Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 246

Search results for: duty

246 Characterization of Pure Nickel Coatings Fabricated under Pulse Current Conditions

Authors: M. Sajjadnejad, H. Omidvar, M. Javanbakht, A. Mozafari

Abstract:

Pure nickel coatings have been successfully electrodeposited on copper substrates by the pulse plating technique. The influence of current density, duty cycle and pulse frequency on the surface morphology, crystal orientation, and microhardness was determined. It was found that the crystallite size of the deposit increases with increasing current density and duty cycle. The crystal orientation progressively changed from a random texture at 1 A/dm2 to (200) texture at 10 A/dm2. Increasing pulse frequency resulted in increased texture coefficient and peak intensity of (111) reflection. An increase in duty cycle resulted in considerable increase in texture coefficient and peak intensity of (311) reflection. Coatings obtained at high current densities and duty cycles present a mixed morphology of small and large grains. Maximum microhardness of 193 Hv was achieved at 4 A/dm2, 10 Hz and duty cycle of 50%. Nickel coatings with (200) texture are ductile while (111) texture improves the microhardness of the coatings.

Keywords: current density, duty cycle, microstructure, nickel, pulse frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
245 Absence of Arbitrator Duty of Disclosure under the English Arbitration Act 1996

Authors: Qusai Alshahwan

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The arbitrator’s duties of independence and impartiality play a significant role in delivering arbitral awards which legitimate the fundamental of arbitration concepts. For this reason, the international and national arbitration rules require arbitrators to be independent and impartial to solve the arbitration disputes fairly between the parties. However, solving the disputes fairly also requires arbitrators to disclose any existing conflicts of interest with the parties to avoid misunderstanding and late challenges. In contrary with the international and national arbitration rules, the English Arbitration Act 1996 does not include independence as a separate ground for arbitrator’s removal, and importantly the English Arbitration Act 1996 is deliberately silent to the arbitrator duty of disclosure. The absence of arbitrator duty of disclosure is an issue had generated uncertainty and concerns for the arbitration community under the English jurisdiction, particularly when the English courts rejected the IBA guidelines of arbitrator conflict of interest such as in case of Halliburton v Chubb for example. This article is highlighting on the legal consequences of the absence of arbitrator duty of disclosure under the English Arbitration Act 1996 and the arbitrator's contractual obligations.

Keywords: arbitration, impartiality, independence, duty of disclosure, English Arbitration Act 1996

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
244 The Duty of State to Punish Gross Violations of Human Rights

Authors: Yustina Trihoni Nalesti Dewi

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Gross violations of human rights consisting of crime against humanity, genocide and war crime, are serious international crimes. Prohibition such crimes have obtain to the level of international norms of jus cogens based on conventions and customary international law. Therefore, the duty of the state to punish the crimes is obligatory. The legal consequence of jus cogens is obligation erga omnes which are a matter of state responsibility. When a state is not willing or neglects to do so in its national law, it results in state responsibility to be imposed by international human rights and humanitarian law. This article reviews the concept of jus cogens and obligatio erga omnes that appear as two sides of the same coin. It also explains how international human rights and humanitarian law set down the duty of the state to punish gross violations of human rights.

Keywords: duty of states, gross violations of human rights, jus cogens, obligatio erga omnes

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
243 Simulation and Assessment of Carbon Dioxide Separation by Piperazine Blended Solutions Using E-NRTL and Peng-Robinson Models: Study of Regeneration Heat Duty

Authors: Arash Esmaeili, Zhibang Liu, Yang Xiang, Jimmy Yun, Lei Shao

Abstract:

A high-pressure carbon dioxide (CO₂) absorption from a specific off-gas in a conventional column has been evaluated for the environmental concerns by the Aspen HYSYS simulator using a wide range of single absorbents and piperazine (PZ) blended solutions to estimate the outlet CO₂ concentration, CO₂ loading, reboiler power supply, and regeneration heat duty to choose the most efficient solution in terms of CO₂ removal and required heat duty. The property package, which is compatible with all applied solutions for the simulation in this study, estimates the properties based on the electrolyte non-random two-liquid (E-NRTL) model for electrolyte thermodynamics and Peng-Robinson equation of state for vapor phase and liquid hydrocarbon phase properties. The results of the simulation indicate that piperazine, in addition to the mixture of piperazine and monoethanolamine (MEA), demands the highest regeneration heat duty compared with other studied single and blended amine solutions, respectively. The blended amine solutions with the lowest PZ concentrations (5wt% and 10wt%) were considered and compared to reduce the cost of the process, among which the blended solution of 10wt%PZ+35wt%MDEA (methyldiethanolamine) was found as the most appropriate solution in terms of CO₂ content in the outlet gas, rich-CO₂ loading, and regeneration heat duty.

