Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 603

Search results for: emergence

603 Conditions Required for New Sector Emergence: Results from a Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Laurie Prange-Martin, Romeo Turcan, Norman Fraser

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to identify the conditions required and describe the process of emergence for a new economic sector created from new or established businesses. A systematic literature review of English-language studies published from 1983 to 2016 was conducted using the following databases: ABI/INFORM Complete; Business Source Premiere; Google Scholar; Scopus; and Web of Science. The two main terms of business sector and emergence were used in the systematic literature search, along with another seventeen synonyms for each these main terms. From the search results, 65 publications met the requirements of an empirical study discussing and reporting the conditions of new sector emergence. A meta-analysis of the literature examined suggest that there are six favourable conditions and five key individuals or groups required for new sector emergence. In addition, the results from the meta-analysis showed that there are eighteen theories used in the literature to explain the phenomenon of new sector emergence, which can be grouped in three study disciplines. With such diversity in theoretical frameworks used in the 65 empirical studies, the authors of this paper propose the development of a new theory of sector emergence.

Keywords: economic geography, new sector emergence, economic diversification, regional economies

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602 Studies on the Emergence Pattern of Cercariae from Fresh Water Snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

Authors: V. R. Kakulte, K. N. Gaikwad

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The emergence pattern of different types of cercariae form three snail hosts Melania tuberculata, Lymnea auricularia Viviparous bengalensis has been studied in detail. In natural emerging method the snails (2 to 3 at a time) were kept in separate test tube. This was constant source of living cercariae naturally emerging from the snails. The sunlight and artificial light play an important positive role in stimulating the emergence of cercariae has been observed. The effect of light and dark on the emission pattern of cercariae has been studied.

Keywords: cercariae, snail host, emergence pattern, gastropoda

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601 Postoperative Emergence Delirium in Children: An Incomprehensible Scenario For Parents’

Authors: Jenny Ringblom, Marie Proczkowska, Laura Korhonen, Ingrid Wåhlin

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Background: Emergence delirium is a well-known behaviour of perceptual disturbances that may occur after general anaesthesia in children. Children with emergence delirium are often confused; they cry, are involuntarily physically active and are almost impossible to console. The prevalence varies considerably between about 13% and 53%. Research has mainly focused on how different medication accents affect the incidence of emergence delirium, but less is known about parents’ experiences of emergence delirium during the recovery process. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe parents’ experiences and reflections during their child's emergence delirium behaviour when recovering from anaesthesia. Method: The study has a qualitative design, and the data has been analyzed using thematic analysis. A total of 16 parents were interviewed at two county hospitals in Sweden. Results: When the parents reunited with their child at the recovering unit, they felt as if they were encountering an incomprehensible scenario. When watching their child demonstrating emergence delirium, they experienced fear and insecurity and had feelings of powerlessness and guilt. Information and previous experience turned out to offer relief and being seen by the healthcare staff when they, in their vulnerability, failed to reach or console their child gave hope and energy. Conclusion: Emergence delirium must be extensively considered in children undergoing general anaesthesia. Healthcare staff needs to be aware of the parental difficulties it may cause. There is also important to know what parents experience as relieving, such as receiving information and when staff members are being available, responsive and supportive during the wake-up period.

Keywords: emergence delirium, experiences, pediatrics, parents, postoperative care

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600 Illicit Arms and the Emergence of Armed Groups in Nigeria

Authors: Halilu Babaji, Adamu Buba

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Illicit arms and the emergence of armed groups have witnessed unprecedented situations of political uncertainties in Nigeria, and the twenty-first century globalisation has established the process that has benefited a good number of militia groups and thereby boosting both illicit arms movement and the thriving of terrorist groups, which are largely responsible for the longstanding threat to the national security and stability of the country. This has unleashed unforeseen consequences on the entire Sub-region, following an inflow of weapons and armed fighter which are motivated by weak governance, insecurity and poverty. The social, economic and political environments make it a fertile breeding ground for the penetration and development of terrorist groups in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Keywords: arms, emergence, insecurity, groups

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599 Entropy in a Field of Emergence in an Aspect of Linguo-Culture

Authors: Nurvadi Albekov

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Communicative situation is a basis, which designates potential models of ‘constructed forms’, a motivated basis of a text, for a text can be assumed as a product of the communicative situation. It is within the field of emergence the models of text, that can be potentially prognosticated in a certain communicative situation, are designated. Every text can be assumed as conceptual system structured on the base of certain communicative situation. However in the process of ‘structuring’ of a certain model of ‘conceptual system’ consciousness of a recipient is able act only within the border of the field of emergence for going out of this border indicates misunderstanding of the communicative situation. On the base of communicative situation we can witness the increment of meaning where the synergizing of the informative model of communication, formed by using of the invariant units of a language system, is a result of verbalization of the communicative situation. The potential of the models of a text, prognosticated within the field of emergence, also depends on the communicative situation. The conception ‘the field of emergence’ is interpreted as a unit of the language system, having poly-directed universal structure, implying the presence of the core, the center and the periphery, including different levels of means of a functioning system of language, both in terms of linguistic resources, and in terms of extra linguistic factors interaction of which results increment of a text. The conception ‘field of emergence’ is considered as the most promising in the analysis of texts: oral, written, printed and electronic. As a unit of the language system field of emergence has several properties that predict its use during the study of a text in different levels. This work is an attempt analysis of entropy in a text in the aspect of lingua-cultural code, prognosticated within the model of the field of emergence. The article describes the problem of entropy in the field of emergence, caused by influence of the extra-linguistic factors. The increasing of entropy is caused not only by the fact of intrusion of the language resources but by influence of the alien culture in a whole, and by appearance of non-typical for this very culture symbols in the field of emergence. The borrowing of alien lingua-cultural symbols into the lingua-culture of the author is a reason of increasing the entropy when constructing a text both in meaning and in structuring level. It is nothing but artificial formatting of lexical units that violate stylistic unity of a phrase. It is marked that one of the important characteristics descending the entropy in the field of emergence is a typical similarity of lexical and semantic resources of the different lingua-cultures in aspects of extra linguistic factors.

