Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4831

Search results for: colleagues and the wider teacher community

4831 Teacher Professional Development –Current Practices in a Secondary School in Brunei Darussalam

Authors: Shanthi Thomas

Abstract:

This research paper presents the current practices of teacher professional development, perceived as beneficial by teachers themselves, in a private secondary school in Brunei Darussalam. This is part of the findings of a larger qualitative study on teacher empowerment, using ethnographic methods for data collection, i.e. participant observation, interviews and document analysis. The field work was carried out over a period of six months in 2013. An analysis of the field data revealed multiple pathways of teacher professional development existing in the school. The results indicate that school leaders, the teacher community in the school, students, and the teachers themselves were the agents in a school that facilitated teacher empowerment. Besides contributing to the knowledge base on teacher professional development, the results of this study provides directions for educational policy makers in their efforts to enhance professional development in secondary schools of similar characteristics. For school leaders and the teacher community, these findings offer guidelines for maximizing the opportunities for these professional development practices, by strengthening collegiality and by using the existing structures optimally for the benefit of all concerned.

Keywords: colleagues and the wider teacher community, school leaders, self-driven professional development, teacher professional development

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4830 A Unique Professional Development of Teacher Educators: Teaching Colleagues

Authors: Naomi Weiner-Levy

Abstract:

The Mofet Institute of Research, established a School of Professional Development, the only one of its kind in Israel and throughout the world. It offers specialized programs for teacher educators, providing them with the professional knowledge and skills. The studies aim at updating teachers about rapidly changing knowledge and skills. Teacher educators are conceptualized as shifting from first order practitioners (school teachers) to second order practitioners. Those who train teachers are referred to as third order practitioners. The instructors in the School of Professional Development are third-order practitioners – teacher educators specializing in teaching their colleagues. Collegial guidance by teachers’ college staff members is no simple task: Tutors must be expert in their field of specialization, as well as in instruction. Moreover, although colleagues, they have to position themselves within the group as authoritative figures in terms of instruction and knowledge. To date, the role and professional identity of these third-order practitioners, has not been studied. To understand the nature and development of professional identity, a qualitative study was conducted in which 12 tutors of various subjects were interviewed. These were analyzed by categorical content analysis. The findings, assessed professional identity through a post-modern prism, while examining the interplay among events that tutors experienced, the knowledge they acquired and the structuring of their professional identity. The Tutors’ identity transformed through negotiating with ‘self’ and ‘other’ in the class, and constructed by their mutual experiences as tutors and learners. Understanding the function and identity of tutors facilitates comprehension of this unique training process for teacher educators.

Keywords: professional development, professional identity, teacher education, tutoring

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4829 The Flipped Education Case Study on Teacher Professional Learning Community in Technology and Media Implementation

Authors: Juei-Hsin Wang, Yen-Ting Chen

Abstract:

The paper examines teacher professional learning community theory and implementation by using technology and media tools in Taiwan. After literature review, the researcher concluded in five elements of teacher professional learning community theory. They are ‘sharing the vision and value', ‘collaborative cooperation’, ‘ to support the situation', ‘to share practice' and 'Pay Attention to Student Learning Effectiveness' five levels by using technology and media in flipped education. Teacher professional learning community is one kind of models for teacher professional development in flipped education. Due to Taiwan education culture, there is no summative evaluation for teachers. So, there are multiple kinds of ways and education practice in teacher professional learning community nowadays. This study used literature review and quality analysis to analyze the connection theory and practice and discussed the official and non‐official strategies on teacher professional learning community by using technology and media in flipped education. The tablet is used as a camera tool for classroom students to solve problems. The students can instantly see and enable other students to watch the whole class discussion by operating the tablet. This would allow teachers and students to focus on discussing the connotation of subjects, especially bottom‐up and non‐official cases from teachers become an important influence in Taiwan.

Keywords: professional learning community, collaborative cooperation, flipped education, technology application, media application

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4828 The Convergence between Science Practical Work and Scientific Discourse: Lessons Learnt from Using a Practical Activity to Encourage Student Discourse

Authors: Abraham Motlhabane

Abstract:

In most practical-related science lessons, the focus is on completing the experimental procedure as directed by the teacher. However, the scientific discourse among learners themselves and teacher–learner discourse about scientific processes, scientific inquiry and the nature of science should play an important role in the teaching and learning of science. This means the incorporation of inquiry-based activities aimed at sparking debates about scientific concepts. This article analyses a science lesson presented by a teacher to his colleagues acting as learners. Six lessons were presented and transcribed. One of the lessons has been used for this study as the basis for the events as they unfolded during the lesson. Data was obtained through direct observations and the use of a predetermined observation schedule. Field notes were compiled during teacher preparations and the presentation of the lessons.

