Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: drowsiness

22 Intelligent Driver Safety System Using Fatigue Detection

Authors: Samra Naz, Aneeqa Ahmed, Qurat-ul-ain Mubarak, Irum Nausheen

Abstract:

Driver safety systems protect driver from accidents by sensing signs of drowsiness. The paper proposes a technique which can detect the signs of drowsiness and make corresponding decisions to make the driver alert. This paper presents a technique in which the driver will be continuously monitored by a camera and his eyes, head and mouth movements will be observed. If the drowsiness signs are detected on the basis of these three movements under the predefined criteria, driver will be declared as sleepy and he will get alert with the help of alarms. Three robust techniques of drowsiness detection are combined together to make a robust system that can prevent form accident.

Keywords: drowsiness, eye closure, fatigue detection, yawn detection

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21 Implementation of a Low-Cost Driver Drowsiness Evaluation System Using a Thermal Camera

Authors: Isa Moazen, Ali Nahvi

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Driver drowsiness is a major cause of vehicle accidents, and facial images are highly valuable to detect drowsiness. In this paper, we perform our research via a thermal camera to record drivers' facial images on a driving simulator. A robust real-time algorithm extracts the features using horizontal and vertical integration projection, contours, contour orientations, and cropping tools. The features are included four target areas on the cheeks and forehead. Qt compiler and OpenCV are used with two cameras with different resolutions. A high-resolution thermal camera is used for fifteen subjects, and a low-resolution one is used for a person. The results are investigated by four temperature plots and evaluated by observer rating of drowsiness.

Keywords: advanced driver assistance systems, thermal imaging, driver drowsiness detection, feature extraction

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20 Comparative Study of Fatigue and Drowsiness in the Night-Time Passenger Transportation Industry in Japan

Authors: Hiroshi Ikeda

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In this research, a questionnaire survey was conducted to measure nap, drowsiness and fatigue of drivers who work long shifts, to discuss about the work environment and health conditions for taxi and bus drivers who work at night time. The questionnaire sheet used for this research was organized into the following categories: tension/tiredness, drowsiness while driving, and the nap situation during night-time work. The number of taxi drivers was 127 and the number of bus drivers was 40. Concerning the results of a comparison of nap hours of taxi and bus drivers, the taxi drivers’ nap hours are overwhelmingly shorter, and also the frequency of drivers who feel drowsiness is higher. The burden on bus drivers does not change because of the system of a two-driver rotation shift. In particular, the working environment of the taxi driver may lead to greater fatigue accumulation than the bus driver’s environment.

Keywords: bus and taxi, drowsiness, fatigue, nap

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19 Influence of Vibration Amplitude on Reaction Time and Drowsiness Level

Authors: Mohd A. Azizan, Mohd Z. Zali

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It is well established that exposure to vibration has an adverse effect on human health, comfort, and performance. However, there is little quantitative knowledge on performance combined with drowsiness level during vibration exposure. This paper reports a study investigating the influence of vibration amplitude on seated occupant reaction time and drowsiness level. Eighteen male volunteers were recruited for this experiment. Before commencing the experiment, total transmitted acceleration measured at interfaces between the seat pan and seatback to human body was adjusted to become 0.2 ms-2 r.m.s and 0.4 ms-2 r.m.s for each volunteer. Seated volunteers were exposed to Gaussian random vibration with frequency band 1-15 Hz at two level of amplitude (low vibration amplitude and medium vibration amplitude) for 20-minutes in separate days. For the purpose of drowsiness measurement, volunteers were asked to complete 10-minutes PVT test before and after vibration exposure and rate their subjective drowsiness by giving score using Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) before vibration, every 5-minutes interval and following 20-minutes of vibration exposure. Strong evidence of drowsiness was found as there was a significant increase in reaction time and number of lapse following exposure to vibration in both conditions. However, the effect is more apparent in medium vibration amplitude. A steady increase of drowsiness level can also be observed in KSS in all volunteers. However, no significant differences were found in KSS between low vibration amplitude and medium vibration amplitude. It is concluded that exposure to vibration has an adverse effect on human alertness level and more pronounced at higher vibration amplitude. Taken together, these findings suggest a role of vibration in promoting drowsiness, especially at higher vibration amplitude.