Keywords: absorption, amine solutions, aspen HYSYS, CO₂ loading, piperazine, regeneration heat duty

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
242 Design and Implementation of a Fan Coil Unit Controller Based on the Duty Ratio Fuzzy Method

Authors: Liang Zhao, Jili Zhang, Kai Li

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A microcontroller-based fan coil unit (FCU) fuzzy controller is designed and implemented in this paper. The controller employs the concept of duty ratio on the electric valve control, which could make full use of the cooling and dehumidifying capacity of the FCU when the valve is off. The traditional control method and its limitations are analyzed. The hardware and software design processes are introduced in detail. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more energy efficient compared to the traditional controlling strategy. Furthermore, a more comfortable room condition could be achieved by the proposed method. The proposed low-cost FCU fuzzy controller deserves to be widely used in engineering applications.

Keywords: fan coil unit, duty ratio, fuzzy controller, experiment

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
241 Evaluation of Bucket Utility Truck In-Use Driving Performance and Electrified Power Take-Off Operation

Authors: Robert Prohaska, Arnaud Konan, Kenneth Kelly, Adam Ragatz, Adam Duran

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In an effort to evaluate the in-use performance of electrified Power Take-off (PTO) usage on bucket utility trucks operating under real-world conditions, data from 20 medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating in California, USA were collected, compiled, and analyzed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Fleet Test and Evaluation team. In this paper, duty-cycle statistical analyses of class 5, medium-duty quick response trucks and class 8, heavy-duty material handler trucks are performed to examine and characterize vehicle dynamics trends and relationships based on collected in-use field data. With more than 100,000 kilometers of driving data collected over 880+ operating days, researchers have developed a robust methodology for identifying PTO operation from in-field vehicle data. Researchers apply this unique methodology to evaluate the performance and utilization of the conventional and electric PTO systems. Researchers also created custom representative drive-cycles for each vehicle configuration and performed modeling and simulation activities to evaluate the potential fuel and emissions savings for hybridization of the tractive driveline on these vehicles. The results of these analyses statistically and objectively define the vehicle dynamic and kinematic requirements for each vehicle configuration as well as show the potential for further system optimization through driveline hybridization. Results are presented in both graphical and tabular formats illustrating a number of key relationships between parameters observed within the data set that relates specifically to medium- and heavy-duty utility vehicles operating under real-world conditions.

Keywords: drive cycle, heavy-duty (HD), hybrid, medium-duty (MD), PTO, utility

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
240 Maximum Power Point Tracking for Small Scale Wind Turbine Using Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network Implementation without Mechanical Sensor

Authors: Piyangkun Kukutapan, Siridech Boonsang

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The article proposes maximum power point tracking without mechanical sensor using Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN). The aim of article is to reduce the cost and complexity but still retain efficiency. The experimental is that duty cycle is generated maximum power, if it has suitable qualification. The measured data from DC generator, voltage (V), current (I), power (P), turnover rate of power (dP), and turnover rate of voltage (dV) are used as input for MLPNN model. The output of this model is duty cycle for driving the converter. The experiment implemented using Arduino Uno board. This diagram is compared to MPPT using MLPNN and P&O control (Perturbation and Observation control). The experimental results show that the proposed MLPNN based approach is more efficiency than P&O algorithm for this application.

Keywords: maximum power point tracking, multilayer perceptron netural network, optimal duty cycle, DC generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
239 Corrosion Evaluation of Zinc Coating Prepared by Two Types of Electric Currents

Authors: M. Sajjadnejad, H. Karimi Abadeh

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In this research, zinc coatings were fabricated by electroplating process in a sulfate solution under direct and pulse current conditions. In direct and pulse current conditions, effect of maximum current was investigated on the coating properties. Also a comparison was made between the obtained coatings under direct and pulse current. Morphology of the coatings was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behavior of the coatings was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization test. In pulse current conditions, the effect of pulse frequency and duty cycle was also studied. The effect of these conditions and parameters were also investigated on morphology and corrosion behavior. All of DC plated coatings are showing a distinct passivation area in -1 to -0.4 V range. Pulsed current coatings possessed a higher corrosion resistance. The results showed that current density is the most important factor regarding the fabrication process. Furthermore, a rise in duty cycle deteriorated corrosion resistance of coatings. Pulsed plated coatings performed almost 10 times better than DC plated coatings.

Keywords: corrosion, duty cycle, pulsed current, zinc

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
238 Comparing Machine Learning Estimation of Fuel Consumption of Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Authors: Victor Bodell, Lukas Ekstrom, Somayeh Aghanavesi

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Fuel consumption (FC) is one of the key factors in determining expenses of operating a heavy-duty vehicle. A customer may therefore request an estimate of the FC of a desired vehicle. The modular design of heavy-duty vehicles allows their construction by specifying the building blocks, such as gear box, engine and chassis type. If the combination of building blocks is unprecedented, it is unfeasible to measure the FC, since this would first r equire the construction of the vehicle. This paper proposes a machine learning approach to predict FC. This study uses around 40,000 vehicles specific and o perational e nvironmental c onditions i nformation, such as road slopes and driver profiles. A ll v ehicles h ave d iesel engines and a mileage of more than 20,000 km. The data is used to investigate the accuracy of machine learning algorithms Linear regression (LR), K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and Artificial n eural n etworks (ANN) in predicting fuel consumption for heavy-duty vehicles. Performance of the algorithms is evaluated by reporting the prediction error on both simulated data and operational measurements. The performance of the algorithms is compared using nested cross-validation and statistical hypothesis testing. The statistical evaluation procedure finds that ANNs have the lowest prediction error compared to LR and KNN in estimating fuel consumption on both simulated and operational data. The models have a mean relative prediction error of 0.3% on simulated data, and 4.2% on operational data.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, fuel consumption, friedman test, machine learning, statistical hypothesis testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
237 Mechanistic Study of Composite Pavement Behavior in Heavy Duty Area

