Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 881

Search results for: morphological priming

881 An Event-Related Potential Study of Individual Differences in Word Recognition: The Evidence from Morphological Knowledge of Sino-Korean Prefixes

Authors: Jinwon Kang, Seonghak Jo, Joohee Ahn, Junghye Choi, Sun-Young Lee

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A morphological priming has proved its importance by showing that segmentation occurs in morphemes when visual words are recognized within a noticeably short time. Regarding Sino-Korean prefixes, this study conducted an experiment on visual masked priming tasks with 57 ms stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) to see how individual differences in the amount of morphological knowledge affect morphological priming. The relationship between the prime and target words were classified as morphological (e.g., 미개척 migaecheog [unexplored] – 미해결 mihaegyel [unresolved]), semantical (e.g., 친환경 chinhwangyeong [eco-friendly]) – 무공해 mugonghae [no-pollution]), and orthographical (e.g., 미용실 miyongsil [beauty shop] – 미확보 mihwagbo [uncertainty]) conditions. We then compared the priming by configuring irrelevant paired stimuli for each condition’s control group. As a result, in the behavioral data, we observed facilitatory priming from a group with high morphological knowledge only under the morphological condition. In contrast, a group with low morphological knowledge showed the priming only under the orthographic condition. In the event-related potential (ERP) data, the group with high morphological knowledge presented the N250 only under the morphological condition. The findings of this study imply that individual differences in morphological knowledge in Korean may have a significant influence on the segmental processing of Korean word recognition.

Keywords: ERP, individual differences, morphological priming, sino-Korean prefixes

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880 The Priming Effect of Morphology, Phonology, Semantics, and Orthography in Mandarin Chinese: A Prime Paradigm Study

Authors: Bingqing Xu, Wenxing Shuai

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This study investigates the priming effects of different Chinese compound words by native Mandarin speakers. There are lots of homonym, polysemy, and synonym in Chinese. However, it is unclear which kind of words have the biggest priming effect. Native Mandarin speakers were tested in a visual-word lexical decision experiment. The stimuli, which are all two-character compound words, consisted of two parts: primes and targets. Five types of relationships were used in all stimuli: morphologically related condition, in which the prime and the target contain the same morpheme; orthographically related condition, in which the target and the prime contain the different morpheme with the same form; phonologically related condition, in which the target and the prime contain the different morpheme with the same phonology; semantically related condition, in which the target and the prime contain the different morpheme with similar meanings; totally unrelated condition. The time since participants saw the target to respond was recorded. Analyses on reaction time showed that the average reaction time of morphologically related targets was much shorter than others, suggesting the morphological priming effect is the biggest. However, the reaction time of the phonologically related conditions was the longest, even longer than unrelated conditions. According to scatter plots analyses, 86.7% of participants had priming effects in morphologically related conditions, only 20% of participants had priming effects in phonologically related conditions. These results suggested that morphologically related conditions had the biggest priming effect. The orthographically and semantically related conditions also had priming effects, whereas the phonologically related conditions had few priming effects.

Keywords: priming effect, morphology, phonology, semantics, orthography

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879 The Role of Thermo Priming on Improving Seedling Production Technology (ISPT) in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Seed's

Authors: Behzad Sani, Vida Jodaeian

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In order to determine the impact of thermo priming on germination of soybean seeds, an experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with three replications. The factors of studied included different time thermo priming (control, 5 and 10 minutes) through the placing seeds were exposed to oven. The results showed that the effect of thermo priming was significant on germination percentage, seedling dry weight and seedling vigour in P ≤ 0.05. Mean comparison showed that the highest germination percentage (77 %), seedling dry weight (1.39 g) and seedling vigour (107.03) were achieved by 10 minutes thermo priming.

Keywords: thermo priming, seedling, seedling production, seedling growth, soybean

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878 The Audio-Visual and Syntactic Priming Effect on Specific Language Impairment and Gender in Modern Standard Arabic

Authors: Mohammad Al-Dawoody

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This study aims at exploring if priming is affected by gender in Modern Standard Arabic and if it is restricted solely to subjects with no specific language impairment (SLI). The sample in this study consists of 74 subjects, between the ages of 11;1 and 11;10, distributed into (a) 2 SLI experimental groups of 38 subjects divided into two gender groups of 18 females and 20 males and (b) 2 non-SLI control groups of 36 subjects divided into two gender groups of 17 females and 19 males. Employing a mixed research design, the researcher conducted this study within the framework of the relevance theory (RT) whose main assumption is that human beings are endowed with a biological ability to magnify the relevance of the incoming stimuli. Each of the four groups was given two different priming stimuli: audio-visual priming (T1) and syntactic priming (T2). The results showed that the priming effect was sheer distinct among SLI participants especially when retrieving typical responses (TR) in T1 and T2 with slight superiority of males over females. The results also revealed that non-SLI females showed stronger original response (OR) priming in T1 than males and that non-SLI males in T2 excelled in OR priming than females. Furthermore, the results suggested that the audio-visual priming has a stronger effect on SLI females than non-SLI females and that syntactic priming seems to have the same effect on the two groups (non-SLI and SLI females). The conclusion is that the priming effect varies according to gender and is not confined merely to non-SLI subjects.