Keywords: drowsiness, human vibration, karolinska sleepiness scale, psychomotor vigilance test

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18 Shift Work and Its Consequences

Authors: Parastoo Vasli

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In today's society, more and more people work during ‘non-standard’ working hours, including shift and night work, which are perceived danger factors for health, safety and social prosperity. Appropriate preventive and protective measures are needed to reduce side effects and ensure that the worker can adapt sufficiently. Of the many health effects associated with shift work, sleep disorders are the most widely recognized. The most troubling acute symptoms are difficulty falling asleep, short sleep, and drowsiness during working hours that last for days on end. The outcomes checked on plainly exhibit that shift work is related to expanded mental, social, and physiological drowsiness. Apparently, the effects are due to circadian and hemostatic compounds (sleep loss). Drowsiness is especially evident during night shifts and may lead to drowsiness in real workplace accidents. In some occupations, this is clearly a risk that could endanger human lives and has enormous financial outcomes. These dangers clearly affect a large number of people and should be of great importance to society. In particular, safety in night shifts is consistently reduced.

Keywords: shift work, night work, safety, health, drowsiness

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17 Relationships of Driver Drowsiness and Sleep-Disordered Breathing Syndrome

Authors: Cheng-Yu Tsai, Wen-Te Liu, Yin-Tzu Lin, Chen-Chen Lo, Kang Lo

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Background: Driving drowsiness related to inadequate or disordered sleep accounts for a major percentage of traffic accidents. Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) syndrome is a common respiratory disorder during sleep. However, the effects of SDB syndrome on driving fatigue remain unclear. Objective: This study aims to investigate the relationship between SDB pattern and driving drowsiness. Methodologies: The physical condition while driving was obtained from the questionnaires to classify the state of driving fatigue. SDB syndrome was quantified as the polysomnography, and the air flow pattern was collected by the thermistor and nasal pressure cannula. To evaluate the desaturation, the mean hourly number of greater than 3% dips in oxygen saturation was sentenced by reregistered technologist during examination in a hospital in New Taipei City (Taiwan). The independent T-test was used to investigate the correlations between sleep disorders related index and driving drowsiness. Results: There were 880 subjects recruited in this study, who had been done polysomnography for evaluating severity for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as well as completed the driver condition questionnaire. Four-hundred-eighty-four subjects (55%) were classified as fatigue group, and 396 subjects (45%) were served as the control group. Significantly higher values of snoring index (242.14 ± 205.51 /hours) were observed in the fatigue group (p < 0.01). The value of respiratory disturbance index (RDI) (31.82 ± 19.34 /hours) in fatigue group were significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We observe the considerable association between SDB syndrome and driving drowsiness. To promote traffic safety, SDB syndrome should be controlled and alleviated.

Keywords: driving drowsiness, sleep-disordered breathing syndrome, snoring index, respiratory disturbance index.

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16 Effects of Low Sleep Efficiency and Sleep Deprivation on Driver Physical Fatigue

Authors: Chen-Yu Tsai, Wen-Te Liu, Chen-Chen Lo, Kang Lo, Yin-Tzu Lin

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Background: Driving drowsiness related to insufficient or disordered sleep accounts for a major percentage of vehicular accidents. Sleep deprivation is the primary reason related to low sleep efficiency. Nevertheless, the mechanism of sleep deprivation induces driving fatigue to remain unclear. Objective: The objective of this study is to associate the relationship between insufficient sleep efficiency and driving fatigue. Methodologies: The physical condition while driving was obtained from the questionnaires to classify the state of driving fatigue. Sleep efficiency was quantified as the polysomnography (PSG), and the sleep stages were sentenced by the reregistered Technologist during examination in a hospital in New Taipei City (Taiwan). The independent T-test was used to investigate the correlation between sleep efficiency, sleep stages ratio, and driving drowsiness. Results: There were 880 subjects recruited in this study, who had been done polysomnography for evaluating severity for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as well as completed the driver condition questionnaire. Four-hundred-eighty-four subjects (55%) were classified as fatigue group, and 396 subjects (45%) were served as the control group. The ratio of stage three sleep (N3) (0.032 ± 0.056) in fatigue group were significantly lower than the control group (p < 0.01). The significantly higher value of snoring index (242.14 ± 205.51 /hours) was observed in the fatigue group (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We observe the considerable correlation between deep sleep reduce and driving drowsiness. To avoid drowsy driving, the sleep deprivation, and the snoring events during the sleeping time should be monitored and alleviated.