Authors: Makara Rith, Young Kyu Kim, Seung Woo Lee

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In heavy duty areas, asphalt pavement constructed as entrance roadway may expose distresses such as cracking and rutting during service life. To mitigate these problems, composite pavement with a roller-compacted concrete base may be a good alternative; however, it should be initially investigated. Structural performances such as fatigue cracking and rut depth may be changed due to variation of some design factors. Therefore, this study focuses on the variation effect of material modulus, layer thickness and loading on composite pavement performances. Stress and strain at the critical location are determined and used as the input of transfer function for corresponding distresses to evaluate the pavement performance. Also, composite pavement satisfying the design criteria may be selected as a design section for heavy duty areas. Consequently, this investigation indicates that composite pavement has the ability to eliminate fatigue cracking in asphalt surfaces and significantly reduce rut depth. In addition, a thick or strong rigid base can significantly reduce rut depth and prolong fatigue life of this layer.

Keywords: composite pavement, ports, cracking, rutting

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
236 A Simulation Study for Potential Natural Gas Liquids Recovery Processes under Various Upstream Conditions

Authors: Mesfin Getu Woldetensay

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Representatives and commercially viable natural gas liquids (NGLs) recovery processes were studied under various feed conditions that are classified as lean and rich. The conventional turbo- expander process scheme (ISS) was taken as a base case. The performance of this scheme was compared against with the gas sub-cooled process (GSP), cold residue-gas (CRR) and recycle split-vapor (RSV), enhanced NGL recovery process (IPSI-1) and enhanced NGL recovery process with internal refrigeration (IPSI-2). The development made for the GSP, CRR and RSV are at the top section of the demethanizer column whereas the IPSI-1 and IPSI-2 improvement focus in the lower section. HYSYS process flowsheet was initially developed for all the processes including the ISS under a common criteria that could help to demonstrate the performance comparison. Accordingly, a number of simulation runs were made for the selected eight types of feed. Results show that the reboiler duty requirement using rich feeds for GSP, CRR and RSV is quite high compared to IPSI-1 and IPSI-2. The latter shows relatively lower duty due to the presence of self-refrigeration system that allows the inlet feed to be used for achieving cooling without the need to use propane refrigerant. The energy consumption for lean feed is much lower than that of the rich feed in all process schemes.

Keywords: composition, lean, rich, duty

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
235 Split-Flow Method to Reduce Duty Required in Amine Gas Sweetening Units

Authors: Abdallah Sofiane Berrouk, Dara Satyadileep

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This paper investigates the feasibility of retrofitting a middle-east based commercial amine sweetening unit with a split-flow scheme which involves withdrawing a portion of partially stripped semi-lean solvent from the stripping column and re-injecting it in the absorption column to reduce the overall energy consumption of the unit. This method is comprehensively explored by performing parametric analysis of the split fraction of the semi-lean solvent using a kinetics based process simulator ProMax V 3.2. Re-boiler duty, condenser duty, solvent cooling and pumping loads are analysed as functions of a split fraction of the semi-lean solvent from the stripper. It is shown that the proposed method significantly reduces the overall energy consumption of the unit resulting in an annual savings of 325,000 USD. The thorough economic analysis is performed using Aspen Economic Evaluation V 8.4 to reveal that the retrofit scheme pays back the capital cost in less than eight years and is highly recommended for any commercial plant having suitable provisions for solvent inlet/withdrawal on the columns.

Keywords: split flow, Amine, gas processing, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
234 Making Good Samaritans: An Exploration of Criminal Liability for Failure to Rescue in England and Wales

Authors: Usmaan Siddiqui

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In England and Wales, there is no duty to rescue strangers. We will be investigating whether this is correct, and whether we should introduce a Good Samaritan law. In order to explore this, firstly, we will be exploring the nature of our moral duties. How far do our moral duties extend? Do they extend only to our family and friends, or do they also extend to strangers? Secondly, even if there does exist a moral duty, should this duty be enforced by criminal law? To what extent should the criminal law reflect morality? Under English criminal law, the consensus is, that it is not the job of the English criminal law to perfect human behaviour, and whilst the law should prevent us from causing harm, it should not force us to be good. This approach is radically different from many other European countries that actually do have a Good Samaritan law. If there are compelling in principle reasons to introduce a Good Samaritan law how would we deal with the pragmatic institutional constraints? Such a law has been stated as being unworkable in practice and difficult in defining its limits. In order to verify this, we shall carry out a comparative analysis between England and selected states in the US to gauge how successful the Good Samaritan law has been in dealing with these institutional constraints. In terms of methodology, as well as a comparative analysis, we shall also be carrying out a doctrinal analysis exploring what the English criminal law’s position is regarding Omissions. In conclusion, the findings so far are, whilst it is not the job of the law to perfect human behaviour, both respect for the law and the level of social co-operation will be greatly improved if the law encourages morally desirable conduct. Whilst it is possible for society to exist without a duty to assist the distressed, a society which ignores the vulnerable is cold, callous, and uncaring. After all, we all need to face up to the possibility that we may be one day be vulnerable and in need of urgent aid, and it is about time English criminal law, catches up with the majority of Europe and protects the vulnerable.

