Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 135

Search results for: circadian rhythm

135 Circadian Rhythm and Demographic Incidence

Authors: Behnaz Farahani, Abbas Mirzaei


This study explores association between circadian rhythm pattern and some demographic incidences. The participants targeting 193 (97 females and 96 males between the ages of 20-30 years) Iranian bachelor students from Islamic Azad University who completed the self-reported over the 2nd semester 2011-2012 university year. The questionnaire has been tailored amalgamation of Horn & Östberg Questionnaire (MEQ) and Demographic Incidences Questionnaire in order to measure the students circadian rhythm pattern and their Demographic Incidences. The finding of this quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional analysis confirmed the hypothesis in that 'circadian rhythm pattern' was positively associated with the demographic indices like age, marital status, gender, day in week and month of the birth time, and parent’s age and educational level at the time of the birth of the samples.

Keywords: circadian rhythm pattern, demographic incidences, morning type, evening type

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
134 Sunshine Hour as a Factor to Maintain the Circadian Rhythm of Heart Rate: Analysis of Ambulatory ECG and Weather Big Data

Authors: Emi Yuda, Yutaka Yoshida, Junichiro Hayano


Distinct circadian rhythm of activity, i.e., high activity during the day and deep rest at night are a typical feature of a healthy lifestyle. Exposure to the skylight is thought to be an important factor to increase arousal level and maintain normal circadian rhythm. To examine whether sunshine hours influence the day-night contract of activity, we analyzed the relationship between 24-hour heart rate (HR) and weather data of the recording day. We analyzed data in 36,500 males and 49,854 females of Allostatic State Mapping by Ambulatory ECG Repository (ALLSTAR) database in Japan. Median (IQR) sunshine duration was 5.3 (2.8-7.9) hr. While sunshine hours had only modest effects of increasing 24-hour average HR in either gender (P=0.0282 and 0.0248 for male and female) and no significant effects on nighttime HR in either gender, it increased daytime HR (P = 0.0007 and 0.0015) and day-night HF difference in both genders (P < 0.0001 for both) even after adjusting for the effects of average temperature, atmospheric pressure, and humidity. Our observations support for the hypothesis that longer sunshine hours enhance circadian rhythm of activity.

Keywords: big data, circadian rhythm, heart rate, sunshine

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
133 The Relationship between Amplitude and Stability of Circadian Rhythm with Sleep Quality and Sleepiness: A Population Study, Kerman 2018

Authors: Akram Sadat Jafari Roodbandi, Farzaneh Akbari, Vafa Feyzi, Zahra Zare, Zohreh Foroozanfar


Introduction: Circadian rhythm or sleep-awake cycle in 24 hours is one of the important factors affecting the physiological and psychological characteristics in humans that contribute to biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes and helps people to set up brain and body for sleep or active awakening during certain hours. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the characteristics of circadian rhythms on the sleep quality and sleepiness according to their demographic characteristics such as age. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was carried out among the general population of Kerman, aged 15-84 years. After dividing the age groups into 10-year demographic characteristics questionnaire, the type of circadian questionnaire, Pittsburgh sleep quality questionnaire and Euporth sleepiness questionnaire were completed in equal numbers between men and women of that age group. Using cluster sampling with effect design equal 2, 1300 questionnaires were distributed during the various hours of 24 hours in public places in Kerman city. Data analysis was done using SPSS software and univariate tests and linear regressions at a significance level of 0.05. Results: In this study, 1147 subjects were included in the study, 584 (50.9%) were male and the rest were women. The mean age was 39.50 ± 15.38. 133 (11.60%) subjects from the study participants had sleepiness and 308 (26.90%) subjects had undesirable sleep quality. Using linear regression test, sleep quality was the significant correlation with sex, hours needed for sleep at 24 hours, chronic illness, sleepiness, and circadian rhythm amplitude. Sleepiness was the meaningful relationship with marital status, sleep-wake schedule of other family members and the stability of circadian rhythm. Both women and men, with age, decrease the quality of sleep and increase the rate of sleepiness. Conclusion: Age, sex, and type of circadian people, the need for sleep at 24 hours, marital status, sleep-wake schedule of other family members are significant factors related to the sleep quality and sleepiness and their adaptation to night shift work.

Keywords: circadian type, sleep quality, sleepiness, age, shift work

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
132 Time-Dependent Modulation on Depressive Responses and Circadian Rhythms of Corticosterone in Models of Melatonin Deficit

Authors: Jana Tchekalarova, Milena Atanasova, Katerina Georgieva


Melatonin deficit can cause a disturbance in emotional status and circadian rhythms of the endocrine system in the body. Both pharmacological and alternative approaches are applied for correction of dysfunctions driven by changes in circadian dynamics of many physiological indicators. In the present study, we tested and compare the beneficial effect of agomelatine (40 mg/kg, i.p. for 3 weeks) and endurance training on depressive behavior in two models of melatonin deficit in rat. The role of disturbed circadian rhythms of plasma melatonin and corticosterone secretion in the mechanism of these treatments was also explored. The continuous exercise program attenuated depressive responses associated with disrupted diurnal rhythm of home-cage motor activity, anhedonia in the sucrose preference test, and despair-like behavior in the forced swimming test were attenuated by agomelatine exposed to chronic constant light (CCL) and long-term exercise in pinealectomized rats. Parallel to the observed positive effect on the emotional status, agomelatine restored CCL-induced impairment of circadian patterns of plasma melatonin but not that of corticosterone. In opposite, exercise training diminished total plasma corticosterone levels and corrected its flattened pattern while it was unable to correct melatonin deficit in pinealectomy. These results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of pharmacological and alternative approach might be mediated via two different mechanism, correction of the disturbed circadian rhythm of melatonin and corticosterone, respectively. Therefore, these treatment approaches might have a potential therapeutic application in different subpopulations of people characterized by a melatonin deficiency. This work was supported by the National Science Fund of Bulgaria (research grant # № DN 03/10; DN# 12/6).

