Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2979

Search results for: school leaders

2979 School Leaders and Professional Licenses: Measuring the Impact as Perceived by Qatari Schools' Stakeholders

Authors: Hissa Sadiq, Abdullah Abu-Tineh, Fatma Al-Mutawah, Hamda Al-Sulaiti

Abstract:

The purpose of this quantitative study was to measure the difference in levels of satisfaction of students, teachers, and parents in schools run by licensed school leaders comparing with schools run by unlicensed school leaders. Data was gathered from 108 school performance reports as published by Ministry of Education and Higher Education for the year 2015-2016. School leaders in 58 participating schools obtained the professional licenses while school leaders in 56 participating schools have no professional licenses. Percentages, standard deviations, and t-tests were used to analyze the data. Results showed that no statistical differences were found in students’ satisfaction between the two school types. However, there were statistical differences in parents and teachers’ satisfaction in the two school types attributed to obtaining the professional license. Teachers and parents of students in schools run by licensed school leaders satisfied more than schools run by unlicensed school leaders. Finally, many recommendations and implications were discussed and proposed. This paper was made possible by NPRP grant # (NPRP7-1224-5-178) from the Qatar national research fund (a member of Qatar Foundation) to Abdullah M. Abu-Tineh. The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the author

Keywords: professional licenses, Qatari schools, licensure system, satisfaction

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2978 Conceptualizing Creative Leadership and Collaborative School Culture

Authors: Zaidatol Akmaliah Lope Pihi, Suhaida Abd. Kadir, Keetanjaly Arivayagan

Abstract:

Lately in educational organization, voluminous studies accentuate the momentous of leadership in mobilizing creativity. Creativity skill is seen as one of the important skills required for the 21st century leadership, which is also known as the tool for creative leader’s mind in engaging and stimulating ideas to execute outcomes. Hence, leaders should create an opportunity by involving every employee and stakeholders in schools to contribute their ideas towards developing creative solutions to enhance school productivity. The focal point of this article is to offer a conceptual framework on creative leadership practices among school leaders towards collaborative school culture. Intensive reviews of literature will be used in the fields of creative leadership and school culture with the aim to nurture leaders into better leaders and encourage collaborative school culture. The framework contributes a new shed on the implication of creative leadership practices and collaborative school culture. It also will contribute a new theory development and offered suggestions for follow up research.

Keywords: 21st century leadership, creative leadership, collaborative, school culture

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2977 Identifying Understanding Expectations of School Administrators Regarding School Assessment

Authors: Eftah Bte. Moh Hj Abdullah, Izazol Binti Idris, Abd Aziz Bin Abd Shukor

Abstract:

This study aims to identify the understanding expectations of school administrators concerning school assessment. The researcher utilized a qualitative descriptive study on 19 administrators from three secondary schools in the North Kinta district. The respondents had been interviewed on their understanding expectations of school assessment using the focus group discussion method. Overall findings showed that the administrators’ understanding expectations of school assessment was weak; especially in terms of content focus, articulation across age and grade, transparency and fairness, as well as the pedagogical implications. Findings from interviews indicated that administrators explained their understanding expectations of school assessment from the aspect of school management, and not from the aspect of instructional leadership or specifically as assessment leaders. The study implications from the administrators’ understanding expectations may hint at the difficulty of the administrators to function as assessment leaders, in order to reduce their focus as manager, and move towards their primary role in the process of teaching and learning. The administrator, as assessment leaders, would be able to reach assessment goals via collaboration in identifying and listing teacher assessment competencies, how to construct assessment capacity, how to interpret assessment correctly, the use of assessment and how to use assessment information to communicate confidently and effectively to the public.

Keywords: assessment leaders, assessment goals, instructional leadership, understanding expectation of assessment

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2976 Effectiveness of School Strategic Planning: The Case of Fijian Schools

Authors: G. Lingam, N. Lingam, K. Raghuwaiya

Abstract:

In Fiji, notable among the recent spate of educational reforms has been the Ministry of Education’s (MoEs) requirement that all schools undertake a process of school strategic planning. This preliminary study explores perceptions of a sample of Fijian teachers on the way this exercise has been conducted in their schools. The analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data indicates that school leaders’ lack of knowledge and skills in school strategic planning is a major limitation. As an unsurprising consequence, the process(es) schools adopted did not conform to what the literature suggests as best planning practices. School leaders need more training to ensure they are better prepared to carry out this strategic planning effectively, especially in widening the opportunities for all who have a stake in education to contribute to the process. Implications of the findings are likely to be pertinent to other developing contexts within and beyond the Pacific region for the training of school leaders to ensure they are better equipped to orchestrate and benefit from educational reforms thrust upon them.