Keywords: criminal, law, omissions, philosophy

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
233 Examination of the Relationship between Managerial Competence and Job Satisfacti̇on and Career Satisfacti̇on in Sports Managers'

Authors: Omur F. Karakullukcu, Bilal Okudan, Yusuf Can

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The aim of this study is to analyze sports managers’ managerial competence levels and job satisfaction’s correlation with career satisfaction. In the study, it has also been analyzed if there is any significant difference in sports managers’ managerial competence, job and career satisfaction in terms of gender, age, duty status, year of service and level of education. 256 sports managers, who work at department of sports service’s central and field organization at least as a chief in the manager position, have been chosen with random sampling method and they have voluntarily participated in the study. In the study, the managerial competence scale which was developed by Cetinkaya (2009), job satisfaction scale developed by Weiss at al.(1967) and Career Satisfaction Scale developed by Vatansever (2008) have been used as a data collection tool. The questionnaire form used as a data collection tool in the study includes a personal information form consisting of 5 questions; questioning gender, age, duty status, years of service and level of education. In the study, pearson correlation analysis has been used for defining the correlation of managerial competence levels, job satisfaction, and career satisfaction levels of sports managers. T-test analysis for binary grouping and anova analysis for more than binary groups have been used in the level of self-efficacy, collective and managerial competence in terms of the participants’ duty status, year of service and level of education. According to the research results, it has been found that there is a positive correlation between sports managers’ managerial competence levels, job satisfaction, and career satisfaction levels. Also, the results show that there is a significant difference in managerial competence levels, job satisfaction and career satisfaction of sports managers in terms of duty status, year of service and level of education; however, the results reveal that there is no significant difference in terms of age groups and gender.

Keywords: sports manager, managerial competence, job satisfaction, career satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
232 Development of a Work-Related Stress Management Program Guaranteeing Fitness-For-Duty for Human Error Prevention

Authors: Hyeon-Kyo Lim, Tong-Il Jang, Yong-Hee Lee

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Human error is one of the most dreaded factors that may result in unexpected accidents, especially in nuclear power plants. For accident prevention, it is quite indispensable to analyze and to manage the influence of any factor which may raise the possibility of human errors. Out of lots factors, stress has been reported to have a significant influence on human performance. Therefore, this research aimed to develop a work-related stress management program which can guarantee Fitness-for-Duty (FFD) of the workers in nuclear power plants, especially those working in main control rooms. Major stress factors were elicited through literal surveys and classified into major categories such as demands, supports, and relationships. To manage those factors, a test and intervention program based on 4-level approaches was developed over the whole employment cycle including selection and screening of workers, job allocation, and job rotation. In addition, a managerial care program was introduced with the concept of Employee-Assistance-Program (EAP) program. Reviews on the program conducted by ex-operators in nuclear power plants showed responses in the affirmative, and suggested additional treatment to guarantee high performance of human workers, not in normal operations but also in emergency situations.

Keywords: human error, work performance, work stress, Fitness-For-Duty (FFD), Employee Assistance Program (EAP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
231 Empirical Roughness Progression Models of Heavy Duty Rural Pavements

Authors: Nahla H. Alaswadko, Rayya A. Hassan, Bayar N. Mohammed

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Empirical deterministic models have been developed to predict roughness progression of heavy duty spray sealed pavements for a dataset representing rural arterial roads. The dataset provides a good representation of the relevant network and covers a wide range of operating and environmental conditions. A sample with a large size of historical time series data for many pavement sections has been collected and prepared for use in multilevel regression analysis. The modelling parameters include road roughness as performance parameter and traffic loading, time, initial pavement strength, reactivity level of subgrade soil, climate condition, and condition of drainage system as predictor parameters. The purpose of this paper is to report the approaches adopted for models development and validation. The study presents multilevel models that can account for the correlation among time series data of the same section and to capture the effect of unobserved variables. Study results show that the models fit the data very well. The contribution and significance of relevant influencing factors in predicting roughness progression are presented and explained. The paper concludes that the analysis approach used for developing the models confirmed their accuracy and reliability by well-fitting to the validation data.

