Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 115

Search results for: Salisu S. Umar

115 Performance Evaluation of Microcontroller-Based Fuzzy Controller for Fruit Drying System

Authors: Salisu Umar

Abstract:

Fruits are a seasonal crop and get spoiled quickly. They are dried to be preserved for a long period. The natural drying process requires more time. The investment on space requirement and infrastructure is large, and cannot be afforded by a middle class farmer. Therefore there is a need for a comparatively small unit with reduced drying times, which can be afforded by a middle class farmer. A controlled environment suitable for fruit drying is developed within a closed chamber and is a three step process. Firstly, the infrared light is used internally to preheated the fruit to speedily remove the water content inside the fruit for fast drying. Secondly, hot air of a specified temperature is blown inside the chamber to maintain the humidity below a specified level and exhaust the humid air of the chamber. Thirdly the microcontroller idles disconnecting the power to the chamber after the weight of the fruits is reduced to a known value of its original weight. This activates a buzzer for duration of ten seconds to indicate the end of the drying process. The results obtained indicate that the system is significantly reducing the drying time without affecting the quality of the fruits compared with the existing dryers.

Keywords: fruit, fuzzy controller, microcontroller, temperature, weight and humidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
114 The Moment of the Optimal Average Length of the Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart for Equally Correlated Variables

Authors: Edokpa Idemudia Waziri, Salisu S. Umar

Abstract:

The Hotellng’s T^2 is a well-known statistic for detecting a shift in the mean vector of a multivariate normal distribution. Control charts based on T have been widely used in statistical process control for monitoring a multivariate process. Although it is a powerful tool, the T statistic is deficient when the shift to be detected in the mean vector of a multivariate process is small and consistent. The Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (MEWMA) control chart is one of the control statistics used to overcome the drawback of the Hotellng’s T statistic. In this paper, the probability distribution of the Average Run Length (ARL) of the MEWMA control chart when the quality characteristics exhibit substantial cross correlation and when the process is in-control and out-of-control was derived using the Markov Chain algorithm. The derivation of the probability functions and the moments of the run length distribution were also obtained and they were consistent with some existing results for the in-control and out-of-control situation. By simulation process, the procedure identified a class of ARL for the MEWMA control when the process is in-control and out-of-control. From our study, it was observed that the MEWMA scheme is quite adequate for detecting a small shift and a good way to improve the quality of goods and services in a multivariate situation. It was also observed that as the in-control average run length ARL0¬ or the number of variables (p) increases, the optimum value of the ARL0pt increases asymptotically and as the magnitude of the shift σ increases, the optimal ARLopt decreases. Finally, we use the example from the literature to illustrate our method and demonstrate its efficiency.

Keywords: average run length, markov chain, multivariate exponentially weighted moving average, optimal smoothing parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
113 Performance Comparison of Microcontroller-Based Optimum Controller for Fruit Drying System

Authors: Umar Salisu

Abstract:

This research presents the development of a hot air tomatoes drying system. To provide a more efficient and continuous temperature control, microcontroller-based optimal controller was developed. The system is based on a power control principle to achieve smooth power variations depending on a feedback temperature signal of the process. An LM35 temperature sensor and LM399 differential comparator were used to measure the temperature. The mathematical model of the system was developed and the optimal controller was designed and simulated and compared with the PID controller transient response. A controlled environment suitable for fruit drying is developed within a closed chamber and is a three step process. First, the infrared light is used internally to preheated the fruit to speedily remove the water content inside the fruit for fast drying. Second, hot air of a specified temperature is blown inside the chamber to maintain the humidity below a specified level and exhaust the humid air of the chamber. Third, the microcontroller disconnects the power to the chamber after the moisture content of the fruits is removed to minimal. Experiments were conducted with 1kg of fresh tomatoes at three different temperatures (40, 50 and 60 °C) at constant relative humidity of 30%RH. The results obtained indicate that the system is significantly reducing the drying time without affecting the quality of the fruits. In the context of temperature control, the results obtained showed that the response of the optimal controller has zero overshoot whereas the PID controller response overshoots to about 30% of the set-point. Another performance metric used is the rising time; the optimal controller rose without any delay while the PID controller delayed for more than 50s. It can be argued that the optimal controller performance is preferable than that of the PID controller since it does not overshoot and it starts in good time.