Keywords: school strategic planning, educational reforms, Fijian schools, Ministry of Education

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2975 Roles Currently Played by Educational Middle Leaders

Authors: Elaine Marta Pereira Aaltonen

Abstract:

Effective school leadership materialised in educational settings through the high standard professional performance of senior and middle leaders, has increasingly become an education policy priority around the world due to a wide recognition that schools need knowledgeable, skilled, and committed leaders, along with great teachers, in order to ensure outstanding education at all levels of schooling. The scope of this paper is the work of middle leaders, whose direct influence on teachers and classroom teaching, thus, on student learning outcomes, is a key component for successful school systems. It particularly aims at sharing some of the findings obtained through an academic study recently carried out by the same researcher, which was focused on enhancing understanding about aspects related to the professional performance of educational middle leaders, applied to the context of the lower elementary school division of a private mainstream school located in Brazil. The master´s dissertation findings included identifying the roles performed by a team of educational middle leaders throughout the year of 2021, as well as gaining insights on their perceptions about the roles performed, both through an electronic questionnaire and individual face-to-face interviews. Not only the roles of the middle leaders who participated in the research have been identified through the qualitative case study undertaken, but additional research finding lying within the sphere of the categorisation of such roles, based upon coherent domains of practice, has possibly been made. Hence, the main purpose of this paper is to outline the findings concerning the current roles played by educational middle leaders.

Keywords: roles, middle leaders, educational leadership, school leadership, and management

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2974 Teacher Professional Development –Current Practices in a Secondary School in Brunei Darussalam

Authors: Shanthi Thomas

Abstract:

This research paper presents the current practices of teacher professional development, perceived as beneficial by teachers themselves, in a private secondary school in Brunei Darussalam. This is part of the findings of a larger qualitative study on teacher empowerment, using ethnographic methods for data collection, i.e. participant observation, interviews and document analysis. The field work was carried out over a period of six months in 2013. An analysis of the field data revealed multiple pathways of teacher professional development existing in the school. The results indicate that school leaders, the teacher community in the school, students, and the teachers themselves were the agents in a school that facilitated teacher empowerment. Besides contributing to the knowledge base on teacher professional development, the results of this study provides directions for educational policy makers in their efforts to enhance professional development in secondary schools of similar characteristics. For school leaders and the teacher community, these findings offer guidelines for maximizing the opportunities for these professional development practices, by strengthening collegiality and by using the existing structures optimally for the benefit of all concerned.

Keywords: colleagues and the wider teacher community, school leaders, self-driven professional development, teacher professional development

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2973 Challenges of School Leadership

Authors: Stefan Ninković

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to examine the different theoretical approaches and relevant empirical evidence and thus, recognize some of the most pressing challenges faced by school leaders. This paper starts from the fact that the new mission of the school is characterized by the need for stronger coordination among students' academic, social and emotional learning. In this sense, school leaders need to focus their commitment, vision and leadership on the issues of students' attitudes, language, cultural and social background, and sexual orientation. More specifically, they should know what a good teaching is for student’s at-risk, students whose first language is not dominant in school, those who’s learning styles are not in accordance with usual teaching styles, or who are stigmatized. There is a rather wide consensus around the fact that the traditionally popular concept of instructional leadership of the school principal is no longer sufficient. However, in a number of "pro-leadership" circles, including certain groups of academic researchers, consultants and practitioners, there is an established tendency of attributing school principal an extraordinary influence towards school achievements. On the other hand, the situation in which all employees in the school are leaders is a utopia par excellence. Although leadership obviously can be efficiently distributed across the school, there are few findings that speak about sources of this distribution and factors making it sustainable. Another idea that is not particularly new, but has only recently gained in importance is related to the fact that the collective capacity of the school is an important resource that often remains under-cultivated. To understand the nature and power of collaborative school cultures, it is necessary to know that these operate in a way that they make their all collective members' tacit knowledge explicit. In this sense, the question is how leaders in schools can shape collaborative culture and create social capital in the school. Pressure exerted on schools to systematically collect and use the data has been accompanied by the need for school leaders to develop new competencies. The role of school leaders is critical in the process of assessing what data are needed and for what purpose. Different types of data are important: test results, data on student’s absenteeism, satisfaction with school, teacher motivation, etc. One of the most important tasks of school leaders are data-driven decision making as well as ensuring transparency of the decision-making process. Finally, the question arises whether the existing models of school leadership are compatible with the current social and economic trends. It is necessary to examine whether and under what conditions schools are in need for forms of leadership that are different from those that currently prevail. Closely related to this issue is also to analyze the adequacy of different approaches to leadership development in the school.