Keywords: discourse, inquiry, practical work, science, scientific

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4827 Becoming a Teacher in Kazakhstan

Authors: D. Shamatov

Abstract:

Becoming a teacher is a journey with significant learning experiences. Exploring teachers’ lives and experiences can provide much-needed insights into the multiple realities of teaching. Teachers’ stories through qualitative narrative studies help understand and appreciate the complexities of the socio-political, economic and practical realities facing teachers. Events and experiences, both past and present, that take place at home, school, and in the broader social sphere help to shape these teachers’ lives and careers. Researchers and educators share the responsibility of listening to these teachers’ stories and life experiences and being sensitive to their voices in order to develop effective models for teacher development. A better understanding of how teachers learn to become teachers can help teacher educators prepare more effective teacher education programs. This paper is based on qualitative research which includes individual and focus group interviews, as well as auto-biography stories of Master of Science in School Leadership students at Graduate School of Education of Nazarbayev University. Twenty five MSc students from across Kazakhstan reflected on their professional journey and wrote their professional autobiographies as teachers. Their autobiographies capture the richness of their experiences and beliefs as a teacher, but also serve as window to understand broader socio-economic and political contexts where these teachers live and work. The study also provides an understanding of the systemic and socio-economic challenges of teachers in the context of post-Soviet Kazakhstan. It helps the reader better understand how wider societal forces interact and frame the development of teachers. The paper presents the findings from these stories of MSc students and offers some practical and policy implications for teacher preparation and teacher development.

Keywords: becoming a teacher, Kazakhstan, teacher stories, teacher development

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4826 An Excellent Adventure: The Stories of National Tertiary Teaching Excellence Award Winners

Authors: Claire Goode

Abstract:

This paper reports on a doctoral research project using narrative inquiry to investigate the stories of twelve national Tertiary Teaching Excellence Award winners in New Zealand. Preliminary findings highlight awardees’ views on their identity, their professional practice, and on what they consider to be excellence in tertiary teaching. The research also reports on common themes in the personal qualities that awardees describe, and on what these nationally recognised educators would like to see in place around Tertiary Teacher Development. Educators, mentors, trainers, and curriculum designers can gain a deeper understanding of what teaching excellence looks like, and of how teachers perceive their own practice and their impact on others. This may enable different interventions to develop best practice from staff, and to raise standards. It is hoped too that, by reflecting on the stories of teachers who have been recognised for ‘excellence’, educators will relate to and recognise elements of their own practice, and will feel motivated and inspired to share these with their peers and the wider academic community.

Keywords: academic identity, narrative inquiry, teacher development, teaching excellence

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4825 Teachers' Disability Disclosure: A Multiple Perspective

Authors: N. Tal-Alon, O. Shapira-Lishchinsky

Abstract:

Disability disclosure is one of the most complicated dilemmas that people with invisible disabilities face. There are only a few research studies that have focused on the difficulties and dilemmas of teachers who have different disabilities. In addition, there are currently no research studies focusing specifically on the different aspects of disability disclosure, which are unique to teachers. This research has, therefore, broadened the knowledge base and understanding of the dilemma of disability disclosure among teachers with invisible physical disabilities. In addition, it has shed light on the ways this issue is perceived by different groups: the perspective of school principals, the perspective of colleagues, and the perspective of teachers with physical disabilities themselves. The study sample included 12 teachers with invisible physical disabilities, 10 school principals who employ at least one teacher with an invisible physical disability, and 10 professional colleagues of at least one teacher with an invisible physical disability. This particular research study was conducted using a qualitative approach through the Narralizer computer program based on a series of in-depth interviews. The data analysis was carried out by grouping major points of interest into specific categories and sub-categories. The findings of this research suggest that teachers with disabilities struggle with the dilemma of whether or not to reveal their disability to the school staff and to their students. It was found that there were considerable differences between the issues that faculty members considered regarding this dilemma and the ones that teachers with disabilities considered. While the principals and professional colleagues focused solely on their own interests, the teachers with a disability emphasized more on the ways that they might have a positive influence on their students, as well as their own individual interests. In addition, school principals on a whole tended to view negatively the option of disclosing the disability to the students and were often critical towards teachers who concealed their disability from the school staff. The importance of this research is in its potential to influence policy decisions that can be implemented by the Ministry of Education regarding the support system for teachers with invisible physical disabilities.