Keywords: drying, microcontroller, optimum controller, PID controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
112 Raw Japanese Quail Egg Produces Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and Gastro-Protective Effects in Rats

Authors: Sani Ismaila, Shafiu Yau, Abubakar Salisu, Buhari Salisu, Sharifat Balogun, Mustapha Abubakar, Biobaku Khalid, Agaie Bello

Abstract:

Over the years, Japanese quail egg has been in use in the management of diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects of raw Quail egg (yolk + albumin) in rats. Pain was assessed in rats by recording the latent period and writing reflex, anti-inflammatory effect was determined using both motility and compression test, while the gastro-protective effects were assessed by observing the histology of the stomach after diclofenac-induced gastric ulcers and subsequent treatment with the quail egg, Rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups; Groups I: were the control non-treated (NT), Group II were treated with Tramadol 50 mg/kg/Os (TMD) or Indomethacin (IND) 5mg/kg/Os (positive control for the writhing reflex determination), while group III and IV were treated with 3 and 6g/kg of raw quail egg respectively). Groups treated with quail egg in both doses showed a significant increase in the latent period (p <0 .05) when compared to the control NT, but lower than the group treated with tramadol at 20mins interval (p<0.05). Writing reflexes decrease in groups II, III, and IV compared to the NT group (p < 0.05). While motility increases significantly (p < 0.05) in groups II, compared to I (p<0.05). Control non-treated rats showed a quicker and extensive response to compression using the Vanier calliper on the inflamed paw compared to groups II-IV (p < 0.05). Histological studies of the stomach revealed sloughing of the epithelia, cellular infiltration with micro abscesses in the non-treated, while groups treated concurrently with quail egg showed proliferation of the glandular epithelia and goblet cells, and those treated 30 minutes before diclofenac administration showed proliferation of glands and thickening of the squamous epithelia. This study showed that quail egg has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective potentials and can be used as adjuvant treatment whenever COX-2 enzymes inhibitors are indicated.

Keywords: analgesia, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective effect, japanese quail egg

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
111 Socio-Economic Factors Influencing the Use of Coping Strategies among Conflict Actors (Farmers and Herders) in Giron Masa Village, Kebbi State, Nigeria

Authors: S. Umar, B. F. Umar

Abstract:

This study was conducted at Giron Masa village, located 30 km from Yauri town. The study determines the socio-economic factors influencing the use of coping strategies among farmers and herders during post-conflict situation. Simple random sampling was employed to select one hundred respondents (50 farmers and 50 herders) from the study area. Logistic regression analysis (LR) was used to ascertain the socioeconomic variables that influenced the use of the coping strategies. The results of the study shows that age, income, family size and farming experience were individually significant and thus influenced the use of POCS by farmers. Annual income and production system influenced the use of POCS by herders. Age, farm size and farming experience were found to be individually significant in influencing the use of EOCS among farmers. Specifically, years of occupation experience among the herders increased the use of emotion oriented coping strategies among herders. The use of SSCS among farmers was influenced by educational level; farm size and farming experience, while the variables are not collectively significant in influencing the use of SSCS among the herders. The research recommends a need to adopt the strategy of community coping to cope with stress.

Keywords: farmers, herders, conflict, coping strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
110 Weighted G2 Multi-Degree Reduction of Bezier Curves

Authors: Salisu ibrahim, Abdalla Rababah

Abstract:

In this research, we use Weighted G2-Multi-degree reduction of Bezier curve of degree n to a Bezier curve of degree m, m < n. The degree reduction of Bezier curves is used to represent a given Bezier curve of n by a Bezier curve of degree m, m < n. Exact degree reduction is not possible, and degree reduction is approximate process in nature. We derive a weighted degree reducing method that is geometrically continuous at the end points. Different norms will be considered, several error minimizations will be given. The proposed methods produce error function that are less than the errors of existing methods.

Keywords: Bezier curves, multiple degree reduction, geometric continuity, error function

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
109 Contemporary Issues in Teacher Education in Nigeria

Authors: Salisu Abdu Bagga

Abstract:

This paper attempts to discuss contemporary issues in teacher education and address challenges therein within the context of the Nigeria society. Teacher education is an educational programme aimed at producing the right crop of people (teachers) who will teach at various levels of schooling i.e. primary, secondary and tertiary. The programme targets to inculcate desirable knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and competencies in teachers with the prime motive of keeping them fully abreast with contemporary challenges such as overcrowded classrooms, inadequate instructional materials, ineffective teaching methodology in the teaching industry in Nigeria. Nigeria needs competent, skilful, knowledgeable and innovative classroom teachers for better teaching and learning.