Keywords: educational changes, leaders, leadership, school

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2972 Women Educational Leaders in an Age of Accountability

Authors: Ann Vibert, Heather Hemming

Abstract:

This paper presentation summarizes the findings and implications of research on the plight and practices of women educational leaders in public school systems and in one university. The authors, both women university administrators, are also scholars and researchers of education. The research project on which this paper presentation is based proposed to examine how women educational leaders imagined, experienced, and carried out their leadership roles in the context of a growing local and global accountability-based performativity discourse which is reshaping educational work especially for women, we argue, in both public school and post-secondary sites. The research employed critical ethnographic interviews with 20 women educational leaders in P-12 school systems and three women university level educational leaders. Data were collected on women educational leaders’ perceptions of the effects of accountability and performativity discourses on the nature of their work. Specifically, leaders were asked to speak to whether they experienced a growth in managerial work as a consequence of increased accountability demands; how they experienced their work changing as a consequence of accountability and performativity demands; how these changes impacted the central values they enacted in their work as women educational leaders changes; and how they responded to/negotiated/accommodated changes in the nature of their work developing as a consequence of accountability and performativity frameworks. Findings from the research data and analyses confirm and extend recent scholarly work on the gendered nature of performativity and accountability discourses and frameworks, and their differential effects across differing genders. The oral presentation we propose here focusses on those findings in terms of similarities for women educational leaders across different educational contexts.

Keywords: women in educational leadership, gender and educational performativity, accountability and women leaders, gender and educational leadership

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2971 Rural Education in Saudi Arabia School Leaders’ and Teachers’ Experiences and Perceptions

Authors: Emad Matar Alotaibi

Abstract:

In line with other Arabic countries, Saudi Arabia is currently undergoing large scale school reform in response to key factors brought about by globalization. While there is a growing body of research exploring these systemic changes in urban environments, there is very little published research regarding rural schools. In fact, rural schools are still under-examined globally comparing to their urban and suburban counterparts over a range of reform dimensions. In Saudi Arabia, there are around 1128 rural areas that contain about 3200 schools. Several challenges face rural schools, especially in relation to recruitment, retention, and professional development opportunities for teachers and school leaders. However, there is very little in depth research which explores these issues “on the ground”. The aim of this research is fill this knowledge gap and explore teachers’ and leaders’ perceptions and experiences of working in rural schools in KSA. In Saudi Arabia, there is a growing body of research into school leadership. However, there is very little published research specifically exploring rural schools. By using an in-depth case study approach and adopting an analytical framework based on the interlinking concepts of leadership practices, culture, and CPD, this study offers and significant and original contribution to knowledge in this area. This study also will adopt a qualitative multiple case studies, which is going to employ semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and documentary analysis.

Keywords: leadership practice, school culture, continuing professional development, rural school

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2970 Assessing the Leadership Succession Plan in Faith-Based Senior High Schools in Ghana and Its Associated Challenges

Authors: J. E. Cobbinah

Abstract:

One of the most challenging issues confronting schools is good leadership succession planning. Experts argue that, although the idea of leadership succession planning is one of the strategies or practices that can help sustain improvement and promote continuity of good leadership, seem to have been neglected in many schools over the years. Appointment of head teachers in senior high schools is based on long service or one’s ability to demonstrate his/her competence in a leadership selection interview. There is no clear and well-structured leadership succession plan, before leadership position is filled, while school leadership succession planning seem to be an issue that nobody talks about. In faith-based schools the issue is even worse, because religious groups impose whoever they consider strong in the faith on schools as leaders, irrespective of the individual competence, ability to take up challenges associated with individuals’ preparedness to take up leadership position. Therefore, the present study examined the nature (including type) of leadership succession plans in faith-based senior high schools and its associated challenges. Convergent mixed method design was employed to effectively achieve the objectives of the study. The data collection strategies involved the use of interviews, questionnaires, and reviews of secondary data. The data was gathered from students, school leaders (head teachers, deputy heads, and head of departments), selected parents teachers associated members, school management committee members and members from school governors. The results show that governors of faith-based schools are making efforts to enhance education quality, by making school leadership accountable, the absence and the neglect of clear, and well-structured leadership succession plan has some negative outcomes. Unsustainable students’ academic performance, lack of support from existing staffs and senior leaders and lack of support in the implementation of school improvement plan. It would be concluded that, faith-based schools should focus on leadership competence and abilities in the selection process of potential school leaders to achieve a good succession plan rather than appointing leaders who are affiliates of one’s faith.