Keywords: specific language impairment, relevance theory, audio-visual priming, syntactic priming, modern standard Arabic

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877 Role of Phenylalanine and Glycine in Plant Signaling to Improve Drought Tolerance Potential in Wheat

Authors: Abida Kausar, Shagufta Parveen

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The priming of seeds was carried out by two amino acids (phenylalanine and glycine) to improve the drought tolerance potential of two wheat varieties. As wheat is a staple food of more than half of the population of the world, including Pakistan. However, its productivity is mainly adversely affected by abiotic stresses. The current research plan was to investigate the effect of hydropriming and priming by amino acids on wheat varieties under drought stress (50% field capacity). Therefore morphological, biochemical, physiological, and yield attributes were recorded. It was revealed that drought stress significantly decreased the biochemical, morpho-physiological, and growth attributes of the wheat crop. However, the priming treatments have shown a positive correlation with all the studied attributes. It was concluded that priming might involve plant signaling to produce the drought tolerance metabolites under stress conditions which, as a consequence, enhanced the drought tolerance potential of crops.

Keywords: plant biomass, biochemical parameters, chlorophyll contents, yield

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876 The Facilitatory Effect of Phonological Priming on Visual Word Recognition in Arabic as a Function of Lexicality and Overlap Positions

Authors: Ali Al Moussaoui

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An experiment was designed to assess the performance of 24 Lebanese adults (mean age 29:5 years) in a lexical decision making (LDM) task to find out how the facilitatory effect of phonological priming (PP) affects the speed of visual word recognition in Arabic as lexicality (wordhood) and phonological overlap positions (POP) vary. The experiment falls in line with previous research on phonological priming in the light of the cohort theory and in relation to visual word recognition. The experiment also departs from the research on the Arabic language in which the importance of the consonantal root as a distinct morphological unit is confirmed. Based on previous research, it is hypothesized that (1) PP has a facilitating effect in LDM with words but not with nonwords and (2) final phonological overlap between the prime and the target is more facilitatory than initial overlap. An LDM task was programmed on PsychoPy application. Participants had to decide if a target (e.g., bayn ‘between’) preceded by a prime (e.g., bayt ‘house’) is a word or not. There were 4 conditions: no PP (NP), nonwords priming nonwords (NN), nonwords priming words (NW), and words priming words (WW). The conditions were simultaneously controlled for word length, wordhood, and POP. The interstimulus interval was 700 ms. Within the PP conditions, POP was controlled for in which there were 3 overlap positions between the primes and the targets: initial (e.g., asad ‘lion’ and asaf ‘sorrow’), final (e.g., kattab ‘cause to write’ 2sg-mas and rattab ‘organize’ 2sg-mas), or two-segmented (e.g., namle ‘ant’ and naħle ‘bee’). There were 96 trials, 24 in each condition, using a within-subject design. The results show that concerning (1), the highest average reaction time (RT) is that in NN, followed firstly by NW and finally by WW. There is statistical significance only between the pairs NN-NW and NN-WW. Regarding (2), the shortest RT is that in the two-segmented overlap condition, followed by the final POP in the first place and the initial POP in the last place. The difference between the two-segmented and the initial overlap is significant, while other pairwise comparisons are not. Based on these results, PP emerges as a facilitatory phenomenon that is highly sensitive to lexicality and POP. While PP can have a facilitating effect under lexicality, it shows no facilitation in its absence, which intersects with several previous findings. Participants are found to be more sensitive to the final phonological overlap than the initial overlap, which also coincides with a body of earlier literature. The results contradict the cohort theory’s stress on the onset overlap position and, instead, give more weight to final overlap, and even heavier weight to the two-segmented one. In conclusion, this study confirms the facilitating effect of PP with words but not when stimuli (at least the primes and at most both the primes and targets) are nonwords. It also shows that the two-segmented priming is the most influential in LDM in Arabic.

Keywords: lexicality, phonological overlap positions, phonological priming, visual word recognition

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875 Effect of Hormones Priming on Enzyme Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Wheat Seed under Accelerated Aging