Keywords: driving drowsiness, sleep deprivation, stage three sleep, snoring index

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15 Prevention of Road Accidents by Computerized Drowsiness Detection System

Authors: Ujjal Chattaraj, P. C. Dasbebartta, S. Bhuyan

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This paper aims to propose a method to detect the action of the driver’s eyes, using the concept of face detection. There are three major key contributing methods which can rapidly process the framework of the facial image and hence produce results which further can program the reactions of the vehicles as pre-programmed for the traffic safety. This paper compares and analyses the methods on the basis of their reaction time and their ability to deal with fluctuating images of the driver. The program used in this study is simple and efficient, built using the AdaBoost learning algorithm. Through this program, the system would be able to discard background regions and focus on the face-like regions. The results are analyzed on a common computer which makes it feasible for the end users. The application domain of this experiment is quite wide, such as detection of drowsiness or influence of alcohols in drivers or detection for the case of identification.

Keywords: AdaBoost learning algorithm, face detection, framework, traffic safety

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14 The Combined Methodology To Detect Onboard Driver Fatigue

Authors: K. Senthil Nathan, P. Rajasekaran

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Fatigue is a feeling of extreme physical or mental tiredness. Almost everyone becomes fatigued at some time, but driver’s fatigue is a serious problem that leads to thousands of automobile crashes each year. Fatigue process is often a change from the alertness and vigor state to the tiredness and weakness state. It is not only accompanied by drowsiness but also has a negative impact on mood. There have been studies to detect and quantify fatigue from the measurement of physiology variables such as electroencephalogram (EEG), electrooculogram (EOG), and electromyogram (EMG). This project involves a multimodal sensing of driver’s drowsiness. The first method is to count the eye blinking rate. In the second level, we authenticate the results of eye blink module with a grip sensor. The Flexiforce sensor is placed over the steering wheel. In the third level, the activities are sensed, the time elapsed from the driver’s last activity is counted here. The activities in the sense: Changing gear, applying brake, pressing sound horns, and turning the steering wheel. Absence of these activities is also an indicator of fatigue.

Keywords: eye blink sensor, Flexiforce sensor, EEG, EOG, EMG

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13 The Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Driver Fatigue in North Taiwan Urban Areas

Authors: Cheng-Yu Tsai, Wen-Te Liu, Chen-Chen Lo, Yin-Tzu Lin, Kang Lo

Abstract:

Background: Driving fatigue related to inadequate or disordered sleep accounts for a major percentage of traffic accidents. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common respiratory disorder during sleep. However, the effects of OSAS severity on driving drowsiness remain unclear. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between OSAS severity and driving fatigue. Methodologies: The physical condition while driving was obtained from the questionnaires to classify the state of driving fatigue. OSAS severity was quantified as the polysomnography, and the mean hourly number of greater than 3% dips in oxygen saturation during examination in a hospital in New Taipei City (Taiwan). The severity of OSAS was diagnosed by the apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) with the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) guideline. The logistic regression model was used to examine the associations after adjusted age, gender, neck circumstance, waist circumstance, and body mass index (BMI). Results: There were 880 subjects recruited in this study, who had been done polysomnography for evaluating severity for OSAS as well as completed the driver condition questionnaire. 752 subjects were diagnosed with OSA, and 484 subjects had fatigue driving behavior in the past week. Patients diagnosed with OSAS had a 9.42-fold higher odds ratio (p < 0.01, 95% CI = 5.41 – 16.42) of driving drowsiness for cohorts with a normal degree. Conclusion: We observe the considerable correlation between OSAS and driving fatigue. For the purpose of promoting traffic safety, OSAS should be monitored and treated.

Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, driving fatigue, polysomnography, apnea and hypopnea index

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12 Iris Detection on RGB Image for Controlling Side Mirror

Authors: Norzalina Othman, Nurul Na’imy Wan, Azliza Mohd Rusli, Wan Noor Syahirah Meor Idris

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Iris detection is a process where the position of the eyes is extracted from the face images. It is a current method used for many applications such as for security purpose and drowsiness detection. This paper proposes the use of eyes detection in controlling side mirror of motor vehicles. The eyes detection method aims to make driver easy to adjust the side mirrors automatically. The system will determine the midpoint coordinate of eyes detection on RGB (color) image and the input signal from y-coordinate will send it to controller in order to rotate the angle of side mirror on vehicle. The eye position was cropped and the coordinate of midpoint was successfully detected from the circle of iris detection using Viola Jones detection and circular Hough transform methods on RGB image. The coordinate of midpoint from the experiment are tested using controller to determine the angle of rotation on the side mirrors.

Keywords: iris detection, midpoint coordinates, RGB images, side mirror

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11 A Patient-Centered Approach to Clinical Trial Development: Real-World Evidence from a Canadian Medical Cannabis Clinic

Authors: Lucile Rapin, Cynthia El Hage, Rihab Gamaoun, Maria-Fernanda Arboleda, Erin Prosk

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Introduction: Sante Cannabis (SC), a Canadian group of clinics dedicated to medical cannabis, based in Montreal and in the province of Quebec, has served more than 8000 patients seeking cannabis-based treatment over the past five years. As randomized clinical trials with natural medical cannabis are scarce, real-world evidence offers the opportunity to fill research gaps between scientific evidence and clinical practice. Data on the use of medical cannabis products from SC patients were prospectively collected, leading to a large real-world database on the use of medical cannabis. The aim of this study was to report information on the profiles of both patients and prescribed medical cannabis products at SC clinics, and to assess the safety of medical cannabis among Canadian patients. Methods: This is an observational retrospective study of 1342 adult patients who were authorized with medical cannabis products between October 2017 and September 2019. Information regarding demographic characteristics, therapeutic indications for medical cannabis use, patterns in dosing and dosage form of medical cannabis and adverse effects over one-year follow-up (initial and 4 follow-up (FUP) visits) were collected. Results: 59% of SC patients were female, with a mean age of 56.7 (SD= 15.6, range= (19-97)). Cannabis products were authorized mainly for patients with a diagnosis of chronic pain (68.8% of patients), cancer (6.7%), neurological disorders (5.6%), and mood disorders (5.4 %). At initial visit, a large majority (70%) of patients were authorized exclusively medical cannabis products, 27% were authorized a combination of pharmaceutical cannabinoids and medical cannabis and 3% were prescribed only pharmaceutical cannabinoids. This pattern was recurrent over the one-year follow-up. Overall, oil was the preferred formulation (average over visits 72.5%) followed by a combination of oil and dry (average 19%), other routes of administration accounted for less than 4%. Patients were predominantly prescribed products with a balanced THC:CBD ratio (59%-75% across visits). 28% of patients reported at least one adverse effect (AE) at the 3-month follow-up visit and 12% at the six-month FUP visit. 84.8% of total AEs were mild and transient. No serious AE was reported. Overall, the most common side effects reported were dizziness (11.95% of total AEs), drowsiness (11.4%), dry mouth (5.5%), nausea (4.8%), headaches (4.6%), cough (4.4%), anxiety (4.1%) and euphoria (3.5%). Other adverse effects accounted for less than 3% of total AE. Conclusion: Our results confirm that the primary area of clinical use for medical cannabis is in pain management. Patients in this cohort are largely utilizing plant-based cannabis oil products with a balanced ratio of THC:CBD. Reported adverse effects were mild and included dizziness and drowsiness. This real-world data confirms the tolerable safety profile of medical cannabis and suggests medical indications not yet validated in controlled clinical trials. Such data offers an important opportunity for the investigation of the long-term effects of cannabinoid exposure in real-life conditions. Real-world evidence can be used to direct clinical trial research efforts on specific indications and dosing patterns for product development.