Keywords: school leadership, succession planning, faith-based schools, school governors

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2969 Academic Success, Problem-Based Learning and the Middleman: The Community Voice

Authors: Isabel Medina, Mario Duran

Abstract:

Although Problem-based learning provides students with multiple opportunities for rigorous instructional experiences in which students are challenged to address problems in the community; there are still gaps in connecting community leaders to the PBL process. At a south Texas high school, community participation serves as an integral component of the PBL process. Problem-based learning (PBL) has recently gained momentum due to the increase in global communities that value collaboration and critical thinking. As an instructional approach, PBL engages high school students in meaningful learning experiences. Furthermore, PBL focuses on providing students with a connection to real-world situations that require effective peer collaboration. For PBL leaders, providing students with a meaningful process is as important as the final PBL outcome. To achieve this goal, STEM high school strategically created a space for community involvement to be woven within the PBL fabric. This study examines the impact community members had on PBL students attending a STEM high school in South Texas. At STEM High School, community members represent a support system that works through the PBL process to ensure students receive real-life mentoring from business and industry leaders situated in the community. A phenomenological study using a semi-structured approach was used to collect data about students’ perception of community involvement within the PBL process for one South Texas high school. In our proposed presentation, we will discuss how community involvement in the PBL process academically impacted the educational experience of high school students at STEM high school. We address the instructional concerns PBL critics have with the lack of direct instruction, by providing a representation of how STEM high school utilizes community members to assist in impacting the academic experience of students.

Keywords: phenomenological, STEM education, student engagement, community involvement

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2968 Prefectorial Participation in Inclusive School Governance: A Shrewd Strategy for Building an Inclusive Society

Authors: Thomas Jerome Yeboah

Abstract:

Inclusive school leadership is not a standalone project. It is spread across a broad array of individual leaders in the school. Successful inclusive education thrives on collaborative, shared, and participatory leadership. School prefects are generally not included in leadership discourses in respect of the implementation of inclusive education and the benefits inherent in it, yet they live at the closest proximity to the learners and wield much influence over them. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the participation of school prefects in inclusive school governance could be used as a strategy to prepare them to champion the course of individuals who live with disability and special needs in order to build a more inclusive society. The exploratory study employed a purposive sampling technique to select ten (10) school prefects from five (5) inclusive schools in Ghana. Semi-structured interview was used to glean information from the selected participants to answer the research questions raised in the study. Results from the study were thematically analysed. The study concluded that the school prefects could be agents of societal transformation who would be capable of creating an environment where those with disability and special needs would be accepted by society as ‘normal.’

Keywords: inclusive society, participation, inclusive school leadership, societal transformation, school prefects

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2967 Machine Learning for Rational Decision-Making: Introducing Creativity to Teachers within a School System

Authors: Larry Audet

Abstract:

Creativity is suddenly and fortunately a new educational focus in the United Arab Emirates and around the world. Yet still today many leaders of creativity are not sure how to introduce it to their teachers. It is impossible to simultaneously introduce every aspect of creativity into a work climate and reach any degree of organizational coherence. The number of alternatives to explore is so great; the information teachers need to learn is so vast, that even an approximation to including every concept and theory of creativity into the school organization is hard to conceive. Effective leaders of creativity need evidence-based and practical guidance for introducing and stimulating creativity in others. Machine learning models reveal new findings from KEYS Survey© data about teacher perceptions of stimulants and barriers to their individual and collective creativity. Findings from predictive and causal models provide leaders with a rational for decision-making when introducing creativity into their organization. Leaders should focus on management practices first. Analyses reveal that creative outcomes are more likely to occur when teachers perceive supportive management practices: providing teachers with challenging work that calls for their best efforts; allowing freedom and autonomy in their practice of work; allowing teachers to form creative work-groups; and, recognizing them for their efforts. Once management practices are in place, leaders should focus their efforts on modeling risk-taking, providing optimal amounts of preparation time, and evaluating teachers fairly.

Keywords: creativity, leadership, KEYS survey, teaching, work climate

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2966 School Choice and Institutional or Familial Habitus: Reciprocity in Parents-School Relationships

Authors: Fatemeh Yazdani

Abstract:

This paper explores the student intake policies in high-performing private schools in Iran by studying both sides involved in the school choice processes, parents and the school leaders. It is based on in-depth interviews with 27 parents and private schools’ staff and principals supplemented by ethnographic observation in two private schools in Tehran. From the Bourdieusian point of view, this paper argues that the school leadership engineers the composition of private schools’ students via different gatekeeping strategies, and these strategies represent and reconstruct the school’s institutional habitus. It further explores the ways that parents who look for quality education among non-state education providers deal with the school's institutional habitus based on their familial habitus and possessed economic, social, and cultural capital. The conclusion highlights that investigating school choice as a reciprocal process between family and school leadership can shed more light on the ways that an exclusive environment has been created in some high-performing private schools for certain class strata maintaining a distance that needs to be kept from ‘others.’ In a broader sense, this paper engages into an exploration of social inequality reproduction through private education.

