Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5825

Search results for: conversion efficiency

5825 Enhancing Power Conversion Efficiency of P3HT/PCBM Polymer Solar Cells

Authors: Nidal H. Abu-Zahra, Mahmoud Algazzar


In this research, n-dodecylthiol was added to P3HT/PC70BM polymer solar cells to improve the crystallinity of P3HT and enhance the phase separation of P3HT/PC70BM. The improved crystallinity of P3HT/PC70BM doped with 0-5% by volume of n-dodecylthiol resulted in improving the power conversion efficiency of polymer solar cells by 33%. In addition, thermal annealing of the P3HT/PC70MB/n-dodecylthiolcompound showed further improvement in crystallinity with n-dodecylthiol concentration up to 2%. The highest power conversion efficiency of 3.21% was achieved with polymer crystallites size L of 11.2nm, after annealing at 150°C for 30 minutes under a vacuum atmosphere. The smaller crystallite size suggests a shorter path of the charge carriers between P3HT backbones, which could be beneficial to getting a higher short circuit current in the devices made with the additive.

Keywords: n-dodecylthiol, congugated PSC, P3HT/PCBM, polymer solar cells

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5824 Practical Evaluation of High-Efficiency Si-based Tandem Solar Cells

Authors: Sue-Yi Chen, Wei-Chun Hsu, Jon-Yiew Gan


Si-based double-junction tandem solar cells have become a popular research topic because of the advantages of low manufacturing cost and high energy conversion efficiency. However, there is no set of calculations to select the appropriate top cell materials. Therefore, this paper will propose a simple but practical selection method. First of all, we calculate the S-Q limit and explain the reasons for developing tandem solar cells. Secondly, we calculate the theoretical energy conversion efficiency of the double-junction tandem solar cells while combining the commercial monocrystalline Si and materials' practical efficiency to consider the actual situation. Finally, we conservatively conclude that if considering 75% performance of the theoretical energy conversion efficiency of the top cell, the suitable bandgap energy range will fall between 1.38eV to 2.5eV. Besides, we also briefly describe some improvements of several proper materials, CZTS, CdSe, Cu2O, ZnTe, and CdS, hoping that future research can select and manufacture high-efficiency Si-based tandem solar cells based on this paper successfully. Most importantly, our calculation method is not limited to silicon solely. If other materials’ performances match or surpass silicon's ability in the future, researchers can also apply this set of deduction processes.

Keywords: high-efficiency solar cells, material selection, Si-based double-junction solar cells, Tandem solar cells, photovoltaics.

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5823 Water Heating System with Solar Energy from Solar Panel as Absorber to Reduce the Reduction of Efficiency Solar Panel Use

Authors: Mas Aji Rizki Widjayanto, Rizka Yunita


The building which has an efficient and low-energy today followed by the developers. It’s not because trends on the building nowaday, but rather because of its positive effects in the long term, where the cost of energy per month to be much cheaper, along with the high price of electricity. The use of solar power (Photovoltaic System) becomes one source of electrical energy for the apartment so that will efficiently use energy, water, and other resources in the operations of the apartment. However, more than 80% of the solar radiation is not converted into electrical energy, but reflected and converted into heat energy. This causes an increase on the working temperature of solar panels and consequently decrease the efficiency of conversion to electrical energy. The high temperature solar panels work caused by solar radiation can be used as medium heat exchanger or heating water for the apartments, so that the working temperature of the solar panel can be lowered to reduce the reduction on the efficiency of conversion to electrical energy.

Keywords: photovoltaic system, efficient, heat energy, heat exchanger, efficiency of conversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
5822 Efficient Solid Oxide Electrolysers for Syn-Gas Generation Using Renewable Energy

Authors: G. Kaur, A. P. Kulkarni, S. Giddey


Production of fuels and chemicals using renewable energy is a promising way for large-scale energy storage and export. Solid oxide electrolysers (SOEs) integrated with renewable source of energy can produce 'Syngas' H₂/CO from H₂O/CO₂ in the desired ratio for further conversion to liquid fuels. As only a waste CO₂ from industrial and power generation processes is utilized in these processes, this approach is CO₂ neutral compared to using fossil fuel feedstock. In addition, the waste heat from industrial processes or heat from solar thermal concentrators can be effectively utilised in SOEs to further reduce the electrical requirements by up to 30% which boosts overall energy efficiency of the process. In this paper, the electrochemical performance of various novel steam/CO₂ reduction electrodes (cathode) would be presented. The efficiency and lifetime degradation data for single cells and a stack would be presented along with the response of cells to variable electrical load input mimicking the intermittent nature of the renewable energy sources. With such optimisation, newly developed electrodes have been tested for 500+ hrs with Faraday efficiency (electricity to fuel conversion efficiency) up to 95%, and thermal efficiency in excess of 70% based upon energy content of the syngas produced.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, steam conversion, electrochemical system, energy storage, fuel production, renewable energy