Authors: Amin Abbasi, Fariborz Shekari, Seyed Bahman Mousavi

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Seed aging during storage is a complex biochemical and physiological processes that can lead to reduce seed germination. This phenomenon associated with increasing of total antioxidant activity during aging. To study the effects of hormones on seed aging, aged wheat seeds (control, 90 and 80% viabilities) were treated with GA3, Salicylic Acid, and paclobutrazol and antioxidant system were investigated as molecular biomarkers for seed vigor. The results showed that, seed priming treatment significantly affected germination percentage, normality seedling percentage, H2O2, MDA, CAT, APX, and GPX activates. Maximum germination percentage achieve in GA3 priming in control treatment. Germination percentage and normal seedling percentage increased in other GA3 priming treatment compared with other hormones. Also aging increased MDA, H2O2 content. MDA is considered sensitive marker commonly used for assessing membrane lipid peroxidation and H2O2result in toxicity to cellular membrane system and damages to plant cells. Amount of H2O2 and MDA declined in GA3 treatment. CAT, GPX and APX activities were reduced by increasing the aging time and at different levels of priming. The highest APX activity was observed in Salicylic Acid control treatment and the highest GPX and CAT activity was obtained in GA3 control treatment. The lowest MDA and H2O2 showed in GA3 control treatment, too. Hormone priming increased Antioxidant enzyme activity and decreased amount of reactive oxygen space and malondialdehyde (MDA) under aging treatment. Also, GA3 priming treatments have a significant effect on germination percentage and number of normal seedling. Generally aging seed, increase ROS and lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant enzymes activity of aged seeds increased after hormone priming.

Keywords: hormones priming, wheat, aging seed, antioxidant, lipid peroxidation

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874 The Impact of Syntactic Priming on Language Learners’ Perception of Relative Clauses

Authors: Kaine Gulozer

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Listening comprehension in a foreign language context has been a constant challenge for Turkish speakers of English. Syntactic priming (SP) of relative clauses might affect the perception of subsequent sentences of identical structure and this could have an impact on the listening comprehension of second or foreign language learners. There has been little attempt to investigate the syntactic priming of English subject relative clauses and object relative clauses in relation to perception for the learners of English in Turkish context. This study investigates SP effects on low-proficiency EFL learners’ production of English relative clauses. Both qualitative and quantitative method along with a pre-test and post-test tasks were adopted, recruiting 62 EFL learners to receive a six-week listening instruction on relative clauses. Testing instruments for language production included the two tasks: (1) the visual- cued presentation and recall and (2) the auditory-cued presentation and recall. Students’ listening comprehension in task 1 and 2 were recorded and transcribed. Fifteen of the participants were also interviewed. The results of the dependent samples t-test analyses revealed that SP had a significant effect on the overall perception of relative clauses.

Keywords: listening comprehension, relative clauses, structural priming, syntactic persistance, syntactic priming

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873 Choral Singers' Preference for Expressive Priming Techniques

Authors: Shawn Michael Condon

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Current research on teaching expressivity mainly involves instrumentalists. This study focuses on choral singers’ preference of priming techniques based on four methods for teaching expressivity. 112 choral singers answered the survey about their preferred methods for priming expressivity (vocal modelling, using metaphor, tapping into felt emotions, and drawing on past experiences) in three conditions (active, passive, and instructor). Analysis revealed higher preference for drawing on past experience among more experienced singers. The most preferred technique in the passive and instructor roles was vocal modelling, with metaphors and tapping into felt emotions favoured in an active role. Priming techniques are often used in combination with other methods to enhance singing technique or expressivity and are dependent upon the situation, repertoire, and the preferences of the instructor and performer.

Keywords: emotion, expressivity, performance, singing, teaching

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872 Priming through Open Book MCQ Test: A Tool for Enhancing Learning in Medical Undergraduates

Authors: Bharti Bhandari, Bharati Mehta, Sabyasachi Sircar

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Medical education is advancing in India, with its advancement newer innovations are being incorporated in teaching and assessment methodology. Our study focusses on a teaching innovation that is more student-centric than teacher-centric and is the need of the day. The teaching innovation was carried out in 1st year MBBS students of our institute. Students were assigned control and test groups. Priming was done for the students in the test group with an open-book MCQ based test in a particular topic before delivering formal didactic lecture on that topic. The control group was not assigned any such exercise. This was followed by formal didactic lecture on the same topic. Thereafter, both groups were assessed on the same topic. The marks were compiled and analysed using appropriate statistical tests. Students were also given questionnaire to elicit their views on the benefits of “self-priming”. The mean marks scored in theory assessment by the test group were statistically higher than the marks scored by the controls. According to students’ feedback, the ‘self-priming “process was interesting, helped in better orientation during class-room lectures and better understanding of the topic. They want it to be repeated for other topics with moderate difficulty level. Better performance of the students in the primed group validates the combination of student-centric priming model and didactic lecture as superior to the conventional, teacher-centric methods alone. If this system is successfully followed, the present teacher-centric pedagogy should increasingly give way to student-centric activities where the teacher is only a facilitator.