Keywords: institutional habitus, private education, school choice, social inequality, student intake

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2965 Leadership and Whether It Stems from Innate Abilities or from Situation

Authors: Salwa Abdelbaki

Abstract:

This research investigated how leaders develop, asking whether they have been leaders due to their innate abilities or they gain leadership characteristics through interactions based on requirements of a situation. If the first is true, then a leader should be successful in any situation. Otherwise, a leader may succeed only in a specific situation. A series of experiments were carried out on three groups including of males and females. First; a group of 148 students with different specializations had to select a leader. Another group of 51 students had to recall their previous experiences and their knowledge of each other to identify who were leaders in different situations. Then a series of analytic tools were applied to the identified leaders and to the whole groups to find out how leaders were developed. A group of 40 young children was also experimented with to find young leaders among them and to analyze their characteristics.

Keywords: leadership, innate characteristics, situation, leadership theories

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2964 Cultural Differences in Gender Stereotyping of Leaders

Authors: Maria Clapham, Krysta Thomason

Abstract:

This study examined how age and gender of a leader affect characterizations of leaders across cultures. Participants from around the world were randomly assigned to rate one of the following types of leaders: successful leader, female leader over age 50, female leader under age 40, male leader over age 50, or male leader under age 40. Ratings of these leaders on communal, agentic, task-oriented, relationship-oriented, and transformational leadership characteristics were compared across four world regions: Asia, Europe, Latin America, and USA/Canada. Results suggest some similarities and differences in characterizations of leaders across cultures.

Keywords: culture, gender, leadership, stereotyping

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2963 Review for Identifying Online Opinion Leaders

Authors: Yu Wang

Abstract:

Nowadays, Internet enables its users to share the information online and to interact with others. Facing with numerous information, these Internet users are confused and begin to rely on the opinion leaders’ recommendations. The online opinion leaders are the individuals who have professional knowledge, who utilize the online channels to spread word-of-mouth information and who can affect the attitudes or even the behavior of their followers to some degree. Because utilizing the online opinion leaders is seen as an important approach to affect the potential consumers, how to identify them has become one of the hottest topics in the related field. Hence, in this article, the concepts and characteristics are introduced, and the researches related to identifying opinion leaders are collected and divided into three categories. Finally, the implications for future studies are provided.

Keywords: online opinion leaders, user attributes analysis, text mining analysis, network structure analysis

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2962 Factors Influencing the Roles and Responsibilities of Middle Leaders in Saudi and English Primary Schools: A Comparative Critical Study

Authors: Saeed Musaid H. Alzahrani

Abstract:

The role of middle leaders, especially in primary schools, is a multi-faced role that has been subject to changes in nature over recent decades, with claims for more distributed leadership practices. This research examines the way 18 middle leaders in Saudi and English primary schools conceptualise their roles and responsibilities, and different factors influencing those roles and responsibilities. It begins from the premise that both the power of the role and the values of middle leaders are grounded in cultural and political bases, a belief held by the researcher as an 'insider' within the Saudi educational leadership context. The study consisted of a comparative analysis of the role and the responsibilities of middle leaders in Saudi primary schools and their equivalents in English primary schools. A purely qualitative methodological stance was adopted, using in-depth face-to-face semi-structured interviews, observations and document analysis. Middle leaders were asked to reflect deeply on their perceptions and understanding of their roles and explain what they thought influenced their daily practices and responsibilities. The findings suggest that the concept of middle leadership has been influenced by power imposed from above by political authority, via internal and external hierarchical structures, which shapes the nature of the role of the middle leaders and forces them to comply. Middle leaders seem to believe they have the power to make decisions and promote change, but these findings suggest that this is illusory. The power that keeps middle leaders performing is the power of their cultural and religious values. Those values are the resource to which they turn in their search for more energy when they lack support and are short of time taken. Middle leaders in Saudi, just like their equivalents in English schools must comply with the requirements of their role. However, Saudi middle leaders are given no leeway to make decisions or implement change, neither do they have the culture of collegiality that seems to give middle leaders in England more power over their resources and decisions. However, in neither educational setting have middle leaders been given the power to lead, so they remain managers rather than leaders. The findings of this research suggest that there are more similarities between the educational settings of Saudi and England than differences; and in the light of different factors identified in the study, suggest the establishment of a framework for middle leadership, in the hope of enhancing the way the role is practiced.