Keywords: communicative situation, field of emergence, lingua-culture, entropy

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598 Preoperative Parental Anxiety is not Associated with Postoperative Emergence Agitation in Children Undergoing Adenoidectomy and/or Tonsillectomy

Authors: S. Öcal, A. Erakgün, E. Yüksel, M. N. Deniz, E. Erhan, A. Çertuğ

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Background: Emergence agitation (EA) is defined as a dissociated state of consciousness during the early post-anesthesia period in which the child is inconsolable, irritable, uncompromising or uncooperative, typically thrashing, crying, moaning, or incoherent, and not recognizing or identifying familiar and known objects or people. Some studies found preoperative parental anxiety to be a predictor of EA. Methods: Seventy-four children, between the ages of 3-12 undergoing adenoidectomy/tonsillectomy at Ege University Hospital, were studied. Anesthesia was induced and maintained using 2% sevoflurane in 50% oxygen and 50% air following a premedicative dose of 0.5mg/kg oral midazolam. After the children were taken into the operating theater, the mothers were given the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire. To evaluate EA, Post Anesthetic Emergence Delirium (PAED) score of the children were noted every 10min during the first 30min of the postoperative period. EA was defined with a highest PAED score of ≥ 10, and non-EA with a highest PAED score of ≤ 9. Results: In this study, the incidence of postoperative EA was 31% (34% under the age of 6 and 19% over). Mothers of children with EA were found not to be significantly more anxious on STAI compared to mothers of non-EA children. Conclusions: Contrary to some earlier studies, we were unable to find an association between preoperative parental anxiety and postoperative EA.

Keywords: parental anxiety, emergence agittion, Post Anesthetic Emergence Delirium, anesthesia

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597 Responses to Germination and Seedling Emergence Capacity of Durum Wheat Cultivars in Long Term Storage

Authors: S. Ahmet Bagci, Hayati Akman

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This study was conducted at the research laboratory and greenhouse conditions to determine the effect on germination and emergency values of long-term stored seed (7 years) and non-stored seed (control) of nine durum wheat varieties. Three replicates of 20 seeds were germinated between double layered rolled germination papers in the Petri plates. Seeds were allowed to germinate at 20±1°C in the dark for 8 days. The seeds were counted on the 8th day as per ISTA rules and calculated in percent to determine germination capacity. Seedling emergency values were determined by testing 20 seeds placed into the sands with three replications of pots. Plants were counted on the 7th day and 12th day to determined seedling emergency rate and capacity, respectively. According to results, there are significant differences among the varieties in terms of germination capacity, seedling emergency rate and capacity of long-term stored and non-stored seeds. Germination capacity values declined from 100% to 93,3% of non-stored seeds whereas they were from 96,7% to 71,7% of long-term stored seeds. Percentage of seedling emergency capacity varied from 65,0% to 93,3% for non-stored seeds, however, the percentage of it was between 11,7 and 86,7% for long-term stored seeds. Results indicate that germination and emergence values responses to long-term stored condition varied significantly among durum wheat cultivars. Research results showed that the long-term-storage resulted in significant decrease with 13.5 % for germination, 36.4 % for emergence on the seventh day and 32.4 % for emergence on the twelfth day. Germination values ranged from 93.3 to 100.0 % for control and 71.7 to 96.7 % for storage. Emergence values in seventh day varied between 51.7 % and 90.0 % for control and 75.0 % and 10.0 % for storage, however values in twelfth day were between 93.3 % and 65.0 % for control and 86.7 % and 11.7 % for storage. According to research results, germination and emergence responses to long-term storage condition varied significantly among durum wheat cultivars.

Keywords: germination, emergence, long-term-storage, durum wheat

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596 Seed Germination, Seedling Emergence and Response to Herbicides of Papaver Species (Papaver rhoeas and P. dubium)

Authors: Faezeh Zaefarian1, Sajedeh Golmohammadzadeh, Mohammad Rezvani

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Weed management decisions for weed species can be derived from knowledge of seed germination biology. Experiments were conducted in laboratory and greenhouse to determine the effects of light, temperature, salt and water stress, seed burial depth on seed germination and seedling emergence of Papaver rhoeas and P.dubium and to assay the response of these species to commonly available POST herbicides. Germination of the Papaver seeds was influenced by the tested temperatures (day/night temperatures of 20 and 25 °C) and light. The concentrations of sodium chloride, ranging from 0 to 80 mM, influence germination of seeds. The osmotic potential required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination of P. rhoeas was -0.27 MPa and for P. dubium species was 0.25 MPa. Seedling emergence was greatest for the seeds placed at 1 cm and emergence declined with increased burial depth in the soil. No seedlings emerged from a burial depth of 6 cm. The herbicide 2,4-D at 400 g ai ha-1 provided excellent control of both species when applied at the four-leaf and six-leaf stages. However, at the six-leaf stage, percent control was reduced. The information gained from this study could contribute to developing components of integrated weed management strategies for Papaver species.