Keywords: medical cannabis, safety, real-world data, Canada

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10 Applying Theory of Self-Efficacy in Intelligent Transportation Systems by Potential Usage of Vehicle as a Sensor

Authors: Aby Nesan Raj, Sumil K. Raj, Sumesh Jayan

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The objective of the study is to formulate a self-regulation model that shall enhance the usage of Intelligent Transportation Systems by understanding the theory of self-efficacy. The core logic of the self-regulation model shall monitor driver's behavior based on the situations related to the various sources of Self Efficacy like enactive mastery, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion and physiological arousal in addition to the vehicle data. For this study, four different vehicle data, speed, drowsiness, diagnostic data and surround camera views are considered. This data shall be given to the self-regulation model for evaluation. The oddness, which is the output of self-regulation model, shall feed to Intelligent Transportation Systems where appropriate actions are being taken. These actions include warning to the user as well as the input to the related transportation systems. It is also observed that the usage of vehicle as a sensor reduces the wastage of resource utilization or duplication. Altogether, this approach enhances the intelligence of the transportation systems especially in safety, productivity and environmental performance.

Keywords: emergency management, intelligent transportation system, self-efficacy, traffic management

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9 Polypharmacy Overdose: Case Report on Mixed Overdose of Ramipril, Quetiapine, Lercanidipine and Duloxetine

Authors: Chui Ling Teng, R. Matsa

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We report a case with combined overdose of Lercanidipine (non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker), Quetiapine (Atypical antipsychotic), Ramipril and Duloxetine. A 66-year old male presented to the Emergency Department 12-hours after the ingestion of 1.2g Lercanidipine, 3g Quetiapine, 280mg of Ramipril and 420mg of Duloxetine. He describes lethargic, drowsiness and was unable to pass any urine since overdosed. He was found to be bradycardic, hypotensive and anuric. He had refractory hypotension and anuric despite fluid resuscitation, glucagon therapy and intravenous naloxone. His care was escalated to Intensive care, requiring noradrenaline, adrenaline, vasopressin, and hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemia therapy. He achieved haemodynamic stability and kidney function improved gradually with the support received. The total length of therapy lasted for 30 horus in which individual therapy was weaned down based on the requirement. He was then transferred to medical ward for further psychiatric assessment. This is a the first repored case of mixed overdose with lercanidipine, Quetiapine, Rampmipril and Duloxetine.

Keywords: calcium channel blocker, hyperinsulinaemic Euglycaemia therapy, lercanidipine, overdose

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8 Prioritizing the Factors Effective on Decreasing the Rate of Accidents on Freeways in Iran between 2013-2015

Authors: Mansour Hadji Hosseinlou, Alireza Mahdavi

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Transportation is one of any society's needs which have developed after improving economically and socially and is one of civilization symbols today. Although it is so useful for human, it leads to many serious harms and injuries. The development of communication system and building new roads has resulted in increasing the rate of accidents; therefore, in practice, this increasing rate has decreased the advantages of transportation. Traffic accidents are one of the causes of death, serious financial and bodily harms and its significant social, economic and cultural consequences threatens the societies seriously. Iran's ground transportation system is one of the most eventful transportation systems in the world and mortality rate and financial harms cost too much for the country in national aspect. Therefore, we have presented a data collection by referring to recorded statistics of the accidents occurred in freeways from 2013 to 2015. These statistics are recorded in different related databases, generally police and road transportation system. The data is separated and arranged in tables and after preparing, processing and prioritizing the factors, the achieved collection is presented to the departments, managers and researchers to help them suggest practical solutions.