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5821 An Electromechanical Device to Use in Road Pavements to Convert Vehicles Mechanical Energy into Electrical Energy

Authors: Francisco Duarte, Adelino Ferreira, Paulo Fael


With the growing need for alternative energy sources, research into energy harvesting technologies has increased considerably in recent years. The particular case of energy harvesting on road pavements is a very recent area of research, with different technologies having been developed in recent years. However, none of them have presented high conversion efficiencies nor technical or economic viability. This paper deals with the development of a mechanical system to implement on a road pavement energy harvesting electromechanical device, to transmit energy from the device surface to an electrical generator. The main goal is to quantify the energy harvesting, transmission and conversion efficiency of the proposed system and compare it with existing systems. Conclusions about the system’s efficiency are presented.

Keywords: road pavement, energy harvesting, energy conversion, system modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
5820 Additive Carbon Dots Nanocrystals for Enhancement of the Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell in Energy Applications Technology

Authors: Getachew Kuma Watiro


The need for solar energy is constantly increasing and it is widely available on the earth’s surface. Photovoltaic technology is one of the most capable of all viable energy technology and is seen as a promising approach to the control era as it is readily available and has zero carbon emissions. Inexpensive and versatile solar cells have achieved the conversion efficiency and long life of dye-sensitized solar cells, improving the conversion efficiency from the sun to electricity. DSSCs have received a lot of attention for Various potential commercial uses, such as mobile devices and portable electronic devices, as well as integrated solar cell modules. The systematic reviews were used to show the critical impact of additive C-dots in the Dye-Sensitized solar cell for energy application technology. This research focuses on the following methods to synthesize nanoparticles such as facile, polyol, calcination, and hydrothermal technique. In addition to these, there are additives C-dots by the Hydrothermal method. This study deals with the progressive development of DSSC in photovoltaic technology. The applications of single and heterojunction structure technology devices were used (ZnO, NiO, SnO2, and NiO/ZnO/N719) and applied some additives C-dots (ZnO/C-dots /N719, NiO/C-dots /N719, SnO2 /C-dots /N719 and NiO/ZnO/C-dots/N719) and the effects of C-dots were reviewed. More than all, the technology of DSSC with C-dots enhances efficiency. Finally, recommendations have been made for future research on the application of DSSC with the use of these additives.

Keywords: dye-sensitized solar cells, heterojunction’s structure, carbon dot, conversion efficiency

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5819 Numerical Simulation of a Solar Photovoltaic Panel Cooled by a Forced Air System

Authors: Djamila Nebbali, Rezki Nebbali, Ahmed Ouibrahim


This study focuses on the cooling of a photovoltaic panel (PV). Indeed, the cooling improves the conversion capacity of this one and maintains, under extreme conditions of air temperature, the panel temperature at an appreciable level which avoids the altering. To do this, a fan provides forced circulation of air. Because the fan is supplied by the panel, it is necessary to determine the optimum operating point that unites efficiency of the PV with the consumption of the fan. For this matter, numerical simulations are performed at varying mass flow rates of air, under two extreme air temperatures (50°C, 25°C) and a fixed solar radiation (1000 W.m2) in a case of no wind.

Keywords: energy conversion, efficiency, balance energy, solar cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
5818 Wavelength Conversion of Dispersion Managed Solitons at 100 Gbps through Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

Authors: Kadam Bhambri, Neena Gupta


All optical wavelength conversion is essential in present day optical networks for transparent interoperability, contention resolution, and wavelength routing. The incorporation of all optical wavelength convertors leads to better utilization of the network resources and hence improves the efficiency of optical networks. Wavelength convertors that can work with Dispersion Managed (DM) solitons are attractive due to their superior transmission capabilities. In this paper, wavelength conversion for dispersion managed soliton signals was demonstrated at 100 Gbps through semiconductor optical amplifier and an optical filter. The wavelength conversion was achieved for a 1550 nm input signal to1555nm output signal. The output signal was measured in terms of BER, Q factor and system margin.    