Keywords: agomelatine, exercise training, melatonin deficit, corticosterone

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
131 Circadian Expression of MicroRNAs in Colon and Its Changes during Colorectal Tumorigenesis

Authors: Katerina Balounova, Jiri Pacha, Peter Ergang, Martin Vodicka, Pavlina Kvapilova


MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in a wide range of physiological processes. Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by microRNAs gives the organism a further level of control of the gene-expression program and the disruption of this microRNA regulatory mechanism seems to increase the risk of various pathophysiological conditions including tumorigenesis. To the present day, microRNAs were shown to participate in the mayor signalization pathways leading to tumorigenesis, including proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and metastasis formation. In addition, microRNAs have been found to play important roles in the generation and maintenance of circadian clock. These clocks generate circadian rhythms, which participate in a number of regulatory pathways. Disruption of the circadian signals seems to be associated with the development and the progression of tumours including colorectal cancer. We investigated therefore whether the diurnal profiles of miRNAs linked to tumorigenesis and regulation of circadian clock are changed during tumorigenesis. Based on published data we chose 10 microRNAs linked to tumorigenesis or circadian clock (let-7b-5p, miR 1 3p, miR 106b 5p, miR 141 3p, miR 191 5p, miR 20a 5p, miR 25 3p, miR 29a 3p, miR 34a 5p and miR 93 5p) and compared their 24-hr expression profiles in healthy and in chemically induces primary colorectal tumours of 52week-old mice. Using RT-qPCR we proved circadian rhythmicity in let-7b-5p, miR 106b 5p, miR 141 3p, miR 191 5p, miR 20a 5p, miR 25 3p, miR 29a 3p and miR 93 5p in healthy colon but not in tumours. The acrophases of miR 106b 5p, miR 141 3p, miR 191 5p, miR 20a 5p, miR 25 3p and miR 93 5p were reached around CT 24, the acrophases of let-7b-5p and miR-29a-3p were slightly shifted and reached around CT 21. In summary, our results show that circadian regulation of some colonic microRNAs is greatly affected by neoplastic transformation.

Keywords: circadian rhythm, colon, colorectal cancer, microRNA, tumorigenesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
130 Application of the Best Technique for Estimating the Rest-Activity Rhythm Period in Shift Workers

Authors: Rakesh Kumar Soni


Under free living conditions, human biological clocks show a periodicity of 24 hour for numerous physiological, behavioral and biochemical variables. However, this period is not the original period; rather it merely exhibits synchronization with the solar clock. It is, therefore, most important to investigate characteristics of human circadian clock, essentially in shift workers, who normally confront with contrasting social clocks. Aim of the present study was to investigate rest-activity rhythm and to vouch for the best technique for the computation of periods in this rhythm in subjects randomly selected from different groups of shift workers. The rest-activity rhythm was studied in forty-eight shift workers from three different organizations, namely Newspaper Printing Press (NPP), Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) and Raipur Alloys (RA). Shift workers of NPP (N = 20) were working on a permanent night shift schedule (NS; 20:00-04:00). However, in CSEB (N = 14) and RA (N = 14), shift workers were working in a 3-shift system comprising of rotations from night (NS; 22:00-06:00) to afternoon (AS; 14:00-22:00) and to morning shift (MS; 06:00-14:00). Each subject wore an Actiwatch (AW64, Mini Mitter Co. Inc., USA) for 7 and/or 21 consecutive days, only after furnishing a certificate of consent. One-minute epoch length was chosen for the collection of wrist activity data. Period was determined by using Actiware sleep software (Periodogram), Lomb-Scargle Periodogram (LSP) and Spectral analysis software (Spectre). Other statistical techniques, such as ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple-range test were also used whenever required. A statistically significant circadian rhythm in rest-activity, gauged by cosinor, was documented in all shift workers, irrespective of shift work. Results indicate that the efficiency of the technique to determine the period (τ) depended upon the clipping limits of the τs. It appears that the technique of spectre is more reliable.

Keywords: biological clock, rest activity rhythm, spectre, periodogram

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
129 Evaluation of Cardiac Rhythm Patterns after Open Surgical Maze-Procedures from Three Years' Experiences in a Single Heart Center

Authors: J. Yan, B. Pieper, B. Bucsky, H. H. Sievers, B. Nasseri, S. A. Mohamed


In order to optimize the efficacy of medications, the regular follow-up with long-term continuous monitoring of heart rhythmic patterns has been facilitated since clinical introduction of cardiac implantable electronic monitoring devices (CIMD). Extensive analysis of rhythmic circadian properties is capable to disclose the distributions of arrhythmic events, which may support appropriate medication according rate-/rhythm-control strategy and minimize consequent afflictions. 348 patients (69 ± 0.5ys, male 61.8%) with predisposed atrial fibrillation (AF), undergoing primary ablating therapies combined to coronary or valve operations and secondary implantation of CIMDs, were involved and divided into 3 groups such as PAAF (paroxysmal AF) (n=99, male 68.7%), PEAF (persistent AF) (n=94, male 62.8%), and LSPEAF (long-standing persistent AF) (n=155, male 56.8%). All patients participated in three-year ambulant follow-up (3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months). Burdens of atrial fibrillation recurrence were assessed using cardiac monitor devices, whereby attacks frequencies and their circadian patterns were systemically analyzed. Anticoagulants and regular anti-arrhythmic medications were evaluated and the last were listed in terms of anti-rate and anti-rhythm regimens. Patients in the PEAF-group showed the least AF-burden after surgical ablating procedures compared to both of the other subtypes (p < 0.05). The AF-recurrences predominantly performed such attacks’ property as shorter than one hour, namely within 10 minutes (p < 0.05), regardless of AF-subtypes. Concerning circadian distribution of the recurrence attacks, frequent AF-attacks were mostly recorded in the morning in the PAAF-group (p < 0.05), while the patients with predisposed PEAF complained less attack-induced discomforts in the latter half of the night and the ones with LSPEAF only if they were not physically active after primary surgical ablations. Different AF-subtypes presented distinct therapeutic efficacies after appropriate surgical ablating procedures and recurrence properties in sense of circadian distribution. An optimization of medical regimen and drug dosages to maintain the therapeutic success needs more attention to detailed assessment of the long-term follow-up. Rate-control strategy plays a much more important role than rhythm-control in the ongoing follow-up examinations.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, CIMD, MAZE, rate-control, rhythm-control, rhythm patterns

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
128 Night Shift Work as an Oxidative Stressor: A Systematic Review