Keywords: freeways’ accidents, humane causes, death, tiredness, drowsiness

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7 The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Vigilance, Fatigue, and Performance during Simulated Train Driving

Authors: Clara Theresia, Hardianto Iridiastadi

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Drowsiness is one of the main factors that contribute to the occurrence of accidents, particularly in the transportation sector. While the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive functions have been reported, the exact relationships remain a critical issue. This study aimed at quantifying the effects of extreme sleep deprivation on vigilance, fatigue, and performance during simulated train driving. A total of 12 participants were asked to drive a train simulator continuously for 4 hours, either in a sleep deprived condition (2-hr of sleep) or normal (8-hr of sleep) condition. Dependent variables obtained during the task included Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) parameters, degree of fatigue (assessed via Visual Analogue Scale/VAS) and sleepiness (reported using Karolinska Sleepiness Scale/KSS), and driving performance (the number of speed limit violations). Findings from this study demonstrated substantial decrements in vigilance in the sleep-deprived condition. This condition also resulted in 75% increase in speed violation and a two-fold increase in the degree of fatigue and sleepiness. Extreme sleep deprivation was clearly associated with substantially poorer response. The exact effects, however, were dependent upon the types of responses.

Keywords: cognitive function, psychomotor vigilance task, sleep deprivation, train simulator

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6 Reduction of the Number of Traffic Accidents by Function of Driver's Anger Detection

Authors: Masahiro Miyaji

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When a driver happens to be involved in some traffic congestion or after traffic incidents, the driver may fall in a state of anger. State of anger may encounter decisive risk resulting in severer traffic accidents. Preventive safety function using driver’s psychosomatic state with regard to anger may be one of solutions which would avoid that kind of risks. Identifying driver’s anger state is important to create countermeasures to prevent the risk of traffic accidents. As a first step, this research figured out root cause of traffic incidents by means of using Internet survey. From statistical analysis of the survey, dominant psychosomatic states immediately before traffic incidents were haste, distraction, drowsiness and anger. Then, we replicated anger state of a driver while driving, and then, replicated it by means of using driving simulator on bench test basis. Six types of facial expressions including anger were introduced as alternative characteristics. Kohonen neural network was adopted to classify anger state. Then, we created a methodology to detect anger state of a driver in high accuracy. We presented a driving support safety function. The function adapts driver’s anger state in cooperation with an autonomous driving unit to reduce the number of traffic accidents. Consequently, e evaluated reduction rate of driver’s anger in the traffic accident. To validate the estimation results, we referred the reduction rate of Advanced Safety Vehicle (ASV) as well as Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS).

Keywords: Kohonen neural network, driver’s anger state, reduction of traffic accidents, driver’s state adaptive driving support safety

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5 Yawning Computing Using Bayesian Networks

Authors: Serge Tshibangu, Turgay Celik, Zenzo Ncube

Abstract:

Road crashes kill nearly over a million people every year, and leave millions more injured or permanently disabled. Various annual reports reveal that the percentage of fatal crashes due to fatigue/driver falling asleep comes directly after the percentage of fatal crashes due to intoxicated drivers. This percentage is higher than the combined percentage of fatal crashes due to illegal/Un-Safe U-turn and illegal/Un-Safe reversing. Although a relatively small percentage of police reports on road accidents highlights drowsiness and fatigue, the importance of these factors is greater than we might think, hidden by the undercounting of their events. Some scenarios show that these factors are significant in accidents with killed and injured people. Thus the need for an automatic drivers fatigue detection system in order to considerably reduce the number of accidents owing to fatigue.This research approaches the drivers fatigue detection problem in an innovative way by combining cues collected from both temporal analysis of drivers’ faces and environment. Monotony in driving environment is inter-related with visual symptoms of fatigue on drivers’ faces to achieve fatigue detection. Optical and infrared (IR) sensors are used to analyse the monotony in driving environment and to detect the visual symptoms of fatigue on human face. Internal cues from drivers faces and external cues from environment are combined together using machine learning algorithms to automatically detect fatigue.