Keywords: roughness progression, empirical model, pavement performance, heavy duty pavement

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
230 Combating Money Laundering and Inroads into Banking Secrecy: Evidence from Malaysia

Authors: Aspalella A. Rahman

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It is widely accepted that the investigation of money laundering and the tracing and confiscation of criminal proceeds have intruded into the principles of banking secrecy. The inroads into banking secrecy present serious threats to democracy, and more importantly, to the traditional banker-customer relationship. It is generally accepted that the fight against money laundering is in conflict with the secrecy rule. Banking secrecy is a customer privilege whereas combating crime is critical for public safety and security. Indeed, achieving a proper balance is a desirable goal. But how we go about achieving such a balance is a question encountered by many law enforcement authorities. Therefore, this paper examines the effect of disclosure under the Malaysian anti-money laundering laws on the traditional duty of banks to keep the customer’s information confidential. It also analyzes whether the Malaysian laws provide a right balance between a duty to keep customer’s information secret and a duty to disclose such information in the fight against money laundering. On closer inspection, it is submitted that the Malaysian laws provide sufficient safeguards to ensure that the disclosure of customer’s information is carried out in a manner that is not prejudicial to the interest of legitimate customers. This is a positive approach that could protect the innocent customers from being mistreated by the law. Ultimately, it can be said that the growing threat of global money laundering and terrorism makes the overriding of banking secrecy justified because without a flow of information from the banks, the effective prevention of the menace is not possible.

Keywords: anti-money laundering law, banker-customer relationship, banking secrecy, confidentiality, money laundering

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229 Determining the Materiality of an Undisclosed Fact: An Onerous Duty on the Assured

Authors: Adekemi Adebowale

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The duty of disclosure in Nigerian insurance law is in need of reform. The materiality of an undisclosed fact (notwithstanding that it was an honest and innocent non-disclosure) currently entitles insurers to avoid insurance policies, leaving an insured with an uncovered loss. While the test of materiality requires an insured to voluntarily disclose facts that will influence an insurer's decision without proper guidelines from the insurer, the insurer is only expected to prove that the undisclosed fact had influenced its judgment in fixing the premium or determining whether to accept the risk. This problem places an onerous duty on the assured to volunteer to the insurer every material fact even though the insured only has a slight idea about the mind of a hypothetical prudent insurer. This paper explores the modern approach to revisiting the problem of an insured’s pre-contractual obligation to determine material facts in Nigerian insurance law. The aim is to build upon the change in the structure of insurance contract obligations in other common law jurisdictions such as the United Kingdom. The doctrinal and comparative methodology captures the burden imposed on the insured under the existing Nigerian insurance law. It finds that the continued application of the law leaves the insured in the weakest position, and he stands to lose in a contract supposedly created for his benefit. It is apparent that if this problem remains unresolved, the over-all consequence will contribute to a significant decline in the insurance contract, which may affect the Nigerian economy. The paper aims to evaluate the risks of the continuous application of the traditional law, which does not keep with the pace of modern insurance practice. It will ultimately produce a legally compliant reform, along with a significant deviation from the archaic structure that exists in the Nigerian insurance law. This paper forms part of an on-going PhD research on "The insured’s pre-contractual duty of utmost of utmost good faith". The outcome from the research to date finds that the insured bears the burden of the obligation to act in utmost good faith where it concerns disclosure of material facts.

Keywords: disclosure, materiality, Nigeria, United Kingdom, utmost good faith

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
228 Management of Fitness-For-Duty for Human Error Prevention in Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Hyeon-Kyo Lim, Tong-Il Jang, Yong-Hee Lee

Abstract:

For the past several decades, not a few researchers have warned that even a trivial human error may result in unexpected accidents, especially in Nuclear Power Plants. To prevent accidents in Nuclear Power Plants, it is quite indispensable to make any factors under the effective control that may raise the possibility of human errors for accident prevention. This study aimed to develop a risk management program, especially in the sense that guaranteeing Fitness-for-Duty (FFD) of human beings working in Nuclear Power Plants. Throughout a literal survey, it was found that work stress and fatigue are major psychophysical factors requiring sophisticated management. A set of major management factors related to work stress and fatigue was through repetitive literal surveys and classified into several categories. To maintain the fitness of human workers, a 4-level – individual worker, team, staff within plants, and external professional - approach was adopted for FFD management program. Moreover, the program was arranged to envelop the whole employment cycle from selection and screening of workers, job allocation, and job rotation. Also, a managerial care program was introduced for employee assistance based on the concept of Employee Assistance Program (EAP). The developed program was reviewed with repetition by ex-operators in nuclear power plants, and assessed in the affirmative. As a whole, responses implied additional treatment to guarantee high performance of human workers not only in normal operations but also in emergency situations. Consequently, the program is under administrative modification for practical application.

Keywords: fitness-for-duty (FFD), human error, work stress, fatigue, Employee-Assistance-Program (EAP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
227 Different Tillage Possibilities for Second Crop in Green Bean Farming

Authors: Yilmaz Bayhan, Emin Güzel, Ömer Barış Özlüoymak, Ahmet İnce, Abdullah Sessiz

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In this study, determining of reduced tillage techniques in green bean farming as a second crop after harvesting wheat was targeted. To this aim, four different soil tillage methods namely, heavy-duty disc harrow (HD), rotary tiller (ROT), heavy-duty disc harrow plus rotary tiller (HD+ROT) and no-tillage (NT) (seeding by direct drill) were examined. Experiments were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. The highest green beans yields were obtained in HD+ROT and NT as 5,862.1 and 5,829.3 Mg/ha, respectively. The lowest green bean yield was found in HD as 3,076.7 Mg/ha. The highest fuel consumption was measured 30.60 L ha-1 for HD+ROT whereas the lowest value was found 7.50 L ha-1 for NT. No tillage method gave the best results for fuel consumption and effective power requirement. It is concluded that no-tillage method can be used in second crop green bean in the Thrace Region due to economic and erosion conditions.