Keywords: medical education, open-book test, pedagogy, priming

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871 The Effects of Future Priming on Resource Concern

Authors: Calvin Rong, Regina Agassian, Mindy Engle-Friedman

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Climate changes, including rising sea levels and increases in global temperature, can have major effects on resource availability, leading to increased competition for resources and rising food prices. The abstract nature and often delayed consequences of many ecological problems cause people focus on immediate, specific, and personal events and circumstances that compel immediate and emotional involvement. This finding may be explained by the challenges humans have in imagining themselves in the future, a shortcoming that interferes with decision-making involving far-off rewards, and leads people to indicate a lower concern toward the future than to present circumstances. The present study sought to assess whether priming people to think of themselves in the future might strengthen the connection to their future selves and stimulate environmentally-protective behavior. We hypothesize that priming participants to think about themselves in the future would increase concern for the future environment. 45 control participants were primed to think about themselves in the present, and 42 participants were primed to think about themselves in the futures. After priming, the participants rated their concern over access to clean water, food, and energy on a scale of 1 to 10. They also rated their predicted care levels for the environment at age points 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 on a scale of 1(not at all) to 10 (very much). Predicted care levels at age 90 for the experimental group was significantly higher than for the control group. Overall the experimental group rated their concern for resources higher than the control. In comparison to the control group (M=7.60, SD=2.104) participants in the experimental group had greater concern for clean water (M=8.56, SD=1.534). In comparison to the control group (M=7.49, SD=2.041) participants in the experimental group were more concerned about food resources (M=8.41, SD=1.830). In comparison to the control group (M=7.22, SD=1.999) participants in the experimental group were more concerned about energy resources (M=8.07, SD=1.967). This study assessed whether a priming strategy could be used to encourage pro-environmental practices that protect limited resources. Future-self priming helped participants see past short term issues and focus on concern for the future environment.

Keywords: climate change, future, priming, global warming

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870 Carbon Dioxide Removal from Off Gases in a Self-Priming Submerged Venturi Scrubber

Authors: Manisha Bal, Amit Verma, B. C. Meikap

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Carbon dioxide (CO₂) is the most abundant waste produced by human activities. It is estimated to be one of the major contributors of greenhouse effect and also considered as a major air pollutant formed by burning of fossil fuels. The main sources of emissions are flue gas from thermal power plants and process industries. It is also a contributor of acid rain. Its exposure through inhalation can lead to health risks. Therefore, control of CO₂ emission in the environment is very necessary. The main focus of this study is on the removal of carbon dioxide from off gases using a self-priming venturi scrubber in submerged conditions using sodium hydroxide as the scrubbing liquid. A self-priming submerged venturi scrubber is an efficient device to remove gaseous pollutants. In submerged condition, venturi scrubber remains submerged in the liquid tank and the liquid enters at the throat section of venturi scrubber due to the pressure difference which includes the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid and static pressure of the gas. The inlet polluted air stream enters through converging section which moves at very high velocity in the throat section and atomizes the liquid droplets. This leads to absorption of CO₂ from the off gases in scrubbing liquid which resulted in removal of CO₂ gas from the off gases. Detailed investigation on the scrubbing of carbon dioxide has been done in this literature. Experiments were conducted at different throat gas velocities, liquid levels in outer cylinder and CO₂ inlet concentrations to study the carbon dioxide removal efficiency. Experimental results give more than 95% removal efficiency of CO₂ in the self priming venturi scrubber which can meet the environmental emission limit of CO₂ to save the human life.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, scrubbing, pollution control, self-priming venturi scrubber

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869 Seed Priming Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for Germination and Emergence

Authors: Pakize Ozlem Kurt Polat, Gizem Metin, Koksal Yagdi

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In order to evaluate the effect of the different sources of salt on germination and early growth of five wheat cultivars (Katea, Bezostaja, Koksal-2000, Golia, Pehlivan) an experiment was conducted at the seed laboratory of the Uludag University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Field Crops in Bursa/Turkey. Seeds were applied in five different resources media (KCl % 2, KCl %4, KNO₃ %0,5, KH₂PO₄ %0,5, PEG %10) and distilled water as the control). The seed was fully immersed in priming media at a temperature of 24ᵒC for durations of 12 and 24hours. Six different agronomic characters (seed germination, stem length, stem weight, radicle length, fresh weight, dry weight) were measured in 7th days and 14th days. Maximum seed germination percentage of seven days are Pehlivan was observed when the seeds were applied by KH₂PO₄ and Katea by distilled water as a control. The most stem length and stem weight were obtained for seeds were applied by KH₂PO₄ %0,5 with Katea and Bezostja immersed in priming media at 12h intervals beginning 7d after planting. Seeds were applied KH₂PO₄ %0,5 media produced maximum radicle length by Koksal and dry weight by Katea. The freshest weight obtains in Katea by KNO₃ %0,5 immersed in priming media at 24h. The most germination percent, dry weight, stem length of fourteen days was observed in Katea which subjected to KH₂PO₄ %0,5 solution. The most radicle length was observed Katea and Koksal in media of KH₂PO₄ %0,5. The most stem length was obtained for seeds were applied by KH₂PO₄ %0,5 and KNO₃ with Katea and Bezostaja. When the applied chemicals and all days examined KH₂PO₄ %0,5 treatment in fourteen days and immersed for the duration of 24 hours had better effects than other medias, seven days treatments and 12hours immersed. As a result of this research, the best response of media for the wheat germination can be said that the KH₂PO₄ %0,5 immersed in priming media at 24h intervals beginning 14 days after planting.

