responses were gotten from a total of 300 questionnaires issued. Bar chart, tables, and percentages were used to analyze the data collected. Findings: The findings revealed that personality traits, situational circumstance, need for achievement and experience/competence were the foundational factors stimulating graduate entrepreneurs to engage in entrepreneurial pursuits. Of all, personality trait showed the highest score with 73 (73%) out of 101 entrepreneurs agreeing. Experience/Competence and situational circumstances followed behind with 66 (65%) and 63 (62.4%) respectively. Entrepreneurship education revealed the least score with 33 (32.3%) out of 101 participating entrepreneurs. All hope, however, is not lost, as this shows that something can be done to increase the impact of entrepreneurship education on graduate entrepreneurship.

Keywords: creative destruction, entrepreneurs, entrepreneurship education, graduate entrepreneurship, pre-requisite

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5640 Preparing Entrepreneurial Women: A Challenge for Indian Education System

Authors: Dinesh Khanduja, Pardeep Kumar Sharma

Abstract:

Education as the most important resource in any country has multiplying effects on all facets of development in a society. The new social realities, particularly, the interplay between democratization of education; unprecedented developments in the IT sector; emergence of knowledge society, liberalization of economy, and globalization have greatly influenced the educational process of all nations. This turbulence entails upon education to undergo dramatic changes to keep up with the new expectations. Growth of entrepreneurship among Indian women is highly important for empowering them and this is highly essential for the socio-economic development of a society. Unfortunately, in India, there is poor acceptance of entrepreneurship among women as unfounded myths and fears restrain them to be enterprising. To remove these inhibitions, the education system needs to be re-engineered to make entrepreneurship more acceptable. This paper empirically analyses the results of a survey done on around 500 female graduates in North India to measure and evaluate various entrepreneurial traits present in them. A formative model has been devised in this context, which should improve the teaching-learning process in our education system, which can lead to a sustainable growth of women entrepreneurship in India.

Keywords: women empowerment, entrepreneurship, education system, women entrepreneurship, sustainable development

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5639 Human Capital, Adversity Quotient and Entrepreneurial Success

Authors: Vichada Chokesikarin

Abstract:

We propose that the ability to create the business success requires Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Human Capital (HC). The aims of the present study are to investigate adversity quotient, human capital and entrepreneurial success of accommodation entrepreneurs in Pranakorn, Bangkok and to examine the relationship between AQ, HC and Entrepreneurial Success. The participants of this study were 112 entrepreneurs in accommodation business in the Khao San/Grand Palace, the location nearby demonstration area in 2014. Specifically, we focus on higher adversity which provides a measure of one’s perceived capacity to prevail in the face of adversity and the effects of human capital on success. Results indicated that there is significant relationship between human capital and entrepreneurial success, while adversity quotient was found to partially mediate the entrepreneurial success. Moreover, our findings showed that the human capital -experience and skills- are more important than adversity quotient. This suggests that the entrepreneurial success should rely on their skill and experiences.

Keywords: accommodation business, adversity quotient, entrepreneurial success, human capital

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5638 The Role of Coaching in Fostering Entrepreneurial Intention among Graduate Students in Tunisia

Authors: Abdellatif Amouri, Sami Boudabbous

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The current study provides insights on the importance of entrepreneurial coaching as a source of developing entrepreneurial intentions among entrepreneurs and a determinant factor of business creation process and growth. Coaching, which implies exchange of adequate information and a mutual understanding between entrepreneurs and their partners, requires a better mutual knowledge of the representations and the perceptions of ideas which are widely present in their dealings and transactions. Therefore, to analyze entrepreneurs’ perceptions of business creation, we addressed a survey questionnaire to a group of Tunisian entrepreneurs and experts in business creation to indicate their level of approval concerning the prominence of coaching. The factor analysis indicates that more than 60% of the respondents believe that each statement reflects an aspect of coaching, with no bias to its position in the entrepreneurial process. Therefore, the image drawn from our respondents’ perceptions is that an entrepreneur is rather "constructed" and "shaped" by multiple apprenticeships both before and during the entrepreneurial act, through an accompaniment process and within interactions with trainers, consultants or professionals in starting a business. Similarly, the results indicate that the poor support structures and lack of accompaniment procedures stand as an obstacle impeding the development of entrepreneurial intention among business creators.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Behavior, Entrepreneurial Coaching, Entrepreneurial Intention, Perceptions, Venture Creation