Keywords: green bean, soil tillage, yield, vegetative

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
226 Effect of Injection Strategy on the Performance and Emission of E85 in a Heavy-Duty Engine under Partially Premixed Combustion

Authors: Amir Aziz, Martin Tuner, Sebastian Verhelst, Oivind Andersson

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Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept which aims to simultaneously achieve high efficiency and low engine-out emissions. Extending the ignition delay to promote the premixing, has been recognized as one of the key factor to achieve PPC. Fuels with high octane number have been proven to be a good candidates to extend the ignition delay. In this work, E85 (85% ethanol) has been used as a PPC fuel. The aim of this work was to investigate a suitable injection strategy for PPC combustion fueled with E85 in a single-cylinder heavy-duty engine. Single and double injection strategy were applied with different injection timing and the ratio between different injection pulses was varied. The performance and emission were investigated at low load. The results show that the double injection strategy should be preferred for PPC fueled with E85 due to low emissions and high efficiency, while keeping the pressure raise rate at very low levels.

Keywords: E85, partially premixed combustion, injection strategy, performance and emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
225 Ground Short Circuit Contributions of a MV Distribution Line Equipped with PWMSC

Authors: Mohamed Zellagui, Heba Ahmed Hassan

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This paper proposes a new approach for the calculation of short-circuit parameters in the presence of Pulse Width Modulated based Series Compensator (PWMSC). PWMSC is a newly Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) device that can modulate the impedance of a transmission line through applying a variation to the duty cycle (D) of a train of pulses with fixed frequency. This results in an improvement of the system performance as it provides virtual compensation of distribution line impedance by injecting controllable apparent reactance in series with the distribution line. This controllable reactance can operate in both capacitive and inductive modes and this makes PWMSC highly effective in controlling the power flow and increasing system stability in the system. The purpose of this work is to study the impact of fault resistance (RF) which varies between 0 to 30 Ω on the fault current calculations in case of a ground fault and a fixed fault location. The case study is for a medium voltage (MV) Algerian distribution line which is compensated by PWMSC in the 30 kV Algerian distribution power network. The analysis is based on symmetrical components method which involves the calculations of symmetrical components of currents and voltages, without and with PWMSC in both cases of maximum and minimum duty cycle value for capacitive and inductive modes. The paper presents simulation results which are verified by the theoretical analysis.

Keywords: pulse width modulated series compensator (pwmsc), duty cycle, distribution line, short-circuit calculations, ground fault, symmetrical components method

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
224 The Importance of Self-Efficacy and Collective Competence Beliefs in Managerial Competence of Sports Managers'

Authors: Şenol Yanar, Sinan Çeli̇kbi̇lek, Mehmet Bayansalduz, Yusuf Can

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Managerial competence defines as the skills that managers in managerial positions have in relation to managerial responsibilities and managerial duties. Today's organizations, which are in a competitive environment, have the desire to work with effective managers in order to be more advantageous position than the other organizations they are competing with. In today's organizations, self-efficacy and collective competence belief that determine managerial competencies of managers to assume managerial responsibility are of special importance. In this framework, the aim of this study is to examine the effects of sports managers' perceptions of self-efficacy and collective competence in managerial competence perceptions. In the study, it has also been analyzed if there is a significant difference between self-efficacy, collective competence and managerial competence levels of sports managers in terms of their gender, age, duty status, year of service and level of education. 248 sports managers, who work at the department of sports service’s central and field organization at least as a chief in the manager position, have been chosen with random sampling method and they have voluntarily participated in the study. In the study, the self-efficacy scale which was developed by Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (1995), collective competence scale developed by Goddard, Hoy and Woolfolk-Hoy (2000) and managerial competence scale developed by Cetinkaya (2009) have been used as a data collection tool. The questionnaire form used as a data collection tool in the study includes a personal information form consisting of 5 questions; questioning gender, age, duty status, years of service and level of education. In the study, Pearson Correlation Analysis has been used for defining the correlation among self-efficacy, collective competence belief, and managerial competence levels in sports managers and regression analysis have been used to define the affect of self-efficacy and collective competence belief on the perception of managerial competence. T-test for binary grouping and ANOVA analysis have been used for more than binary groups in order to determine if there is any significant difference in the level of self-efficacy, collective and managerial competence in terms of the participants’ duty status, year of service and level of education. According to the research results, it has been found that there is a positive correlation between sports managers' self-efficacy, collective competence beliefs, and managerial competence levels. According to the results of the regression analysis, it is understood that the managers’ perception of self-efficacy and collective competence belief significantly defines the perception of managerial competence. Also, the results show that there is no significant difference in self-efficacy, collective competence, and level of managerial competence of sports managers in terms of duty status, year of service and level of education.