Keywords: teacher education, contemporary issues, competencies, higher education

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
108 Litho-Structural Variations and Gold Mineralization around Wonaka Schist Belt, North West Nigeria

Authors: Umar Sambo Umar, Ahmad Isah Haruna, Abubakar Sadik Maigari, Muhammad Bello Abubakar

Abstract:

Schist belts in Nigeria occur prominently west of longitude 80 E and sporadic to the east, they are upper Proterozioc low-medium grade deformed metasediments and metavolcanics that were intruded by Pan-African granitoids. The Wonaka schist belt, though reportedly distinctive in composition and metamorphism, is the least understood; the host for primary gold were not defined, structures which may control primary enrichment have not been delineated. The aim of this work is to determine the relationship between litho-structures and the gold around Wonaka schist belt through geological field mapping, petrographic studies and structural data analysis via ArcGis 10.2, Surfer 11.0 and Stereopro 2.0. The results show that the major rock types are mica schist and migmatites, muscovites detected during microstructural analysis suggests low-grade metamorphism in the metapelites. The shear zones identified were trending North Northeast – South Southwest (NNE-SSW), fractures trend mostly Northeast-Southwest (NE-SW) perpendicular to planes of gneissic foliations, these conform to the late Pan-African deformational episode. Pegmatite lodes, net self-cross cutting quartz veins as well as the quartz stringers hosted by both migmatites and schist are delineated as targets for primary gold mineralization, while major confluences of the streams serve as zones for secondary (placer) gold targets since the streams are dendritic and intermittent.

Keywords: gold mineralization, Nigeria, migmatites, Wonaka schist belt

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
107 Single Fly Over as a Solution to Congestion of Intersection Junction: Case Study of Jalan Jatingaleh Semarang

Authors: Rachmat Mudiyono, Siti Sumiati

Abstract:

In the next few years, traffic will happen most of the time. This was triggered by the growing rate of vehicles againts the road capacity which is not balance. All the time the congestion in the city of Semarang has been occured at peak hours. Congestion also occured in between Teuku Umar and Setia Budi road Jatingaleh because of a plot intersection (Kesatrian intersection, PLN intersection and Jatingaleh intersection) with the Toll Road. Jatingaleh is located in the southern city of Semarang which is a central meeting point between the upper and lower Semarang where the vehicle flows in through a combination of local current and regional traffic, and the flow of vehicles coming in and out from highway. The main cause of the problems that occurred in the area of Jatingaleh is due to the numbers of vehicles movement that occurs at the intersections. With the above issues, it is necessary to analyse the existing conditions and look into some solutions. Before carrying out an analysis of field surveys at peak hours for example morning (06:00 to 08:00 am) and for the afternoon (04:00 to 06:00 pm)should be conducted, then the number of vehicles is counted manually with “short-breakcounting” according to types of vehicles. From the analysis we found that the degree of saturation (DS) is 1.61 between Teuku Umar and Setia Budi road during the morning peak hours and 1.56 during the afternoon peak hours. This means that the capacity of the existing road is no longer able to accommodate the traffic flow. One of the solutions for the congestion that occurs at the intersection of Jatingaleh is to apply the efficiency of the intersection that is not in a plot with a Fly over, Underpass and the combination of Fly Over-Underpass. Base on the flow reduction calculation with 3 comparative modeling it shows that the Fly Over is the most technically efficient to be applied in this research.

Keywords: single fly over, congestion, intersection, interchange

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
106 Studies on the Histomorphometry of the Digestive Tract and Associated Digestive Glands in Ostrich (Struthio camelus) with Gender and Progressing Age in Pakistan

Authors: Zaima Umar, Anas S. Qureshi, Adeel Sarfraz, Saqib Umar, Talha Umar, Muhammad Usman

Abstract:

Ostrich has been a good source of food and income for people across the world. To get a better understanding of health and health-related problems, the knowledge of its digestive system is of utmost importance. The present study was conducted to determine the morphological and histometrical variations in the digestive system and associated glands of ostrich (Struthio camelus) as regard to the gender and progressive age. A total of 40 apparently healthy ostriches of both genders and two progressive age groups; young one (less than two year, group A); and adult (2-15 years, group B) in equal number were used in this study. Digestive organs including tongue, esophagus, proventriculus, gizzard, small and large intestines and associated glands like liver and pancreas were collected immediately after slaughtering the birds. The organs of the digestive system and associated glands of each group were studied grossly and histologically. Grossly colour, shape consistency, weight and various dimensions (length, width, and circumference) of organs of the digestive tract and associated glands were recorded. The mean (± SEM) of all gross anatomical parameters in group A were significantly (p ≤ 0.01) different from that of group B. For microscopic studies, 1-2 cm tissue samples of organs of the digestive system and associated glands were taken. The tissue was marked and fixed in the neutral buffer formaldehyde solution for histological studies. After fixation, the sections of 5-7 µm were cut and stained by haematoxylin and eosin stain. All the layers (epithelium, lamina propria, lamina muscularis, submucosa and tunica muscularis) were measured (µm) with the help of automated computer software Image J®. The results of this study provide valuable information on the gender and age-related histological and histometrical variations in the digestive organs of ostrich (Struthio camelus). The microscopic studies of different parts of the digestive system revealed highly significant differences (p ≤ 0.01) among the two groups. The esophagus was lined by non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The duodenum, jejunum, and ileum showed similar histological structures. Statistical analysis revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in the thickness of different tunics of the gastrointestinal tract in adult birds (up to 15 years) as compared with young ones (less than two years). Therefore, it can be concluded that there is a gradual but consistent growth in the observed digestive organs mimicking that of other poultry species and may be helpful in determining the growth pattern in this bird. However, there is a need to record the changes at closer time intervals.

Keywords: ostrich, digestive system, histomorphometry, grossly

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
105 Comparative Analysis of the Treatment of Okra Seed and Soy Beans Oil with Crude Enzyme Extract from Malted Rice

Authors: Eduzor Esther, Uhiara Ngozi, Ya’u Abubakar Umar, Anayo Jacob Gabriel, Umar Ahmed

Abstract:

The study investigated the characteristic effect of treating okra seed and soybeans seed oil with crude enzymes extract from malted rice. The oils from okra seeds and soybeans were obtained by solvent extraction method using N-hexane solvent. Soybeans seeds had higher percentage oil yield than okra seed. 250ml of each oil was thoroughly mixed with 5ml of the malted rice extract at 400C for 5mins and then filtered and regarded as treated oil while another batch of 250ml of each oil was not mixed with the malted rice extract and regarded as untreated oil. All the oils were analyzed for specific gravity, refractive index, emulsification capacity, absortivity, TSS and viscosity. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil gave higher values for specific gravity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. The emulsification capacity values were also higher for treated oils, when compared to the untreated oil, for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil also had higher range of values for absorptivity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The ranges of T.S.S values of the treated oil were also higher, than those of the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The results of viscosity showed that the treated oil had higher values, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. However, the results of refractive index showed that the untreated oils had higher values ranges of than the treated oils for okra seed and soybeans respectively. Treated oil show better quality in respect to the parameters analyst, except the refractive index which is slightly less but also is within the rangiest of standard, the oils are high in unsaturation especially okra oil when compared with soya beans oil. It is recommended that, treated oil of okra seeds and soya beans can serve better than many oils that presently in use such as ground nut oil, palm oil and cotton seeds oil.

Keywords: extract, malted, oil, okra, rice, seed, soybeans

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
104 Haematological Changes and Anticoccidial Activities of Kaempferol in Eimeria Tenella Infected Broiler Chickens