Authors: Madeline Gibson


Night shift workers make up an essential part of the modern workforce. However, night shift workers have higher incidences of late in life diseases and earlier mortality. Night shift workers are exposed to constant light and experience circadian rhythm disruption. Sleep disruption is thought to increase oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance of excess pro-oxidative factors and reactive oxygen species over anti-oxidative activity. Oxidative stress can damage cells, proteins and DNA and can eventually lead to varied chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s and dementia. This review aimed to understand whether night shift workers were at greater risk of oxidative stress and to contribute to a consensus on this relationship. Twelve studies published in 2001-2019 examining 2,081 workers were included in the review. Studies compared both the impact of working a single shift and in comparisons between those who regularly work night shifts and only day shifts. All studies had evidence to support this relationship across a range of oxidative stress indicators, including increased DNA damage, reduced DNA repair capacity, increased lipid peroxidation, higher levels of reactive oxygen species, and to a lesser extent, a reduction in antioxidant defense. This research supports the theory that melatonin and the sleep-wake cycle mediate the relationship between shift work and oxidative stress. It is concluded that night shift work increases the risk for oxidative stress and, therefore, future disease. Recommendations are made to promote the long-term health of shift workers considering these findings.

Keywords: night shift work, coxidative stress, circadian rhythm, melatonin, disease, circadian rhythm disruption

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
127 Pulsatile Drug Delivery System for Chronopharmacological Disorders

Authors: S. S. Patil, B. U. Janugade, S. V. Patil


Pulsatile systems are gaining a lot of interest as they deliver the drug at the right site of action at the right time and in the right amount, thus providing spatial and temporal delivery thus increasing patient compliance. These systems are designed according to the circadian rhythm of the body. Chronotherapeutics is the discipline concerned with the delivery of drugs according to inherent activities of a disease over a certain period of time. It is becoming increasingly more evident that the specific time that patients take their medication may be even more significant than was recognized in the past. The tradition of prescribing medication at evenly spaced time intervals throughout the day, in an attempt to maintain constant drug levels throughout a 24-hour period, may be changing as researcher’s report that some medications may work better if their administration is coordinated with day-night patterns and biological rhythms. The potential benefits of chronotherapeutics have been demonstrated in the management of a number of diseases. In particular, there is a great deal of interest in how chronotherapy can particularly benefit patients suffering from allergic rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis and related disorders, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and peptic ulcer disease.

Keywords: pulsatile drug delivery, chronotherapeutics, circadian rhythm, asthma, chronobiology

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
126 Use of Personal Rhythm to Authenticate Encrypted Messages

Authors: Carlos Gonzalez


When communicating using private and secure keys, there is always the doubt as to the identity of the message creator. We introduce an algorithm that uses the personal typing rhythm (keystroke dynamics) of the message originator to increase the trust of the authenticity of the message originator by the message recipient. The methodology proposes the use of a Rhythm Certificate Authority (RCA) to validate rhythm information. An illustrative example of the communication between Bob and Alice and the RCA is included. An algorithm of how to communicate with the RCA is presented. This RCA can be an independent authority or an enhanced Certificate Authority like the one used in public key infrastructure (PKI).

Keywords: authentication, digital signature, keystroke dynamics, personal rhythm, public-key encryption

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
125 Circadian Rhythm of Blood-Sucking Behavior of Female Forcipomyia taiwana

Authors: Chang-Liang Shih, Kuei-Min Liao, Ya-Yuan Wang, Wu-Chun Tu


Forcipomyia taiwana, an important vexing pest, influences the development of the industry of Taiwan tourism and the quality of country life. Using human-attractant method to investigate the blood-sucking behavior of Forcipomyia taiwana in three districts in Taichung, it revealed that female F. taiwana only exhibits blood-sucking behavior in daytime, not in nighttime. The blooding-sucking behavior of female F. taiwana was affected by some factors, i.e., season and atmospheric factors. During 2008 to 2010, our study revealed that blood-sucking behavior commenced from 7:00 to 8:00 in the spring equinox, the summer solstice and the autumnal equinox, but from 8:00 to 9:00 in the winter solstice. However, regardless of any seasons, it revealed that blood-sucking behavior reached the acme between 13:00 and 15:00, and then descending. In those four seasons, the summer solstice had longer lighting and higher temperature, the average sucking activity was around 12 hours, on the contrary, the winter solstice had shorter lighting and lower temperature, the average sucking activity bridled to around 8 hours whilst it retrenched to 11 hours in the spring equinox and the autumnal equinox. To analyze the correlation between blood-sucking behavior and atmospheric factors, it revealed that female blood-sucking behavior was correlated positively to temperature and lighting but negatively to humidity. In addition, our study also showed that there is no blood-sucking behavior under 18ºC.

Keywords: Forcipomyia taiwana, circadian rhythm, blood-sucking behavior, season

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
124 Circadian Regulations in Epithelial Barrier Functions

Authors: Kanami Orihara, Agnia Vibriani, Jayshree Low Jit Sze, Manitahina Mizan, Yao Du


Peripheral clocks are suggested to influence many aspects of keeping our health. However, the circadian profile of epithelial barrier functions is yet to be elucidated. We investigated the circadian profile of gene expressions of epithelial barriers using quantitative PCR in vitro study with human cell lines. The study found that four tight junction molecule gene expressions (CLDN1, CLDN4, OCLN, ZO1), as well as DEFB1 in skin keratinocytes, demonstrated circadian variations. These results suggest that the peripheral clock is taking an important role in keeping the homeostasis of epithelial barrier functions.

Keywords: chronobiology, barrier function, innate immunity, homeostasis

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
123 Speech Rhythm Variation in Languages and Dialects: F0, Natural and Inverted Speech

Authors: Imen Ben Abda


Languages have been classified into different rhythm classes. 'Stress-timed' languages are exemplified by English, 'syllable-timed' languages by French and 'mora-timed' languages by Japanese. However, to our best knowledge, acoustic studies have not been unanimous in strictly establishing which rhythm category a given language belongs to and failed to show empirical evidence for isochrony. Perception seems to be a good approach to categorize languages into different rhythm classes. This study, within the scope of experimental phonetics, includes an account of different perceptual experiments using cues from natural and inverted speech, as well as pitch extracted from speech data. It is an attempt to categorize speech rhythm over a large set of Arabic (Tunisian, Algerian, Lebanese and Moroccan) and English dialects (Welsh, Irish, Scottish and Texan) as well as other languages such as Chinese, Japanese, French, and German. Listeners managed to classify the different languages and dialects into different rhythm classes using suprasegmental cues mainly rhythm and pitch (F0). They also perceived rhythmic differences even among languages and dialects belonging to the same rhythm class. This may show that there are different subclasses within very broad rhythmic typologies.