Keywords: all optical wavelength conversion, dispersion managed solitons, semiconductor optical amplifier, cross gain modultation

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5817 Core-Shell Structured Magnetic Nanoparticles for Efficient Hyperthermia Cancer Treatment

Authors: M. R. Phadatare, J. V. Meshram, S. H. Pawar


Conversion of electromagnetic energy into heat by nanoparticles (NPs) has the potential to be a powerful, non-invasive technique for biomedical applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia, drug release, disease treatment and remote control of single cell functions, but poor conversion efficiencies have hindered practical applications so far. In this paper, an attempt has been made to increase the efficiency of magnetic, thermal induction by NPs. To increase the efficiency of magnetic, thermal induction by NPs, one can take advantage of the exchange coupling between a magnetically hard core and magnetically soft shell to tune the magnetic properties of the NP and maximize the specific absorption rate, which is the gauge of conversion efficiency. In order to examine the tunability of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and its magnetic heating power, a representative magnetically hard material (CoFe₂O₄) has been coupled to a soft material (Ni₀.₅Zn₀.₅Fe₂O₄). The synthesized NPs show specific absorption rates that are of an order of magnitude larger than the conventional one.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, surface functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles, magnetic fluid hyperthermia, specific absorption rate

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5816 Investigation of Length Effect on Power Conversion Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells Composed of ZnO Nanowires

Authors: W. S. Li, S. T. Yang, H. C. Cheng


The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the perovskite solar cells has been achieved by inserting vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) between the cathode and the active layer and shows better solar cells performance. Perovskite solar cells have drawn significant attention due to the superb efficiency and low-cost fabrication process. In this experiment, ZnO nanowires are used as the electron transport layer (ETL) due to its low temperature process. The main idea of this thesis is utilizing the 3D structures of the hydrothermally-grown ZnO nanowires to increase the junction area to improve the photovoltaic performance of the perovskite solar cells. The infiltration and the surface coverage of the perovskite precursor solution changed as tuning the length of the ZnO nanowires. It is revealed that the devices with ZnO nanowires of 150 nm demonstrated the best PCE of 8.46 % under the AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW/cm2).

Keywords: hydrothermally-grown ZnO nanowires, perovskite solar cells, low temperature process, pinholes

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5815 Effect of Blade Shape on the Performance of Wells Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion

Authors: Katsuya Takasaki, Manabu Takao, Toshiaki Setoguchi


Effect of 3-dimensional (3D) blade on the turbine characteristics of Wells turbine for wave energy conversion has been investigated experimentally by model testing under steady flow conditions in the study, in order to improve the peak efficiency and the stall characteristics. The aim of the use of 3D blade is to prevent flow separation on the suction surface near the tip. The chord length is constant with radius and the blade profile changes gradually from mean radius to tip. The proposed blade profiles in the study are NACA0015 from hub to mean radius and NACA0025 at the tip. The performances of Wells turbine with 3D blades has been compared with those of the original Wells turbine, i.e. the turbine with 2-dimensional (2D) blades. As a result, it was concluded that although the peak efficiency of Wells turbine can be improved by the use of the proposed 3D blade, its blade does not overcome the weakness of stalling.

Keywords: fluid machinery, ocean engineering, stall, wave energy conversion, wells turbine

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5814 Synthesis of Pyrimidine-Based Polymers Consist of 2-{4-[4,6-Bis-(4-Hexyl-Thiophen-2-yl)-Pyrimidin-2-yl]-Phenyl}-Thiazolo[5,4-B]Pyridine with Deep HOMO Level for Photovoltaics

Authors: Hyehyeon Lee, Jiwon Yu, Juwon Kim, Raquel Kristina Leoni Tumiar, Taewon Kim, Juae Kim, Hongsuk Suh


