Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: lysozyme

30 An Invertebrate-Type Lysozyme from Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir Sinensis: Cloning and Characterization

Authors: Fengmei Li, Li Xu, Guoliang Xia

Abstract:

Lysozyme is a catalytic enzyme that performs bacterial cell lysis by cleaving the β-1,4-glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine of peptidoglycan in cell walls. In the present study, an invertebrate-type (i-type) lysozyme gene was cloned from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (designated as EsLysozyme) based on PCR-based rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology. The full-length cDNA of EsLysozyme was of 831 bp. SMART and SIGNALP 3.0 program analysis revealed that EsLysozyme contained a signal peptide and a destabilase domain. The five amino acid residues (Tyr63, Trp64, Tyr91, His110, Pro114) and the conserved motif GSLSCG(P/Y)FQI and CL(E/L/R/H)C(I/M)C in i-type lysozymes were also found in EsLysozyme. The high similarity of EsLysozyme with L. vannamei lysozymes and phylogenetic analysis suggested that EsLysozyme should be a new member of i-type lysozyme family.

Keywords: i-type lysozyme, Eriocheir sinensis, cloning, characterization

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29 Heat Capacity of a Soluble in Water Protein: Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: A. Rajabpour, A. Hadizadeh Kheirkhah

Abstract:

Heat transfer is of great importance to biological systems in order to function properly. In the present study, specific heat capacity as one of the most important heat transfer properties is calculated for a soluble in water Lysozyme protein. Using equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, specific heat capacities of pure water, dry lysozyme, and lysozyme-water solution are calculated at 300K for different weight fractions. It is found that MD results are in good agreement with ideal binary mixing rule at small weight fractions. Results of all simulations have been validated with experimental data.

Keywords: specific heat capacity, molecular dynamics simulation, lysozyme protein, equilibrium

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28 Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Lysozyme-Silver Nanoparticles Complex

Authors: Shahnaz Ashrafpour, Tahereh Tohidi Moghadam, Bijan Ranjbar

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Identifying the nature of protein-nanoparticle interactions and favored binding sites is an important issue in functional characterization of biomolecules and their physiological responses. Herein, interaction of silver nanoparticles with lysozyme as a model protein has been monitored via fluorescence spectroscopy. Formation of complex between the biomolecule and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) induced a steady state reduction in the fluorescence intensity of protein at different concentrations of nanoparticles. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching spectra suggested that silver nanoparticles act as a foreign quencher, approaching the protein via this residue. Analysis of the Stern-Volmer plot showed quenching constant of 3.73 µM−1. Moreover, a single binding site in lysozyme is suggested to play role during interaction with AgNPs, having low affinity of binding compared to gold nanoparticles. Unfolding studies of lysozyme showed that complex of lysozyme-AgNPs has not undergone structural perturbations compared to the bare protein. Results of this effort will pave the way for utilization of sensitive spectroscopic techniques for rational design of nanobiomaterials in biomedical applications.

Keywords: nanocarrier, nanoparticles, surface plasmon resonance, quenching fluorescence

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27 Anti-Fibrillation Propensity of a Flavonoid Baicalein against the Fibrils of Hen Egg White Lysozyme: Potential Therapeutics for Lysozyme Amyloidosis

Authors: Naveed Ahmad Fazili

Abstract:

More than 20 human diseases involve the fibrillation of a specific protein/peptide which forms pathological deposits at various sites. Hereditary lysozyme amyloidosis is a systemic disorder which mostly affects liver, spleen and kidney. This conformational disorder is featured by lysozyme fibril formation. In vivo lysozyme fibrillation was simulated under in vitro conditions using a strong denaturant GdHCl at 3M concentration. Sharp decline in the ANS fluorescence intensity compared to the partially unfolded states, almost 20 fold increase in ThT fluorescence intensity, increase in absorbance at 450 nm suggesting turbidity, negative ellipticity peak in the far-UVCD at 217 nm, red shift of 50 nm compared to the native state in congo red assay and appearance of a network of long rope like fibrils in TEM analysis suggested HEWL fibrillation. Anti-fibrillation potency of baicalein against the preformed fibrils of HEWL was investigated following ThT assay in which there was a dose dependent decrease in ThT fluorescence intensity compared to the fibrillar state of HEWL with the maximum effect observed at 150 μM baicalein concentration, loss of negative ellipticity peak in the far-UVCD region, dip in the Rayleigh scattering intensity and absorbance at 350 nm and 450 nm respectively together with a reduction in the density of fibrillar structure in TEM imaging. Thus, it could be suggested that baicalein could prove to be a positive therapeutics for hereditary human lysozyme amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloid fibrils, baicalein, congo red, negative ellipticity, therapeutics

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26 Quartz Crystal Microbalance Based Hydrophobic Nanosensor for Lysozyme Detection

Authors: F. Yılmaz, Y. Saylan, A. Derazshamshir, S. Atay, A. Denizli

Abstract:

Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), high-resolution mass-sensing technique, measures changes in mass on oscillating quartz crystal surface by measuring changes in oscillation frequency of crystal in real time. Protein adsorption techniques via hydrophobic interaction between protein and solid support, called hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), can be favorable in many cases. Some nanoparticles can be effectively applied for HIC. HIC takes advantage of the hydrophobicity of proteins by promoting its separation on the basis of hydrophobic interactions between immobilized hydrophobic ligands and nonpolar regions on the surface of the proteins. Lysozyme is found in a variety of vertebrate cells and secretions, such as spleen, milk, tears, and egg white. Its common applications are as a cell-disrupting agent for extraction of bacterial intracellular products, as an antibacterial agent in ophthalmologic preparations, as a food additive in milk products and as a drug for treatment of ulcers and infections. Lysozyme has also been used in cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this study is the synthesis of hydrophobic nanoparticles for Lysozyme detection. For this purpose, methacryoyl-L-phenylalanine was chosen as a hydrophobic matrix. The hydrophobic nanoparticles were synthesized by micro-emulsion polymerization method. Then, hydrophobic QCM nanosensor was characterized by Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and zeta size analysis. Hydrophobic QCM nanosensor was tested for real-time detection of Lysozyme from aqueous solution. The kinetic and affinity studies were determined by using Lysozyme solutions with different concentrations. The responses related to a mass (Δm) and frequency (Δf) shifts were used to evaluate adsorption properties.