Keywords: F0, inverted speech, mora-timing, rhythm variation, stress-timing, syllable-timing

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
122 Circadian Disruption in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Model Rats

Authors: Fangfang Wang, Fan Qu


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, is characterized by ovarian dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and reduced fecundity. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the circadian disruption is involved in pathogenesis of PCOS in androgen-induced animal model. We established a rat model of PCOS using single subcutaneous injection with testosterone propionate on the ninth day after birth, and confirmed their PCOS-like phenotypes with vaginal smears, ovarian hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and serum androgen measurement. The control group rats received the vehicle only. Gene expression was detected by real-time quantitative PCR. (1) Compared with control group, PCOS model rats of 10-week group showed persistently keratinized vaginal cells, while all the control rats showed at least two consecutive estrous cycles. (2) Ovarian HE staining and histological examination showed that PCOS model rats of 10-week group presented many cystic follicles with decreased numbers of granulosa cells and corpora lutea in their ovaries, while the control rats had follicles with normal layers of granulosa cells at various stages of development and several generations of corpora lutea. (3) In the 10-week group, serum free androgen index was notably higher in PCOS model rats than controls. (4) Disturbed mRNA expression patterns of core clock genes were found in ovaries of PCOS model rats of 10-week group. Abnormal expression of key genes associated with circadian rhythm in ovary may be one of the mechanisms for ovarian dysfunction in PCOS model rats induced by androgen.

Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, androgen, animal model, circadian disruption

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
121 The Effect of Common Daily Schedule on the Human Circadian Rhythms during the Polar Day on Svalbard: Field Study

Authors: Kamila Weissova, Jitka Skrabalova, Katerina Skalova, Jana Koprivova, Zdenka Bendova


Any Arctic visitor has to deal with extreme conditions, including constant light during the summer season or constant darkness during winter time. Light/dark cycle is the most powerful synchronizing signal for biological clock and the absence of daily dark period during the polar day can significantly alter the functional state of the internal clock. However, the inner clock can be synchronized by other zeitgebers such as physical activity, food intake or social interactions. Here, we investigated the effect of polar day on circadian clock of 10 researchers attending the polar base station in the Svalbard region during July. The data obtained on Svalbard were compared with the data obtained before the researchers left for the expedition (in the Czech Republic). To determine the state of circadian clock we used wrist actigraphy followed by sleep diaries, saliva, and buccal mucosa samples, both collected every 4 hours during 24h-interval to detect melatonin by radioimmunoassay and clock gene (PER1, BMAL1, NR1D1, DBP) mRNA levels by RT-qPCR. The clock gene expression was analyzed using cosinor analysis. From our results, it is apparent that the constant sunlight delayed melatonin onset and postponed the physical activity in the same order. Nevertheless, the clock gene expression displayed higher amplitude on Svalbard compared to the amplitude detected in the Czech Republic. These results have suggested that the common daily schedule at the Svalbard expedition can strengthen circadian rhythm in the environment that is lacking light/dark cycle. In conclusion, the constant sunlight delays melatonin onset, but it still maintains its rhythmic secretion. The effect of constant sunlight on circadian clock can be minimalized by common daily scheduled activity.

Keywords: actighraph, clock genes, human, melatonin, polar day

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
120 Evaluation of Cryoablation Procedures in Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation from 3 Years' Experiences in a Single Heart Center

Authors: J. Yan, B. Pieper, B. Bucsky, B. Nasseri, S. Klotz, H. H. Sievers, S. Mohamed


Cryoablation is evermore applied for interventional treatment of paroxysmal (PAAF) or persistent atrial fibrillation (PEAF). In the cardiac surgery, this procedure is often combined with coronary arterial bypass graft (CABG) and valve operations. Three different methods are feasible in this sense in respect to practicing extents and mechanisms such as lone left atrial cryoablation, Cox-Maze IV and III in our heart center. 415 patients (68 ± 0.8ys, male 68.2%) with predisposed atrial fibrillation who initially required either coronary or valve operations were enrolled and divided into 3 matched groups according to deployed procedures: CryoLA-group (cryoablation of lone left atrium, n=94); Cox-Maze-IV-group (n=93) and Cox-Maze-III-group (n=8). All patients additionally received closure of the left atrial appendage (LAA) and regularly underwent three-year ambulant follow-up assessments (3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months). Burdens of atrial fibrillation were assessed directly by means of cardiac monitor (Reveal XT, Medtronic) or of 3-day Holter electrocardiogram. Herewith, attacks frequencies of AF and their circadian patterns were systemically analyzed. Furthermore, anticoagulants and regular rate-/rhythm-controlling medications were evaluated and listed in terms of anti-rate and anti-rhythm regimens. Concerning PAAF treatment, Cox Maze IV procedure provided therapeutically acceptable effect as lone left atrium (LA) cryoablation did (5.25 ± 5.25% vs. 10.39 ± 9.96% AF-burden, p > 0.05). Interestingly, Cox Maze III method presented a better short-term effect in the PEAF therapy in comparison to lone cryoablation of LA and Cox Maze IV (0.25 ± 0.23% vs. 15.31 ± 5.99% and 9.10 ± 3.73% AF-burden within the first year, p < 0.05). But this therapeutic advantage went lost during ongoing follow-ups (26.65 ± 24.50% vs. 8.33 ± 8.06% and 15.73 ± 5.88% in 3rd follow-up year). In this way, lone LA-cryoablation established its antiarrhythmic efficacy and 69.5% patients were released from the Vit-K-antagonists, while Cox Maze IV liberated 67.2% patients from continuous anticoagulant medication. The AF-recurrences mostly performed such attacks property as less than 60min duration for all 3 procedures (p > 0.05). In the sense of the circadian distribution of the recurrence attacks, weighted by ongoing follow-ups, lone LA cryoablation achieved and stabilized the antiarrhythmic effects over time, which was especially observed in the treatment of PEAF, while Cox Maze IV and III had their antiarrhythmic effects weakened progressively. This phenomenon was likewise evaluable in the therapy of circadian rhythm of reverting AF-attacks. Furthermore, the strategy of rate control was much more often applied to support and maintain therapeutic successes obtained than the one of rhythm control. Derived from experiences in our heart center, lone LA cryoablation presented equivalent effects in the treatment of AF in comparison to Cox Maze IV and III procedures. These therapeutic successes were especially investigable in the patients suffering from persistent AF (PEAF). Additional supportive strategies such as rate control regime should be initialized and implemented to improve the therapeutic effects of the cryoablations according to appropriate criteria.