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5637 Entrepreneurial Intention and Social Entrepreneurship among Students in Malaysian Higher Education

Authors: Radin Siti Aishah Radin A Rahman, Norasmah Othman, Zaidatol Akmaliah Lope Pihie, Hariyaty Ab. Wahid

Abstract:

The recent instability in economy was found to be influencing the situation in Malaysia whether directly or indirectly. Taking that into consideration, the government needs to find the best approach to balance its citizen’s socio-economic strata level urgently. Through education platform is among the efforts planned and acted upon for the purpose of balancing the effects of the influence, through the exposure of social entrepreneurial activity towards youth especially those in higher institution level. Armed with knowledge and skills that they gained, with the support by entrepreneurial culture and environment while in campus; indirectly, the students will lean more on making social entrepreneurship as a career option when they graduate. Following the issues of marketability and workability of current graduates that are becoming dire, research involving how far the willingness of student to create social innovation that contribute to the society without focusing solely on personal gain is relevant enough to be conducted. With that, this research is conducted with the purpose of identifying the level of entrepreneurial intention and social entrepreneurship among higher institution students in Malaysia. Stratified random sampling involves 355 undergraduate students from five public universities had been made as research respondents and data were collected through surveys. The data was then analyzed descriptively using min score and standard deviation. The study found that the entrepreneurial intention of higher education students are on moderate level, however it is the contrary for social entrepreneurship activities, where it was shown on a high level. This means that while the students only have moderate level of willingness to be a social entrepreneur, they are very committed to created social innovation through the social entrepreneurship activities conducted. The implication from this study can be contributed towards the higher institution authorities in prediction the tendency of student in becoming social entrepreneurs. Thus, the opportunities and facilities for realizing the courses related to social entrepreneurship must be created expansively so that the vision of creating as many social entrepreneurs as possible can be achieved.

Keywords: entrepreneurial intention, higher education institutions (HEIs), social entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurial activity, gender

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5636 Entrepreneurial Predisposition and Intention of Students from the IFRN – Mossoró, Brazil

Authors: Giovane Gurgel, Cristina S. Rodrigues, Filipa D. Vieira

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IFRN – Mossoró is a Brazilian technical education institute that develops several activities to encourage entrepreneurship, such as a curricular discipline about enterprise management and the existence of a business incubator. Despite efforts, the business incubator does not produce the expected effects. Therefore, what predisposes students to start their own business? If literature review explores determinant factors like the family and personal characteristics, it can be sustained that entrepreneurship skills can be taught since primary level, until university level. This paper presents the results of research project “Empreende IFRN” to understand the entrepreneurial predisposition and intention of the students from technical level courses. Data from 365 students from technical level courses reveal an increased entrepreneurial intention of students during time (from a 2 years period to someday in the future). The entrepreneurial behaviour of parents affects students’ perception about starting their own business. Students also present a cautions behaviour, preferring bank deposit and investment fund instead starting a business.

Keywords: Brazil, entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurship, secondary technical students

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5635 Optimism and Entrepreneurial Intentions: The Mediating Role of Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Neta Kela Madar, Tali Teeni-Harari, Tamar Icekson, Yaron Sela

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This paper proposes and empirically tests a theoretical model positing relationships between dispositional optimism, emotional intelligence, and entrepreneurial intention. To author's best knowledge, this study examined for the first time the role of dispositional optimism together with emotional intelligence as predictors of entrepreneurial intentions. The study findings suggest that optimism may increase entrepreneurial intentions indirectly by enhancing emotional intelligence/ model formulation is based on a random survey of students (N= 227). Model parameter estimation was supported by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results indicate that students’ optimism and emotional intelligence are associated with increased levels of entrepreneurial intention. Additionally, the present study argues that emotional intelligence mediates the positive relationship between optimism and entrepreneurial intention. Theoretical and practical implications of this model are discussed.