Keywords: germination, papaver species, planting depth, POST herbicides

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595 E-Commerce versus m-Commerce: The Dividing Line

Authors: Priscilla Omonedo, Paul Bocij

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Since the emergence of e-commerce, the world of business has witnessed a radical shift in the way business activities are conducted. However, the emergence of m-Commerce has further pushed the boundaries of virtual commerce revolution. As a result, there seems to be a growing blur in the distinction between e-Commerce and m-Commerce. In addition, existing definitions for both forms of commerce highlight characteristics (e.g. type of device and activity conducted) that may be applicable to both concepts. The aim of this paper is to identify the characteristics that help define and delineate between e- and m- Commerce. The paper concludes that characteristics of mobility, ubiquity, and immediacy provides a clearer and simpler template to distinguish between e-commerce and m-commerce.

Keywords: e-commerce, m-commerce, mobility, ubiquity

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594 Studies on Tolerance of Chickpea to Some Pre and Post Emergence Herbicides

Authors: Rahamdad Khan, Ijaz Ahmad Khan

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In modern agriculture the herbicides application are considered the most effective and fast in action against all types of weeds. But it’s a fact that the herbicide applicator cannot totally secure the crop plants from the possible herbicide injuries that further leads to several destructive changes in plant biochemistry. For the purpose pots studies were undertaken to test the tolerance order of chickpea against pre- emergence herbicides (Stomp 330 EC- Dual Gold 960 EC) and post- emergence herbicides (Topik 15 WP- Puma Super 75 EW- Isoproturon 500 EW) during 2012-13 and 2013-14. The experimental design was CRD with three replications. Plant height, number of branches plant-1, number of seeds plant-1, nodulation, seed protein contents and other growth related parameters in chickpea were examined during the investigations. The results indicate that all the enquire herbicides gave a significant variation to all recorded parameter of chick pea except nodule fresh and dray weight. Moreover the toxic effect of pre-emergence herbicide on chickpea was found higher as compared to post-emergence herbicides. Minimum chickpea plant height (50.50 cm), number of nodule plant-1 (17.83) and lowest seed protein (14.13 %) was recorded in Stomp 330 EC. Similarly the outmost seeds plant-1 (29.66) and number of nodule plant-1 (21) were found for Puma Super 75 EW. The results further showed that the highest seed protein content (21.75 and 21.15 %) was recorded for control/ untreated and Puma Super 75EW. Taking under concentration the possible negative impact of the herbicides the chemical application must be minimized up to certain extent at which the crop is mostly secure. However chemical weed control has many advantages so we should train our farmer regarding the proper use of agro chemical to minimize the loses in crops while using herbicides.

Keywords: chickpea, herbicides, protein, stomp 330 EC, weed

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593 Doing More with Less: Passion for Entrepreneurship in the Research-Constraint Contexts of Developing and Emerging Economies

Authors: Marcel Hechler

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Since passion is considered one of the most important motivating factors for entrepreneurship, we examined the influence of the availability of resources and information on the emergence of a harmonious passion for entrepreneurship (HPE). Drawing on self-determination theory and a cross-cultural sample of 1,085 entrepreneurs from seven developing countries, we argue that the availability of resources and information increases an entrepreneur's autonomy and, thus, promotes the emergence of HPE.

Keywords: harmonious passion, access to resources and information, developing and emerging countries, self-determination theory

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592 Political Economy of Social Movements: The Influence of Capitalism on the Emergence of the Feminist Movement in Ukraine

Authors: Nadiya Didyk

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This thesis deals with the unique history of the emergence of the Ukrainian feminist movement. Ukrainian feminism is still in its making, so the field is under-investigated in general. Nevertheless, the perspective of political economy and the enabling and constraining effects of capitalist dynamics are almost absent from the research on the emergence and the development of the feminist movement in Ukraine. This research was inspired by Hetland and Goodwin’s approach and an attempt to test their approach on the case of the Ukrainian feminist movement. Hetland and Goodwin claim that many scholars tend to neglect political economy from analysis of feminism as a new social movements, namely because such movement are not about class or materialist concerns, and thus have no discernible connection to capitalism. Both scholars, however, point out that there at least four ways in which capitalism has been of high importance for any social movement. Accordingly, the following issues are analysed in this paper: capitalism as the facilitator of the emergence and development of Ukrainian feminism; the influence of class balance in society on the formation of the Ukrainian feminist movement, and the ways in which class divisions within the movement shape its goals and strategies. This paper also focuses on the role of capitalist institutions and free wage labour expansion in shaping collective feminist identities and solidarities. Specific attention is paid to the representativeness of women in the highest echelons in business and politics under the capitalist systems. This study shows that there is a significant hole in the literature regarding the feminist movement in Ukraine and aims to motivate further detailed research.