Keywords: nanosensor, HIC, lysozyme, QCM

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25 Eco-Friendly Control of Bacterial Speck on Solanum lycopersicum by Azadirachta indica Extract

Authors: Navodit Goel, Prabir K. Paul

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Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is attacked by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato causing speck lesions on the leaves leading to severe economic casualty. In the present study, aqueous fruit extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) were sprayed on a single node of tomato plants grown under controlled contamination-free conditions. The treatment of plants was performed with neem fruit extract either alone or along with the pathogen. The parameters of observation were activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and lysozyme, and isoform analysis of PPO; both at the treated leaves as well as untreated leaves away from the site of extract application. Polyphenol oxidase initiates phenylpropanoid pathway resulting in the synthesis of quinines from cytoplasmic phenols and production of reactive oxygen species toxic to broad spectrum microbes. Lysozyme is responsible for the breakdown of bacterial cell wall. The results indicate the upregulation of PPO and lysozyme activities in both the treated and untreated leaves along with de novo expression of newer PPO isoenzymes (which were absent in control samples). The appearance of additional PPO isoenzymes in bioelicitor-treated plants indicates that either the isoenzymes were expressed after bioelicitor application or the already expressed but inactive isoenzymes were activated by it. Lysozyme activity was significantly increased in the plants when treated with the bioelicitor or the pathogen alone. However, no new isoenzymes of lysozyme were expressed upon application of the extract. Induction of resistance by neem fruit extract could be a potent weapon in eco-friendly plant protection strategies.

Keywords: Azadirachta indica, lysozyme, polyphenol oxidase, Solanum lycopersicum

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24 Delivery of Positively Charged Proteins Using Hyaluronic Acid Microgels

Authors: Elaheh Jooybar, Mohammad J. Abdekhodaie, Marcel Karperien, Pieter J. Dijkstra

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In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA) microgels were developed for the goal of protein delivery. First, a hyaluronic acid-tyramine conjugate (HA-TA) was synthesized with a degree of substitution of 13 TA moieties per 100 disaccharide units. Then, HA-TA microdroplets were produced using a water in oil emulsion method and crosslinked in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Loading capacity and the release kinetics of lysozyme and BSA, as model proteins, were investigated. It was shown that lysozyme, a cationic protein, can be incorporated efficiently in the HA microgels, while the loading efficiency for BSA, as a negatively charged protein, is low. The release profile of lysozyme showed a sustained release over a period of one month. The results demonstrated that the HA-TA microgels are a good carrier for spatial delivery of cationic proteins for biomedical applications.

Keywords: microgel, inverse emulsion, protein delivery, hyaluronic acid, crosslinking

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23 Polymeric Microspheres for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Yamina Boukari, Nashiru Billa, Andrew Morris, Stephen Doughty, Kevin Shakesheff

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Poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) is a synthetic polymer that can be used in bone tissue engineering with the aim of creating a scaffold in order to support the growth of cells. The formation of microspheres from this polymer is an attractive strategy that would allow for the development of an injectable system, hence avoiding invasive surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to develop a microsphere delivery system for use as an injectable scaffold in bone tissue engineering and evaluate various formulation parameters on its properties. Porous and lysozyme-containing PLGA microspheres were prepared using the double emulsion solvent evaporation method from various molecular weights (MW). Scaffolds were formed by sintering to contain 1 -3mg of lysozyme per gram of scaffold. The mechanical and physical properties of the scaffolds were assessed along with the release of lysozyme, which was used as a model protein. The MW of PLGA was found to have an influence on microsphere size during fabrication, with increased MW leading to an increased microsphere diameter. An inversely proportional relationship was displayed between PLGA MW and mechanical strength of formed scaffolds across loadings for low, intermediate and high MW respectively. Lysozyme release from both microspheres and formed scaffolds showed an initial burst release phase, with both microspheres and scaffolds fabricated using high MW PLGA showing the lowest protein release. Following the initial burst phase, the profiles for each MW followed a similar slow release over 30 days. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that lysozyme can be successfully incorporated into porous PLGA scaffolds and released over 30 days in vitro, and that varying the MW of the PLGA can be used as a method of altering the physical properties of the resulting scaffolds.

Keywords: bone, microspheres, PLGA, tissue engineering

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22 Towards the Inhibition Mechanism of Lysozyme Fibrillation by Hydrogen Sulfide

Authors: Indra Gonzalez Ojeda, Tatiana Quinones, Manuel Rosario, Igor Lednev, Juan Lopez Garriga

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Amyloid fibrils are stable aggregates of misfolded protein associated with many neurodegenerative disorders. It has been shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), inhibits the fibrillation of lysozyme through the formation of trisulfide (S-S-S) bonds. However, the overall mechanism remains elusive. Here, the concentration dependence of H2S effect was investigated using Atomic force microscopy (AFM), non-resonance Raman spectroscopy, Deep-UV Raman spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD). It was found that small spherical aggregates with trisulfide bonds and a unique secondary structure were formed instead of amyloid fibrils when adding concentrations of 25 mM and 50 mM of H2S. This could indicate that H2S might serve as a protecting agent for the protein. However, further characterization of these aggregates and their trisulfide bonds is needed to fully unravel the function H2S has on protein fibrillation.