Photovoltaics, which have many advantages in cost, easy processing, and light-weight, have attracted attention. We synthesized pyrimidine-based conjugated polymers with 2-{4-[4,6-bis-(4-hexyl-thiophen-2-yl)-pyrimidin-2-yl]-phenyl}-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridine (pPTP) which have an ability of powerful electron withdrawing and introduced into the PSCs. By Stille polymerization, we designed the conjugated polymers, pPTPBDT-12, pPTPBDT-EH, pPTPBDTT-EH and pPTPTTI. The HOMO energy levels of four polymers (pPTPBDT-12, pPTPBDT-EH, pPTPBDTT-EH and pPTPTTI) were at -5.61 ~ -5.89 eV, their LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital) energy levels were at -3.95 ~ -4.09 eV. The device including pPTPBDT-12 and PC71BM (1:2) indicated a V_oc of 0.67 V, a J_sc of 1.33 mA/cm², and a fill factor (FF) of 0.25, giving a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.23%. The device including pPTPBDT-EH and PC71BM (1:2) indicated a V_oc of 0.72 V, a J_sc of 2.56 mA/cm², and a fill factor (FF) of 0.30, giving a power conversion efficiency of 0.56%. The device including pPTPBDTT-EH and PC71BM (1:2) indicated a V_oc of 0.72 V, a J_sc of 3.61 mA/cm², and a fill factor (FF) of 0.29, giving a power conversion efficiency of 0.74%. The device including pPTPTTI and PC71BM (1:2) indicated a V_oc of 0.83 V, a J_sc of 4.41 mA/cm², and a fill factor (FF) of 0.31, giving a power conversion efficiency of 1.13%. Therefore, pPTPBDT-12, pPTPBDT-EH, pPTPBDTT-EH, and pPTPTTI were synthesized by Stille polymerization. And We find one of the best efficiency for these polymers, called pPTPTTI. Their optical properties were measured and the results show that pyrimidine-based polymers especially like pPTPTTI have a great promise to act as the donor of the active layer.

Keywords: polymer solar cells, pyrimidine-based polymers, photovoltaics, conjugated polymer

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5813 Luminescent and Conductive Cathode Buffer Layer for Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

Authors: Swati Bishnoi, D. Haranath, Vinay Gupta


In this work, we demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) could be improved significantly by using ZnO doped with Aluminum (Al) and Europium (Eu) as cathode buffer layer (CBL). The ZnO:Al,Eu nanoparticle layer has broadband absorption in the ultraviolet (300-400 nm) region. The Al doping contributes to the enhancement in the conductivity whereas Eu doping significantly improves emission in the visible region. Moreover, this emission overlaps with the absorption range of polymer poly [N -9′-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′- benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) significantly and results in an enhanced absorption by the active layer and hence high photocurrent. An increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.8% has been obtained for ZnO: Al,Eu CBL as compared to 5.9% for pristine ZnO, in the inverted device configuration ITO/CBL/active layer/MoOx/Al. The active layer comprises of a blend of PCDTBT donor and [6-6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) acceptor. In the reference device pristine ZnO has been used as CBL, whereas in the other one ZnO:Al,Eu has been used as CBL. The role of the luminescent CBL layer is to down-shift the UV light into visible range which overlaps with the absorption of PCDTBT polymer, resulting in an energy transfer from ZnO:Al,Eu to PCDTBT polymer and the absorption by active layer is enhanced as revealed by transient spectroscopy. This enhancement resulted in an increase in the short circuit current which contributes in an increased PCE in the device employing ZnO: Al,Eu CBL. Thus, the luminescent ZnO: Al, Eu nanoparticle CBL has great potential in organic solar cells.

Keywords: cathode buffer layer, energy transfer, organic solar cell, power conversion efficiency

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5812 Studying the Effect of Silicon Substrate Intrinsic Carrier Concentration on Performance of ZnO/Si Solar Cells

Authors: Syed Sadique Anwer Askari, Mukul Kumar Das


Zinc Oxide (ZnO) solar cells have drawn great attention due to the enhanced efficiency and low-cost fabrication process. In this study, ZnO thin film is used as the active layer, hole blocking layer, antireflection coating (ARC) as well as transparent conductive oxide. To improve the conductivity of ZnO, top layer of ZnO is doped with aluminum, for top contact. Intrinsic carrier concentration of silicon substrate plays an important role in enhancing the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ZnO/Si solar cell. With the increase of intrinsic carrier concentration PCE decreased due to increase in dark current in solar cell. At 80nm ZnO and 160µm Silicon substrate thickness, power conversion efficiency of 26.45% and 21.64% is achieved with intrinsic carrier concentration of 1x109/cm3, 1.4x1010/cm3 respectively.