Keywords: sports manager, self-efficacy, collective competence, managerial competence

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
223 School Curriculum Incorporating Rights to Live in Clean and Healthy Environment: Assessing Its Effectiveness

Authors: Sitaram Dahal

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Among many strategic and practical needs in overcoming the threats and challenges being experienced in the global environment, constitutional provision for Rights to live in clean and healthy environment is one and so is the school curriculum incorporating information on such rights. Government of Nepal has also introduced information on rights to live in clean and healthy environment, as provisioned in its interim constitution of 2007, in the secondary level curriculum of formal education. As the predetermined specific objective of such curriculum is to prepare students who are conscious of citizens’ rights and responsibilities and are able to adopt functions, duties and rights of the rights holders and duty bearers; the study was designed to assess the effectiveness of such curriculum. The study was conducted in one private school and a community school to assess the effectiveness of such curriculum. The study shows that such curriculum has been able to make students responsible duty bearers as they were aware of their habits towards environment. Whereas only very few students are aware enough as being rights holders. Students of community schools were aware rights holders as they complain if they are not satisfied with the environment of the school itself. But private school is far behind in this case. It can be said that only curriculum with very few portion of information on such rights might not be capable enough to meet its objective.

Keywords: curriculum, environmental rights, constitution, effectiveness

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222 A Study on the Relationships among Teacher Empowerment, Professional Commitment and School Effectiveness

Authors: S. C. Lin, W. F. Hung, W. W. Cheng

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Teacher empowerment was regarded as investing teachers with the right to participate in the determination of school goals and policies and to exercise professional judgment about what and how to teach. Professional commitment was considered as a person’s belief in and acceptance of the values of his or her chosen occupation or line of work, and a willingness to maintain membership in that occupation. An effective school has been defined as one in which students’ progress further than might be expected from consideration of its intake. An effective school thus adds extra value to its students' outcomes, in comparison with other schools serving similar intakes. A number of literature from various countries explored that teacher empowerment and professional commitment significantly influenced school effectiveness. However, there lacked more empirical studies to examine the relationships among them. Hence, this study was to explore the relationships among teacher empowerment, professional commitment and school effectiveness in junior high schools in Taiwan. Samples were seven hundred and five junior high school teachers selected from Taichung City, Changhua County and Nantou County. Questionnaire was applied to collect data. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson’s product-moment correlation, and multiple regression analysis. The findings of this study were as follows: First, the overall performances of teachers’ perceptions of teacher empowerment, teacher professional commitment and school effectiveness were above average. Second, the teachers’ perceptions of teacher empowerment were significant different in gender, designated duty, and school size. Third, the teachers’ perceptions of teacher professional commitment were significant different in gender, designated duty, and school size. Fourth, the teachers’ perceptions of school effectiveness were significant different in designated duty. Fifth, teacher empowerment was mid-positively correlation by teacher professional commitment. Sixth, there was mid-positively correlation between teacher empowerment and school effectiveness. Seventh, there was mid-positively correlation between teacher professional commitment and school effectiveness. Eighth, Teacher empowerment and professional commitment could significantly predict school effectiveness. Based on the findings of this study, the study proposed some suggestions for educational authorities, schools, teachers, and future studies as well.

Keywords: junior high school teacher, teacher empowerment, teacher professional commitment, school effectiveness

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221 The Impact of Sports Employees' of Perceptions of Organizational Climate and Organizational Trust on Work Motivation

Authors: Bilal Okudan, Omur F. Karakullukcu, Yusuf Can

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Work motivation is one of the fundamental elements that determine the attitudes and performance of employees towards work. In this sense, work motivation depends not only on individual and occupational factors but also on employees' perception of organizational climate and organizational trust. Organizations that are aware of this have begun to do more research on work motivation in recent years to ensure that employees have the highest possible performance. In this framework of the purpose of this study is to examine the effect of sports employees' perceptions of organizational climate and organizational trust on work motivation. In the study, it has also been analyzed if there is any significant difference in the department of sports services’ employees’ organizational climate and organizational trust perception, and work motivation levels in terms of gender, age, duty status, year of service and level of education. 278 sports managers, who work in the department of sports service’s central and field organization at least as a chief in the manager position, have been chosen with random sampling method and they have voluntarily participated in the study. In the study, the organizational climate scale which was developed by Bilir (2005), organizational trusts scale developed by koksal (2012) and work motivation scale developed by Mottaz J. Clifford (1985) have been used as a data collection tool. The questionnaire form used as a data collection tool in the study includes a personal information form consisting of 5 questions; questioning gender, age, duty status, years of service and level of education. In the study, Pearson Correlation Analysis has been used for defining the correlation among organizational climate, organizational trust perceptions and work motivation levels in sports managers and regression analysis has been used to identify the effect of organizational climate and organizational trust on work motivation. T-test for binary grouping and ANOVA analysis have been used for more than binary groups in order to determine if there is any significant difference in the level of organizational climate, organizational trust perceptions and work motivations in terms of the participants’ duty status, year of service and level of education. According to the research results, it has been found that there is a positive correlation between the department of sports services’ employees’ organizational climate, organizational trust perceptions and work motivation levels. According to the results of the regression analysis; it is understood that the sports employees’ perception of organizational climate and organizational trust are two main factors which affects the perception of work motivation. Also, the results show that there is a significant difference in the level of organizational climate and organizational trust perceptions and work motivations of the department of sports services’ employees in terms of duty status, year of service, and level of education; however, the results reveal that there is no significant difference in terms of age groups and gender.