Authors: Ya'u Muhammad, Umar Umar A. Mallammadori, Dahiru Mansur

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Effect of kaempferol on haematological parameters in two weeks old broiler chickens with experimental Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated in this study. Sixty-day old broilers were randomly allotted into six groups (I-VI) of ten broilers each and brooded for two weeks with commercial broiler feed (vital feed®) and provided water ad libitum. At two weeks of age broilers in group 1 were neither infected nor treated. Broilers in groups II-VI were infected with Eimeria tenella sporulated oocyst (104/ml) via oral inoculation. After infection was established, broilers in groups II-IV were treated orally with 1 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg, and 2 mg/kg of kaempferol, respectively. Broilers in group V were treated for five days with amprolium, 1.25 g/L in drinking water. Broilers in group VI were administered normal saline, 5 ml/kg per os for five days. Five days post infection; all broilers were sacrificed by severing their jugular veins. Blood sample from each bird was collected in EDTA container for haematology. Caecal contents were harvested and used to determine the lesion score and caecal Oocyst count respectively. Data obtained was analyzed using pad prism version 5.0. Mean Packed Cell Volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, and Red Blood Cell (RBC) count significantly (P < 0.05) increased in groups II, III, and IV in a dose dependent manner. Similarly, PCV, Hb concentration, and RBC count significantly (P < 0.05) increased in groups II, III, and IV when compared to VI. No significant (P > 0.05) difference in the mean values of PCV, Hb and RBC count were recorded between groups treated with kaempferol and group V. Caecal Oocyst counts and lesion scores reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in groups II, III, and IV in a dose dependent manner. It was therefore observed in this study that kaempferol improved haematological parameters and reduced Oocyst count as well as the lesion scores in broilers infected with Eimeria tenella.

Keywords: broilers, Eimeria tenella, kaempferol, lesion scores, oocyst count,

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
103 Democracy Leadership and Good Governance in Nigerias Fourth Republic

Authors: Salisu Adamu Abdullahi, Yusuf Abdullahi Manu

Abstract:

Nigeria returned to a democratically elected government on May 29, 1999. This signaled the beginning of the journey into the Fourth Republic. The return has received popular endorsement by the electorates as the level of enthusiasm was high due to the yearnings and expectations by the electorate that democracy will bring about the much-desired change required by the general mass. As democracy would allow for popular participation through periodic elections and so on. The paper examines democracy, leadership, and challenges of good governance in Nigerias Fourth Republic. It utilizes secondary source of data and content analysis as a methodology. It argues that Nigerias practice of democracy over the years is marred by flagrant abuse of the principles of good governance by the ruling elite. This has posed threats to the survival of democracy due to non-adherence to one of the cardinal principles of democracy which is good governance. The paper recommends among others that the anti-corruption law is amended in such a way that death penalties be issued to those found wanting by the law.

Keywords: democracy, democratic consolidation, challenges, good governance

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
102 Effect of Chemical Treatment on Mechanical Properties of KENAF Fiber Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites

Authors: S. S. Abdullahi, H. Musa, A. A. Salisu, A. Ismaila, A. H. Birniwa

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In this study the treated and untreated kenaf fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester conventional composites were prepared. Hand lay-up technique was used with dump-bell shaped mold. The kenaf bast fiber was retted enzymatically, washed, dried and combed with a nylon brush. A portion of the kenaf fiber was mercerized and treated with benzoylchloride prior to composite fabrication. Untreated kenaf fiber was also used to prepare the composites to serve as control. The cured composites were subjected to various mechanical testes, such as hardness test, impact test and tensile strength test. The results obtained indicated an increase in all the parameters tested with the fiber treatment. This is because the lignin, hemi-celluloses, pectin and other impurities were removed during alkaline treatment (i.e mercerization). This shows that, the durability of the natural cellulosic fibers to different composite applications can be achieved via fiber treatments.

Keywords: composite, kenaf fibre, reinforce, retted

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
101 Effect of Surface Treatment on Physico-Mechanical Properties of Sisal Fiber-Unsaturated Polyester Composites

Authors: A. H. Birniwa, A. A. Salisu, M. Y. Yakasai, A. Sabo, K. Aujara, A. Isma’il

Abstract:

Sisal fibre was extracted from Sisal leaves by enzymatic retting method. A portion of the fibre was subjected to treatment with alkali, benzoyl chloride and silane compounds. Sisal fibre composites were fabricated using unsaturated polyester resin, by hand lay-up technique using both the treated and untreated fibre. Tensile, flexural and water absorption tests were conducted and evaluated on the composites. The results obtained were found to increase in the treated fibre compared to untreated fibre. Surface morphology of the fibre was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the result obtained showed variation in the morphology of the treated and untreated fibre. FT-IR results showed inclusion of benzoyl and silane groups on the fibre surface. The fibre chemical modification improves its adhesion to the matrix, mechanical properties of the composites were also found to improve.