Keywords: hetero-junction solar cell, solar cell, substrate intrinsic carrier concentration, ZnO/Si

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5811 All Optical Wavelength Conversion Based On Four Wave Mixing in Optical Fiber

Authors: Surinder Singh, Gursewak Singh Lovkesh


We have designed wavelength conversion based on four wave mixing in an optical fiber at 10 Gb/s. The power of converted signal increases with increase in signal power. The converted signal power is investigated as a function of input signal power and pump power. On comparison of converted signal power at different value of input signal power, we observe that best converted signal power is obtained at -2 dBm input signal power for both up conversion as well as for down conversion. Further, FWM efficiency, quality factor is observed for increase in input signal power and optical fiber length.

Keywords: FWM, optical fiiber, wavelngth converter, quality

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5810 A Key Parameter in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Design and Operation

Authors: Yongjian Gu


Ocean thermal energy is one of the ocean energy sources. It is a renewable, sustainable, and green energy source. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) applies the ocean temperature gradient between the warmer surface seawater and the cooler deep seawater to run a heat engine and produce a useful power output. Unfortunately, the ocean temperature gradient is not big. Even in the tropical and equatorial regions, the surface water temperature can only reach up to 28oC and the deep water temperature can be as low as 4oC. The thermal efficiency of the OTEC plants, therefore, is low. In order to improve the plant thermal efficiency by using the limited ocean temperature gradient, some OTEC plants use the method of adding more equipment for better heat recovery, such as heat exchangers, pumps, etc. Obviously, the method will increase the plant's complexity and cost. The more important impact of the method is the additional equipment needs to consume power too, which may have an adverse effect on the plant net power output, in turn, the plant thermal efficiency. In the paper, the author first describes varied OTEC plants and the practice of using the method of adding more equipment for improving the plant's thermal efficiency. Then the author proposes a parameter, plant back works ratio ϕ, for measuring if the added equipment is appropriate for the plant thermal efficiency improvement. Finally, in the paper, the author presents examples to illustrate the application of the back work ratio ϕ as a key parameter in the OTEC plant design and operation.

Keywords: ocean thermal energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), OTEC plant, plant back work ratio ϕ

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5809 An Investigation of System and Operating Parameters on the Performance of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector for Power Generation

Authors: Umesh Kumar Sinha, Y. K. Nayak, N. Kumar, Swapnil Saurav, Monika Kashyap


The authors investigate the effect of system and operating parameters on the performance of high temperature solar concentrator for power generation. The effects of system and operating parameters were investigated using the developed mathematical expressions for collector efficiency, heat removal factor, fluid outlet temperature and power, etc. The results were simulated using C++program. The simulated results were plotted for investigation like effect of thermal loss parameter and radiative loss parameters on the collector efficiency, heat removal factor, fluid outlet temperature, rise of temperature and effect of mass flow rate of the fluid outlet temperature. In connection with the power generation, plots were drawn for the effect of (TM–TAMB) on the variation of concentration efficiency, concentrator irradiance on PM/PMN, evaporation temperature on thermal to electric power efficiency (Conversion efficiency) of the plant and overall efficiency of solar power plant.

Keywords: parabolic trough solar collector, radiative and thermal loss parameters, collector efficiency, heat removal factor, fluid outlet and inlet temperatures, rise of temperature, mass flow rate, conversion efficiency, concentrator irradiance

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5808 Gasification of Groundnut Shell in an Air Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier

Authors: Dharminer Singh, Sanjeev Yadav, Pravakar Mohanty


In this work, gasification of groundnut shell was carried out in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Atmospheric air used as gasification agent in the gasifier. The groundnut shell used for gasification was in powder form and the locally available river sand was used as bed material. Conventional charcoal was used for heating sand bed. Two cyclones were used for proper segregation of char particles and for proper cleaning and cooling the product gas. Experiments were performed on different equivalence ratio (ER) 0.3 - 0.33 by varying feeding rate 36 - 32.8 kg/h of biomass and by keeping the air flow rate constant at bed temperature between 700 °C – 800 °C. Performance of gasifier was evaluated on the basis of different parameters such as cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), Tar and Suspended particles matter (SPM) generation, gas yield, and Higher heating value (HHV) of gas. The optimal ER value for gasification of groundnut shell (GNS) powder in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier was found to be 0.31. Cold gas efficiency and CCE value at optimal ER was found to be 63.7 %, and 91 %, respectively. Concentration of Tar and SPM, HHV of gas, and gas yield at optimal ER was found to be 11.88 g/Nm3, 2.38 MJ/Nm3, and 2.01m3/kg, respectively. In the product gas, concentrations of CO, CO2, CH4 and H2 were found to be 12.94%, 13.5%, 5.74% and 13.77%, respectively. At ER 0.31, it was observed that bed temperature of gasifier was in steady state for long time at 714 °C with 5 – 10 °C fluctuation.