Keywords: sports manager, organizational climate, organizational trust, work motivation

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220 Absolute Liability in International Human Rights Law

Authors: Gassem Alfaleh

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In Strict liability, a person can be held liable for any harm resulting from certain actions or activities without any mistake. The liability is strict because a person can be liable when he or she commits any harm with or without his intention. The duty owed is the duty to avoid causing the plaintiff any harm. However, “strict liability is imposed at the International level by two types of treaties, namely those limited to giving internal effect to treaty provisions and those that impose responsibilities on states. The basic principle of strict liability is that there is a liability on the operator or the state (when the act concerned is attributable to the state) for damage inflicted without there being a need to prove unlawful behavior”. In international human rights law, strict liability can exist when a defendant is in legal jeopardy by virtue of an internationally wrongful act, without any accompanying intent or mental state. When the defendant engages in an abnormally dangerous activity against the environment, he will be held liable for any harm it causes, even if he was not at fault. The paper will focus on these activities under international human rights law. First, the paper will define important terms in the first section of the paper. Second, it will focus on state and non-state actors in terms of strict liability. Then, the paper will cover three major areas in which states should be liable for hazardous activities: (1) nuclear energy, (2) maritime pollution, (3) Space Law, and (4) other hazardous activities which damage the environment.

Keywords: human rights, law, legal, absolute

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219 A High Efficiency Reduced Rules Neuro-Fuzzy Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Photovoltaic Array Connected to Grid

Authors: Lotfi Farah, Nadir Farah, Zaiem Kamar

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This paper achieves a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller using a high-efficiency reduced rules neuro-fuzzy inference system (HE2RNF) for a 100 kW stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system connected to the grid. The suggested HE2RNF based MPPT seeks the optimal duty cycle for the boost DC-DC converter, making the designed PV system working at the maximum power point (MPP), then transferring this power to the grid via a three levels voltage source converter (VSC). PV current variation and voltage variation are chosen as HE2RNF-based MPPT controller inputs. By using these inputs with the duty cycle as the only single output, a six rules ANFIS is generated. The high performance of the proposed HE2RNF numerically in the MATLAB/Simulink environment is shown. The 0.006% steady-state error, 0.006s of tracking time, and 0.088s of starting time prove the robustness of this six reduced rules against the widely used twenty-five ones.

Keywords: PV, MPPT, ANFIS, HE2RNF-based MPPT controller, VSC, grid connection

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218 Removal of Mixed Heavy Metals from Contaminated Clay Soils Using Pulsed Electrokinetic Process

Authors: Nuhu Dalhat Mu’azu, Abdullahi Usman, A. Bukhari, Muhammad Hussain Essa, Salihu Lukman

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Electrokinetic remediation process was employed for the removal of four (4) heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb) from contaminated clay and bentonite soils under pulsed current supply mode. The effects of voltage gradient, pulse duty cycle and bentonite/clay ratio on the simultaneous removal efficiencies of the heavy metals were investigated. A total of thirteen experiments were designed and conducted according to factorial design with each experiment allowed to continuously ran for 3 weeks. Results obtained showed that increase in bentonite ratio decreased the removal efficiency of the heavy metals with no significant effect on the energy consumption. Conversely, increase in both voltage gradient and pulse duty cycle increased the heavy metals removal efficiencies with increased in energy consumption. Additionally, increase in voltage gradient increased the electrical conductivity and the soil pH due to due to continuous refill and replacement of process fluids as they decomposed under the induced voltage gradient. Under different operating conditions, the maximum removal efficiencies obtained for Cr, Cu, Hg, and Pb were 21.87, 83.2, 62.4, 78.06 and 16.65% respectively.

Keywords: clay, bentonite, soil remediation, mixed contaminants, heavy metals, and electrokinetic-adsorption

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217 Level of Roles Performed in Tourism Development: The Case Study of Local Municipality, Chiang Khan District, Loei

Authors: Sukanya Sripho

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This paper aims to examine the level of roles performed in tourism development by local people residing in Chiang Khan Sub-District Municipality, Loei Province in Northeast of Thailand. In addition, this study also tested whether personal factors had a relationship with the level of roles performed in tourism development. These personal factors included gender, age, educational level, career, position and duty in the community, average income per month, length of residence and involvement in the tourism industry. The findings revealed a high level in each role performed. These roles were ranked from the highest mean score to the lowest mean score as follows: (1) improving and rejuvenating tourist attractions; (2) improving tourist facilities; (3) promoting people participation; (4) publicizing tourist attractions; (5) protecting for safety and security; and (6) surveying and managing the information of tourist attractions. Furthermore, it was found that position and duty in the community, length of residence and involvement in tourism industry had a relationship with the level of roles performed in tourism development at a significance level of 0.05.

Keywords: Role, local municipality administration, tourism development, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 333