Keywords: amyloid fibrils, hydrogen sulfide, protein folding, raman spectroscopy

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21 Molecular Basis for Amyloid Inhibition by L-Dopa: Implication towards Systemic Amyloidosis

Authors: Rizwan H. Khan, Saima Nusrat

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Despite the fact that amyloid associated neurodegenerative diseases and non-neuropathic systemic amyloidosis have allured the research endeavors, as no curative drugs have been proclaimed up till now except for symptomatic cure. Therapeutic compounds which can diminish or disaggregate such toxic oligomers and fibrillar species have been examined and more are on its way. In the present study, we had reported an extensive biophysical, microscopic and computational study, revealing that L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-Dopa) possess undeniable potency to inhibit heat induced human lysozyme (HL) amyloid fibrillation and also retain the fibril disaggregating potential. L-Dopa interferes in the amyloid fibrillogenesis process by interacting hydrophobically and also by forming hydrogen bonds with the amino acid residues found in amyloid fibril forming prone region of HL as elucidated by molecular docking results. L-Dopa also disaggregates the mature amyloid fibrils into some unorganised species. Thus, L-Dopa and related compounds can work as a promising inhibitor for the therapeutic advancement prospective against systemic amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloids, disaggregation, human lysozyme, molecular docking

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20 Prebiotics and Essential Oils-Enriched Diet Can Increase the Efficiency of Vaccine against Furunculosis in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss)

Authors: Niki Hayatgheib, SéGolèNe Calvez, Catherine Fournel, Lionel Pineau, Herve Pouliquen, Emmanuelle Moreau

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Furunculosis caused by infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has been a known disease found principally in salmonid aquaculture. Vaccination has been partly successful in preventing this disease, but outbreaks still occur. The application of functional feed additive found to be a promising yield to improve fish health against diseases. In this study, we tested the efficacy of prebiotics and plant essential oils-enriched diet on immune response and disease resistance in vaccinated and non-vaccinated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against furunculosis. A total of 600 fish were fed with the basal diet or supplement. On 4th week of feeding, fish were vaccinated with an autovaccine. Following 8 weeks, fish were challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and mortalities were recorded for 3 weeks. Lysozyme activity and antibody titer in serum were measured in different groups. The results of this study showed that lysozyme and circulatory antibody titer in plasma elevated significantly in vaccinated fish fed with additive. The best growth rate and relative percentage survival (62%) were in fish fed with a supplement, while 15% in control fish. Overall, prebiotics and essential oils association can be considered as a potential component for enhancing vaccine efficacy against furunculosis by increasing the growth performance, immune responses and disease resistance in rainbow trout.

Keywords: aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, aquaculture, disease resistance, fish, immune response, prebiotics-essential oils feed additive, rainbow trout, vaccination

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19 Effects of Vitamin E and Vitamin on Growth, Survival and Some Haematological and Immunological Parameters of Caspian Brown Trout, Salmo trutta caspius Juveniles

Authors: Hossein Khara, Mahmoud Sayyadborani, Mohammad Sayyadborani

Abstract:

In the present study, we examined the effects of different dietary levels of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and their combinations on growth, survival and some haematological and immunological parameters of Caspian brown trout, Salmo trutta caspius juveniles. 15 experimental treatments and one control group with three replicates were considered for experiment. The experimental treatments were fish fed by experimental diets containing different levels of Vit C and E as follow: T1: Vit E (20 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (100 mg.kg diet -1), T2: Vit E (30 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (100 mg.kg diet -1), T3: Vit E (40 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (100 mg.kg diet -1), T4: Vit E (20 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (200 mg.kg diet -1), T5: Vit E (30 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (200 mg.kg diet -1), T6: Vit E (40 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (200 mg.kg diet -1), T7: Vit E (20 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (300 mg.kg diet -1), T8: Vit E (30 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (300 mg.kg diet -1), T9: Vit E (40 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (300 mg.kg diet -1), T10: Vit C (100 mg.kg diet -1), T11: Vit C (200 mg.kg diet -1), T12: Vit C (300 mg.kg diet -1), T13: Vit E (20 mg.kg diet -1), T14: Vit E (30 mg.kg diet -1) T15: Vit E (40 mg.kg diet -1). Also a non-vitamin supplemented was considered as control group. Growth parameters were measured monthly and serum parameters assayed at the end of the experiment. According to our results, Vit C and E improved survival and growth parameters including specific growth rate (SGR), weight gain percent (WG%) and biomass. The highest values of these parameters obtained in T8, T9 and T8 respectively. The lowest FCR obtained in T8. The haematological parameters including red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), haematocrit (Hct) and haemoglobin (Hb) were higher in vitamin treated groups than control group with highest values in T8. In T13, WBC values were higher compared to other experimental groups. The immunological parameters including lysozyme activity, Immunoglobulin (IgM) and total immunoglobulin (TIg) were significantly higher in vitamin supplemented groups than in control group. In this regard the highest values of these parameters were found in T12. The lowest values of TIg and lysozyme activity were observed in control group and fish fed by only vitamin E i.e. T13, T14 and T15. In conclusion, our results show that Vit C and E in combination or only can improve growth, survival, haematological and immunological indices of Caspian brown trout.

Keywords: vitamins E, vitamins C, growth, survival, haematological parameters, immunological parameters

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18 Protein Crystallization Induced by Surface Plasmon Resonance

Authors: Tetsuo Okutsu

Abstract:

We have developed a crystallization plate with the function of promoting protein crystallization. A gold thin film is deposited on the crystallization plate. A protein solution is dropped thereon, and crystallization is promoted when the protein is irradiated with light of a wavelength that protein does not absorb. Protein is densely adsorbed on the gold thin film surface. The light excites the surface plasmon resonance of the gold thin film, the protein is excited by the generated enhanced electric field induced by surface plasmon resonance, and the amino acid residues are radicalized to produce protein dimers. The dimers function as templates for protein crystals, crystallization is promoted.

Keywords: lysozyme, plasmon, protein, crystallization, RNaseA

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17 Immune Activity of Roman Hens as Influenced by the Feed Formulated with Germinated Paddy Rice

Authors: Wirot Likittrakulwong, Pisit Poolprasert, Tossaporn Incharoen

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Germinated paddy rice (GPR) has the potential to be used as a feed ingredient. However, their properties have not been fully investigated. This paper examined the nutrient digestibility and the relationship to immune activity in Roman hens fed with GPR. It was found that true and apparent metabolizable energy (ME) values of GPR were 3.20 and 3.28 kcal/g air dry, respectively. GPR exhibited high content of phytonutrients, especially GABA. GPR showed similar protein profiles in comparison to non-germinated paddy rice. For immune activity, the feed with GPR enhanced the immune activity of Roman hens under high stocking density stress as evidenced by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme activity. In this study, GPR is proved to be a good source of functional ingredient for chicken feed.