Keywords: air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, groundnut shell powder, equivalence ratio (ER), cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), high heating value (HHV)

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5807 Modeling of Silicon Window Layers for Solar Cells Based SIGE

Authors: Meriem Boukais, B. Dennai, A. Ould- Abbas


The efficiency of SiGe solar cells might be improved by a wide-band-gap window layer. In this work we were simulated using the one dimensional simulation program called analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures (AMPS-1D). In the modeling, the thickness of silicon window was varied from 80 to 150 nm. The rest of layer’s thicknesses were kept constant, by varying thickness of window layer the simulated device performance was demonstrate in the form of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and quantum efficiency (QE).

Keywords: modeling, SiGe, AMPS-1D, quantum efficiency, conversion, efficiency

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5806 Simulation Of Silicon Window Layers For Solar Cells Based Sige

Authors: Boukais Meriem, B. Dennai, A. Ould-Abbas


The efficiency of SiGe solar cells might be improved by a wide-band-gap window layer. In this work we were simulated using the one dimensional simulation program called analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures (AMPS-1D). In the simulation, the thickness of silicon window was varied from 80 to 150 nm. The rest of layer’s thicknesses were kept constant, by varying thickness of window layer the simulated device performance was demonstrate in the form of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and quantum efficiency (QE).

Keywords: SiGe, AMPS-1D, simulation, conversion, efficiency, quantum efficiency

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5805 Increasing the Efficiency of the Biomass Gasification Technology with Using the Organic Rankin Cycle

Authors: Jaroslav Frantík, Jan Najser


This article deals with increasing the energy efficiency of a plant in terms of optimizing the process. The European Union is striving to achieve the climate-energy package in the area increasing of energy efficiency. The goal of energy efficiency is to reduce primary energy consumption by 20% within the EU until 2020. The objective of saving energy consumption in the Czech Republic was set at 47.84 PJ (13.29 TWh). For reducing electricity consumption, it is possible to choose: a) mandatory increasing of energy efficiency, b) alternative scheme, c) combination of both actions. The Czech Republic has chosen for reducing electricity consumption using-alternative scheme. The presentation is focused on the proposal of a technological unit dealing with the gasification process of processing of biomass with an increase of power in the output. The synthesis gas after gasification of biomass is used as fuel in a cogeneration process of reciprocating internal combustion engine with the classic production of heat and electricity. Subsequently, there is an explanation of the ORC system dealing with the conversion of waste heat to electricity with the using closed cycle of the steam process with organic medium. The arising electricity is distributed to the power grid as a further energy source, or it is used for needs of the partial coverage of the technological unit. Furthermore, there is a presented schematic description of the technology with the identification of energy flows starting from the biomass treatment by drying, through its conversion to gaseous fuel, producing of electricity and utilize of thermal energy with minimizing losses. It has been found that using of ORC system increased the efficiency of the produced electricity by 7.5%.

Keywords: biomass, efficiency, gasification, ORC system

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5804 Theoretical Analysis of Graded Interface CdS/CIGS Solar Cell

Authors: Hassane Ben Slimane, Dennai Benmoussa, Abderrachid Helmaoui


We have theoretically calculated the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of a graded interface CdS/CIGS solar cell, which can be experimentally fabricated. Because the conduction band discontinuity or spike in an abrupt heterojunction CdS/CIGS solar cell can hinder the separation of hole-electron by electric field, a graded interface layer is uses to eliminate the spike and reduces recombination in space charge region. This paper describes the role of the graded band gap interface layer in decreasing the performance of the heterojunction cell. By optimizing the thickness of the graded region, an improvement of conversion efficiency has been observed in comparison to the conventional CIGS system.