Keywords: germination, priming, seedling growth, wheat

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868 An Approach for Reducing Morphological Operator Dataset and Recognize Optical Character Based on Significant Features

Authors: Ashis Pradhan, Mohan P. Pradhan

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Pattern Matching is useful for recognizing character in a digital image. OCR is one such technique which reads character from a digital image and recognizes them. Line segmentation is initially used for identifying character in an image and later refined by morphological operations like binarization, erosion, thinning, etc. The work discusses a recognition technique that defines a set of morphological operators based on its orientation in a character. These operators are further categorized into groups having similar shape but different orientation for efficient utilization of memory. Finally the characters are recognized in accordance with the occurrence of frequency in hierarchy of significant pattern of those morphological operators and by comparing them with the existing database of each character.

Keywords: binary image, morphological patterns, frequency count, priority, reduction data set and recognition

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867 The Morphological Processes of Bura Verbs

Authors: Yakubu Bitrus Gali

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Bura refers both to the kingdom, the people as well as to the language. It is a language spoken in North-Eastern Nigeria. It is also classified under the Chadic group of languages, subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic phylum. Three morphological processes were found to be operating in Bura language viz: affixation, reduplication and modification. Affixation could be prefixation, infixation and suffixation, while reduplication and modification are divided into complete and partial. Verbs as well, can be formed through various processes like affixation, reduplication and modification. The aim of this paper is to examine the morphological processes that are found in Bura language. In this study, research informants were selected by means of sampling technique. The study helps us to understand that Bura like other languages morphological processes of verbs is possible.

Keywords: Bura language, infixation, morphological processes, prefixation, suffixation

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866 Morphological Analysis of Manipuri Language: Wahei-Neinarol

Authors: Y. Bablu Singh, B. S. Purkayashtha, Chungkham Yashawanta Singh

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Morphological analysis forms the basic foundation in NLP applications including syntax parsing Machine Translation (MT), Information Retrieval (IR) and automatic indexing in all languages. It is the field of the linguistics; it can provide valuable information for computer based linguistics task such as lemmatization and studies of internal structure of the words. Computational Morphology is the application of morphological rules in the field of computational linguistics, and it is the emerging area in AI, which studies the structure of words, which are formed by combining smaller units of linguistics information, called morphemes: the building blocks of words. Morphological analysis provides about semantic and syntactic role in a sentence. It analyzes the Manipuri word forms and produces several grammatical information associated with the words. The Morphological Analyzer for Manipuri has been tested on 3500 Manipuri words in Shakti Standard format (SSF) using Meitei Mayek as source; thereby an accuracy of 80% has been obtained on a manual check.

Keywords: morphological analysis, machine translation, computational morphology, information retrieval, SSF

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865 Developing the Morphological Field of Problem Context to Assist Multi-Methodology in Operations Research

Authors: Mahnaz Hosseinzadeh, Mohammad Reza Mehregan

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In this paper, we have developed a morphological field to assist multi- methodology (combining methodologies together in whole or part) in Operations Research (OR) for the problem contexts in Iranian organizations. So, we have attempted to identify some dimensions for problem context according to Iranian organizational problems. Then, a general morphological program is designed which helps the OR practitioner to determine the suitable OR methodology as output for any configuration of conditions in a problem context as input and to reveal the fields necessary to be improved in OR. Applying such a program would have interesting results for OR practitioners.

Keywords: hard, soft and emancipatory operations research, General Morphological Analysis (GMA), multi-methodology, problem context

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864 Morphological Processing of Punjabi Text for Sentiment Analysis of Farmer Suicides

Authors: Jaspreet Singh, Gurvinder Singh, Prabhsimran Singh, Rajinder Singh, Prithvipal Singh, Karanjeet Singh Kahlon, Ravinder Singh Sawhney

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Morphological evaluation of Indian languages is one of the burgeoning fields in the area of Natural Language Processing (NLP). The evaluation of a language is an eminent task in the era of information retrieval and text mining. The extraction and classification of knowledge from text can be exploited for sentiment analysis and morphological evaluation. This study coalesce morphological evaluation and sentiment analysis for the task of classification of farmer suicide cases reported in Punjab state of India. The pre-processing of Punjabi text involves morphological evaluation and normalization of Punjabi word tokens followed by the training of proposed model using deep learning classification on Punjabi language text extracted from online Punjabi news reports. The class-wise accuracies of sentiment prediction for four negatively oriented classes of farmer suicide cases are 93.85%, 88.53%, 83.3%, and 95.45% respectively. The overall accuracy of sentiment classification obtained using proposed framework on 275 Punjabi text documents is found to be 90.29%.