Keywords: education, employment, invisible disabilities, teachers

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4824 Teacher Education: Teacher Development and Support

Authors: Khadem Hichem

Abstract:

With the new technology challenges, dynamics and challenges of the contemporary world, most teachers are struggling to maintain effective and successful teaching /learning environment for learners. Teachers as a key to the success of reforms in the educational setting, they must improve their competencies to teach effectively. Many researchers emphasis on the ongoing professional development of the teacher by enhancing their experiences and encouraging their responsibility for learning, and thus promoting self-reliance, collaboration, and reflection. In short, teachers are considered as learners and they need to learn together. The educational system must support, both conceptually and financially, the teachers’ development as lifelong learners Teachers need opportunities to grow in language proficiency and in knowledge. Changing nature of language and culture in the world, all teachers must have opportunities to update their knowledge and practices. Many researchers in the field of foreign or additional languages indicate that teachers keep side by side of effective instructional practices and they need special support with the challenging task of developing and administering proficiency tests to their students. For significant change to occur, each individual teacher’s needs must be addressed. The teacher must be involved experientially in the process of development, since, by itself, knowledge of how to change does not mean change will be initiated. For improvement to occur, new skills have to be guided, practiced, and reflected upon in collaboration with colleagues. Clearly, teachers are at different places developmentally; therefore, allowances for various entry levels and individual differences need to be built into the professional development structure. Objectives must be meaningful to the participant and teacher improvement must be stated terms of student knowledge, student performance, and motivation. The most successful professional development process acknowledges the student-centered nature of good teaching. This paper highlights the importance of teacher professional development process and institutional supports as way to enhance good teaching and learning environment.

Keywords: teacher professional development, teacher competencies, institutional support, teacher education

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4823 University Arabic/Foreign Language Teacher's Competences, Professionalism and the Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Abeer Heider

Abstract:

The article considers the definitions of teacher’s competences and professionalism from different perspectives of Arab and foreign scientists. A special attention is paid to the definition, classification of the stages and components of University Arabic /foreign language teacher’s professionalism. The results of the survey are offered and recommendations are given. In this paper, only some of the problems of defining professional competence and professionalism of the university Arabic/ foreign language teacher have been mentioned. It needs much more analysis and discussion, because the quality of training today’s competitive and mobile students with a good knowledge of foreign languages depends directly on the teachers’ professional level.

Keywords: teacher’s professional competences, Arabic/ foreign language teacher’s professionalism, teacher evaluation, teacher quality

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4822 Commodification of the Chinese Language: Investigating Language Ideology in the Chinese Complementary Schools’ Online Discourse

Authors: Yuying Liu

Abstract:

Despite the increasing popularity of Chinese and the recognition of the growing commodifying ideology of Chinese language in many contexts (Liu and Gao, 2020; Guo, Shin and Shen 2020), the ideological orientations of the Chinese diaspora community towards the Chinese language remain under-researched. This research contributes seeks to bridge this gap by investigating the micro-level language ideologies embedded in the Chinese complementary schools in the Republic of Ireland. Informed by Ruíz’s (1984) metaphorical representations of language, 11 Chinese complementary schools’ websites were analysed as discursive texts that signal the language policy and ideology to prospective learners and parents were analysed. The results of the analysis suggest that a move from a portrayal of Chinese as linked to student heritage identity, to the commodification of linguistic and cultural diversity, is evident. It denotes the growing commodifying ideology among the Chinese complementary schools in the Republic of Ireland. The changing profile of the complementary school, from serving an ethnical community to teaching Chinese as a foreign language for the wider community, indicates the possibility of creating the a positive synergy between the Complementary school and the mainstream education. This study contributes to the wider discussions of language ideology and language planning, with regards to modern language learning and heritage language maintenance.

Keywords: the Chinese language;, Chinese as heritage language, Chinese as foreign language, Chinese community schools

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4821 21st Century Teacher Image to Stakeholders of Teacher Education Institutions in the Philippines

Authors: Marilyn U. Balagtas, Maria Ruth M. Regalado, Carmelina E. Barrera, Ramer V. Oxiño, Rosarito T. Suatengco, Josephine E. Tondo

Abstract:

This study presents the perceptions of the students and teachers from kindergarten to tertiary level of the image of the 21st century teacher to provide basis in designing teacher development programs in Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) in the Philippines. The highlights of the report are the personal, psychosocial, and professional images of the 21st century teacher in basic education and the teacher educators based on a survey done to 612 internal stakeholders of nine member institutions of the National Network of Normal Schools (3NS). Data were obtained through the use of a validated researcher-made instrument which allowed generation of both quantitative and qualitative descriptions of the teacher image. Through the use of descriptive statistics, the common images of the teacher were drawn, which were validated and enriched by the information drawn from the qualitative data. The study recommends a repertoire of teacher development programs to create the good image of the 21st century teachers for a better Philippines.

Keywords: teacher image, 21st century teacher, teacher education, development program

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4820 Canadian French as an Additional Language Teacher Candidates' Proficiency and Confidence Pre- and Post-Francophone Home-Stay: Practicum Experience as Revealed through Questionnaire and Interviews

Authors: Callie Mady

Abstract:

This study investigated the Canadian French as an additional language teacher candidates’ confidence and language maintenance strategies by means of questionnaires and interviews pre- and post- a Francophone home-stay practicum experience. Teacher French language proficiency is one of the components of teacher knowledge that can influence students’ French as an additional language acquisition. Although advantageous, seeking opportunities to use French in a French milieu comes with challenges. Teachers, for example, have been found to be hesitant to speak French with native speakers for fear of judgment. Another identified challenge to spending time in a French milieu is finances; while teachers have recognized the value of such an experience, cost is prohibitive. In recognition of the potential barriers and the need to maintain/improve the French proficiency of 'French as an additional language' teachers, this study provided a two-week home stay in a Francophone environment for teacher candidates of French as an additional language with financial subsidies for their participation. Through the post-experience interviews, the French as an additional language teacher candidates revealed an improvement in French proficiency. Similarly, the teacher candidates cited an increase in confidence in the interviews and through the questionnaire. They linked this increase in proficiency and confidence to their experiences with their host families and other Francophone members of the community. This study highlights the provision of immersion experiences as means to support teachers’ language confidence and proficiency.