Keywords: heterojunction, solar cell, graded interface, CIGS

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5803 Multi-Band Frequency Conversion Scheme with Multi-Phase Shift Based on Optical Frequency Comb

Authors: Tao Lin, Shanghong Zhao, Yufu Yin, Zihang Zhu, Wei Jiang, Xuan Li, Qiurong Zheng


A simple operated, stable and compact multi-band frequency conversion and multi-phase shift is proposed to satisfy the demands of multi-band communication and radar phase array system. The dual polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) modulator is employed to support the LO sideband and the optical frequency comb simultaneously. Meanwhile, the fiber is also used to introduce different phase shifts to different sidebands. The simulation result shows that by controlling the DC bias voltages and a C band microwave signal with frequency of 4.5 GHz can be simultaneously converted into other signals that cover from C band to K band with multiple phases. It also verifies that the multi-band and multi-phase frequency conversion system can be stably performed based on current manufacturing art and can well cope with the DC drifting. It should be noted that the phase shift of the converted signal also partly depends of the length of the optical fiber.

Keywords: microwave photonics, multi-band frequency conversion, multi-phase shift, conversion efficiency

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5802 Synthesis of Novel Organic Dyes Based on Indigo for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: M. Hosseinnejad, K. Gharanjig, S. Moradian


A novel metal free organic dyes based on indigo was prepared and used as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. The synthesized dye together with its corresponding intermediates were purified and characterized by analytical techniques. Such techniques confirmed the corresponding structures of dye and its intermediate and the yield of all the stages of dye preparation were calculated to be above 85%. Fluorometric analyses show fluorescence in the green region of the visible spectrum for dye. Oxidation potential measurements for dye ensured an energetically permissible and thermodynamically favourable charge transfer throughout the continuous cycle of photo-electric conversion. Finally, dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated in order to determine the photovoltaic behaviour and conversion efficiencies of dye. Such evaluations demonstrate rather medium conversion efficiencies of 2.33% for such simple structured synthesized dye. Such conversion efficiencies demonstrate the potentiality of future use of such dye structures in dye-sensitized solar cells with respect to low material costs, ease of molecular tailoring, high yields of reactions, high performance and ease of recyclability.

Keywords: conversion efficiency, Dye-sensitized solar cells, indigo, photonic material

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5801 Assessing Efficiency Trends in the Indian Sugar Industry

Authors: S. P. Singh


This paper measures technical and scale efficiencies of 40 Indian sugar companies for the period from 2004-05 to 2013-14. The efficiencies are estimated through input-oriented DEA models using one output variable—value of output (VOP) and five input variables—capital cost (CA), employee cost (EMP), raw material (RW), energy & fuel (E&F) and other manufacturing expenses (OME). The sugar companies are classified into integrated and non-integrated categories to know which one achieves higher level of efficiency. Sources of inefficiency in the industry are identified through decomposing the overall technical efficiency (TE) into pure technical efficiency (PTE) and scale efficiency (SE). The paper also estimates input-reduction targets for relatively inefficient companies and suggests measures to improve their efficiency level. The findings reveal that the TE does not evince any trend rather it shows fluctuations across years, largely due to erratic and cyclical pattern of sugar production. Further, technical inefficiency in the industry seems to be driven more by the managerial inefficiency than the scale inefficiency, which implies that TE can be improved through better conversion of inputs into output.

Keywords: DEA, slacks, sugar industry, technical efficiency

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5800 Methanol Steam Reforming with Heat Recovery for Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production

Authors: Horng-Wen Wu, Yi Chao, Rong-Fang Horng


This study is to develop a methanol steam reformer with a heat recovery zone, which recovers heat from exhaust gas of a diesel engine, and to investigate waste heat recovery ratio at the required reaction temperature. The operation conditions of the reformer are reaction temperature (200 °C, 250 °C, and 300 °C), steam to carbonate (S/C) ratio (0.9, 1.1, and 1.3), and N2 volume flow rate (40 cm3/min, 70 cm3/min, and 100 cm3/min). Finally, the hydrogen concentration, the CO, CO2, and N2 concentrations are measured and recorded to calculate methanol conversion efficiency, hydrogen flow rate, and assisting combustion gas and impeding combustion gas ratio. The heat source of this reformer comes from electric heater and waste heat of exhaust gas from diesel engines. The objective is to recover waste heat from the engine and to make more uniform temperature distribution within the reformer. It is beneficial for the reformer to enhance the methanol conversion efficiency and hydrogen-rich gas production. Experimental results show that the highest hydrogen flow rate exists at N2 of the volume rate 40 cm3/min and reforming reaction temperature of 300 °C and the value is 19.6 l/min. With the electric heater and heat recovery from exhaust gas, the maximum heat recovery ratio is 13.18 % occurring at water-methanol (S/C) ratio of 1.3 and the reforming reaction temperature of 300 °C.