Keywords: germinated paddy rice, nutrient digestibility, immune activity, functional property

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16 Garlic Extracts Stimulating Innate Immune System in Marble Goby (Oxyeleotris marmoratus)

Authors: Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn, Mallika Supa-Aksorn, Sudaporn Tongsiri, Prachaub Chaibu

Abstract:

Marble goby is one of high demand consuming in Southeast Asia. However, the product was from riparian fisheries because of low yield in aquaculture, especially in nursery stage. Therefore, we studied for herb supplement in pellet feed of marble goby fingering. Garlic, a common herb and illustrated novel pharmaceutical and medical effectiveness, was considered. Garlic extracts with water (DW), 50% EtOH (50E), 95% EtOH (95E) and diethyl ether (DE) were subjected for feed additive to induce immune response in marble goby fingering for 0 (control), 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 % (w/w). After seven days of feeding, blood was collected for analysis of blood composition; i.e. haematocrit (HCT), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and humoral immune responses; i.e. lysozyme activity (Lys). It was resulted that values of HCT, WBC and Lys in all garlic fed group were significantly different from control (p < 0.05). For HCT, the highest values belonged to 5% DW and 0.5% 95E. For WBC and Lys, the highest values were 5% DW. For RBC, there was not obviously significant (p < 0.05). There were only 3 groups; 0.5% 95E, 1% and 5% DW, showed distinct statistical significance from the other groups. It was concluded that garlic extracts showed satisfy bioactivity to enhancing innate immune response in marble goby fingering. This result will be valuable for specific feed formula of marble goby nursery.

Keywords: garlic extract, innate immune, marble goby, Oxyeleotris marmoratus

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15 Effect of Dietary Spirulina Powder on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Hematological, Biological and Immunological Parameters of Oscar Fish, Astronotus ocellatus

Authors: Negar Ghotbeddin

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In this study, the changes in survival, growth, body composition, hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters of oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus) have been investigated with dietary spirulina powder supplementation. Total of 300 fish with an initial weight of 8.37 ± 0.36 was distributed to three treatments and one control (0%). The fish were fed 8 weeks with diets containing different concentrations of S. powder: (control (0%), 2.5%, 5%, and 10%). Then sampling was done, and different parameters were measured by standard methods. Growth performance such as weight gain (%), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) significantly improved in fish fed with S. powder (p < 0.5). Crude protein significantly increased in the S. powder supplemented groups (p < 0.5). However, crude lipid decreased with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels. Total protein increased in fish fed with 10% S. powder. Triglycerides and cholesterol decreased with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels. Immunological parameters including C3 and C4 increased significantly with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels, and lysozyme was improved in 10% S. powder. Results of this study indicated that S. powder had positive effects on Oscar fish and the best values were observed at 10 % S. powder.

Keywords: spirulina powder, growth performance, body composition, hematology, immunity, Astronotus ocellatus

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14 Inhibitory Impacts of Fulvic Acid-Coated Iron Oxide Nano Particles on the Amyloid Fibril Aggregations

Authors: Dalia Jomehpour, Sara Sheikhlary, Esmaeil Heydari, Mohammad Hossien Majles Ara

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In this study, we report fulvic acid-coated iron oxide nanoparticles of 10.7 ± 2.7 nm size, which serve to inhibit amyloid fibrillation formation. Although the effect of fulvic acid on tau fibrils was investigated, to our best knowledge, its inhibitory impacts on amyloid aggregation formation have been assessed neither in-vitro nor in-vivo. On the other hand, iron oxide nanoparticles exhibit anti-amyloid activity on their own. This study investigates the inhibitory effect of fulvic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles on amyloid aggregations formed from the commonly used in-vitro model, lysozyme from chicken egg white. FESEM, XRD, and FTIR characterization confirmed that fulvic acid was coated onto the surface of the nanoparticles. The inhibitory effects of the fulvic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles were verified by Thioflavin T assay, circular dichroism (CD), and FESEM analysis. Furthermore, the toxicity of the nanoparticles on the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y human cell line was assessed through an MTT assay. Our results indicate that fulvic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles can efficiently inhibit the formation of amyloid aggregations while exhibiting negligible in-vitro toxicity; thus, they can be used as anti-amyloid agents in the development of the potential drug for neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, fulvic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles, fulvic acid, amyloid inhibitor, polyphenols

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13 Biodegradable Poly D,L-Lactide-Co-Glycolic Acid Microparticle Vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila Infection

Authors: Saekil Yun, Sib Sankar Giri, Jin Woo Jun, Hyoun Joong Kim, Sang Guen Kim, Sang Wha Kim, Jung Woo Kang, Se Jin Han, Se Chang Park

Abstract:

In aquaculture, vaccination is important to control and prevent diseases. In the study, we utilized poly D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microparticles (MPs) for encapsulating formalin-killed Aeromonas hydrophila cells. To assess the innate and adaptive immune responses, carps and loaches were used for the experiments. Fish were divided into three groups (A, B, C). Total antigen of 0.1 ml vaccine was adjusted by 2 x 108 CFU and injected via intraperitoneal route. Group A was vaccinated with 0.1 ml of PLGA vaccine, group B was with 0.1 ml of FKC vaccine and group C was with 0.1 ml of sterile PBS. All three groups were challenged with A. hydrophila and challenge dose was lethal dose (LD50). Loaches and carp were then challenged with A. hydrophila at 12 and 20 weeks post vaccination (wpv), and 10 and 14 wpv, respectively, and relative survival rates were calculated. For both fish species, the curve of antibody titer over time was shallower in the PLGA group than the FKC group and the PLGA groups demonstrated higher survival rates at all time-points. In the groups of PLGA-MP, relative mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, lysozyme C and IgM were significantly upregulated than FKC treated groups. Biodegradable PLGA microparticle vaccine could induce longer immune responses than original FKC vaccines to protect from A. hydrophila infection.