Keywords: entrepreneurial intentions, emotional intelligence, optimism, dispositional optimism

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5634 Entrepreneurship Education Revised: Merging a Theory-Based and Action-Based Framework for Entrepreneurial Narratives' Impact as an Awareness-Raising Teaching Tool

Authors: Katharina Fellnhofer, Kaisu Puumalainen

Abstract:

Despite the current worldwide increasing interest in entrepreneurship education (EE), little attention has been paid to innovative web-based ways such as the narrative approach by telling individual stories of entrepreneurs via multimedia for demonstrating the impact on individuals towards entrepreneurship. In addition, this research discipline is faced with no consensus regarding its effective content of teaching materials and tools. Therefore, a qualitative hypothesis-generating research contribution is required to aim at drawing new insights from published works in the EE field of research to serve for future research related to multimedia entrepreneurial narratives. Based on this background, our effort will focus on finding support regarding following introductory statement: Multimedia success and failure stories of real entrepreneurs show potential to change perceptions towards entrepreneurship in a positive way. The proposed qualitative conceptual paper will introduce the underlying background for this research framework. Therefore, as a qualitative hypothesis-generating research contribution it aims at drawing new insights from published works in the EE field of research related to entrepreneurial narratives to serve for future research. With the means of the triangulation of multiple theories, we will utilize the foundation for multimedia-based entrepreneurial narratives applying a learning-through-multimedia-real-entrepreneurial-narratives pedagogical tool to facilitate entrepreneurship. Our effort will help to demystify how value-oriented entrepreneurs telling their stories multimedia can simultaneously enhance EE. Therefore, the paper will build new-fangled bridges between well-cited theoretical constructs to build a robust research framework. Overall, the intended contribution seeks to emphasize future research of currently under-researched issues in the EE sphere, which are considered to be essential not only to academia, as well as to business and society having future jobs-providing growth-oriented entrepreneurs in mind. The Authors would like to thank the Austrian Science Fund FWF: [J3740 – G27].

Keywords: entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial attitudes and perceptions, entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurial narratives

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
5633 An Investigation of Entrepreneurial Intentions, Drivers, and Challenges among Final Year Students in Jigawa State Polytechnic, Nigeria

Authors: Muhammad Umar Usman

Abstract:

This study investigates the entrepreneurial intentions, drivers and challenges of starting a business among final year students in Jigawa State polytechnic. Nigeria. Final year students of Jigawa State Polytechnic from the department of accounting, business administration and management and public administration were used as a case study. The study became necessary due to the alarming rate of graduate unemployment in Nigeria. The study adopted a holistic case study approach involving a multiple methods of questionnaires involving (182) Higher National Diploma (HND) and National Diploma (ND) final year students and a telephone interview with two lecturers teaching entrepreneurship in the college. The findings clearly indicate that exposer to entrepreneurship education increases students’ entrepreneurial intentions. The result found that desire for independence, confidence and strong intention are the most important factors that influence students’ entrepreneurial intention. The study identified 3 key drivers of students’ entrepreneurial intentions. These are to earn a living, to seek job security and provision of employment. The result again identified 4 factors namely lack of support, finance, insecurity and erratic power supply as the major challenges in starting a business in Nigeria. It was also revealed that the current entrepreneurship education programme prepares students on how to open up a business not becoming an entrepreneur. The study concluded entrepreneurship helps students toward building and driving their intention to venture into business. However, the challenges of entrepreneurship in Nigeria need to be addressed in order to enable individuals to become an entrepreneur and create employment opportunities that will lead to the development of Nigerian economy. Thus, the government should provide adequate support particularly the issue of infrastructures. The Federal Government of Nigeria in collaboration with the National Board for Technical Education should fashion out the curriculum thereby making it more practically-oriented so that students may become more interested. Polytechnics should develop an internship programme for students to work in firms so as to put theory learnt in the class to practice. Students should try to align the theory learnt in college with the practical application in dynamic economic environment. Hence, this will help in building their capabilities toward entrepreneurship development in Nigeria.

Keywords: entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurial drivers, challenges, entrepreneurial education

Procedia PDF Downloads 222