Keywords: middle leader, primary school, power, educational leadership, value, culture, model, Saudi Arabia, England

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2961 Challenges Faced by Physician Leaders in Teaching Hospitals of Private Medical Schools in the National Capital Region, Philippines

Authors: Policarpio Jr. Joves

Abstract:

Physicians in most teaching hospitals are commonly promoted into managerial roles, yet their training is mostly in clinical and scientific skills but not in leadership competencies. When they shift into roles of physician leadership, the majority hold on to their primary identity of physicians. These conflicting roles affect their identity and eventually their work. The physician leaders also face additional challenges related to academics which include incorporation of new knowledge into the existing curriculum, use of technology in the delivery of teaching, the need to train medical students outside of hospital wards, etc. The study aims to explore how physician leaders in teaching hospitals of private medical schools enact their leadership roles and how they face the challenges as physician leaders. The study setting shall be teaching hospitals of three private medical schools situated in the National Capital Region, Philippines. A multiple case study design shall be adopted in this research. Physicians shall be eligible to participate in the study if they are practicing clinicians limited to the five major clinical specialty: Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, Family Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynecology. They must be teaching in the College of Medicine prior to their appointments as physician leaders in both medical school and teaching hospital. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews shall be utilized as a means of data collection, with open-ended questions, enabling physician leaders to present narratives about their identity, role enactment, conflicts, reaction of colleagues, and the challenges encountered in their day-to-day work as physician leaders. Interviews shall be combined with observations and review of records to gain more insights into how the physician leaders are 'doing' management. Within-case analysis shall be done initially followed by a thematic analysis across the cases, referred to as cross–case analysis or cross-case synthesis.

Keywords: academic leaders, academic managers, physician leaders, physician managers

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2960 Qatari Licensure System as Perceived by Teachers and School Leaders

Authors: Abdullah Abu-Tineh, Hissa Sadiq, Fatma Al-Mutawah, Youmen Chaaban

Abstract:

The past 20 years have seen a proliferation of empirical research into various licensure systems. Extensive quantitative work investigates these systems of appraisal from different countries, but there is far less research on the implementation of the Qatari licensure system and the adoption of professional standards. In this paper, we provided a quantitatively and qualitatively descriptive look at the process that moves educators from their point of entry into the profession through their certification as accomplished professionals. Specifically, we focused on the perceptions of teachers and school leaders on the licensure system currently adopted by Ministry of Education and Higher Education in Qatar. The paper aims to inform progress towards a system of reliable, valid, and nationally appropriate teacher and school leader evaluation procedures. Such a system can support decision-making based on a common, comprehensive set of standards that ensures the placement of only the most effective educators in Qatari schools. This paper was made possible by NPRP grant # (NPRP7-1224-5-178) from the Qatar national research fund (a member of Qatar foundation) to Abdullah M. Abu-Tineh. The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the author.

Keywords: licensure system, professional standards, professional portfolio, educator voice

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2959 Micropolitical Leadership in a Taiwanese Primary School

Authors: Hsin-Jen Chen

Abstract:

Primary schooling in Taiwan is in a process of radical restructuring during the decade. At the center of these restructuring is the position of the principal and questions to do with how principals, as school leaders, respond to radical change. Adopting a case-study approach, the study chose a middle Taiwanese primary school to investigate how the principal learned to be political. Using micropolitical leadership, the principal at the researched site successfully coped with internal change and external demands. On the whole, judging from the principal’s leadership style on the mediation between parents and teachers, as well as school-based curriculum development, it could be argued that the principal was on the stance of being a leader of the cultural transformation instead of cultural reproduction. In doing so, the qualitative evidence has indicated that the principal seemed to be successful in coping with the demands of rapid change. Continuing learning for leadership is the core of working as a principal.

Keywords: micropolitics, leadership, micropolitical leadership, learning for leadership

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2958 Paradigm Shift of Leadership: Leaders in Information Technology

Authors: Mustafa Hyder, Khalid Mahmood Iraqi, Sameen Mustafa

Abstract:

They say if the leader limps, all the others will start limping too. Therefore, a very dynamic leadership at all levels within the IT Community is critical to the success of an organization. This paper is an attempt to study the relationship between Information Technology (IT) with leadership and assesses its relevancy in today's fast-paced hi-tech globalized environment. The paper strives to look into the essential qualities and knowledge as needed by today's IT leader, in contrast to essential characteristics common to all the leaders-past, present, and future.