Keywords: French as an additional language education, teacher language confidence, teacher language maintenance, teacher language proficiency

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4819 Concept Mapping of Teachers Regarding Conflict Management

Authors: Tahir Mehmood, Mumtaz Akhter

Abstract:

The global need for conflict management is greater now in the early 21st century than ever before. According to UNESCO, half of the world’s 195 countries will have to expand their stock of educationist significantly, some by tens of thousands, if the goal development targets are desired to achieve. Socioeconomic inequities, political instability, demographic changes and crises such as the HIV/AIDs epidemic have engendered huge shortfalls in teacher supply and low teacher quality in many developing countries. Education serves as back bone in development process. Open learning and distance education programs are serving as pivotal part of development process. It is now clear that ‘bricks and mortar’ approaches to expanding teacher education may not be adequate if the current and projected shortfalls in teacher supply and low teacher quality are to be properly addressed. The study is designed to measure the perceptions of teaching learning community about conflict management with special reference to open and distance learning. It was descriptive study which targeted teachers, students, community members and experts. Data analysis was carried out by using statistical techniques served by SPSS. Findings reflected that audience perceives open and distance learning as change agent and as development tool. It is noticed that target audience has driven prominent performance by using facility of open and distance learning.

Keywords: conflict management, open and distance learning, teachers, students

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4818 From Proficiency to High Accomplishment: Transformative Inquiry and Institutionalization of Mentoring Practices in Teacher Education in South-Western Nigeria

Authors: Michael A. Ifarajimi

Abstract:

The transition from being a graduate teacher to a highly accomplished teacher has been widely portrayed in literature as challenging. Pre-service teachers are troubled with complex issues such as implementing, assessment, meeting prescribed learning outcomes, taking risks, supporting eco sustainability, etc. This list is not exhaustive as they are further complicated when the concerns extend beyond the classroom into the broader school setting and community. Meanwhile, the pre-service teacher education programme as is currently run in Nigeria, cannot adequately prepare newly trained teachers for the realities of classroom teaching. And there appears to be no formal structure in place for mentoring such teachers by the more seasoned teachers in schools. The central research question of the study, therefore, is which institutional framework can be distinguished for enactment in mentoring practices in teacher education? The study was conducted in five colleges of education in South-West Nigeria, and a sample of 1000 pre-service teachers on their final year practicum was randomly selected from the colleges of education. A pre-service teacher mentorship programme (PTMP) framework was designed and implemented, with a focus on the impact of transformative inquiry on the pre-service teacher support system. The study discovered a significant impact of mentoring on pre-service teacher’s professional transformation. The study concluded that institutionalizing mentorship through transformative inquiry is a means to sustainable teacher education, professional growth, and effective classroom practice. The study recommended that the government should enact policies that will promote mentoring in teacher education and establish a framework for the implementation of mentoring practices in the colleges of education in Nigeria.

Keywords: institutionalization, mentoring, pre-service teachers teacher education, transformative inquiry

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4817 Connecting Teachers in a Web-Based Professional Development Community in Crisis Time: A Knowledge Building Approach

Authors: Wei Zhao

Abstract:

The pandemic crisis disrupted normal classroom practices so that the constraints of the traditional practice became apparent. This turns out to be new opportunities for technology-based learning and teaching. However, how the technology supports the preschool teachers go through this sudden crisis and how preschool teachers conceived of the use of technology, appropriate and design technological artifacts as a mediator of knowledge construction in order to suit young children’s literacy level are rarely explored. This study addresses these issues by looking at the influence of a web-supported teacher community on changes/shifts in preschool teachers’ epistemological beliefs and practices. This teachers’ professional development community was formulated before the pandemic time and developed virtually throughout the home-based learning caused by Covid-19. It served as a virtual and asynchronous community for those teachers to collaboratively plan for and conduct online lessons using the knowledge-building approach for the purpose of sustaining children’s learning curiosity and opening up new learning opportunities during the lock-down period. The knowledge-building approach helps to increase teachers’ collective responsibility to collaboratively work on shared educational goals in the teacher community and awareness of noticing new ideas or innovations in their classroom. Based on the data collected across five months during and after the lock-down period and the activity theory, results show a dynamic interplay between the evolution of the community culture, the growth of teacher community and teachers’ identity transformation and professional development. Technology is useful in this regard not only because it transforms the geographical distance and new gathering guidelines after the outbreak of pandemic into new ways of communal communication and collaboration. More importantly, while teachers selected, monitored and adapted the technology, it acts as a catalyst for changes in teachers’ old teaching practices and epistemological dispositions.