Keywords: feminism, hetland, goodwin, new soical movements, political economy

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591 Biotic Potential of Different Densities of Aphid Parasitoids, Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) Feeding on Brevicoryne brassicae

Authors: Muhammad Anjum Aqueel, Muhammad Jaffar Hussain, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza

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Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh) attack most of the aphid species. However, it is specialized in feeding on crucifer aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae. Biological potential of parasitoid is its density-dependency due to sharing of limited resources in few cases. The present study was carried out to check the biotic potential of D. rapae at its different densities (1, 2, 4, 8 and 10 pairs) on fixed number of B. brassicae (100 in number) as a host. The present study was performed under laboratory conditions (25 ± 2 ºC temperature and 65-70 % R.H.). Different biological parameters for parasitoid (e.g. percent parasitism, adult emergence, adult longevity and per pair parasitism) were evaluated to check its biotic potential. The present findings showed that maximum parasitism (43.09 % ± 0.63) was observed in highest density (10 pairs) and minimum parasitism (16.59 % ± 1.28) in lowest density (1 pair) of the parasitoid. Maximum adult emergence (80.31 % ± 1.33) was observed in highest density (10 pairs) and minimum parasitism (45.99 % ± 1.27) in lowest density (1 pair) of the parasitoid. In the case of adult longevity, highest (8.2 days ± 0.38) and lowest (6 days ± 0.32) longevity were observed in lowest (1 pair) and highest (10 pairs) densities of parasitoids respectively. However, per pair parasitism rate decreased with the increase in parasitoid densities due to intra-specific competition, developed between the parasitoids for parasitism. The positive but close relationship was observed between percent parasitism and adult emergence. The increase in parasitoid densities increased the percent parasitism and adult emergence of the parasitoid. So, we conclude that an inter-specific competition negatively affected the efficacy of parasitoids and may reduce the fitness of the emerging parasitoid.

Keywords: Diaeretiella rapae, Parasitoid densities, Percent parasitism, adult emergence

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590 Effect of Different Temperatures and Cold Storage on Pupaes Apanteles gelechiidivoris Marsh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Parasitoid of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

Authors: Jessica Morales Perdomo, Daniel Rodriguez Caicedo, Fernando Cantor Rincon

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Tuta absoluta known as the tomato leaf miner, is one of the main pests in tomato crops in South America and the main pest in many European countries. Apanteles gelechiidivoris is a parasitoid of third instar Tuta absoluta larvae. Our studies have demonstrated that this parasitoid can cause up to 80% mortality of T. absoluta larvae in the field. We investigated cold storage of A. gelechiidivoris pupae as a method of mass production of this parasitoid. This storage method does not interfere with biological characteristics of the parasitoid. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different temperatures (4, 8 and 12°C) and different time duration (7, 14, 21 or 28 days) of cold storage on biological parameters of A. gelechiidivoris pupae and adults. The biological parameters of the parasitoid evaluated were: adult emergence time, lifespan, parasitism percentage and sex ratio. We found that the adult emergence time was delayed when the parasitoid pupae were stored at 4°C and 8°C. The shortest adult emergence was recorded when pupae were stored for seven days. The lowest adult emergence was found for pupae stored at 4°C and decreased significantly as the days of storage increased. We found high percentages of adult emergence when pupae were stored at 8°C and 12°C for seven days. Adult lifespan decreased with increasing days of cold storage. Adults emerging from pupae stored at 8°C during seven and 14 days showed the longest lifespan (nine days). The lowest parasitism rate was recorded at 4°C at every time point. The highest percentage of parasitism (80%) was found at 8°C during seven days of storage. The treatments had no effect on adults the sex ratio. The results suggest that A. gelechiidivoris pupae can be stored for up to 14 days at 8°C without affecting the efficacy of the parasitoid in the field.

Keywords: biological control, cold storage, massive rearing, quality control

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589 The Effect of Remifentanil on Emergence Agitation after Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Children: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Jong Yeop Kim, Sung Young Park, Dae Hee Kim, Han Bum Joe, Ji Young Yoo, Jong Bum Choi, Sook Young Lee

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Emergence agitation (EA) is commonly reported adverse events after sevoflurane anesthesia in pediatric patients. The efficacy of prophylactic remifentanil, one of mu opioid agonist, in preventing EA is controversial. This meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of remifentanil to decrease the incidence of EA from sevoflurane anesthesia in children. We searched for randomized controlled trials comparing sevoflurane alone anesthesia with sevoflurane and remifentanil anesthesia to prevent EA in the Cochrane Library, Embase, Pubmed, and KoreaMed, and included 6 studies with 361 patients. The number of patients of reporting EA was summarized using risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI), with point estimates and 95CIs derived from a random effects Mantel-Haenszel method. Overall incidence of EA was about 41%. Compared with sevoflurane alone anesthesia, intravenous infusion of remifentanil with sevoflurane significantly reduced the incidence of EA (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.39-0.73, P < 0.0001), (heterogeneity, I2 = 0, P = 0.42). This meta-analysis suggested that continuous infusion of remifentanil could be effective in decreasing the EA of about 47% after sevoflurane anesthesia. However, considering limitations of the included studies, more randomized controlled studies are required to verify our results.

Keywords: emergence agitation, meta-analysis, remifentanil, pediatrics

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588 Analyzing the Emergence of Conscious Phenomena by the Process-Based Metaphysics