Keywords: deep neural network, farmer suicides, morphological processing, punjabi text, sentiment analysis

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863 Morphological Rules of Bangla Repetition Words for UNL Based Machine Translation

Authors: Nawab Yousuf Ali, S. Golam, A. Ameer, Ashok Toru Roy

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This paper develops new morphological rules suitable for Bangla repetition words to be incorporated into an inter lingua representation called Universal Networking Language (UNL). The proposed rules are to be used to combine verb roots and their inflexions to produce words which are then combined with other similar types of words to generate repetition words. This paper outlines the format of morphological rules for different types of repetition words that come from verb roots based on the framework of UNL provided by the UNL centre of the Universal Networking Digital Language (UNDL) foundation.

Keywords: Universal Networking Language (UNL), universal word (UW), head word (HW), Bangla-UNL Dictionary, morphological rule, enconverter (EnCo)

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862 Morphological Study of Various Varieties of Aseel Chicken Breed Inhabiting District Hyderabad

Authors: Madiha Qureshi

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The study was designed to explore the morphological variation of Aseel chicken varieties in district Hyderabad. A survey was conducted during 5th April 2017 to 23rd August 2017 in four localities of district Hyderabad including Tandojam, Goth karan khan shoro, tower market and railway line colony. A total number of 54 samples (20 males and 34 females) of six varieties of Aseel chicken breed (Sindhi, Mottled, Black, Lakha, Jawa, Kulang) were studied and identify with different morphological characters such as comb type, size of wattles and earlobes, plumage color, shank color, beak color and eye color. Great morphological diversity was observed among these varieties, and this study provides baseline information for future research in the area.

Keywords: Aseel, Hyderabad, wattle, earlobe, comb

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861 Design and Development of Morphological Analyzer for Tigrigna Nouns Using Finite State Transducer Techniques

Authors: Gebremeskel Hagos Gebremedhin, Feng Chong, Huang Heyan

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A morphological analyzer is an important component of most natural language processing tasks. It is the process of returning one or more surface forms from a sequence of underlying (lexical) forms, can provide fine-grained parts of speech information, and help resolve necessary syntactic agreements. It is used to analyze surface word forms, which are the ones that are found in everyday communication, is the segmentation of words into their component morphemes and the assignment of grammatical morphemes to grammatical categories and lexical morphemes to lexemes. In addition, morphological analysis systems are used as components in many applications, including machine translation, spell-checker, speech recognition, lexicon compilation, POS tagging, conversational systems, automatic sentence construction, and many others. Morphological analyzers have been developed for many local/European languages like English and Amharic. However, there is no such system for Tigrigna. This study develops a rule-based morphological analyzer for Tigrigna nouns. A rule-based morphological analyzer is designed and developed based on the Finite State Transducer Techniques. The FOMA tool is employed for the experiment analysis. The performance of the system is 82.85%. The result obtained encourages the undertaking of further research in the area, especially with the aim of developing a full-fledged Tigrigna morphological analyzer.

Keywords: morphology, Tigrigna, finite state transducer, finite state automata, FOMA

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860 The Effects of Current and Future Priming on Pro-Environmental Attitudes

Authors: Calvin Rong, Regina Agassian, Joel Hernandez, Mindy Engle-Friedman

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This study assessed strategies to stimulate engagement with future environmental needs. 32 participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions which involved imagining and drawing: 1) a generic person in current life, 2) one’s self in current life or 3) one’s self in the future. Participants before and after the intervention indicated connectedness to their selves 50 years in the future on an adapted Future Self-Continuity Scale. A significant interaction (p = .03) showed no difference in connectedness into one’s future self in the control group, a decrease in connectedness in those who imagined themselves in the present and an increase in connectedness in those who imagined themselves in the future. Results suggest attention to one’s present life circumstances may interfere with one’s connection with future environmental issues but imagining one’s future life may stimulate actions that result in future environmental protection.

Keywords: environmental psychology, future priming, climate change, global warming

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859 Hit-Or-Miss Transform as a Tool for Similar Shape Detection

Authors: Osama Mohamed Elrajubi, Idris El-Feghi, Mohamed Abu Baker Saghayer

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This paper describes an identification of specific shapes within binary images using the morphological Hit-or-Miss Transform (HMT). Hit-or-Miss transform is a general binary morphological operation that can be used in searching of particular patterns of foreground and background pixels in an image. It is actually a basic operation of binary morphology since almost all other binary morphological operators are derived from it. The input of this method is a binary image and a structuring element (a template which will be searched in a binary image) while the output is another binary image. In this paper a modification of Hit-or-Miss transform has been proposed. The accuracy of algorithm is adjusted according to the similarity of the template and the sought template. The implementation of this method has been done by C language. The algorithm has been tested on several images and the results have shown that this new method can be used for similar shape detection.