Keywords: AF-burden, atrial fibrillation, cardiac monitor, COX MAZE, cryoablation, Holter, LAA

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
119 The Effects of Circadian Rhythms Change in High Latitudes

Authors: Ekaterina Zvorykina


Nowadays, Arctic and Antarctic regions are distinguished to be one of the most important strategic resources for global development. Nonetheless, living conditions in Arctic regions still demand certain improvements. As soon as the region is rarely populated, one of the main points of interest is health accommodation of the people, who migrate to Arctic region for permanent and shift work. At Arctic and Antarctic latitudes, personnel face polar day and polar night conditions during the time of the year. It means that they are deprived of natural sunlight in winter season and have continuous daylight in summer. Firstly, the change in light intensity during 24-hours period due to migration affects circadian rhythms. Moreover, the controlled artificial light in winter is also an issue. The results of the recent studies on night shift medical professionals, who were exposed to permanent artificial light, have already demonstrated higher risks in cancer, depression, Alzheimer disease. Moreover, people exposed to frequent time zones change are also subjected to higher risks of heart attack and cancer. Thus, our main goals are to understand how high latitude work and living conditions can affect human health and how it can be prevented. In our study, we analyze molecular and cellular factors, which play important role in circadian rhythm change and distinguish main risk groups in people, migrating to high latitudes. The main well-studied index of circadian timing is melatonin or its metabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. In low light intensity melatonin synthesis is disturbed and as a result human organism requires more time for sleep, which is still disregarded when it comes to working time organization. Lack of melatonin also causes shortage in serotonin production, which leads to higher depression risk. Melatonin is also known to inhibit oncogenes and increase apoptosis level in cells, the main factors for tumor growth, as well as circadian clock genes (for example Per2). Thus, people who work in high latitudes can be distinguished as a risk group for cancer diseases and demand more attention. Clock/Clock genes, known to be one of the main circadian clock regulators, decrease sensitivity of hypothalamus to estrogen and decrease glucose sensibility, which leads to premature aging and oestrous cycle disruption. Permanent light exposure also leads to accumulation superoxide dismutase and oxidative stress, which is one of the main factors for early dementia and Alzheimer disease. We propose a new screening system adjusted for people, migrating from middle to high latitudes and accommodation therapy. Screening is focused on melatonin and estrogen levels, sleep deprivation and neural disorders, depression level, cancer risks and heart and vascular disorders. Accommodation therapy includes different types artificial light exposure, additional melatonin and neuroprotectors. Preventive procedures can lead to increase of migration intensity to high latitudes and, as a result, the prosperity of Arctic region.

Keywords: circadian rhythm, high latitudes, melatonin, neuroprotectors

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
118 Relevance of Dosing Time for Everolimus Toxicity in Respect to the Circadian P-Glycoprotein Expression in Mdr1a::Luc Mice

Authors: Narin Ozturk, Xiao-Mei Li, Sylvie Giachetti, Francis Levi, Alper Okyar


P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1, ABCB1) is a transmembrane protein acting as an ATP-dependent efflux pump and functions as a biological barrier by extruding drugs and xenobiotics out of cells in healthy tissues especially in intestines, liver and brain as well as in tumor cells. The circadian timing system controls a variety of biological functions in mammals including xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification, proliferation and cell cycle events, and may affect pharmacokinetics, toxicity and efficacy of drugs. Selective mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor everolimus is an immunosuppressant and anticancer drug that is active against many cancers, and its pharmacokinetics depend on P-gp. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosing time-dependent toxicity of everolimus with respect to the intestinal P-gp expression rhythms in mdr1a::Luc mice using Real Time-Biolumicorder (RT-BIO) System. Mdr1a::Luc male mice were synchronized with 12 h of Light and 12 h of Dark (LD12:12, with Zeitgeber Time 0 – ZT0 – corresponding Light onset). After 1-week baseline recordings, everolimus (5 mg/kg/day x 14 days) was administered orally at ZT1-resting period- and ZT13-activity period- to mdr1a::Luc mice singly housed in an innovative monitoring device, Real Time-Biolumicorder units which let us monitor real-time and long-term gene expression in freely moving mice. D-luciferin (1.5 mg/mL) was dissolved in drinking water. Mouse intestinal mdr1a::Luc oscillation profile reflecting P-gp gene expression and locomotor activity pattern were recorded every minute with the photomultiplier tube and infrared sensor respectively. General behavior and clinical signs were monitored, and body weight was measured every day as an index of toxicity. Drug-induced body weight change was expressed relative to body weight on the initial treatment day. Statistical significance of differences between groups was validated with ANOVA. Circadian rhythms were validated with Cosinor Analysis. Everolimus toxicity changed as a function of drug timing, which was least following dosing at ZT13, near the onset of the activity span in male mice. Mean body weight loss was nearly twice as large in mice treated with 5 mg/kg everolimus at ZT1 as compared to ZT13 (8.9% vs. 5.4%; ANOVA, p < 0.001). Based on the body weight loss and clinical signs upon everolimus treatment, tolerability for the drug was best following dosing at ZT13. Both rest-activity and mdr1a::Luc expression displayed stable 24-h periodic rhythms before everolimus and in both vehicle-treated controls. Real-time bioluminescence pattern of mdr1a revealed a circadian rhythm with a 24-h period with an acrophase at ZT16 (Cosinor, p < 0.001). Mdr1a expression remained rhythmic in everolimus-treated mice, whereas down-regulation was observed in P-gp expression in 2 of 4 mice. The study identified the circadian pattern of intestinal P-gp expression with an unprecedented precision. The circadian timing depending on the P-gp expression rhythms may play a crucial role in the tolerability/toxicity of everolimus. The circadian changes in mdr1a genes deserve further studies regarding their relevance for in vitro and in vivo chronotolerance of mdr1a-transported anticancer drugs. Chronotherapy with P-gp-effluxed anticancer drugs could then be applied according to their rhythmic patterns in host and tumor to jointly maximize treatment efficacy and minimize toxicity.

