Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Shahabeddin Sarvi

5 Determination of Parasitic Load in Different Tissues of Murine Toxoplasmosis after Immunization by Excretory-Secretory Antigens using Real Time QPCR

Authors: Ahmad Daryani, Yousef Dadimoghaddam, Mehdi Sharif, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Baghar Hashemi

Abstract:

Background: Excretory-secretory antigens (ESAs) of Toxoplasma gondii are one of the candidates for immunization against toxoplasmosis. For evaluation of immunization, we determined the kinetics of the distribution of Toxoplasma and parasite load in different tissues of mice immunized by ESAs. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 mice in case (n= 18) and control (n= 18) groups were immunized with ESAs and PBS, respectively. After 2 weeks, mice were challenged intraperitoneally with Toxoplasma virulent RH strain. Blood and different tissues (brain, spleen, liver, heart, kidney, and muscle) were collected daily after challenge (1, 2, 3 and last day before death). Parasite load was calculated using Real time QPCR targeted at the B1 gene. Results: ESAs as vaccine in different tissues showed various effects. However, infected mice which received the vaccine in comparison with control group, displayed a drastically decreasing in parasite burden, in their blood and tissues (P= 0.000). Conclusion: These results indicated that ESAs with reduction of parasite load in different tissues of host could be evaluable candidate for the development of immunization strategies against toxoplasmosis.

Keywords: parasitic load, murine toxoplasmosis, immunization, excretory-secretory antigens, real time QPCR

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4 Survey on Prevalence of Endo and Ecto-Parasites of Rattus rattus in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

Authors: Fatemeh Rezaei, Afsaneh Amouei, Iman Bakouei, Mahdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Mohammad Taghi Rahimi, Ahmad Daryani

Abstract:

Background: Rodents act as reservoir host and important potential source for many zoonotic pathogens which pose a public health risk to humans. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal and ectoparasites among rodents. Materials and Methods: 118 Rattus rattus were captured using snap live traps. Each rat was combed with a fine tooth comb to dislodge ectoparasite and studied. Various samples were collected from feces, examined wet smear, formalin-ether method and stained with modified acid-fast staining and trichrome. Result: The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of examined rats was 75.4%. Cryptosporidium 30.5%, was the most prevalent protozoan which was followed by Giardia 20.3% and Entamoeba muris 13.5%, Trichomonas muris 10.1% and Spironucleus muris 3.3%. The prevalence of helminth egg was as following Syphacia obvelata 24.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta 10.1% and Trichuris muris 9.3%. 86.4% rodents were found to be infested with ectoparasites including mite 35.6%, flea 28.4%, and lice 42.7%. A significant statistical difference was observed between prevalence and gender of infected individuals. Conclusions: The prevalence of gastrointestinal and ectoparasites of collected rats in studied area is remarkably high. In addition, Rattus rattus can be considered as potential risk for human health.

Keywords: prevalence, rodent, intestinal parasites, ecto-parasites, zoonose

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3 Development of an Image-Based Biomechanical Model for Assessment of Hip Fracture Risk

Authors: Masoud Nasiri Sarvi, Yunhua Luo

Abstract:

Low-trauma hip fracture, usually caused by fall from standing height, has become a main source of morbidity and mortality for the elderly. Factors affecting hip fracture include sex, race, age, body weight, height, body mass distribution, etc., and thus, hip fracture risk in fall differs widely from subject to subject. It is therefore necessary to develop a subject-specific biomechanical model to predict hip fracture risk. The objective of this study is to develop a two-level, image-based, subject-specific biomechanical model consisting of a whole-body dynamics model and a proximal-femur finite element (FE) model for more accurately assessing the risk of hip fracture in lateral falls. Required information for constructing the model is extracted from a whole-body and a hip DXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) image of the subject. The proposed model considers all parameters subject-specifically, which will provide a fast, accurate, and non-expensive method for predicting hip fracture risk.

Keywords: bone mineral density, hip fracture risk, impact force, sideways falls

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2 From Type-I to Type-II Fuzzy System Modeling for Diagnosis of Hepatitis

Authors: Shahabeddin Sotudian, M. H. Fazel Zarandi, I. B. Turksen

Abstract:

Hepatitis is one of the most common and dangerous diseases that affects humankind, and exposes millions of people to serious health risks every year. Diagnosis of Hepatitis has always been a challenge for physicians. This paper presents an effective method for diagnosis of hepatitis based on interval Type-II fuzzy. This proposed system includes three steps: pre-processing (feature selection), Type-I and Type-II fuzzy classification, and system evaluation. KNN-FD feature selection is used as the preprocessing step in order to exclude irrelevant features and to improve classification performance and efficiency in generating the classification model. In the fuzzy classification step, an “indirect approach” is used for fuzzy system modeling by implementing the exponential compactness and separation index for determining the number of rules in the fuzzy clustering approach. Therefore, we first proposed a Type-I fuzzy system that had an accuracy of approximately 90.9%. In the proposed system, the process of diagnosis faces vagueness and uncertainty in the final decision. Thus, the imprecise knowledge was managed by using interval Type-II fuzzy logic. The results that were obtained show that interval Type-II fuzzy has the ability to diagnose hepatitis with an average accuracy of 93.94%. The classification accuracy obtained is the highest one reached thus far. The aforementioned rate of accuracy demonstrates that the Type-II fuzzy system has a better performance in comparison to Type-I and indicates a higher capability of Type-II fuzzy system for modeling uncertainty.

Keywords: hepatitis disease, medical diagnosis, type-I fuzzy logic, type-II fuzzy logic, feature selection

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1 Nonlinear Response of Tall Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall Buildings under Wind Loads

Authors: Mahtab Abdollahi Sarvi, Siamak Epackachi, Ali Imanpour

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete shear walls are commonly used as the lateral load-resisting system of mid- to high-rise office or residential buildings around the world. Design of such systems is often governed by wind rather than seismic effects, in particular in low-to-moderate seismic regions. The current design philosophy as per the majority of building codes under wind loads require elastic response of lateral load-resisting systems including reinforced concrete shear walls when subjected to the rare design wind load, resulting in significantly large wall sections needed to meet strength requirements and drift limits. The latter can highly influence the design in upper stories due to stringent drift limits specified by building codes, leading to substantial added costs to the construction of the wall. However, such walls may offer limited to moderate over-strength and ductility due to their large reserve capacity provided that they are designed and detailed to appropriately develop such over-strength and ductility under extreme wind loads. This would significantly contribute to reducing construction time and costs, while maintaining structural integrity under gravity and frequently-occurring and less frequent wind events. This paper aims to investigate the over-strength and ductility capacity of several imaginary office buildings located in Edmonton, Canada with a glance at earthquake design philosophy. Selected models are 10- to 25-story buildings with three types of reinforced concrete shear wall configurations including rectangular, barbell, and flanged. The buildings are designed according to National Building Code of Canada. Then fiber-based numerical models of the walls are developed in Perform 3D and by conducting nonlinear static (pushover) analysis, lateral nonlinear behavior of the walls are evaluated. Ductility and over-strength of the structures are obtained based on the results of the pushover analyses. The results confirmed moderate nonlinear capacity of reinforced concrete shear walls under extreme wind loads. This is while lateral displacements of the walls pass the serviceability limit states defined in Pre standard for Performance-Based Wind Design (ASCE). The results indicate that we can benefit the limited nonlinear response observed in the reinforced concrete shear walls to economize the design of such systems under wind loads.

Keywords: concrete shear wall, high-rise buildings, nonlinear static analysis, response modification factor, wind load

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