Keywords: PLGA, microparticles, Aeromonas hydrophila, vaccine

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12 The Effect of a Probiotic: Leuconostoc mesenteroides B4, and Its Products on Growth Performance and Disease Resistance of Orange-Spotted Grouper Epinephelus coioides

Authors: Mei-Ying Huang, Huei-Jen Ju, Liang-Wei Tseng, Chin-Jung Hsu

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate a probiotic, Leuconostoc mesenteroides B4, and its products, isomaltooligosaccharide and dextran, on growth performance, digestive enzymes, immune responses, and pathogen resistance of spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. The grouper were fed control and diets supplemented with L. mesenteroides B4 (107 CFU/g), isomaltooligosaccharide (0.15%), isomaltooligosaccharide (0.15%) + L. mesenteroides B4 (107 CFU/g) (I + B4), and dextran (0.15%) + L. mesenteroides B4 (107 CFU/g) (D + B4) for 8 weeks. The result showed that final weights and percent weight gains of the grouper fed diets supplemented with L. mesenteroides B4 and I + B4 were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05). The activities of digestive enzymes in the grouper fed with I + B4 were significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.05), too. After challenge with Vibrio harveyi, the enzyme activities of antiprotease and lysozyme as well as of respiratory burst of the fish fed with I + B4 and D + B4 were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05). The grouper fed with the both diets also had higher survival rates than that of the control group after the challenge. Overall, the study indicated that feeding diets supplemented with L. mesenteroides B4, and its products, isomaltooligosaccharide, and dextran could be an effective method for enhancing the growth performance and disease resistance in orange-spotted grouper.

Keywords: orange-spotted grouper, probiotic Leuconostoc mesenteroides B4, isomaltooligosaccharide, dextran, growth performance, pathogen resistance

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11 Dietary Effect of Probiotic Bacteria, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JFP-2 Isolate from Jeju Island`s Traditional Fermented Food, on Innate Immune Response of Oplegnathus fasciatus Challenged with Vibrio anguillarum

Authors: Dong Hwi Kim, Dharaneedharan Subramanian, So Hyun Park, Ha-Ri Choi, Ji-Hyung Kim, Dong-Hoon Lee, Moon Soo Heo

Abstract:

The present study was performed to evaluate the use of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JFP-2 isolated from a traditional fermented sea food, as probiotic bacteria in the diets for Rock-bream, Oplegnathus faciatus. A total of 180 fish (187.4 ± 2.7 g) were divided into two groups, control (C) and probiotic (P) group (90 fish per group) in triplicate. C group was fed with basal diet without probiotic, while P group was fed with B. amyloliquefaciens spores at concentration of 1.4 x 106 colony forming units per gram (CFU/g) of feed. After two months of feeding experiments, P group fish showed significant improvements in body weight (BW), weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and food conversion ratio (FCR) compared with C group. Also, bi-weekly assessment of serum protein, glucose, fatty acid profile showed a significant increase in probiotic fed fish than that of control fish group. Similar increase in serum antioxidant and lysozyme activity was found in probiotic fed fish group. Twenty days challenge experiment shows decrease mortality in probiotic fed fish group when compared with that of control group. Hence, these results indicate that the use of B. amyloliquefaciens JFP-2 as a feed supplement, is beneficial to improve the health status of Oplegnathus fasciatus challenged with Vibrio anguillarum.

Keywords: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Oplegnathus fasciatus, probiotic feed, rock bream

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10 The Instablity of TetM Gene Encode Tetracycline Resistance Gene in Lactobacillus casei FNCC 0090

Authors: Sarah Devi Silvian, Hanna Shobrina Iqomatul Haq, Fara Cholidatun Nabila, Agustin Krisna Wardani

Abstract:

Bacteria ability to survive in antibiotic is controlled by the presence of gene that encodes the antibiotic resistance protein. The instability of the antibiotic resistance gene can be observed by exposing the bacteria under the lethal dose of antibiotic. Low concentration of antibiotic can induce mutation, which may take a role in bacterial adaptation through the antibiotic concentration. Lactobacillus casei FNCC 0090 is one of the probiotic bacteria that has an ability to survive in tetracycline by expressing the tetM gene. The aims of this study are to observe the possibilities of mutation happened in L.casei FNCC 0090 by exposing in sub-lethal dose of tetracycline and also observing the instability of the tetM gene by comparing the sequence between the wild type and mutant. L.casei FNCC 0090 has a lethal dose in 60 µg/ml, low concentration is applied to induce the mutation, the range from 10 µg/ml, 15 µg/ml, 30 µg/ml, 45 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml. L.casei FNCC 0090 is exposed to the low concentration from lowest to the highest concentration to induce the adaptation. Plasmid is isolated from the highest concentration culture which is 50 µg/ml by using modified alkali lysis method with the addition of lysozyme. The tetM gene is isolated by using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method, then PCR amplicon is purified and sequenced. Sequencing is done on both samples, wild type and mutant. Both sequences are compared and the mutations can be traced in the presence of nucleotides changes. The changing of the nucleotides means that the tetM gene is instable.

Keywords: L. casei FNCC 0090, probiotic, tetM, tetracycline

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9 Effect of Miconazole Nitrate on Immunological Response and Its Preventive Efficacy in Labeo rohita Fingerlings against Oomycetes Saprolegnia parasitica

Authors: Mukta Singh, Ratan Kumar Saha, Himadri Saha, Paramveer Singh

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The present study evaluated the effect of sub-lethal doses of antifungal drug miconazole nitrate (MCZ) on immunological responses including immune-related gene expression and its role as a prophylactic drug against S. parasitica in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Fish were fed with sub lethal doses of MCZ i.e., T1- 6.30 mg MCZ kgBW⁻¹, T2- 12.61 mg MCZ kgBW⁻¹ and T3- 25.22 mg MCZ kgBW⁻¹ and sampling was done at different time intervals for 240 h. Immunological parameters viz. lysozyme activity, oxygen radical production and plasma anti-protease activity showed significant enhancement (p < 0.05) in fish fed with T2 and T3 doses. Significant reduction in plasma protein content was observed in all the dietary groups as compared to control. Expression of immune-relevant genes like TLR-22 and β2-M showed significantly higher expression at six h and 24 h of sampling in both liver and head-kidney. However, these genes showed a down-regulation after 120 h of sampling in both the tissues. Preventive efficacy study showed that single dose of MCZ provides protection against oomycetes up to the fourth day of infection. Significantly higher mortality was observed in control diet-fed fish as compared to fish fed with MCZ medicated diet. Thus, from the study, it can be concluded that the MCZ can act as a potent antifungal agent for preventing oomycetes infection as well as to enhance the immune response.