Keywords: heat recovery, hydrogen-rich production, methanol steam reformer, methanol conversion efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
5799 A Comparative Study on Optimized Bias Current Density Performance of Cubic ZnB-GaN with Hexagonal 4H-SiC Based Impatts

Authors: Arnab Majumdar, Srimani Sen


In this paper, a vivid simulated study has been made on 35 GHz Ka-band window frequency in order to judge and compare the DC and high frequency properties of cubic ZnB-GaN with the existing hexagonal 4H-SiC. A flat profile p+pnn+ DDR structure of impatt is chosen and is optimized at a particular bias current density with respect to efficiency and output power taking into consideration the effect of mobile space charge also. The simulated results obtained reveals the strong potentiality of impatts based on both cubic ZnB-GaN and hexagonal 4H-SiC. The DC-to-millimeter wave conversion efficiency for cubic ZnB-GaN impatt obtained is 50% with an estimated output power of 2.83 W at an optimized bias current density of 2.5×108 A/m2. The conversion efficiency and estimated output power in case of hexagonal 4H-SiC impatt obtained is 22.34% and 40 W respectively at an optimum bias current density of 0.06×108 A/m2.

Keywords: cubic ZnB-GaN, hexagonal 4H-SiC, double drift impatt diode, millimetre wave, optimised bias current density, wide band gap semiconductor

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
5798 Synthesis and Evaluation of Photovoltaic Properties of an Organic Dye for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: M. Hosseinnejad, K. Gharanjig


In the present study, metal free organic dyes were prepared and used as photo-sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Double rhodanine was utilized as the fundamental electron acceptor group to which electron donor aldehyde with varying substituents was attached to produce new organic dye. This dye was first purified and then characterized by analytical techniques. Spectrophotometric evaluations of the prepared dye in solution and on a nano anatase TiO2 substrate were carried out in order to assess possible changes in the status of the dyes in different environments. The results show that the dye form j-type aggregates on the nano TiO2. Additionally, oxidation potential measurements were also carried out. Finally, dye sensitized solar cell based on synthesized dye was fabricated in order to determine the photovoltaic behavior and conversion efficiency of individual dye.

Keywords: conversion efficiency, dye-sensitized solar cell, photovoltaic behavior, sensitizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
5797 Investigation of Green Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Natural Dyes

Authors: M. Hosseinnezhad, K. Gharanjig


Natural dyes, extracted from black carrot and bramble, were utilized as photosensitizers to prepare dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Spectrophotometric studies of the natural dyes in solution and on a titanium dioxide substrate were carried out in order to assess changes in the status of the dyes. The results show that the bathochromic shift is seen on the photo-electrode substrate. The chemical binding of the natural dyes at the surface photo-electrode were increased by the chelating effect of the Ti(IV) ions. The cyclic voltammetry results showed that all extracts are suitable to be performed in DSSCs. Finally, photochemical performance and stability of DSSCs based on natural dyes were studied. The DSSCs sensitized by black carrot extract have been reported to achieve up to Jsc=1.17 mAcm-2, Voc= 0.55 V, FF= 0.52, η=0.34%, whereas Bramble extract can obtain up to Jsc=2.24 mAcm-2, Voc= 0.54 V, FF= 0.57, η=0.71%. The power conversion efficiency was obtained from the mixed dyes in DSSCs. The power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using mixed Black carrot and Bramble dye is the average of the their efficiency in single DSSCs.

Keywords: anthocyanin, dye-sensitized solar cells, green energy, optical materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
5796 An Active Rectifier with Time-Domain Delay Compensation to Enhance the Power Conversion Efficiency

Authors: Shao-Ku Kao


This paper presents an active rectifier with time-domain delay compensation to enhance the efficiency. A delay calibration circuit is designed to convert delay time to voltage and adaptive control on/off delay in variable input voltage. This circuit is designed in 0.18 mm CMOS process. The input voltage range is from 2 V to 3.6 V with the output voltage from 1.8 V to 3.4 V. The efficiency can maintain more than 85% when the load from 50 Ω ~ 1500 Ω for 3.6 V input voltage. The maximum efficiency is 92.4 % at output power to be 38.6 mW for 3.6 V input voltage.

Keywords: wireless power transfer, active diode, delay compensation, time to voltage converter, PCE

Procedia PDF Downloads 179