Keywords: composite, flexural strength, matrix, sisal fibre

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
100 Determination of Flow Arrangement for Optimum Performance in Heat Exchangers

Authors: Ahmed Salisu Atiku

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This task involves the determination of the flow arrangement for optimum performance and the calculation of total heat transfer of two identical double pipe heat exchangers in series. The inner pipe contains the cold water stream at 27°C, whilst the outer pipe contains the two hot stream of water at 50°C and 90 °C which can be mixed in any way desired. The analysis was carried out using counter flow arrangement due to its good heat transfer ability. The best way of heating this cold stream was found out to be passing the 90°C hot stream through the two heat exchangers. The outlet temperature of the cold stream was found to be 39.6°C and overall heat transfer of 131.3 kW. Though starting with 50°C hot stream in the first heat exchanger followed by 90°C hot stream in the second heat exchanger gives an outlet temperature almost the same as 90°C hot stream alone, but the heat transfer is low. The reason for the low heat transfer was that only the heat transfer in the second heat exchanger is considered. Whilst the reason behind high outlet temperature was that the cold stream was already preheated by the first stream.

Keywords: cold stream, flow arrangement, heat exchanger, hot stream

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
99 Transformation of the Traditional Landscape of Kabul Old City: A Study for Its Conservation

Authors: Mohammad Umar Azizi, Tetsuya Ando

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This study investigates the transformation of the traditional landscape of Kabul Old City through an examination of five case study areas. Based on physical observation, three types of houses are found: traditional, mixed and modern. Firstly, characteristics of the houses are described according to construction materials and the number of stories. Secondly, internal and external factors are considered in order to implement a conservation plan. Finally, an adaptive conservation plan is suggested to protect the traditional landscape of Kabul Old City.

Keywords: conservation, district 1, Kabul Old City, landscape, transformation, traditional houses

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
98 Physico-Mechanical Properties of Chemically Modified Sisal Fibre Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites

Authors: A. A. Salisu, M. Y. Yakasai, K. M. Aujara

Abstract:

Sisal leaves were subjected to enzymatic retting method to extract the sisal fibre. A portion of the fibre was pretreated with alkali (NaOH), and further treated with benzoyl chloride and silane treatment reagents. Both the treated and untreated Sisal fibre composites were used to fabricate the composite by hand lay-up technique using unsaturated polyester resin. Tensile, flexural, water absorption, density, thickness swelling and chemical resistant tests were conducted and evaluated on the composites. Results obtained for all the parameters showed an increase in the treated fibre compared to untreated fibre. FT-IR spectra results ascertained the inclusion of benzoyl and silane groups on the fibre surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) result obtained showed variation in the morphology of the treated and untreated fibre. Chemical modification was found to improve adhesion of the fibre to the matrix, as well as physico-mechanical properties of the composites.

Keywords: chemical resistance, density test, polymer matrix sisal fibre, thickness swelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
97 Investigation of the Morphology and Optical Properties of CuAlO₂ Thin Film

Authors: T. M. Aminu, A. Salisu, B. Abdu, H. U. Alhassan, T. H. Dharma

Abstract:

Thin films of CuAlO2 were deposited on clean glass substrate using the chemical solution deposition (sol-gel) method of deposition with CuCl and AlCl3 taken as the starting materials. CuCl was dissolved in HCl while AlCl₃ in distilled water, pH value of the mixture was controlled by addition of NaOH. The samples were annealed at different temperatures in order to determine the effect of annealing temperatures on the morphological and optical properties of the deposited CuAlO₂ thin film. The surface morphology reveals an improved crystalline as annealing temperature increases. The results of the UV-vis and FT-IR spectrophotometry indicate that the absorbance for all the samples decreases sharply from a common value of about 89% at about 329 nm to a range of values of 56.2%-35.2% and the absorption / extinction coefficients of the films decrease with increase in annealing temperature from 1.58 x 10⁻⁶ to1.08 x 10⁻⁶ at about 1.14eV in the infrared region to about 1.93 x 10⁻⁶ to 1.29 x 10⁻⁶ at about 3.62eV in the visible region, the transmittance, reflectance and band gaps vary directly with annealing temperature, the deposited films were found to be suitable in optoelectronic applications.

Keywords: copper aluminium-oxide (CuAlO2), absorbance, transmittance, reflectance, band gaps

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
96 A Study on the Vegetative and Osmolyte Accumulation of Capsicum frutescens L. under Zinc Metal Stress

Authors: Ja’afar Umar, Adamu Aliyu Aliero

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Plant growth, biochemical parameters, zinc metal concentrations were determined for Capsicum frutescens L. in response to varied concentration of zinc metal. The plant exhibited a decline in the vegetative parameters measured. Free proline and glycine betaine content increases with increasing concentration of zinc metal and differ significantly (P<0.05). It can be concluded that the osmolyte (pro and GB) accumulations, and high length of stem and wide leaf expansion are possible indicator of tolerance to heavy metals (Zinc) in Capsicum frutescens.