Keywords: intelligent transportation systems, bayesian networks, yawning computing, machine learning algorithms

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4 Comparison of Analgesic Efficacy of Paracetamol and Tramadol for Pain Relief in Active Labor

Authors: Krishna Dahiya

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Introduction: Labour pain has been described as the most severe pain experienced by women in their lives. Pain management in labour is one of the most important challenges faced by the obstetrician. The opioids are the primary treatment for patients with moderate and severe pain but these drugs are not always tolerated and are associated with dose-dependent side effects. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, too, are associated with variable adverse effects. Considering these factors, our study compared the efficacy and side effect of intravenous tramadol and paracetamol. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of an intravenous infusion of 1000 mg of paracetamol as compared with an intravenous injection of 50mg of tramadol for intrapartum analgesia. Methods: In a randomized prospective study at Pt. BDS PGIMS, 200 women in active labor were allocated to received either paracetamol (n=100) or tramadol (n=100). The primary outcome was the efficacy of the drug to supply adequate analgesia as measured by a change in the visual analog scale (VAS) pain intensity score at various times after drug administration. The secondary outcomes included the need for additional rescue analgesia and the presence of adverse maternal or fetal events. Results: The mean age of cases were 25.55 ± 3.849 years and 25.60 ± 3.655 years respectively As recorded by the VAS score, there was significant pain reduction at 30 minutes, and at 1 and 2 hours in both groups (P<0.01). In comparison, between group I and II, a significantly higher rate of nausea and vomiting in tramadol group (14% vs 8%; P < 0.03) patients. Similarly, drowsiness (0% vs 11%; P<0.01), dry mouth (0% vs 8%; P<0.04) and dizziness (0% vs 9%; P<0.02) was also significant in group II. Conclusion: Due to difficulty in administering epidural analgesia to all parturients, administration of paracetamol and tramadol infusion for analgesia is simple and less invasive alternative. In the present study, both paracetamol and tramadol were equally effective for labour analgesia but paracetamol has emerged as safe alternative as compared to tramadol due to a low incidence of side effects.

Keywords: paracetamol, tramadol, labor, analgesia

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3 Sleep Health Management in Residential Aged Care Facilities

Authors: Elissar Mansour, Emily Chen, Tracee Fernandez, Mariam Basheti, Christopher Gordon, Bandana Saini

Abstract:

Sleep is an essential process for the maintenance of several neurobiological processes such as memory consolidation, mood, and metabolic processes. It is known that sleep patterns vary with age and is affected by multiple factors. While non-pharmacological strategies are generally considered first-line, sedatives are excessively used in the older population. This study aimed to explore the management of sleep in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) by nurse professionals and to identify the key factors that impact provision of optimal sleep health care. An inductive thematic qualitative research method was employed to analyse the data collected from semi-structured interviews with registered nurses working in RACF. Seventeen interviews were conducted, and the data yielded three themes: 1) the nurses’ observations and knowledge of sleep health, 2) the strategies employed in RACF for the management of sleep disturbances, 3) the organizational barriers to evidence-based sleep health management. Nurse participants reported the use of both non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions. Sedatives were commonly prescribed due to their fast action and accessibility despite the guidelines indicating their use in later stages. Although benzodiazepines are known for their many side effects, such as drowsiness and oversedation, temazepam was the most commonly administered drug. Sleep in RACF was affected by several factors such as aging and comorbidities (e.g., dementia, pain, anxiety). However, the were also many modifiable factors that negatively impacted sleep management in RACF. These include staffing ratios, nursing duties, medication side effects, and lack of training and involvement of allied health professionals. This study highlighted the importance of involving a multidisciplinary team and the urge to develop guidelines and training programs for healthcare professionals to improve sleep health management in RACF.