Keywords: leadership, autocratic leaders, characteristics of IT leaders, skills of IT professionals, IT leadership

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2957 Principal Creative Leadership for Teacher Learning and School Culture

Authors: Yashi Ye

Abstract:

Principles play vital roles in shaping the school culture and promote teacher professional learning by exerting their leadership. In the changing time of the 21st century, the creative leadership of school leaders is increasingly important in cultivating the professional learning communities of teachers for eventually improving student performance on every continent. This study examines under what conditions and how principal creative leadership contributes to teachers’ professional learning and school culture. Data collected from 632 teachers in 30 primary and middle schools in the cities of Chengdu and Chongqing in mainland China are analyzed using structural equation modeling and bootstrapping tests. A moderated mediation model of principle creative leadership effects is used to analyze professional teacher learning, and school culture in which the mediator will be school culture and the moderator will be power distance orientation. The results indicate that principal creative leadership has significant direct and indirect effects on teacher professional learning. A positive correlation between principal creative leadership, teacher professional learning, and school culture is observed. Further model testing found that teacher power distance orientation moderated the significant effect of principal creative leadership on school culture. When teachers perceived higher power distance in teacher-principal relations, the effects of principal creative leadership were stronger than for those who perceived low power distance. The results indicate the “culture change” in the young generation of teachers in China, and further implications to understand the cultural context in the field of educational leadership are discussed.

Keywords: power distance orientation, principal creative leadership, school culture, teacher professional learning

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2956 A Consensus Approach to the Formulation of a School ICT Policy: A Q-Methodology Case Study

Authors: Thiru Vandeyar

Abstract:

This study sets out to explore how teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about ICT policy influence a consensus approach to the formulation of a school ICT policy. This case study proposes Q- methodology as an innovative method to facilitate a school’s capacity to develop policy reflecting teacher beliefs and attitudes. Q-methodology is used as a constructivist approach to the formulation of an ICT policy. Data capture was a mix of Q-methodology and qualitative principles. Data was analyzed by means of document, content and cluster analysis methods. Findings were threefold: First, teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about ICT policy influenced a consensus approach by including teachers as policy decision-makers. Second, given the opportunity, teachers have the inherent ability to deconstruct and critically engage with policy statements according to their own professional beliefs and attitudes. And third, an inclusive approach to policy formulation may inform the practice of school leaders and policymakers alike on how schools may develop their own policy.

Keywords: ICT, policy, teacher beliefs, consensus

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2955 Reculturing: The Key to Sustainability of Private Universities

Authors: Yu Sing Ong

Abstract:

This article explores the key issues and challenges facing private university leaders today. Universities are reculturing their operational processes, academic content and interactions with stakeholders. Many challenges centred around the need for university leaders to reculture the institutions and the redesigning of the teaching profession. It recommends a framework for university leaders to deal with the challenges they face. Only through reculturing, private universities can maintain the sustainability of its workforce and student population. The article has both theoretical and practical significance for private university leaders to follow.

Keywords: university leadership, reculturing, improvement, teacher education, motivation, private education

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2954 Disability Policy and Leaders in México

Authors: Jennifer Isabelle Rios Rendón, Ursula Sanchez, Dana Lee Baker

Abstract:

Disability Policy in México has witnessed numerous changed throughout the years. Physical disabilities are more often recognized in Mexican culture. However, with an emerging focus on neurological disabilities or differences in individuals’ new policies are needed to serve better and understand the needs of these populations. The need to understand and communicate with local leaders is imperative, as the lens used to analyze autism has historically been from a Western school of thought. We are looking to comprehend the disability policy subsystem in México - specifically how autism is perceived, the language used to describe it, and how it ties to the cultural stigma of disabilities that exist in México. Therefore, to understand this, we seek to interview multiple policy leaders on their experience in autism and disability policy. The goal is to conduct qualitative research through interviews with local autism and disability leaders in México. This methodology aims to answer the questions of what language commonly and culturally is utilized in disability policy, the context of how autism is perceived in México, and in general, the lived experience of the disability policy leaders that take part in this effort in México. Local activists and policy leaders were initially found through an online search then collected using snowball sampling. The interviews were conducted through a series of pre-formulated questions that the policy leader answered via email or a phone conversation with the researchers. Acknowledging the importance of language and accessibility, the need for the content to be in both English and Spanish as well as auditory and visual is essential to take steps in the inclusion of a Neurodiverse group of leaders. This work is a demonstration of the framework of the investigation which hopes to create a more complete understanding of the policy and political culture around autism in México. Results of the project include new insight into the developing relationship between the President Andrés Manuel López Obrador’s administration, disability activists, and neurodiverse communities. The project contributes to denormalizing the legacy of white supremacy in autism related, historically rooted in the assumption that autism occurs predominantly in white communities.