Keywords: antifungal, immune gene, immunological, miconazole nitrate, prophylactic

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8 Pellet Feed Improvements through Vitamin C Supplementation for Snakehead (Channa striata) Culture in Vietnam

Authors: Pham Minh Duc, Tran Thi Thanh Hien, David A. Bengtson

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Laboratory feeding trial: the study was conducted to find out the optimal dietary vitamin C, or ascorbic acid (AA) levels in terms of the growth performance of snakehead. The growth trial included six treatments with five replications. Each treatment contained 0, 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg AA equivalent kg⁻¹ diet which included six iso-nitrogenous (45% protein), iso-lipid (9% lipid) and isocaloric (4.2 Kcal.g¹). Eighty snakehead fingerlings (6.24 ± 0.17 g.fish¹) were assigned randomly in 0.5 m³ composite tanks. Fish were fed twice daily on demand for 8 weeks. The result showed that growth rates increased, protein efficiency ratio increased and the feed conversion ratio decreased in treatments with AA supplementation compared with control treatment. The survival rate of fish tends to increase with increase AA level. The number of RBCs, lysozyme in treatments with AA supplementation tended to rise significantly proportional to the concentration of AA. The number of WBCs of snakehead in treatments with AA supplementation was higher 2.1-3.6 times. In general, supplementation of AA in the diets for snakehead improved growth rate, feed efficiency and immune response. Hapa on-farm trial: based on the results of the laboratory feeding trial, the effects of AA on snakehead in hapas to simulate farm conditions, was tested using the following treatments: commercial feed; commercial feed plus hand mixed AA at 500; 750 and 1000 mg AA.kg⁻¹; SBM diet without AA; SBM diet plus 500; 750 and 1000 mg AA.kg⁻¹. The experiment was conducted in two experimental ponds (only SBM diet without AA placed in one pond and the rest in the other pond) with four replicate hapa each. Stocking density was 150 fish.m² and culture period was 5 months until market size was attained. The growth performance of snakehead and economic aspects were examined in this research.

Keywords: fish health, growth rate, snakehead, Vitamin C

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7 Effect of Lowering the Proportion of Chlorella vulgaris in Fish Feed on Tilapia's Immune System

Authors: Hamza A. Pantami, Khozizah Shaari, Intan S. Ismail, Chong C. Min

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Introduction: Tilapia is the second-highest harvested freshwater fish species in Malaysia, available in almost all fish farms and markets. Unfortunately, tilapia culture in Malaysia is highly affected by Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus agalactiae, which affect the production rate and consequently pose a direct negative economic impact. Reliance on drugs to control or reduce bacterial infections has been led to contamination of water bodies and development of drug resistance, as well as gave rise to toxicity issues in downstream fish products. Resorting to vaccines have helped curb the problem to a certain extent, but a more effective solution is still required. Using microalgae-based feed to enhance the fish immunity against bacterial infection offers a promising alternative. Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of Chlorella vulgaris at lower percentage incorporation in feeds for an immune boost of tilapia in a shorter time. Methods: The study was in two phases. The safety concentration studies at 500 mg/kg-1 and the administration of cultured C. vulgaris biomass via incorporation into fish feed for five different groups in three weeks. Group 1 was the control (0% incorporation), whereas group 2, 3, 4 and 5 received 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5% incorporation respectively. The parameters evaluated were the blood profile, serum lysozyme activity (SLA), serum bactericidal activity (SBA), phagocytosis activity (PA), respiratory burst activity (RBA), and lymphoproliferation activity (LPA). The data were analyzed via ANOVA using SPSS (version 16). Further testing was done using Tukey’s test. All tests were performed at the 95% confidence interval (p < 0.05). Results: There were no toxic signs in tilapia fish at 500 mg/kg-1. Treated groups showed significantly better immune parameters compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: C. vulgaris crude biomass in a fish meal at a lower incorporation level of 5% can increase specific and non-specific immunity in tilapia fish in a shorter time duration.

Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris, hematology profile, immune boost, lymphoproliferation

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6 Comparison of Zinc Amino Acid Complex and Zinc Sulfate in Diet for Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer)

Authors: Kanokwan Sansuwan, Orapint Jintasataporn, Srinoy Chumkam

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Asian seabass is one of the economically important fish of Thailand and other countries in the Southeast Asia. Zinc is an essential trace metal to fish and vital to various biological processes and function. It is required for normal growth and indispensable in the diet. Therefore, the artificial diets offered to intensively cultivated fish must possess the zinc content required by the animal metabolism for health maintenance and high weight gain rates. However, essential elements must also be in an available form to be utilized by the organism. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the application of different zinc forms, including organic Zinc (zinc amino acid complex) and inorganic Zinc (zinc sulfate), as feed additives in diets for Asian seabass. Three groups with five replicates of fish (mean weight 22.54 ± 0.80 g) were given a basal diet either unsupplemented (control) or supplemented with 50 mg Zn kg−¹ sulfate (ZnSO₄) or Zinc Amino Acid Complex (ZnAA) respectively. Feeding regimen was initially set at 3% of body weight per day, and then the feed amount was adjusted weekly according to the actual feeding performance. The experiment was conducted for 10 weeks. Fish supplemented with ZnAA had the highest values in all studied growth indicators (weight gain, average daily growth and specific growth rate), followed by fish fed the diets with the ZnSO₄, and lowest in fish fed the diets with the control. Lysozyme and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of fish supplemented with ZnAA were significantly higher compared with all other groups (P < 0.05). Fish supplemented with ZnSO₄ exhibited significant increase in digestive enzyme activities (protease, pepsin and trypsin) compared with ZnAA and the control (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed for RNA and protein in muscle (P > 0.05). The results of the present work suggest that ZnAA are a better source of trace elements for Asian seabass, based on growth performance and immunity indices examined in this study.