Keywords: registered nurses, residential aged care facilities, sedative use, sleep

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2 Health Risk Assessment of Exposing to Benzene in Office Building around a Chemical Industry Based on Numerical Simulation

Authors: Majid Bayatian, Mohammadreza Ashouri

Abstract:

Releasing hazardous chemicals is one of the major problems for office buildings in the chemical industry and, therefore, environmental risks are inherent to these environments. The adverse health effects of the airborne concentration of benzene have been a matter of significant concern, especially in oil refineries. The chronic and acute adverse health effects caused by benzene exposure have attracted wide attention. Acute exposure to benzene through inhalation could cause headaches, dizziness, drowsiness, and irritation of the skin. Chronic exposures have reported causing aplastic anemia and leukemia at the occupational settings. Association between chronic occupational exposure to benzene and the development of aplastic anemia and leukemia were documented by several epidemiological studies. Numerous research works have investigated benzene emissions and determined benzene concentration at different locations of the refinery plant and stated considerable health risks. The high cost of industrial control measures requires justification through lifetime health risk assessment of exposed workers and the public. In the present study, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model has been proposed to assess the exposure risk of office building around a refinery due to its release of benzene. For simulation, GAMBIT, FLUENT, and CFD Post software were used as pre-processor, processor, and post-processor, and the model was validated based on comparison with experimental results of benzene concentration and wind speed. Model validation results showed that the model is highly validated, and this model can be used for health risk assessment. The simulation and risk assessment results showed that benzene could be dispersion to an office building nearby, and the exposure risk has been unacceptable. According to the results of this study, a validated CFD model, could be very useful for decision-makers for control measures and possibly support them for emergency planning of probable accidents. Also, this model can be used to assess exposure to various types of accidents as well as other pollutants such as toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene in different atmospheric conditions.

Keywords: health risk assessment, office building, Benzene, numerical simulation, CFD

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1 Enhancement Effect of Compound 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid from Petung Bamboo (Dendrocalamus Asper) Shoots on α1β2γ2S of GABA (A) Receptor Expressed in Xenopus laevis Oocytes- Preliminary Study on Its Anti-Epileptic Potential

Authors: Muhammad Bilal, Amelia Jane Llyod, Habsah Mohamad, Jia Hui Wong, Abdul Aziz Mohamed Yusoff, Jafri Malin Abdullah, Jingli Zhang

Abstract:

Epilepsy is one of the major brain afflictions occurs with uncontrolled excitation of cortex; disturbed 50 million of world’s population. About 25 percent of patients subjected to adverse effects from antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as depression, nausea, tremors, gastrointestinal symptoms, osteoporosis, dizziness, weight change, drowsiness, fatigue are commonly observed indications; therefore, new drugs are required to cure epilepsy. GABA is principle inhibitory neurotransmitter, control excitation of the brain. Mutation or dysfunction of GABA receptor is one of the primary causes of epilepsy, which is confirmed from many acquired models of epilepsy like traumatic brain injury, kindling, and status epilepticus models of epilepsy. GABA receptor has 3 distinct types such as GABA (A), GABA (B), GABA(C).GABA (A) receptor has 20 different subunits, α1β2γ2 subunits composition of GABA (A) receptor is the most used combination of subunits for screening of compounds against epilepsy. We expressed α1β2γ2s subunits of GABA (A) Receptor in Xenopus leavis oocytes and examined the enhancement potential of 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid compound on GABA (A) receptor via two-electrode voltage clamp current recording technique. Bamboo shoots are the young, tender offspring of bamboo, which are usually harvested after a cultivating period of 2 weeks. Proteins, acids, fat, starch, carbohydrate, fatty acid, vitamin, dietary fiber, and minerals are the major constituent found systematically in bamboo shoots. These shoots reported to have anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial activity, also possess antioxidant properties due to the presence of phenolic compounds. Student t-test analysis suggested that 4- hydroxybenzoic acid positively allosteric GABA (A) receptor, increased normalized current amplitude to 1.0304±0.0464(p value 0.032) compared with vehicle. 4-Hydrobenzoic acid, a compound from Dendrocalamus Asper bamboo shoot gives new insights for future studies on bamboo shoots with motivation for extraction of more compounds to investigate their effects on human and rodents against epilepsy, insomnia, and anxiety.

Keywords: α1β2γ2S, antiepileptic, bamboo shoots, epilepsy GABA (A) receptor, two-microelectrode voltage clamp, xenopus laevis oocytes

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