Authors: Chia-Lin Tu

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Towards the end of the 20th century, a reductive picture has dominated in philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. Reductive physicalism claims that all entities and properties in this world are eventually able to be reduced to the physical level. It means that all phenomena in the world are able to be explained by laws of physics. However, quantum physics provides another picture. It says that the world is undergoing change and the energy of change is, in fact, the most important part to constitute world phenomena. Quantum physics provides us another point of view to reconsider the reality of the world. Throughout the history of philosophy of mind, reductive physicalism tries to reduce the conscious phenomena to physical particles as well, meaning that the reality of consciousness is composed by physical particles. However, reductive physicalism is unable to explain conscious phenomena and mind-body causation. Conscious phenomena, e.g., qualia, is not composed by physical particles. The current popular theory for consciousness is emergentism. Emergentism is an ambiguous concept which has not had clear idea of how conscious phenomena are emerged by physical particles. In order to understand the emergence of conscious phenomena, it seems that quantum physics is an appropriate analogy. Quantum physics claims that physical particles and processes together construct the most fundamental field of world phenomena, and thus all natural processes, i.e., wave functions, have occurred within. The traditional space-time description of classical physics is overtaken by the wave-function story. If this methodology of quantum physics works well to explain world phenomena, then it is not necessary to describe the world by the idea of physical particles like classical physics did. Conscious phenomena are one kind of world phenomena. Scientists and philosophers have tried to explain the reality of them, but it has not come out any conclusion. Quantum physics tells us that the fundamental field of the natural world is processed metaphysics. The emergence of conscious phenomena is only possible within this process metaphysics and has clearly occurred. By the framework of quantum physics, we are able to take emergence more seriously, and thus we can account for such emergent phenomena as consciousness. By questioning the particle-mechanistic concept of the world, the new metaphysics offers an opportunity to reconsider the reality of conscious phenomena.

Keywords: quantum physics, reduction, emergence, qualia

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587 Effects of Post-Emergence Herbicides on Soil Micro-Flora and Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Pea Field

Authors: Ali M. Zaid, Muftah Mayouf, Yahya Said Farouj

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The effect of post emergence herbicides on soil micro-flora and nitrogen fixing bacteria was studied in pea field. Pea (Pisum sativum) was grown and treated with one or a mixture of two of several herbicides 2 weeks after sowing. Soil samples were collected 2 weeks after herbicides application. Average number of colony forming units per gram of soil of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi were determined. Average number of nodules per plant was obtained at the end of the growing season. The results of the study showed MCPB, Bentazon, MCPB+Fluozifop-p-butyl, Bentazon+Fluozifop-p-butyl, Metribuzin, Flouzifop-p-butyl+Metribuzin, Cycloxydin, and Sethoxydin increased the population of soil fungi, with 4 to 10 times compared with the control. The herbicides used showed no significant effects on nitrogen fixing bacteria. The effects of herbicides on soil bacteria and actinomycetes were different. The study showed the use of herbicides could influence the biological balance of soil microflora, which has an important role in soil fertility and microbial ecosystem.

Keywords: herbicides, post emergence, nitrogen fixing bacteria, environmental systems

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586 Regeneration Nature of Rumex Species Root Fragment as Affected by Desiccation

Authors: Khalid Alshallash

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Small fragments of the roots of some Rumex species including R. obtusifolius and R. crispus have been found to regenerate readily, contributing to the severity of infestations by these very common, widespread and difficult to control perennial weeds of agricultural crops and grasslands. Their root fragments are usually created during routine agricultural practices. We found that fresh root fragments of both species containing 65-70 % of moisture, progressively lose their moisture content when desiccated under controlled growth room conditions matching summer weather of southeast England, with the greatest reduction occurring in the first 48 hours. Probability of shoot emergence and the time taken for emergence in glasshouse conditions were also reduced significantly by desiccation, with R. obtusifolius least affected up to 48-hour. However, the effects converged after 120 hours. In contrast, R. obtusifolius was significantly slower to emerge after up to 48 hours desiccation, again effects converging after longer periods, R. crispus entirely failed to emerge at 120 hours. The dry weight of emerged shoots was not significantly different between the species, until desiccated for 96 hours when R. obtusifolius was significantly reduced. At 120 hours, R. obtusifolius did not emerge. In outdoor trials, desiccation for 24 or 48 hours had less effect on emergence when planted at the soil surface or up to 10 cm of depth, compared to deeper plantings. In both species, emergence was significantly lower when desiccated fragments were planted at 15 or 20 cm. Time taken for emergence was not significantly different between the species until planted at 15 or 20 cm when R. obtusifolius was slower than R. crispus and reduced further by increasing desiccation. Similar variation in effects of increasing soil depth interacting with increasing desiccation was found in reductions in dry weight, the number of tillers and leaf area, with R obtusifolius generally but not exclusively better able to withstand more extreme trial conditions. Our findings suggest that infestations of these highly troublesome weeds may be partly controlled by appropriate agricultural practices, notably exposing cut fragments to drying environmental conditions followed by deep burial.

Keywords: regeneration, root fragment, rumex crispus, rumex obtusifolius

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585 Genotypic Variation in the Germination Performance and Seed Vigor of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Authors: Mehmet Demir Kaya, Engin Gökhan Kulan, Onur İleri, Süleyman Avcı

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Due to variation in seed size, shape and oil content of safflower cultivars, germination and emergence performance have been severely influenced by seed characteristics. This study aimed to determine genotypic variation among safflower genotypes for one thousand seed weight, oil content, germination and seed vigor using electrical conductivity (EC) and cold test. In the study, safflower lines ES37-5, ES38-4, ES43-11, ES55-14 and ES58-11 which were developed by single seed selection method, and Dinçer and Remzibey-05 were used as standard varieties. The genotypes were grown under rainfed conditions in Eskişehir, Turkey with four replications. The seeds of each genotype were subjected to standard germination and emergence test at 25°C for 10 days with four replications and 50 seeds per replicate. Electrical conductivity test was performed at 25°C for 24 h to assess the seed vigor. Also, cold test were applied to each safflower genotype at 10°C for 4 days and 25°C for 6 days. Results showed that oil content of the safflower genotypes were different. The highest oil content was determined in ES43-11 with 36.6% while the lowest was 25.9% in ES38-4. Higher germination and emergence rate were obtained from ES55-14 with 96.5% and 73.0%, respectively. There was no significant difference among the safflower genotypes for EC values. Cold test showed that ES43-11 and ES55-14 gave the maximum germination percentages. It was concluded that genotypic factors except for soil and climatic conditions play an important role for determining seed vigor because safflower genotypes grown at the same condition produced various seed vigor values.