Keywords: Asian seabass, growth performance, zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA), zinc sulfate (ZnSO₄)

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5 Molecular Characterisation and Expression of Glutathione S-Transferase of Fasciola Gigantica

Authors: J. Adeppa, S. Samanta, O. K. Raina

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Fasciolosis is a widespread economically important parasitic infection throughout the world caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. In order to identify novel immunogen conferring significant protection against fasciolosis, currently, research has been focused on the defined antigens viz. glutathione S-transferase, fatty acid binding protein, cathepsin-L, fluke hemoglobin, paramyosin, myosin and F. hepatica- Kunitz Type Molecule. Among various antigens, GST which plays a crucial role in detoxification processes, i.e. phase II defense mechanism of this parasite, has a unique position as a novel vaccine candidate and a drug target in the control of this disease. For producing the antigens in large quantities and their purification to complete homogeneity, the recombinant DNA technology has become an important tool to achieve this milestone. RT- PCR was carried out using F. gigantica total RNA as template, and an amplicon of 657 bp GST gene was obtained. TA cloning vector was used for cloning of this gene, and the presence of insert was confirmed by blue-white selection for recombinant colonies. Sequence analysis of the present isolate showed 99.1% sequence homology with the published sequence of the F. gigantica GST gene of cattle origin (accession no. AF112657), with six nucleotide changes at 72, 74, 423, 513, 549 and 627th bp found in the present isolate, causing an overall change of 4 amino acids. The 657 bp GST gene was cloned at BamH1 and HindIII restriction sites of the prokaryotic expression vector pPROEXHTb in frame with six histidine residues and expressed in E. coli DH5α. Recombinant protein was purified from the bacterial lysate under non-denaturing conditions by the process of sonication after lysozyme treatment and subjecting the soluble fraction of the bacterial lysate to Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Western blotting with rabbit hyper-immune serum showed immuno-reactivity with 25 kDa recombinant GST. Recombinant protein detected F. gigantica experimental as well as field infection in buffaloes by dot-ELISA. However, cross-reactivity studies on Fasciola gigantica GST antigen are needed to evaluate the utility of this protein in the serodiagnosis of fasciolosis.

Keywords: fasciola gigantic, fasciola hepatica, GST, RT- PCR

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4 Effects of Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Beta Glucan on Maturity, Immunity, and Fry Quality of Pabdah Catfish, Ompok pabda

Authors: Zakir Hossain, Saddam Hossain

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A nutritionally balanced diet and selection of appropriate species are important criteria in aquaculture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and beta glucan-containing diets on growth performance, feed utilization, maturation, immunity, early embryonic and larval development of endangered Pabdah catfish, Ompok pabda. In this study, squid extracted lipids and mushroom powder were used as the source of PUFAs and beta-glucan, respectively, and formulated two isonitrogenous diets such as a basal or control (CON) diet and a treated (PBG) diet with maintaining 30% protein levels. During the study period, similar physicochemical conditions of water such as temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were 26.5±2 °C, 7.4±0.2, and 6.7±0.5 ppm, respectively, in each cistern. The results showed that final mean body weight, final mean length gain, food conversion ratio (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion efficiency (%), hepato somatic index (HSI), kidney index (KI), and viscerosomatic index (VSI) were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05) higher in fish fed the PBG diet than that of fish fed the CON diet. The length-weight relationship and relative condition factor (K) of O. pabda were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the PBG diet. The gonadosomatic index (GSI), sperm viability, blood serum calcium ion concentrations (Ca²⁺), and vitellogenin level were significantly (P<0.05) higher in fish fed the PBG diet than that of fish fed the CON diet; which was used to the indication of fish maturation. During the spawning season, lipid granules and normal morphological structure were observed in the treated fish liver, whereas fewer lipid granules of liver were observed in the control group. Based on the immunity and stress resistance-related parameters such as hematological indices, antioxidant activity, lysozyme level, respiratory burst activity, blood reactive oxygen species (ROS), complement activity (ACH50 assay), specific IgM, brain AChE, plasma PGOT, and PGPT enzyme activity were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05) higher in fish fed the PBG diet than that of fish fed the CON diet. The fecundity, fertilization rate (92.23±2.69%), hatching rate (87.43±2.17 %), and survival (76.62±0.82%) of offspring were significantly higher (P˂0.05) in the PBG diet than in control. Consequently, early embryonic and larval development was better in PBG treated group than in control. Therefore, the present study showed that the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and beta-glucan enriched experimental diet were more effective and achieved better growth, feed utilization, maturation, immunity, and spawning performances of O. pabda.

Keywords: lipids, beta-glucan, fish maturity, fish immunity

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3 Detection of Egg Proteins in Food Matrices (2011-2021)

Authors: Daniela Manila Bianchi, Samantha Lupi, Elisa Barcucci, Sandra Fragassi, Clara Tramuta, Lucia Decastelli

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Introduction: The undeclared allergens detection in food products plays a fundamental role in the safety of the allergic consumer. The protection of allergic consumers is guaranteed, in Europe, by Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament, which governs the consumer's right to information and identifies 14 food allergens to be mandatory indicated on food label: among these, egg is included. Egg can be present as an ingredient or as contamination in raw and cooked products. The main allergen egg proteins are ovomucoid, ovalbumin, lysozyme, and ovotransferrin. This study presents the results of a survey conducted in Northern Italy aimed to detect the presence of undeclared egg proteins in food matrices in the latest ten years (2011-2021). Method: In the period January 2011 - October 2021, a total of 1205 different types of food matrices (ready-to-eat, meats, and meat products, bakery and pastry products, baby foods, food supplements, pasta, fish and fish products, preparations for soups and broths) were delivered to Food Control Laboratory of IstitutoZooprofilatticoSperimentale of Piemonte Liguria and Valle d’Aosta to be analyzed as official samples in the frame of Regional Monitoring Plan of Food Safety or in the contest of food poisoning. The laboratory is ISO 17025 accredited, and since 2019, it represents the National Reference Centre for detection in foods of substances causing food allergies or intolerances (CreNaRiA). All samples were stored in the laboratory according to food business operator instructions and the analyzed within the expiry date for the detection of undeclared egg proteins. Analyses were performed with RIDASCREEN®FAST Ei/Egg (R-Biopharm ® Italia srl) kit: the method was internally validated and accredited with a Limit of Detection (LOD) equal to 2 ppm (mg/Kg). It is a sandwich enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative analysis of whole egg powder in foods. Results: The results obtained through this study showed that egg proteins were found in 2% (n. 28) of food matrices, including meats and meat products (n. 16), fish and fish products (n. 4), bakery and pastry products (n. 4), pasta (n. 2), preparations for soups and broths (n.1) and ready-to-eat (n. 1).In particular, in 2011 egg proteins were detected in 5% of samples, in 2012 in 4%, in 2013, 2016 and 2018 in 2%, in 2014, 2015 and 2019 in 3%. No egg protein traces were detected in 2017, 2020, and 2021. Discussion: Food allergies occurs, in the Western World, 2% of adults and up to 8% of children. Allergy to eggs is one of most common food allergy in pediatrics context. The percentage of positivity obtained from this study is, however, low. The trend over the ten years has been slightly variable, with comparable data.