Keywords: activity theory, changes in epistemology and practice, knowledge building, web-based teachers’ professional development community

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4816 Teacher’s Self-Efficacy and Self-Perception of Teaching Professional Competences

Authors: V. Biasi, A. M. Ciraci, G. Domenici, N. Patrizi

Abstract:

We present two studies centered on the teacher’s perception of self-efficacy and professional competences. The first study aims to evaluate the levels of self-efficacy as attitude in 200 teachers of primary and secondary schools. Teacher self-efficacy is related to many educational outcomes: such as teachers’ persistence, enthusiasm, commitment and instructional behavior. High level of teacher self-efficacy beliefs enhance student motivation and pupil’s learning level. On this theoretical and empirical basis we are planning a second study oriented to assess teacher self-perception of competences that are linked to teacher self-efficacy. With the CDVR Questionnaire, 287 teachers graduated in Education Sciences in e-learning mode, showed an increase in their self-perception of didactic-evaluation and relational competences and an increased confidence also in their own professionalism.

Keywords: teacher competence, teacher self-efficacy, selfperception, self-report evaluation

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4815 A Study of Achievement and Attitude on Learning Science in English by Using Co – Teaching Method

Authors: Sakchai Rachniyom

Abstract:

Owing to the ASEAN community will formally take place in the few months; therefore, Thais should realize about the importance of English language. Since, it is regarded as a working language in the community. To promote Science students’ English proficiency, teacher should be able to teach in English language appropriately and effectively. The purposes of the quasi – experimental research are (1) to measure the learning achievement, (2) to evaluate students’ satisfaction on the teaching and learning and (3) to study the consequences of co – teaching method in order comprehend the learning achievement and improvement. The participants were 40 general science students teacher. Two types of research instruments were included; (1) an achievement test, and (2) a questionnaire. This research was conducted for 1 semester. The statistics used in this research were arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The findings of the study revealed that students’ achievement score was significantly increased at statistical level .05 and the students satisfied the teaching and learning at the highest level . The students’ involvement and teachers’ support were promoted. It was also reported students’ learning was improved by co – teaching method.

Keywords: co – teaching method, learning science in english, teacher, education

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4814 An Exploratory Case Study of the Transference of Skills and Dispositions Used by a Newly Qualified Teacher

Authors: Lynn Machin

Abstract:

Using the lens of a theoretical framework relating to learning to learn the intention of the case study was to explore how transferable the teaching and learning skills of a newly qualified teacher (post-compulsory education) were when used in an overseas, unfamiliar and challenging post-compulsory educational environment. Particularly, the research sought to explore how this newly qualified teacher made use of the skills developed during their teacher training and to ascertain if, and what, other skills were necessary in order for them to have a positive influence on their learners and for them to be able to thrive within a different country and learning milieu. This case study looks at the experience of a trainee teacher who recently qualified in the UK to teach in post compulsory education (i.e. post 16 education). Rather than gaining employment in a UK based academy or college of further education this newly qualified teacher secured her first employment as a teacher in a province in China. Moreover, the newly qualified teacher had limited travel experience and had never travelled to Asia. She was one of the quieter and more reserved members on the one year teacher training course and was the least likely of the group to have made the decision to work abroad. How transferable the pedagogical skills that she had gained during her training would be when used in a culturally different and therefore (to her, challenging) environment was a key focus of the study. Another key focus was to explore the dispositions being used by the newly qualified teacher in order for her to teach and to thrive in an overseas educational environment. The methodological approach used for this study was both interpretative and qualitative. Associated methods were: Observation: observing the wider and operational practice of the newly qualified teacher over a five day period, and their need, ability and willingness to be reflective, resilient, reciprocal and resourceful. Interview: semi-structured interview with the newly qualified teacher following the observation of her practice. Findings from this case study illuminate the modifications made by the newly qualified teacher to her bank of teaching and learning strategies as well as the essentiality of dispositions used by her to know how to learn and also, crucially, to be ready and willing to do so. Such dispositions include being resilient, resourceful, reciprocal and reflective; necessary in order to adapt to the emerging challenges encountered by the teacher during their first months of employment in China. It is concluded that developing the skills to teach is essential for good teaching and learning practices. Having dispositions that enable teachers to work in ever changing conditions and surroundings is, this paper argues, essential for transferability and longevity of use of these skills.