Keywords: hit-or-miss operator transform, HMT, binary morphological operation, shape detection, binary images processing

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858 Applications of the Morphological Variability in River Management: A Study of West Rapti River

Authors: Partha Sarathi Mondal, Srabani Sanyal

Abstract:

Different geomorphic agents produce a different landforms pattern. Similarly rivers also have a distinct and diverse landforms pattern. And even, within a river course different and distinct assemblage of landforms i.e. morphological variability are seen. These morphological variability are produced by different river processes. Channel and floodplain morphology helps to interpret river processes. Consequently morphological variability can be used as an important tool for assessing river processes, hydrological connectivity and river health, which will help us to draw inference about river processes and therefore, management of river health. The present study is documented on West Rapti river, a trans-boundary river flowing through Nepal and India, from its source to confluence with Ghaghra river in India. The river shows a significant morphological variability throughout its course. The present study tries to find out factors and processes responsible for the morphological variability of the river and in which way it can be applied in river management practices. For this purpose channel and floodplain morphology of West Rapti river was mapped as accurately as possible and then on the basis of process-form interactions, inferences are drawn to understand factors of morphological variability. The study shows that the valley setting of West Rapti river, in the Himalayan region, is confined and somewhere partly confined whereas, channel of the West Rapti river is single thread in most part of Himalayan region and braided in valley region. In the foothill region valley is unconfined and channel is braided, in middle part channel is meandering and valley is unconfined, whereas, channel is anthropogenically altered in the lower part of the course. Due to this the morphology of West Rapti river is highly diverse. These morphological variability are produced by different geomorphic processes. Therefore, for any river management it is essential to sustain these morphological variability so that the river could not cross the geomorphic threshold and environmental flow of the river along with the biodiversity of riparian region is maintained.

Keywords: channel morphology, environmental flow, floodplain morphology, geomorphic threshold

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857 The Efficacy of Salicylic Acid and Puccinia Triticina Isolates Priming Wheat Plant to Diuraphis Noxia Damage

Authors: Huzaifa Bilal

Abstract:

Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia, Kurdjumov) is considered an economically important wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) pest worldwide and in South Africa. The RWA damages wheat plants and reduces annual yields by more than 10%. Even though pest management by pesticides and resistance breeding is an attractive option, chemicals can cause harm to the environment. Furthermore, the evolution of resistance-breaking aphid biotypes has out-paced the release of resistant cultivars. An alternative strategy to reduce the impact of aphid damage on plants, such as priming, which sensitizes plants to respond effectively to subsequent attacks, is necessary. In this study, wheat plants at the seedling and flag leaf stages were primed by salicylic acid and isolate representative of two races of the leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina Eriks. (Pt), before RWA (South African RWA biotypes 1 and 4) infestation. Randomized complete block design experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to study plant-pest interaction in primed and non-primed plants. Analysis of induced aphid damage indicated salicylic acid differentially primed wheat cultivars for increased resistance to the RWASA biotypes. At the seedling stage, all cultivars were primed for enhanced resistance to RWASA1, while at the flag leaf stage, only PAN 3111, SST 356 and Makalote were primed for increased resistance. The Puccinia triticina efficaciously primed wheat cultivars for excellent resistance to RWASA1 at the seedling and flag leaf stages. However, Pt failed to enhance the four Lesotho cultivars' resistance to RWASA4 at the seedling stage and PAN 3118 at the flag leaf stage. The induced responses at the seedling and flag leaf stages were positively correlated in all the treatments. Primed plants induced high activity of antioxidant enzymes like peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. High antioxidant activity indicates activation of resistant responses in primed plants (primed by salicylic acid and Puccina triticina). Isolates of avirulent Pt races can be a worthy priming agent for improved resistance to RWA infestation. Further confirmation of the priming effects needs to be evaluated at the field trials to investigate its application efficiency.

Keywords: Russian wheat aphis, salicylic acid, puccina triticina, priming

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856 Removal of Gaseous Pollutant from the Flue Gas in a Submerged Self-Priming Venturi Scrubber

Authors: Manisha Bal, B. C. Meikap

Abstract:

Hydrogen chloride is the most common acid gas emitted by the industries. HCl gas is listed as Title III hazardous air pollutant. It causes severe threat to the human health as well as environment. So, removal of HCl from flue gases is very imperative. In the present study, submerged self-priming venturi scrubber is chosen to remove the HCl gas with water as a scrubbing liquid. Venturi scrubber is the most popular device for the removal of gaseous pollutants. Main mechanism behind the venturi scrubber is the polluted gas stream enters at converging section which accelerated to maximum velocity at throat section. A very interesting thing in case of submerged condition, venturi scrubber is submerged inside the liquid tank and liquid is entered at throat section because of suction created due to large pressure drop generated at the throat section. Maximized throat gas velocity atomizes the entered liquid into number of tiny droplets. Gaseous pollutant HCl is absorbed from gas to liquid droplets inside the venturi scrubber due to interaction between the gas and water. Experiments were conducted at different throat gas velocity, water level and inlet concentration of HCl to enhance the HCl removal efficiency. The effect of throat gas velocity, inlet concentration of HCl, and water level on removal efficiency of venturi scrubber has been evaluated. Present system yielded very high removal efficiency for the scrubbing of HCl gas which is more than 90%. It is also concluded that the removal efficiency of HCl increases with increasing throat gas velocity, inlet HCl concentration, and water level height.