Keywords: allergens, food, egg proteins, immunoassay

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2 Medical and Dietary Potentials of Mare's Milk in Liver Diseases

Authors: Bakytzhan Bimbetov, Abay Zhangabilov, Saule Aitbaeva, Galymzhan Meirambekov

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Mare’s milk (saumal) contains in total about 40 biological components necessary for the human body. The most significant among them are amino acids, fats, carbohydrates, enzymes (lysozyme, amylase), more minerals and vitamins which are well balanced with each other. In Kazakhstan, Company "Eurasia Invest Ltd.” produces a freeze-dried saumal in form of powder by the use of modern German innovative technology by means of evaporating at low temperature (-35°C) with an appropriate pasteurization. Research of freeze-dried biomilk for the qualitative content showed that main ingredients of freshly drown milk are being preserved. We are currently studying medical and dietary properties of freeze-dried mare's milk for diseases of the digestive system, including for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver cirrhosis (LC) viral etiology. The studied group consisted of 14 patients with NASH, and 7 patients with LC viral etiology of Class A severity degree as per Child-Pugh. Patients took freeze-dried saumal, preliminary dissolved in boiled warm water (24 g. powder per 200 ml water) 3-4 times a day for a month in conjunction with basic therapy. The results were compared to a control group (11 patients with NASH and LC) who received only basic therapy without mare’s milk. Results of preliminary research showed an improvement of subjective and objective conditions of all patients, but more significant improvement of clinical symptoms and syndromes were observed in the treatment group compared to the control one. Patients with NASH significantly over time compared to the beginning of therapy decreased asthenic and dyspeptic syndromes (p<0,01). Hepatomegaly, identified on the basis of ultrasound prior to treatment was observed in 92,8±2,4% of patients, and after combination therapy hepatomegaly the rate decreased by 14,3%, amounting to 78,5±2,8%. Patients with LC also noted the improvement of asthenic (p<0,01) and dyspeptic (p<0,05) syndromes and hemorrhagic syndrome (nosebleeds and bleeding gums when brushing your teeth, p<0,05), and jaundice. Laboratory study also showed improvement in the research group, but more significant changes were observed in the experimental group. Group of patients with NASH showed a significant improvement of index in cytolysis in conjunction with a combination therapy (p<0,05). In the control group, these indicators were also improved, but they were not statistically reliable (p>0,05). Markers of liver failure were additionally studied during the study of laboratory parameters in patients with liver cirrhosis, in particular, bilirubin, albumin and prothrombin index (PTI). Combined therapy with the use of basic treatment and mare's milk showed a significant improvement in cytolysis and bilirubin (p<0,05). In our opinion, a very important and interesting fact is that, in conjunction with basic therapy, the use of mare's milk revealed an improvement of liver function in the form of normalized PTI and albumin in patients with liver cirrhosis viral etiology. Results of this work have shown therapeutic efficiency of the use of mare's milk in complex treatment of patients with liver disease and require further in-depth study.

Keywords: liver cirrhosis, non-alcohol steatohepatitis, saumal, mare’s milk

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1 In vitro and in vivo Effects of 'Sonneratia alba' Extract against the Fish Pathogen 'Aphanomyces invadans'

Authors: S. F. Afzali, W. L. Wong

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The epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) causes by the oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans; known to be one of the infectious fish diseases for farmed and wild fishes in fresh and brackish-water from the Asia-pacific region, America and Africa. Although, EUS had been documented by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) since 1995, hitherto, there is neither standard chemical agents that can be used for successful treatment of this destructive infection in the time of outbreak; nor available vaccine for prevention. Plant-based remedies in controlling fish diseases are gaining much attention recently as an alternative to chemical treatments, which possess negative effects to the environment and human. In present study, Sonneratia alba, a mangrove plant belongs to the Sonneratiaceae family, was screened in vitro and in vivo for its antifungal activity against A. invadans mycelium growth and its effects on fish innate immune system and disease resistant. The in vitro tests was performed using the disc diffusion methods with measurements of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and inhibition zone. For in vivo study, the S. alba extract supplemented diets were administrated at 0.0, 1.0%, 3.0%, and 5.0% on healthy goldfish, Carassius auratus, which challenged with A. invadans zoospores (100 spores/ml). To compare the significant differences in the hematological and immunological parameters obtained from the experiments, the data were analysed using the SPSS. The methanol extract of S. alba effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of A. invadans at a minimum concentration of 1000 ppm for agar and filter paper diffusion experiments. In the agar diffusion test, 500 ppm of the extract inhibited the fungus mycelial growth up to 96 hours after exposure. The mycelial growth from the edge of the pre-inoculated A. invadans agar discs treated with S. alba extracts at concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 ppm were 15, 8 and 0 mm respectively. The results of the filter paper disc test showed that the S. alba extract at its minimal inhibitory concentration (1000 ppm) has similar qualitative inhibitory effect as malachite green at 1 ppm and formalin at 250 ppm. According to the in vivo tests findings, in the infected fish fed with 3.0% and 5.0% supplementation diet, the numbers of white blood cell and myeloperoxidase activity significantly increased after the second week of treatment. Whilst the numbers of red blood cell significantly decreased in the infected fish fed with 0.0 and 1.0% supplementation diet. After the third week of feeding, significant increases in the total protein, albumin level, lysozyme activity were recorded in the infected fish fed with 3.0% and 5.0% supplementation diet. Also, the enriched diets increased the survival rate as compared to the untreated group that suffered from 90% mortality. The present study indicated that S. alba extract may inhibit the mycelial growth of A. invadans effectively, suggesting an alternative to other chemotherapeutic agents, which brought much environmental and health concerns to the public, for EUS treatment.

Keywords: fungal pathogen, goldfish, organic extract, treatment

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