Keywords: circadian rhythm, chronotoxicity, everolimus, mdr1a::Luc mice, p-glycoprotein

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
117 Circadian Clock and Subjective Time Perception: A Simple Open Source Application for the Analysis of Induced Time Perception in Humans

Authors: Agata M. Kołodziejczyk, Mateusz Harasymczuk, Pierre-Yves Girardin, Lucie Davidová


Subjective time perception implies connection to cognitive functions, attention, memory and awareness, but a little is known about connections with homeostatic states of the body coordinated by circadian clock. In this paper, we present results from experimental study of subjective time perception in volunteers performing physical activity on treadmill in various phases of their circadian rhythms. Subjects were exposed to several time illusions simulated by programmed timing systems. This study brings better understanding for further improvement of of work quality in isolated areas. 

Keywords: biological clock, light, time illusions, treadmill

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
116 Possible Mechanism of DM2 Development in OSA Patients Mediated via Rev-Erb-Alpha and NPAS2 Proteins

Authors: Filip Franciszek Karuga, Szymon Turkiewicz, Marta Ditmer, Marcin Sochal, Piotr Białasiewicz, Agata Gabryelska


Circadian rhythm, an internal coordinator of physiological processes is composed of a set of semi-autonomous clocks. Clocks are regulated through the expression of circadian clock genes which form feedback loops, creating an oscillator. The primary loop consists of activators: CLOCK, BMAL1 and repressors: CRY, PER. CLOCK can be substituted by the Neuronal PAS Domain Protein 2 (NPAS2). Orphan nuclear receptor (REV-ERB-α) is a component of the secondary major loop, modulating the expression of BMAL1. Circadian clocks might be disrupted by the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which has also been associated with type II diabetes mellitus (DM2). Interestingly, studies suggest that dysregulation of NPAS2 and REV-ERB-α might contribute to the pathophysiology of DM2 as well. The goal of our study was to examine the role of NPAS2 and REV-ERB-α in DM2 in OSA patients. After examination of the clinical data, all participants underwent polysomnography (PSG) to assess their apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Based on the acquired data participants were assigned to one of 3 groups: OSA (AHI>30, no DM2; n=17 for NPAS2 and 34 for REV-ERB-α), DM2 (AHI>30 + DM2; n=7 for NPAS2 and 15 for REV-ERB-α) and control group (AHI<5, no DM2; n=16 for NPAS2 and 31 for REV-ERB-α). ELISA immunoassay was performed to assess the serum protein level of REV-ERB-α and NPAS2. The only statistically significant difference between groups was observed in NPAS2 protein level (p=0.037). Post-hoc analysis showed significant differences between the OSA and the control group (p=0.017). AHI and NPAS2 level was significantly correlated (r=-0.478, p=0.002) in all groups. A significant correlation was observed between the REV-ERB-α level and sleep efficiency (r=0.617, p=0.005) as well as sleep maintenance efficiency (r=0.645, p=0.003) in the OSA group. We conclude, that NPAS2 is associated with OSA severity and might contribute to metabolic sequelae of this disease. REV-ERB-α on the other hand can influence sleep continuity and efficiency.

Keywords: OSA, diabetes mellitus, endocrinology, chronobiology

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
115 Involvement of Corticosterone in the Antidepressant-Like Effect of Endurance Training in Model of Melatonin Deficit

Authors: Jana Tchekalarova, Milena Atanasova, Katerina Georgieva


Pinealectomy can cause a disturbance in emotional status and circadian rhythms of the endocrine and metabolic functions in the body. Endurance training is considered a part of the complex therapy of dysfunctions driven by changes in circadian dynamics of many physiological indicators. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that systematic endurance training can have a beneficial impact on depressive behavior induced by pinealectomy in rat via correction of desynchronized circadian rhythms of corticosterone secretion in plasma. Four groups were formed as follows: sham sedentary rats, the sham group with exercise, rats with pinealectomy and sedentary, and rats with pinealectomy and exercise. The pineal gland was removed through thin forceps in anesthetized with ketamine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) and xylazine (20 mg/kg, s.c.) rats. A similar procedure was applied over the sham groups but without the last action of the pineal gland removal. Exercised rats were regularly trained on a treadmill with a velocity of 20 m/min, 0°slope (about 50 - 55% of VO2max), five days a week for four weeks. The exercise intensity was set according to the maximal lactate steady state, established for Wistar rats during treadmill running. For assessing depressive behavior, a splash test, sucrose preference test, and forced swimming test were applied. Corticosterone in plasma was measured by the Elisa test kit of animals decapitated under mild anesthesia with CO2, every 4th hour in a 24-h period. The continuous exercise program attenuated depressive responses characterized by anhedonia in the sucrose preference test, decreased grooming in the splash test, and despair- like behavior in the forced swimming test of rats with pinealectomy. Parallel to the observed positive effect on the emotional status, exercise procedure corrected the flattened patterns of plasma corticosterone levels. Our results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of endurance training might be mediated via correction of the disturbed circadian rhythm of plasma corticosterone release in rats with pinealectomy. Therefore, this alternative mode might have a potential therapeutic application in a subpopulation of people characterized by a melatonin deficiency.

Keywords: corticosterone, depression, endurance training, pinealectomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
114 An Exploration of Lighting Quality on Sleep Quality of Children in Elementary Schools

Authors: Mohamed Boubekri, Kristen Bub, Jaewook Lee, Kate Kurry


In this study, we explored the impact of light, particularly daylight on sleep time and quality of elementary school children. Sleep actigraphy was used to measure objectively sleep time and sleep efficiency. Our data show a good correlation between light levels and sleep. In some cases, differences of up to 36 minutes were found between students in low light levels and those in high light level classrooms. We recommend, therefore, that classroom design need to pay attention to the daily daylight exposures elementary school children are receiving.