Keywords: air pollution, HCl scrubbing, mass transfer, self-priming venturi scrubber

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855 Dust Particle Removal from Air in a Self-Priming Submerged Venturi Scrubber

Authors: Manisha Bal, Remya Chinnamma Jose, B.C. Meikap

Abstract:

Dust particles suspended in air are a major source of air pollution. A self-priming submerged venturi scrubber proven very effective in cases of handling nuclear power plant accidents is an efficient device to remove dust particles from the air and thus aids in pollution control. Venturi scrubbers are compact, have a simple mode of operation, no moving parts, easy to install and maintain when compared to other pollution control devices and can handle high temperatures and corrosive and flammable gases and dust particles. In the present paper, fly ash particles recognized as a high air pollutant substance emitted mostly from thermal power plants is considered as the dust particle. Its exposure through skin contact, inhalation and indigestion can lead to health risks and in severe cases can even root to lung cancer. The main focus of this study is on the removal of fly ash particles from polluted air using a self-priming venturi scrubber in submerged conditions using water as the scrubbing liquid. The venturi scrubber comprising of three sections: converging section, throat and diverging section is submerged inside a water tank. The liquid enters the throat due to the pressure difference composed of the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid and static pressure of the gas. The high velocity dust particles atomize the liquid droplets at the throat and this interaction leads to its absorption into water and thus removal of fly ash from the air. Detailed investigation on the scrubbing of fly ash has been done in this literature. Experiments were conducted at different throat gas velocities, water levels and fly ash inlet concentrations to study the fly ash removal efficiency. From the experimental results, the highest fly ash removal efficiency of 99.78% is achieved at the throat gas velocity of 58 m/s, water level of height 0.77m with fly ash inlet concentration of 0.3 x10⁻³ kg/Nm³ in the submerged condition. The effect of throat gas velocity, water level and fly ash inlet concentration on the removal efficiency has also been evaluated. Furthermore, experimental results of removal efficiency are validated with the developed empirical model.

Keywords: dust particles, fly ash, pollution control, self-priming venturi scrubber

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854 An Extraction of Cancer Region from MR Images Using Fuzzy Clustering Means and Morphological Operations

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Gurjit Singh Bhathal

Abstract:

Cancer diagnosis is very difficult task. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is used to produce image of any part of the body and provides an efficient way for diagnosis of cancer or tumor. In existing method, fuzzy clustering mean (FCM) is used for the diagnosis of the tumor. In the proposed method FCM is used to diagnose the cancer of the foot. FCM finds the centroids of the clusters of the foot cancer obtained from MRI images. FCM thresholding result shows the extract region of the cancer. Morphological operations are applied to get extracted region of cancer.

Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fuzzy C mean clustering, segmentation, morphological operations

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853 Language Switching Errors of Bilinguals: Role of Top down and Bottom up Process

Authors: Numra Qayyum, Samina Sarwat, Noor ul Ain

Abstract:

Bilingual speakers generally can speak both languages with the same competency without mixing them intentionally and making mistakes, but sometimes errors occur in language selection. This quantitative study particularly deals with the language errors made by Urdu-English bilinguals. In this research, researchers have given special attention to the part played by bottom-up priming and top-down cognitive control in these errors. Unstable Urdu-English bilingual participants termed pictures and were prompted to shift from one language to another under the pressure of time. Different situations were given to manipulate the participants. The long and short runs trials of the same language were also given before switching to another language. The study is concluded with the findings that bilinguals made more errors when switching to the first language from their second language, and these errors are large in number, especially when a speaker is switching from L2 (second language) to L1 (first language) after a long run. When the switching is reversed, i.e., from L2 to LI, it had no effect at all. These results gave the clear responsibility of all these errors to top-down cognitive control.

Keywords: bottom up priming, language error, language switching, top down cognitive control

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852 Effect of Coal Fly Ash on Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Helianthus Annuus L. Sunflower

Authors: Patel P. Kailash, Patel M. Parimal

Abstract:

An investigation was conducted to study the different concentration of coal fly ash solution on morphological and biochemical parameters of Helianthus annuus L. The seeds of Helianthus annuus L. were placed in petri dishes in three replicates and allowed to grow for 16 days in different concentration of coal fly ash solution. Shoot length, root length and fresh weight, dry weight declined with increasing concentration of fly ash. Semidiluted and concentrated fly ash solution exhibited significant reduction in chlorophyll, protein,sugar and ascorbic acid. Concentration dependent changes were observed in most of parameters. Diluted solution of fly ash revealed the maximum increase morphological and biochemical changes of seedlings.

Keywords: Helianthus annuus L., protein, sugar, chlorophyll, coal fly ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 268