Keywords: autism, disability leaders, disability policy, México, Neurodiversity

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2953 Intercultural Competency for Teachers at the Public Multicultural Alternative School for Immigrants and Multicultural Family Student’s School Maladjustment in Korea

Authors: Kiseob Chung, Hyeonmin Kang

Abstract:

This study aims to explore what is intercultural competency needed for teacher through their experience at the public multicultural alternative school. The public alternative multicultural school is an accredited school for immigrants or students from multicultural families who have experienced school maladjustment at public school. This school has self-regulation in curriculum and function of bridge to public school by helping their adaptation. In particular, this study answers the following questions: What are the most difficulties for teacher at the multicultural alternative school in comparison to public school? What competencies are required for teacher at the multicultural alternative school? Which competencies in cognitive, emotional and practical area should be more required in order for teacher to communicate with student effectively (successfully) in class and other activities in school? What is the background of that we called these competencies especially as ‘intercultural’? This study focuses to clarify teacher’s competency to help immigrants of students from multicultural background to adjust to school life with the term of intercultural competency.

Keywords: intercultural competency for teacher, multicultural alternative school, multicultural students, school maladjustment

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2952 An Examination of the Role of Perceived Leadership Styles on Job Satisfaction among Selected Bank Employees

Authors: Solomon Ojo

Abstract:

The study set out to investigate the role of perceived leadership style on achievement motivation of selected bank employees. The study was a cross-sectional survey. A total of 585 bank workers took part in the study; 283 (48.4%) were males while 302% (51.6%) were females. Mean age of 31.8 yrs (SD = 7.8 yrs) was reported for the participants for the study. Questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistic. The t- test for independent measures was used to test all the hypotheses, using the statistical package for social sciences version 21.0. The results in the study revealed that bank employees who perceived their leaders as high on consideration style of leadership reported more job satisfaction than bank employees who perceived their leaders as low on consideration style of leadership [t(583) = 16.43, p<.001]; bank employees who perceived their leaders as high in initiating structure style reported more job satisfaction than bank employees who perceived their leaders as low in initiating structure style [t(583)=12.06, p<.01]. The results showed further the influence of perceived leadership styles on all measures of job satisfaction. First, the result showed that bank employees who perceived their leaders as high on consideration style reported more satisfaction with hours worked each day than bank employees who perceived their leaders as low on consideration style [t(583) = 9.23, p<.01]. Second, the results revealed that bank employees who perceived their leaders as high on consideration style reported more satisfaction with flexibility in scheduling than bank employees who perceived their leaders as low on consideration style [t(583) = 8.80, p<.01]. Third, it was shown that bank employees who perceived their leaders as high on consideration style reported more satisfaction with location of work than bank employees who perceived their leaders as low on consideration style [t(583) = 14.17, p<.01] e.t.c. The results were extensively discussed in relation to relevant body of literature.

Keywords: leadership styles, job satisfaction, bank employees, perceived

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2951 School Counseling in Sri Lanka: Analysis of the past Recommending a Way Forward

Authors: Buddhiprabha D. D. Pathirana

Abstract:

Despite a rapid increase in the number of school counselors in the recent past; procuring the service of school counselors is a luxury that many Sri Lankan schools cannot afford. In addition, school counseling in Sri Lanka also faces new challenges in implementation due to the fact that a generally agreed consensus on training, ethical standards, role identity, counseling model, and structures for school counselors has not been reached. Therefore, this paper has several objectives. First, it reviews a brief history of school counseling in Sri Lanka and describes its current status. Second, it describes current trends/ problems specific to Sri Lankan school counseling milieu which have limited the progress of school counseling as a practice. Third, it discusses societal and cultural issues that are important to consider when implementing school counseling as a practices in Sri Lanka and provides recommendations to improve it.

Keywords: school counseling, Sri Lanka, current situation, recommendations

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2950 A Value-Based Approach to Recognize Authentic Transformational Leaders' Delivering Process of Corporate Social Responsibility Values

Authors: Yi-Jung Chen, Yunshi Liu

Abstract:

To explain how followers can perceive whether or not transformational leaders are authentic on the basis of their leadership behaviors based on value-based leadership theory, this study adopts the dual-focus model of transformational leadership and evaluates leaders’ corporate social responsibility values along with followers’ perceptions of leaders’ values. Using dyadic questionnaires, the final study sample consisted of 252 followers and 43 leaders at a private firm in Taiwan. Results show that followers perceive corporate social responsibility values of transformational leaders through their group-focused leadership behaviors because such group-focused leadership is in line with these values.

Keywords: authentic transformational leadership, corporate social responsibility value, value-based leadership theory, dual-focus leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 236