Keywords: light, daylight, actigraphy, sleep, circadian rhythm, sustainable architecture, elementary school, children

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
113 Predictors of Survival of Therapeutic Hypothermia Based on Analysis of a Consecutive American Inner City Population over 4 Years

Authors: Jorge Martinez, Brandon Roberts, Holly Payton Toca


Background: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the international standard of care for all comatose patients after cardiac arrest, but criticism focuses on poor outcomes. We sought to develop criteria to identify American urban patients more likely to benefit from TH. Methods: Retrospective chart review of 107 consecutive adults undergoing TH in downtown New Orleans from 2010-2014 yielded records for 99 patients with all 44 survivors or families contacted up to four years. Results: 69 males and 38 females with a mean age of 60.2 showed 63 dead (58%) and 44 survivors (42%). Presenting cardiac rhythm was divided into shockable (Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia, Ventricular Fibrillation) and non-shockable (Pulseless Electrical Activity, Asystole). Presenting in shockable rhythms with ROSC <20 minutes were 21 patients with 15 (71%) survivors (p=.001). Time >20 minutes until ROSC in shockable rhythms had 5 patients with 3 survivors (78%, p=0.001). Presenting in non-shockable rhythms with ROSC <20 minutes were 54 patients with 18 survivors (33%, p=.001). ROSC >20 minutes in non-shockable rhythms had 19 patients with 2 survivors (8%, p=.001). Survivors of shockable rhythms showed 19 (100%) living post TH. 15 survivors (79%, n=19, p=.001) had CPC score 1 or 2 with 4 survivors (21%, n=19) having a CPC score of 3. A total of 25 survived non-shockable rhythm. Acute survival of patients with non-shockable rhythm showed 18 expired <72 hours (72%, n=25) with long-term survival of 4 patients (5%, n=74) and CPC scores of 1 or 2 (p=.001). Interestingly, patients with time to ROSC <20 minutes exhibiting more than one loss of sustained ROSC showed 100% mortality (p=.001). Patients presenting with shockable >20 minutes ROSC had overall survival of 70% (p=.001), but those undergoing >3 cardiac rhythm changes had 100% mortality (p=.001). Conclusion: Patients presenting with shockable rhythms undergoing TH had overall acute survival of 70% followed by long-term survival of 100% after 4 years. In contrast, patients presenting with non-shockable rhythm had long-term survival of 5%. TH is not recommended for patients presenting with non-shockable rhythm and requiring greater than 20 minutes for restoration of ROSC.

Keywords: cardiac rhythm changes, Pulseless Electrical Activity (PEA), Therapeutic Hypothermia (TH)

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
112 Comparing the Effect of Exercise Time (Morning and Evening) on Troponin T in Males with Cardiovascular Disease

Authors: Amin Mehrabi, Mohsen Salesi, Pourya Pasavand


Context and objective: The purpose of this research is to study the effect of exercise time (morning/evening) on amount of Troponin T in males' plasma suffering from cardiovascular disease. Method: 15 cardiovascular patients selected as the research subjects. At 7 a.m. pretest blood samples taken from the subjects and they did the exercise protocol in presence of a doctor. Immediately after and 3 hours after that blood measurements done. A week later, the subjects did the same steps at 7 p.m. The SPSS v.20 software used to analyze data. Findings: This study proved that circadian rhythm does not have any effect on the response of myocarditis tissue to exercise and cardiovascular patients allowed to exercise in any times of a day.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease, time of exercise, troponin T (cTnT), myocarditis

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
111 A Non-Destructive Estimation Method for Internal Time in Perilla Leaf Using Hyperspectral Data

Authors: Shogo Nagano, Yusuke Tanigaki, Hirokazu Fukuda


Vegetables harvested early in the morning or late in the afternoon are valued in plant production, and so the time of harvest is important. The biological functions known as circadian clocks have a significant effect on this harvest timing. The purpose of this study was to non-destructively estimate the circadian clock and so construct a method for determining a suitable harvest time. We took eight samples of green busil (Perilla frutescens var. crispa) every 4 hours, six times for 1 day and analyzed all samples at the same time. A hyperspectral camera was used to collect spectrum intensities at 141 different wavelengths (350–1050 nm). Calculation of correlations between spectrum intensity of each wavelength and harvest time suggested the suitability of the hyperspectral camera for non-destructive estimation. However, even the highest correlated wavelength had a weak correlation, so we used machine learning to raise the accuracy of estimation and constructed a machine learning model to estimate the internal time of the circadian clock. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were used for machine learning because this is an effective analysis method for large amounts of data. Using the estimation model resulted in an error between estimated and real times of 3 min. The estimations were made in less than 2 hours. Thus, we successfully demonstrated this method of non-destructively estimating internal time.

Keywords: artificial neural network (ANN), circadian clock, green busil, hyperspectral camera, non-destructive evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
110 Absence of Developmental Change in Epenthetic Vowel Duration in Japanese Speakers’ English

Authors: Takayuki Konishi, Kakeru Yazawa, Mariko Kondo


This study examines developmental change in the production of epenthetic vowels by Japanese learners of English in relation to acquisition of L2 English speech rhythm. Seventy-two Japanese learners of English in the J-AESOP corpus were divided into lower- and higher-level learners according to their proficiency score and the frequency of vowel epenthesis. Three learners were excluded because no vowel epenthesis was observed in their utterances. The analysis of their read English speech data showed no statistical difference between lower- and higher-level learners, implying the absence of any developmental change in durations of epenthetic vowels. This result, together with the findings of previous studies, will be discussed in relation to the transfer of L1 phonology and manifestation of L2 English rhythm.

Keywords: vowel epenthesis, Japanese learners of English, L2 speech corpus, speech rhythm

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
109 Rhythm-Reading Success Using Conversational Solfege

Authors: Kelly Jo Hollingsworth


Conversational Solfege, a research-based, 12-step music literacy instructional method using the sound-before-sight approach, was used to teach rhythm-reading to 128-second grade students at a public school in the southeastern United States. For each step, multiple scripted techniques are supplied to teach each skill. Unit one was the focus of this study, which is quarter note and barred eighth note rhythms. During regular weekly music instruction, students completed method steps one through five, which includes aural discrimination, decoding familiar and unfamiliar rhythm patterns, and improvising rhythmic phrases using quarter notes and barred eighth notes. Intact classes were randomly assigned to two treatment groups for teaching steps six through eight, which was the visual presentation and identification of quarter notes and barred eighth notes, visually presenting and decoding familiar patterns, and visually presenting and decoding unfamiliar patterns using said notation. For three weeks, students practiced steps six through eight during regular weekly music class. One group spent five-minutes of class time on steps six through eight technique work, while the other group spends ten-minutes of class time practicing the same techniques. A pretest and posttest were administered, and ANOVA results reveal both the five-minute (p < .001) and ten-minute group (p < .001) reached statistical significance suggesting Conversational Solfege is an efficient, effective approach to teach rhythm-reading to second grade students. After two weeks of no instruction, students were retested to measure retention. Using a repeated-measures ANOVA, both groups reached statistical significance (p < .001) on the second posttest, suggesting both the five-minute and ten-minute group retained rhythm-reading skill after two weeks of no instruction. Statistical significance was not reached between groups (p=.252), suggesting five-minutes is equally as effective as ten-minutes of rhythm-reading practice using Conversational Solfege techniques. Future research includes replicating the study with other grades and units in the text.