Keywords: Carthamus tinctorius L., germination, emergence, cold test, electrical conductivity

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584 Efficacy of Defender 2% WS (Tebuconazole) and Imidal 70 WS (Imidacloprid) to Control Damping-Off Diseases and Early Insect Pests in Sesame in Rain Fed Areas, Sudan

Authors: Anas Fadlelmula, Elsafi M. M. Ahmed

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The efficacy of Defender 2% WS (tebuconazole) and Imidal 70 WS (imidacloprid) to control damping-off diseases and early insect pests in sesame crop under rain fed conditions at Damazine and Gedarif areas was evaluated. Defender 2% WS with dosage rates 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/kg of seeds and Imidal 70 WS at 2.25, 3.0, and 3.75 g/ kg of seeds were tested singly and as a mixture during 2010/2011 and 2012/013. Sesame seeds treated with Defender at the rates of 0.5 g and 0.75 g/ kg of seeds gave a high significant increase in percent seedlings emergence (84% and 85%) respectively. Imidal 70 WS at rate of 3g/kg seed showed the least percent damaged leaves by sesame webworm (1.7%). However, the mixed Defender at rate 0.75g with Imidal at 3 g/kg seed, significantly gave a highest percentage of sesame seedling emergence (85.1%) and reduced the incidence of post-emergence damping off and percent damaged leaves to the least per cent (2.1% and 0.4% ) respectively, compared to other treatments. Consequently, the mixed treatment of 0.75 g of Defender + 3 g of Imidal improved the crop stand and significantly gave the highest yield (405.2 kg and 418.8 kg/fed) respectively in both sites compared to the other treatments.

Keywords: seed dressers, damage, daming off, insects

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583 Settlement Network Supplying Energy

Authors: Balázs Kulcsár

Abstract:

Few people now doubt the future of the global energy transition. The only question is whether the pace of renewables' penetration will be sufficient to compete with the rate of warming. Dynamic changes are also taking place in the Hungarian electricity system. In addition to nuclear power, which provides the basic electricity supply, the most dynamic is solar power, which is largely small-scale and residential. The emergence of solar power is outlining the emergence of energy production and supply fabric of municipalities. This creates the potential for over-producing municipalities to supply the electricity needs of neighboring settlements with lower production beyond renewables. By taking advantage of this energy sharing, electricity supply based on pure renewables can be achieved more quickly.

Keywords: renewable energy, energy geography, self-sufficiency, energy transition

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582 Evaluation of Commercial Herbicides for Weed Control and Yield under Direct Dry Seeded Rice Cultivation System in Pakistan

Authors: Sanaullah Jalil, Abid Majeed, Syed Haider Abbas

Abstract:

Direct dry seeded rice cultivation system is an emerging production technology in Pakistan. Weeds are a major constraint to the success of direct dry seeded rice (DDSR). Studies were carried out for two years during 2015 and 2016 to evaluate the performance of applications of pre-emergence herbicides (Top Max @ 2.25 lit/ha, Click @1.5 lit/ha and Pendimethaline @ 1.25 lit/ha) and post-emergence herbicides (Clover @ 200 g/ha, Pyranex Gold @ 250 g/ha, Basagran @ 2.50 lit/ha, Sunstar Gold @ 50 g/ha and Wardan @ 1.25 lit/ha) at rice research field area of National Agriculture Research Center (NARC), Islamabad. The experiments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. All evaluated herbicides reduced weed density and biomass by a significant amount. The net plot size was 2.5 x 5 m with 10 rows. Basmati-385 was used as test variety of rice. Data indicated that Top Max and Click provided best weed control efficiency but suppressed the germination of rice seed which causes the lowest grain yield production (680.6 kg/ha and 314.5 kg/ha respectively). A weedy check plot contributed 524.7 kg/ha paddy yield with highest weed density. Pyranex Gold provided better weed control efficiency and contributed to significantly higher paddy yield 5116.6 kg/ha than that of all other herbicide applications followed by the Clover which give paddy yield 4241.7 kg/ha. The results of our study suggest that pre-emergence herbicides provided best weed control but not fit for direct dry seeded rice (DDSR) cultivation system, and therefore post-emergence herbicides (Pyranex Gold and Clover) can be suggested for weed control and higher yield.

Keywords: pyranex gold, clover, direct dry seeded rice (DDSR), yield

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581 The Effect of Four Local Plant Extract on the Control of Rice Weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L.