Keywords: zinc metal, osmolyte, Capsicum frutescens, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
95 Effect of Bilateral and Unilateral Castration on Feed Utilization and Carcass Characteristics of Growers Rabbit (Orytolagus cunniculus)

Authors: A. H. Dikko, D. N Tsado, M. S. T. Rita, D. S. Umar

Abstract:

This study was conducted on eighteen (18) New Zealand and chinchilla breeds of rabbits were used. The rabbits were allotted to 3 treatments with each treatment having six (6) animals with two (2) replicates. T1 were castrated, which both testes was removed (Bilateral); T2 were castrated, which only one testes was removed (unilateral) and T3 were not castrated (control). In nutrient digestibility, T1 and T2 (p>0.05) has a higher rate than T3. There was no significant (p<0.05) difference in live weight and dressing weight among the treatment groups. There is a significant (p > 0.05) difference in visceral organs in the treatment groups.

Keywords: New Zealand, chinchilla, castration, bilateral, unilateral

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
94 Survival Data with Incomplete Missing Categorical Covariates

Authors: Madaki Umar Yusuf, Mohd Rizam B. Abubakar

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The survival censored data with incomplete covariate data is a common occurrence in many studies in which the outcome is survival time. With model when the missing covariates are categorical, a useful technique for obtaining parameter estimates is the EM by the method of weights. The survival outcome for the class of generalized linear model is applied and this method requires the estimation of the parameters of the distribution of the covariates. In this paper, we propose some clinical trials with ve covariates, four of which have some missing values which clearly show that they were fully censored data.

Keywords: EM algorithm, incomplete categorical covariates, ignorable missing data, missing at random (MAR), Weibull Distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
93 A Survey of Some Technology Enhanced Teaching and Learning Techniques: Implication to Educational Development in Nigeria

Authors: Abdullahi Bn Umar

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Over the years curriculum planners and researchers in education have continued to seek for ways to improve teaching and learning by way of varying approaches to curriculum and instruction in line with dynamic nature of knowledge. In this regards various innovative strategies to teaching and learning have been adopted to match with the technological advancement in education particularly in the aspect of instructional delivery through Information Communication Technology (ICT) as a tools. This paper reviews some innovative strategies and how they impact on learner’s achievement and educational development in Nigeria. The paper concludes by recommending innovative approach appropriate for use in Nigerian context.

Keywords: innovation, instructional delivery, virtual laboratory, educational design

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
92 Real-Time Aerial Marine Surveillance System for Safe Navigation

Authors: Vinesh Thiruchelvam, Umar Mumtaz Chowdry, Sathish Kumar Selvaperumal

Abstract:

The prime purpose of the project is to provide a sophisticated system for surveillance specialized for the Port Authorities in the Maritime Industry. The current aerial surveillance does not have a wide dimensioning view. The channels of communication is shared and not exclusive allowing for communications errors or disturbance mainly due to traffic. The scope is to analyze the various aspects as real-time aerial and marine surveillance is one of the most important methods which could ensure the domain security of the sailors. The system will improve real time data as obtained for the controller base station. The key implementation will be based on camera speed, angle and adherence to a sustainable power utilization module.

Keywords: SMS, real time, GUI, maritime industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
91 Development of Fem Code for 2-D Elasticity Problems Using Quadrilateral and Triangular Elements

Authors: Muhammad Umar Kiani, Waseem Sakawat

Abstract:

This study presents the development of FEM code using Quadrilateral 4-Node (Q4) and Triangular 3-Node (T3) elements. Code is formulated using MATLAB language. Instead of using both elements in the same code, two separate codes are written. Quadrilateral element is difficult to handle directly, that is why natural coordinates (eta, ksi) are used. Due to this, Q4 code includes numerical integration (Gauss quadrature). In this case, complete numerical integration is performed using 2 points. On the other hand, T3 element can be modeled directly, by using direct stiffness approach. Axially loaded element, cantilever (special constraints) and Patch test cases were analyzed using both codes and the results were verified by using Ansys.