Keywords: conversational solfege, length of instructional time, rhythm-reading, rhythm instruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
108 Relevance of Dosing Time for Everolimus Toxicity on Thyroid Gland and Hormones in Mice

Authors: Dilek Ozturk, Narin Ozturk, Zeliha Pala Kara, Engin Kaptan, Serap Sancar Bas, Nurten Ozsoy, Alper Okyar


Most physiological processes oscillate in a rhythmic manner in mammals including metabolism and energy homeostasis, locomotor activity, hormone secretion, immune and endocrine system functions. Endocrine body rhythms are tightly regulated by the circadian timing system. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis is under circadian control at multiple levels from hypothalamus to thyroid gland. Since circadian timing system controls a variety of biological functions in mammals, circadian rhythms of biological functions may modify the drug tolerability/toxicity depending on the dosing time. Selective mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor everolimus is an immunosuppressant and anticancer agent that is active against many cancers. It was also found to be active in medullary thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosing time-dependent toxicity of everolimus on the thyroid gland and hormones in mice. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were synchronized with 12h:12h Light-Dark cycle (LD12:12, with Zeitgeber Time 0 – ZT0 – corresponding to Light onset). Everolimus was administered to male (5 mg/kg/day) and female mice (15 mg/kg/day) orally at ZT1-rest period- and ZT13-activity period- for 4 weeks; body weight loss, clinical signs and possible changes in serum thyroid hormone levels (TSH and free T4) were examined. Histological alterations in the thyroid gland were evaluated according to the following criteria: follicular size, colloid density and viscidity, height of the follicular epithelium and the presence of necrotic cells. The statistical significance between differences was analyzed with ANOVA. Study findings included everolimus-related diarrhea, decreased activity, decreased body weight gains, alterations in serum TSH levels, and histopathological changes in thyroid gland. Decreases in mean body weight gains were more evident in mice treated at ZT1 as compared to ZT13 (p < 0.001, for both sexes). Control tissue sections of thyroid glands exhibited well-organized histoarchitecture when compared to everolimus-treated groups. Everolimus caused histopathological alterations in thyroid glands in male (5 mg/kg, slightly) and female mice (15 mg/kg; p < 0.01 for both ZT as compared to their controls) irrespective of dosing-time. TSH levels were slightly decreased upon everolimus treatment at ZT13 in both males and females. Conversely, increases in TSH levels were observed when everolimus treated at ZT1 in both males (5 mg/kg; p < 0.05) and females (15 mg/kg; slightly). No statistically significant alterations in serum free T4 levels were observed. TSH and free T4 is clinically important thyroid hormones since a number of disease states have been linked to alterations in these hormones. Serum free T4 levels within the normal ranges in the presence of abnormal serum TSH levels in everolimus treated mice may suggest subclinical thyroid disease which may have repercussions on the cardiovascular system, as well as on other organs and systems. Our study has revealed the histological damage on thyroid gland induced by subacute everolimus administration, this effect was irrespective of dosing time. However, based on the body weight changes and clinical signs upon everolimus treatment, tolerability for the drug was best following dosing at ZT13 in both male and females. Yet, effects of everolimus on thyroid functions may deserve further studies regarding their clinical importance and chronotoxicity.

Keywords: circadian rhythm, chronotoxicity, everolimus, thyroid gland, thyroid hormones

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
107 The Relationship between Rhythmic Complexity and Listening Engagement as a Proxy for Perceptual Interest

Authors: Noah R. Fram


Although it has been confirmed by multiple studies, the inverted-U relationship between stimulus complexity and preference (liking) remains contentious. Research aimed at substantiating the model are largely reliant upon anecdotal self-assessments of subjects and basic measures of complexity, leaving potential confounds unresolved. This study attempts to address the topic by assessing listening time as a behavioral correlate of liking (with the assumption that engagement prolongs listening time) and by looking for latent factors underlying several measures of rhythmic complexity. Participants listened to groups of rhythms, stopping each one when they started to lose interest and were asked to rate each rhythm in each group in terms of interest, complexity, and preference. Subjects were not informed that the time spent listening to each rhythm was the primary measure of interest. The hypothesis that listening time does demonstrate the same inverted-U relationship with complexity as verbal reports of liking was confirmed using a variety of metrics for rhythmic complexity, including meter-dependent measures of syncopation and meter-independent measures of entropy.

Keywords: complexity, entropy, rhythm, syncopation

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
106 Study and Melanocyte Adrenocorticotropic Effects on Sugar Metabolism and Immune Response in Rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus

Authors: A. Bouaouiche, M. S. Boulakoud


The functioning of the pineal gland, the transducer body of environmental information to the neuroendocrine system is subject to a circadian rhythm. Melatonin is the main neuro-hormone expressing this operation. It is synthesized in the pinealocytes after conversion serotonin via N-acetyl-transferase enzyme, itself subject to a photoperiodic modulation (activation dark inhibition by light). Some authors have suggested that melatonin is involved in diabetic disease and found that it could have a diabetogenic effect. To this study the effect of this hormone on glucose metabolism has long been subject to controversy. Agreeing in effect and hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic effect. In order to illustrate the level of interaction of melatonin with neuro-immune- corticotropin axis and its impact on carbohydrate metabolism, we studied the impact homeostatic (glucose) through the solicitation of two control systems (gland pineal and corticotropin axis). We then found that melatonin could have an indirect influence on insulin control (glucose metabolism) to the levels of the growth hormone axis (somatostatin) and adrenocorticotropic (corticotropin). In addition, we have suggested that melatonin might limit the hyperglycemic action of corticosteroids by direct action at peripheral level.

Keywords: pinéal gland, melatonin, neuro-immuno-corticotrop, metabolism

Procedia PDF Downloads 397