Keywords: learning, post-compulsory, resilience, transferable

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4813 Connections among Personality, Teacher-Student Relationship, Belief in a Just World for Others and Teacher Bullying

Authors: Hui-Yu Peng, Hsiu-I Hsueh, Li-Ming Chen

Abstract:

Most studies focused on bullying behaviors among students, however few research concerns about teachers’ bullying behaviors against students. In order to have more understandings and reduce teacher bullying, it is important to examine what factors may affect teachers’ bullying behaviors. This study aimed to explore the connections between different psychological variables and teacher bullying. Four variables, neuroticism, extraversion, teacher-student relationship, and belief in a just world for others (BJW-others), were selected in this study. Four hundred and five elementary and secondary school teachers in Taiwan endorsed the self-reported surveys. Multiple regression method was used to analyze data. Results revealed that teachers’ BJW-others and extraversion did not have significant correlations with teacher bullying scores. However, closed teacher-student relationship and neuroticism can negatively and positively predict teachers’ bullying behaviors against students, respectively. Implications for preventing teacher bullying were discussed at the end of this study.

Keywords: belief in a just world for others, big five personality traits, teacher bullying, teacher-student relationship

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4812 Comparative Outlook of Teacher Education in Nigeria and India

Authors: Muhammad Badamasi Abdullahi

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Teacher education, both pre- and in-service programs, is offered in many countries of the world by different teacher education institutions as declared in the Policies on Education of the countries. However, differences exist from one country to another as a result of some factors peculiar to them. Notwithstanding, there also exist similarities among them in regard to teacher education. This paper is expected to dig into teacher education programs in Nigeria and India so that areas of similarities and differences would be highlighted as well as provide a venue for possible recommendation of both countries to learn from one another. All this is directed towards providing a no -border approach in enhancing effective teaching and learning.

Keywords: teacher education, teaching and learning, pre-service, in-service

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4811 Teacher Professionalisation and Professionalism Discourses in Teacher Unions: A Case Study of New Zealand

Authors: Huidan Niu

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Existing research has focused extensively on teachers’ professional experience in education reforms. However, there is a lack of research on the role and influence of teacher unions in education policy. This study aimed to examine how teacher unions frame teacher professionalisation and professionalism discourses. Critical education policy scholarship study was adopted. This study positioned teacher professionalisation and professionalism discourses within their socio-political contexts to explore how the meanings of teacher professionalisation and professionalism are constructed, as well as how teacher unions, as collective actors, shape these discourses. This study examined the development of professionalisation and professionalism discourses in the two main teacher unions in Aotearoa, New Zealand, the New Zealand Educational Institute, TeRiuRoa (NZEI), and the New Zealand Post-Primary Teachers’ Association, TeWehengarua (PPTA). The data were collected from documents and archival material, as well as elite interviews. Twenty-four union leaders, including national presidents, secretaries, executives, and senior union officials, participated in the study. The data analysis followed a grounded theory method: from codes to themes. The findings of the study suggest that the teacher unions, as teachers’ collective (powerful) voices, appeared to highlight tension and confrontation between the teaching profession and governments with respect to the meanings of teacher professionalisation and professionalism.

Keywords: critical education policy scholarship, governments, teacher professionalisation, teacher professionalism, teacher unions

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4810 Assessment of E-Portfolio on Teacher Reflections on English Language Education

Authors: Hsiaoping Wu

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With the wide use of Internet, learners are exposed to the wider world. This exposure permits learners to discover new information and combine a variety of media in order to reach in-depth and broader understanding of their literacy and the world. Many paper-based teaching, learning and assessment modalities can be transferred to a digital platform. This study examines the use of e-portfolios for ESL (English as a second language) pre-service teacher. The data were collected by reviewing 100 E-portfolio from 2013 to 2015 in order to synthesize meaningful information about e-portfolios for ESL pre-service teachers. Participants were generalists, bilingual and ESL pre-service teachers. The studies were coded into two main categories: learning gains, including assessment, and technical skills. The findings showed that using e-portfolios enhanced and developed ESL pre-service teachers’ teaching and assessment skills. Also, the E-portfolio also developed the pre-service teachers’ technical stills to prepare a comprehensible portfolio to present who they are. Finally, the study and presentation suggested e-portfolios for ecological issues and educational purposes.

Keywords: assessment, e-portfolio, pre-service teacher, reflection

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4809 Developing Pedagogy for Argumentation and Teacher Agency: An Educational Design Study in the UK