Keywords: FEM code, MATLAB, numerical integration, ANSYS

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90 Assessment of Records Management in Registry Department of Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero Nigeria

Authors: Murtala Aminu, Salisu Adamu Aliero, Adamu Muhammed

Abstract:

Records are a vital asset in ensuring that the institution is governed effectively and efficiently, and is accountable to its staff, students and the community that it serves. The major purpose of this study was to assess record management of the registry department of Kebbi state University of science and technology Aliero. To be able to achieve this objective, research questions were formulated and answers obtained, which centered on records creation, record management policy, challenges facing records management. The review of related literature revealed that there is need for records to be properly managed and in doing so there is need for good records management policy that clearly spells out the various programs required for effective records management. Survey research method was used involving questionnaire, and observation. The findings revealed that the registry department of the University still has a long way to go with respect to day-today records management. The study recommended provision for adequate, modern, safe and functional storage facilities, sufficient and regular funding, recruitment of trained personnel, on the job training for existing staff, computerization of all units records, and uninterrupted power supply to all parts of the unit as a means of ensuring proper records management.

Keywords: records, management, records management policy, registry

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89 Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Maikudi Umar

Abstract:

This paper conceived Vocational and Technical Education as those aspects of educational process, in addition to general education leading to acquisition of practical skills, attitudes as well as basic scientific knowledge as it relates to occupations in various sectors of the economic and social life. The paper therefore viewed Vocational and Technical education as those aspects of educational training designed to provide the recipient with the skills abilities and understanding needed for efficient performance in chosen occupational carrier for self reliance. The paper also examined some major inhibitions to the attainment of self reliance through VTE. The paper also recommended a change of attitudes by governments in Nigeria by providing adequate equipment so as to meet up with the challenges.

Keywords: vocational education, technical education, skills and self reliance, issues and challenges

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88 Application of Facilities Management Practice in High Rise Commercial Properties: Jos in Perpective

Authors: Aliyu Ahmad Aliyu, Abubakar Ahmad, Muhammad Umar Bello, Rozilah Kasim, David Martin

Abstract:

The article studied the application of facilities management practice in high rise commercial properties. Convenience sampling technique was used in administering questionnaires to the 60 respondents who responded to the survey. It was found out that the extent of application of facilities management in the subject properties is better described as below average. Similarly, the most frequently tools of facilities management in use and employed in the properties were outsourcing and in-house sourcing. This was influenced by the level of their familiarity with the tools. Planned and Preventive maintenance should be taken regularly in other to enhance the effectiveness of the facilities management and to satisfy both the owner and customers of the organization.

Keywords: commercial properties, facilities management, high-rise buildings, Jos metropolis and outsourcing

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87 Strong Convergence of an Iterative Sequence in Real Banach Spaces with Kadec Klee Property

Authors: Umar Yusuf Batsari

Abstract:

Let E be a uniformly smooth and uniformly convex real Banach space and C be a nonempty, closed and convex subset of E. Let $V= \{S_i : C\to C, ~i=1, 2, 3\cdots N\}$ be a convex set of relatively nonexpansive mappings containing identity. In this paper, an iterative sequence obtained from CQ algorithm was shown to have strongly converge to a point $\hat{x}$ which is a common fixed point of relatively nonexpansive mappings in V and also solve the system of equilibrium problems in E. The result improve some existing results in the literature.

Keywords: relatively nonexpansive mappings, strong convergence, equilibrium problems, uniformly smooth space, uniformly convex space, convex set, kadec klee property

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86 A Review of Ultralightweight Mutual Authentication Protocols

Authors: Umar Mujahid, Greatzel Unabia, Hongsik Choi, Binh Tran

Abstract:

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is one of the most commonly used technologies in IoTs and Wireless Sensor Networks which makes the devices identification and tracking extremely easy to manage. Since RFID uses wireless channel for communication, which is open for all types of adversaries, researchers have proposed many Ultralightweight Mutual Authentication Protocols (UMAPs) to ensure security and privacy in a cost-effective manner. These UMAPs involve simple bitwise logical operators such as XOR, AND, OR & Rot, etc., to design the protocol messages. However, most of these UMAPs were later reported to be vulnerable against many malicious attacks. In this paper, we have presented a detailed overview of some eminent UMAPs and also discussed the many security attacks on them. Finally, some recommendations and suggestions have been discussed, which can improve the design of the UMAPs.

Keywords: RFID, Ultralightweight, UMAP, SASI

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