Authors: Banaz Sdiq Abdulla

Abstract:

Four local species (Allium sativum, Capsicum annum, Anethum graveolens, and Ocimum basilicum) were evaluated in the laboratory of Biolog Department, College of Education, for their ability to protect stored rice from the infection by weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Aqueous extracts of the plant species were applied as direct admixture of three concentrations levels of 1%, 2.5%, and 5% (W/V) to assess for mortality, adult emergence, and repellency and weight losses. The results showed that Al. sativum extracts was the most effective as it gave the highest mortality (90%)at 5% concentration followed by Capsicum annum (80%) on the 4th day post treatment, the result showed that the plant extract of different concentrations exhibited different level of reduction in adult emergence and different repellency of adults of Sitophilus oryzae. Allium sativum recorded the lowest mean number of adult emergence (8) followed by Capsicum annum (10) at 5% concentration, while Capsicum annum was found to be revealed complete repellent agent (100%) repellency on the 6th hours against Sitophilus oryzae followed by Allium sativum and Anethum graveolens (81.8%). There was a significant (P>0.05) reduction in the weight lossed by the weevils with less damaged recorded on grain treated with Allium sativum and Capsicum annum (1.6%) and (2.3%) respectively.

Keywords: plant extraction, rice, protectant, pest

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580 Greed and Grievance Revisisted: The Case of ISIL

Authors: Amjed Rasheed

Abstract:

Rebellions are driven by several incentives. They do not often occur because of historical grievances or political exclusion. They can be driven by the desire to control over natural resources, or by both. In the case of the Islamic State (ISIL), greed and grievance are both drive this radical group to operate in Iraq and Syria. This article aims to show that grievance was the trigger to the emergence of ISIL. It also aims to demonstrate that ISIL is using oil as a tool, to implements its political ends, than a purpose per se. In other words, the emergence of ISIL is based on socio-political conditions, which are domestically driven, and oil is not ISIL’s aim but a source of revenue to finance its activities. This paper applies conflict analysis methodology to analyse the conflict in Iraq and Syria, with a specific highlight to ISIL. By doing so, it gives ahistorical background on emergence of ISIL. It also provides an insightful explanation on the main dynamics and the tactics this organisation applies. It also delivers a sufficient explanation on how it recruits its members, both local and international. It concludes that tackling ISIL needs a more sophisticated approach than the one Obama administration has adopted. It is more a political issue to be tackled by political means, than a military one to be tackled by military means. The current war is an Intra-Sunni war, and therefore, Sunni states have to be on board to crackdown ISIL. Besides, the article finishes with the argument that democratisation is not necessarily the key answer to bring stability to the region, but a sort of governance that provides security and material needs to individuals.

Keywords: ISIL, Iraq, domestic politics, Islamic radicalisation

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579 Determination of the Seed Vigor of Soybean Cultivated as Main and Second Crop in Turkey

Authors: Mehmet Demir Kaya, Engin Gökhan Kulan, Onur İleri, Süleyman Avcı

Abstract:

This research was conducted to determine the difference in seed vigor between the seed lots cultivated in main and second crop of soybean in Turkey. Seeds from soybean cv. Cinsoy and Umut-2002 were evaluated in the laboratory for germination, emergence, cool test at 18°C for 10 days, and cold test at 10°C for 4 days and 25°C for 6 days. Result showed that the initial oil contents of Cinsoy and Umut-2002 and seeds were determined to be 19.8 and 20.1% in main crop, and 18.7 and 22.1% in second crop, respectively. It was determined that a clear difference between main and second crop soybean seed lots for seed vigor was found. Germination and emergence percentage were higher in the seed from second crop cultivation of the cultivars. There was no significant difference in germination percentage in cool and cold test while seedling growth was better in the seeds of second crop soybean. The highest seed vigor index (477.6) was found in the seeds of the cultivars grown at second crop. Standard germination percentage did not give a sensitive separation for determining seed vigor of soybean lots. It was concluded that second crop soybean seeds were found the most suitable for seed production while main crop soybean gave higher protein lower oil content.

Keywords: Glycine max L., germination, emergence, protein content, vigor test

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578 Spatio-Temporal Variability in Reciprocal Resource Subsidies across Adjacent Terrestrial and Aquatic Eastern Cape Ecosystems

Authors: Tiyisani L. Chavalala, Nicole B. Richoux, Martin H. Villet

Abstract:

Rivers and their adjacent ecosystems are linked by reciprocal ecological subsidies. Rivers receive nutrients and energy from land, and these transfers can represent important food subsidies, a phenomenon known as allochthony. Emergence of adult aquatic invertebrates can also provide important food sources to terrestrial consumers. Reciprocal subsidies are influenced by factors such as canopy cover, river flow rate and channel width, which can be highly variable through space and time. The aim of this study is to identify and quantify the main trophic links between adjacent ecosystems (terrestrial and freshwater systems) in several Eastern Cape Rivers with different catchment sizes and flow rates and to develop an understanding of the factors that affect the strength of these links and their spatial dynamics. Food sources and consumers were sampled during four seasons (August 2016, November 2016, February 2017 and May 2017), and stable isotope ratios will serve as tracers to estimate the food web structures. Emergence traps are being used to quantify the rates of emergence of adult aquatic insects, and infall-pan traps are being used to quantify the terrestrial insects falling into rivers as potential food subsidies.

Keywords: emerging aquatic insects, in-falling terrestrial insects, reciprocal resource subsidies, stable isotopes

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577 Salinity Response of Some Cowpea Genotypes in Germination of Periods

Authors: Meryem Aydin, Serdar Karadas, Ercan Ceyhan

Abstract:

The research was conducted to determine effects of salt concentrations on emergence of cowpea genotypes. Trials were performed during the year of 2014 on the laboratory of Agricultural Faculty, Selcuk University. Emergency trial was set up according to “Randomized Plots Design” by two factors and four replications with three replications. Samandag, Akkiz-86, Karnikara and Sarigobek cowpea genotypes have been used as trial material in this study. Effects of the five doses of salt concentrations (control, 30 mM, 60 mM, 90 mM and 120 mM) on the ratio of emergency, speed of emergency, average time for emergency, index of sensibility were evaluated. Responses of the cowpea genotypes for salt concentrations were found different. Comparing to the control, all of the investigated characteristics on the cowpea genotypes showed significant reduction by depending on the increasing salt application. According to the effects of salt application, the cowpea genotypes Samandag and Karnikara were the most tolerant in respect to index of sensibility while the Sarigobek genotypes was the most sensitive.