Authors: Zeynep Guler

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Argumentation and the production of scientific arguments are essential components that are necessary for helping students become scientifically literate through engaging them in constructing and critiquing ideas. Incorporating argumentation into science classrooms is challenging and can be a long-term process for both students and teachers. Students have difficulty in engaging tasks that require them to craft arguments, evaluate them to seek weaknesses, and revise them. Teachers also struggle with facilitating argumentation when they have underdeveloped science practices, underdeveloped pedagogical knowledge for argumentation science teaching, or underdeveloped teaching practice with argumentation (or a combination of all three). Thus, there is a need to support teachers in developing pedagogy for science teaching as argumentation, planning and implementing teaching practice for facilitating argumentation and also in becoming more agentic in this regards. Looking specifically at the experience of agency within education, it is arguable that agency is necessary for teachers’ renegotiation of professional purposes and practices in the light of changing educational practices. This study investigated how science teachers develop pedagogy for argumentation both individually and with their colleagues and also how teachers become more agentic (or not) through the active engagement of their contexts-for-action that refer to this as an ecological understanding of agency in order to positively influence or change their practice and their students' engagement with argumentation over two academic years. Through educational design study, this study conducted with three secondary science teachers (key stage 3-year 7 students aged 11-12) in the UK to find out if similar or different patterns of developing pedagogy for argumentation and of becoming more agentic emerge as they engage in planning and implementing a cycle of activities during the practice of teaching science with argumentation. Data from video and audio-recording of classroom practice and open-ended interviews with the science teachers were analysed using content analysis. The findings indicated that all the science teachers perceived strong agency in their opportunities to develop and apply pedagogical practices within the classroom. The teachers were pro-actively shaping their practices and classroom contexts in ways that were over and above the amendments to their pedagogy. They demonstrated some outcomes in developing pedagogy for argumentation and becoming more agentic in their teaching in this regards as a result of the collaboration with their colleagues and researcher; some appeared more agentic than others. The role of the collaboration between their colleagues was seen crucial for the teachers’ practice in the schools: close collaboration and support from other teachers in planning and implementing new educational innovations were seen as crucial for the development of pedagogy and becoming more agentic in practice. They needed to understand the importance of scientific argumentation but also understand how it can be planned and integrated into classroom practice. They also perceived constraint emerged from their lack of competence and knowledge in posing appropriate questions to help the students engage in argumentation, providing support for the students' construction of oral and written arguments.

Keywords: argumentation, teacher professional development, teacher agency, students' construction of argument

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4808 A Review of the Long Term Effects of In-Service Training Towards Inclusive Education

Authors: Meenakshi Srivastava, Anke A. De Boer, Sip Jan Pij

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Teacher’s preparedness towards special educational needs (SEN) of the students in regular schools is an important factor in making education inclusive as a goal to provide education for all. The current study measured the long term effects of an in-service teacher training programme which focused on the inclusion of students with a range of SEN. The programme was on three particular aspects: teachers’ attitudes, their knowledge about SEN and knowledge about teaching methods. A refresher course was also organized for participants of the initial training programme. The long term effects were examined by teachers using a self-report questionnaire (n = 38). The wider effects of the initial training were recorded by interviewing school principals (n = 4). Repeated measures of ANOVA revealed significant effects: more positive attitudes and increased knowledge about SEN among teachers who took the refresher course (n = 18) compared to those who had not (n = 19). Principals also found a more positive attitude, sensitivity and increased awareness about SEN among the participants.

Keywords: inclusion, students with special educational needs, teacher training, follow-up, attitudes change

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4807 Learning and Practising Assessment in Pre-Service Teacher Education Program: Bridging Gap between Theory and Practice

Authors: Ghulam Behlol Malik

Abstract:

Discoveries in the field of cognitive science have brought revolutionary changes in learning and assessment practices and replaced traditional testing and examination practices (paper and pencil) by student-centered, authentic, and active learning approaches. This paper presents an analysis of data addressing two research questions as part of a wider study: 1) How do prospective teachers learn about assessment in a pre-service teacher education program? 2) How do cooperative teachers and university teachers support prospective teachers on teaching practicum to learn about how to use assessment for bridging the gap between theory and practice? A sequential mixed method design was applied to collect data in three phases: content analysis of the course 'method of teaching', followed by a survey about the opinions of Prospective Teachers and observations of classes in both teacher education and teaching practicum contexts were completed along with indepth interviews of University teachers and Cooperative Teachers. It is concluded that Prospective Teachers face difficulties in applying student-centred assessment practices because of limited modelling both in the teacher education and school practicum settings, large class sizes, and limited opportunities to use technology in school settings in Pakistan. It is recommended that in Pakistan, a new assessment policy is needed which allows examinations to be expanded beyond covering knowledge recall to include competency assessment.

Keywords: learning, practising, assessment, preservice teacher education program, theory and practice, theory and practice

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4806 Learning Communities and Collaborative Reflection for Teaching Improvement

Authors: Mariana Paz Sajon, Paula Cecilia Primogerio, Mariana Albarracin

Abstract:

This study recovers an experience of teacher training carried out in an Undergraduate Business School from a private university in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The purpose of the project was to provide teachers with an opportunity to reflect on their teaching practices at the university. The aim of the study is to systematize lessons and challenges that emerge from this teacher training experience. A group of teachers who showed a willingness to learn teaching abilities was selected to work. They completed a formative journey working in learning communities starting from the immersion in different aspects of teaching and learning, class observations, and an individual and collaborative reflection exercise in a systematic way among colleagues. In this study, the productions of the eight teachers who are members of the learning communities are analyzed, framed in an e-portfolio that they prepared during the training journey. The analysis shows that after the process of shared reflection, traits related to powerful teaching and meaningful learning have appeared in the classes. For their part, teachers reflect having reached an awareness of their own practices, identifying strengths and opportunities for improvement, and the experience of sharing their own way and knowing the successes and failures of others was valued. It is an educational journey of pedagogical transformation of the teachers, which is infrequent in business education, which could lead to a change in teaching practices for the entire Business School. The present study involves theoretical and pedagogic aspects of education in a business school in Argentina and its flow-on implications for the workplace that may be transferred to other educational contexts.

Keywords: Argentina, learning community, meaningful learning, powerful teaching, reflective practice

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4805 The Need for Educational Psychology in Teacher Education for Sustainable Transformation and Security in Nigeria

Authors: Kaltume Kabir Sharrif

Abstract:

Teacher education is the bedrock of educational growth and development of any nation. With development in education all human problems can be overcome. Educational Psychology, on the other hand, is in a strategic position for any programme in teacher education to be successful hence other aspects of societal issues. In other words, no teacher education can be of any help in ensuring transformation and security without adequate study in Educational Psychology. Without adequate knowledge and skills in Educational Psychology the teacher may not function effectively in the course of discharging his duty. It is in view of this, that the paper discusses some aspects of Educational Psychology that are of paramount importance in teacher education for sustainable transformation and security of Nigeria. Some recommendations were offered on the role educational psychology play in resolving security challenges facing the country. These include enriching educational psychology with topics from forensic psychology that will provide the teacher the skills of fighting crime in the school, Behavioural Science Unit should be established in each school to monitor the behavior of students, among others.

Keywords: transformation, security challenges, teacher education, educational psychology

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4804 Interaction between University Art Gallery and the Community through Public Art Exhibitions

Authors: Qiao Mao

Abstract:

Starting from the theoretical viewpoints of relational aesthetics, this study explores the relationship between the university art gallery and the communities, taking Art Scattering Program in the Name of Trees of the Art Gallery of National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU) as a case. The researcher uses observational and interview methods to obtain research materials to explore how university art galleries interact with communities through public art exhibitions and strengthen the relatively weak relationships with community residents. The researcher also observes how community residents can change their opinions about the university gallery by participating in public art exhibitions. The results show that the university art gallery can effectively establish the interaction with the community residents and repair the relationship with them through such programs as "collection-sharing," "teacher-student co-creation," "artist stationing," and "education promotion activities," playing an active role in promoting interpersonal communication, sustaining the natural environment development and improving community public space.

Keywords: university art gallery, public art, relational aesthetics, communities, interaction

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4803 Professional Reciprocal Altruism in Education: Aligning Core Values and the Community of Practice for Today’s Educational Practitioners

Authors: Jessica Bogunovich, Kimberly Greene

Abstract:

As a grounded theory, Professional Reciprocal Altruism in Education (PRAE) offers an empowering means of understanding how the predominant motivator of those entering the teaching profession, altruism, serves as a shared value to inspire the individual’s personal practice beyond a siloed experience and into one of authentic engagement within the Community of Practice (CoP) of professional educators. The process of aligning one’s personal values, attitudes, and preconceived cultural constructs with those of the CoP, affords the alignment of the authentic and professional self; thus, continuously fostering one’s intrinsic motivation to remain engaged in their individual continuous process of growth and development for their students, community, profession, and themselves.

Keywords: altruism, Community of Practice. cultural constructs, teacher attrition, reciprocal altruism, value congruence

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4802 Transforming Professional Learning Communities and Centers: A Case Study of Luck Now District, Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: Sarvada Nand

Abstract:

Teacher quality is directly proportional to the achievement level of students. Recent researches reveal that the teacher learning communities enhance the quality of teacher. It is a proven fact that community does help in enhancing teachers’ self-esteem as professionals, their teaching skills and enhancing classroom transaction that results in the higher achievement of students. The purpose of this study is to develop TLC and provide them platform where they share their views and ideas on various academic issues. The study examines how teachers conceptualize TLCs, up to what extent TLC help in developing professionalism among teachers and how they prepare themselves for the days to come. In this study, pre-test in five subjects, Hindi, English, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies was conducted and a questionnaire was designed to judge the teachers' attitude towards teaching practice. After completion of the project duration of three and a half-month, an exercise of post-test was conducted in all the above subjects. The post tests show tremendous improvements in achievement level of those students who were regular in their classes and were attended through this new method. A visible shift in teacher’s attitude is seen for the better. They were able to realize their own potentials. There was a group of Facilitators formed to perform continuously supervision and monitor in regular intervals so that they could easily handle the challenges, and factors much important for the attainment towards the fulfillment of the objectives.

Keywords: teacher learning communities, best practice, teacher professionalism, student achievement

Procedia PDF Downloads 147