Keywords: cowpea, Vigna sinensis, emergence, salt tolerant

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576 Natural Emergence of a Core Structure in Networks via Clique Percolation

Authors: A. Melka, N. Slater, A. Mualem, Y. Louzoun

Abstract:

Networks are often presented as containing a “core” and a “periphery.” The existence of a core suggests that some vertices are central and form the skeleton of the network, to which all other vertices are connected. An alternative view of graphs is through communities. Multiple measures have been proposed for dense communities in graphs, the most classical being k-cliques, k-cores, and k-plexes, all presenting groups of tightly connected vertices. We here show that the edge number thresholds for such communities to emerge and for their percolation into a single dense connectivity component are very close, in all networks studied. These percolating cliques produce a natural core and periphery structure. This result is generic and is tested in configuration models and in real-world networks. This is also true for k-cores and k-plexes. Thus, the emergence of this connectedness among communities leading to a core is not dependent on some specific mechanism but a direct result of the natural percolation of dense communities.

Keywords: cliques, core structure, percolation, phase transition

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575 Allelopathic Potential of Canola and Wheat to Control Weeds in Soybean (Glycine max)

Authors: Alireza Dadkhah

Abstract:

A filed experiment was done to develop management practices to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides, in the arid and semi-arid agricultural ecosystems of north east of Iran. Five treatments including I: chopped residues of canola (Brasica vulgaris), II: chopped residues of wheat (Triticum aestivum) both were separately incorporated to 25 cm depth soil, 20 days before sowing, III: shoot aqueous extract of canola, IV: shoot aqueous extract of wheat which were separately sprayed at post emergence stage and V: without any residues and spraying as control. The weed control treatments reduced the total weed cover, weed density and biomass of weed. The reduction in weed density with canola and wheat residues incorporation were up to 67.5 and 62.2% respectively, at 40 days after sowing and 65.3% and 75.6%, respectively, at 90 days after sowing, compared to control. However, post emergence spraying of shoot aqueous extract of canola and wheat, suppressed weed density up to 41.8 and 36.6% at 40 days after sowing and 54.2% and 52.7% at 90 days after sowing respectively, compared to control. Weed control treatments reduced weed cover (%), weed biomass and weeds stem length. Incorporation of canola and wheat residues in soil reduced weed cover (%) by 62.5% and 63% respectively, while spraying of shoot water extract of canola and wheat suppressed weed cover (%) by 39.6% and 40.4% respectively at 90 days after sowing. Application of canola and wheat residues increased soybean yield by 45.4% and 69.5% respectively, compared to control while post emergence application of shoot aqueous extract of canola and wheat increased soybean yield by 22% and 29.8% respectively.

Keywords: allelopathy, Bio-herbicide, Brassica oleracea, plant residues, Triticum aestivum

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574 Socio-Political Crisis in the North West and South West Regions of Cameroon and the Emergence of New Cultures

Authors: Doreen Mekunda

Abstract:

This paper is built on the premise that the current socio-political crisis in the two restive regions of Cameroon, though enveloped with destructive and devastating trends (effects) on both property and human lives, is not without its strengths and merits. It is incontestable that many cultures, to a greater extent, are going to be destroyed as people forcibly move from war-stricken habitats to non-violent places. Many cultural potentials, traditional shrines, artifacts, art, and crafts, etc., are unknowingly or knowingly disfigured, and many other ugly things will, by the end of the crisis, affect the cultures of these two regions under siege and of the receiving population. A plethora of other problems like the persecution of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) for being displaced and blamed for increased crime rates and the existence of cultural and ethnic differences that produce both inter-tribal and interpersonal conflicts and conflicts between communities will abound. However, there is the emergence of rapid literature, and other forms of cultural productions, whether written or oral, is visible, thereby precipitating a rich cultural diversity due to the coming together of a variety of cultures of both the IDPs and the receiving populations, rapid urbanization, improvement of health-related issues, the rebirth of indigenous cultural practices, the development of social and lingua-cultural competences, dependence on alternative religions, faith and spirituality. Even financial and economic dependence, though a burden to others by IDPs, has its own merits as it improves the living standards of the IDPs. To be able to obtain plausible results, cultural materialism, which is a literary theory that hinges on the empirical study of socio-cultural systems within a materialist infrastructure-super-structure framework, is employed together with the postcolonial theory. Postcolonial theory because the study deals with postcolonial experiences/tenets of migration, hybridity, ethnicity, indignity, language, double consciousness, migration, center/margin binaries, and identity, amongst others. The study reveals that the involuntary movement of persons from their habitual homes brings about movement in cultures, thus, the emergence of new cultures. The movement of people who hold fast to their cultural heritage can only influence new forms of literature, the development of new communication competences, the rise of alternative religion, faith and spirituality, the re-emergence of customary and traditional legal systems that might have been abandoned for the new judicial systems, and above all the revitalization of traditional health care systems.

Keywords: alternative religion, emergence, socio-political crisis, spirituality, lingua-cultural competences

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