Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: chocolate

32 Effect of Non-Fat Solid Ratio on Bloom Formation in Untempered Chocolate

Authors: Huanhuan Zhao, Bryony J. James

Abstract:

The relationship between the non-fat solid ratio and bloom formation in untempered chocolate was investigated using two types of chocolate: model chocolate made of varying cocoa powder ratios (46, 49.5 and 53%) and cocoa butter, and commercial Lindt chocolate with varying cocoa content (70, 85 and 90%). X-ray diffraction and colour measurement techniques were used to examine the polymorphism of cocoa butter and the surface whiteness index (WI), respectively. The polymorphic transformation of cocoa butter was highly correlated with the changes of WI during 30 days of storage since it led to the redistribution of fat within the chocolate matrix and resulted in a bloomed surface. The change in WI indicated a similar bloom rate in the chocolates, but the model chocolates with a higher cocoa powder ratio had more pronounced total bloom. This is due to a higher ratio of non-fat solid particles on the surface resulting in microscopic changes in morphology. The ratio of non-fat solids is an important factor in determining the extent of bloom but not the bloom rate.

Keywords: untempered chocolate, microstructure of bloom, polymorphic transformation, surface whiteness

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
31 Exploring the Importance of Different Product Cues on the Selection for Chocolate from the Consumer Perspective

Authors: Ezeni Brzovska, Durdana Ozretic-Dosen

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to deepen the understanding of the product cues that influence purchase decision for a specific product category – chocolate, and to identify demographic differences in the buying behavior. ANOVA was employed for analyzing the significance level for nine product cues, and the survey showed statistically significant differences among different age and gender groups, and between respondents with different levels of education. From the theoretical perspective, the study adds to the existing knowledge by contributing with the research results from the new environment (Southeast Europe, Macedonia), which has been neglected so far. Establishing the level of significance for the product cues that affect buying behavior in the chocolate consumption context might help managers to improve marketing decision-making, and better meet consumer needs through identifying opportunities for packaging innovations and/or personalization toward different target groups.

Keywords: chocolate consumption context, chocolate selection, demographic characteristics, product cues

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
30 Modeling of Particle Reduction and Volatile Compounds Profile during Chocolate Conching by Electronic Nose and Genetic Programming (GP) Based System

Authors: Juzhong Tan, William Kerr

Abstract:

Conching is one critical procedure in chocolate processing, where special flavors are developed, and smooth mouse feel the texture of the chocolate is developed due to particle size reduction of cocoa mass and other additives. Therefore, determination of the particle size and volatile compounds profile of cocoa bean is important for chocolate manufacturers to ensure the quality of chocolate products. Currently, precise particle size measurement is usually done by laser scattering which is expensive and inaccessible to small/medium size chocolate manufacturers. Also, some other alternatives, such as micrometer and microscopy, can’t provide good measurements and provide little information. Volatile compounds analysis of cocoa during conching, has similar problems due to its high cost and limited accessibility. In this study, a self-made electronic nose system consists of gas sensors (TGS 800 and 2000 series) was inserted to a conching machine and was used to monitoring the volatile compound profile of chocolate during the conching. A model correlated volatile compounds profiles along with factors including the content of cocoa, sugar, and the temperature during the conching to particle size of chocolate particles by genetic programming was established. The model was used to predict the particle size reduction of chocolates with different cocoa mass to sugar ratio (1:2, 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1) at 8 conching time (15min, 30min, 1h, 1.5h, 2h, 4h, 8h, and 24h). And the predictions were compared to laser scattering measurements of the same chocolate samples. 91.3% of the predictions were within the range of later scatting measurement ± 5% deviation. 99.3% were within the range of later scatting measurement ± 10% deviation.

Keywords: cocoa bean, conching, electronic nose, genetic programming

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
29 The Impact of Encapsulated Raspberry Juice on the Surface Colour of Enriched White Chocolate

Authors: Ivana Loncarevic, Biljana Pajin, Jovana Petrovic, Aleksandar Fistes, Vesna Tumbas Saponjac, Danica Zaric

Abstract:

Chocolate is a complex rheological system usually defined as a suspension consisting of non-fat particles dispersed in cocoa butter as a continuous fat phase. Dark chocolate possesses polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated with beneficial effects. Milk chocolate is formulated with a lower percentage of cocoa bean liquor than dark chocolate and it often contains lower amounts of polyphenols, while in white chocolate the fat-free cocoa solids are left out completely. Following the current trend of development of functional foods, there is an idea to create enriched white chocolate with the addition of encapsulated bioactive compounds from berry fruits. The aim of this study was to examine the surface colour of enriched white chocolate with the addition of 6, 8, and 10% of raspberry juice encapsulated in maltodextrins, in order to preserve the stability, bioactivity, and bioavailability of the active ingredients. The surface color of samples was measured by MINOLTA Chroma Meter CR-400 (Minolta Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) using D 65 lighting, a 2º standard observer angle and an 8-mm aperture in the measuring head. The following CIELab color coordinates were determined: L* – lightness, a* – redness to greenness and b* – yellowness to blueness. The addition of raspberry encapsulates led to the creation of new type of enriched chocolate. Raspberry encapsulate changed the values of the lightness (L*), a* (red tone) and b* (yellow tone) measured on the surface of enriched chocolate in accordance with applied concentrations. White chocolate has significantly (p < 0.05) highest L* (74.6) and b* (20.31) values of all samples indicating the bright surface of the white chocolate, as well as a high share of a yellow tone. At the same time, white chocolate has the negative a* value (-1.00) on its surface which includes green tones. Raspberry juice encapsulate has the darkest surface with significantly (p < 0.05) lowest value of L* (42.75), where increasing of its concentration in enriched chocolates decreases their L* values. Chocolate with 6% of encapsulate has significantly (p < 0.05) highest value of L* (60.56) in relation to enriched chocolate with 8% of encapsulate (53.57), and 10% of encapsulate (51.01). a* value measured on the surface of white chocolate is negative (-1.00) tending towards green tones. Raspberry juice encapsulates increases red tone in enriched chocolates in accordance with the added amounts (23.22, 30.85, and 33.32 in enriched chocolates with 6, 8, and 10% encapsulated raspberry juice, respectively). The presence of yellow tones in enriched chocolates significantly (p < 0.05) decreases with the addition of E (with b* value 5.21), from 10.01 in enriched chocolate with a minimal amount of raspberry juice encapsulates to 8.91 in chocolate with a maximum concentration of raspberry juice encapsulate. The addition of encapsulated raspberry juice to white chocolate led to the creation of new type of enriched chocolate with attractive color. The research in this paper was conducted within the project titled ‘Development of innovative chocolate products fortified with bioactive compounds’ (Innovation Fund Project ID 50051).

Keywords: color, encapsulated raspberry juice, polyphenols, white chocolate

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
28 Sensory Characteristics of White Chocolate Enriched with Encapsulated Raspberry Juice

Authors: Ivana Loncarevic, Biljana Pajin, Jovana Petrovic, Danica Zaric, Vesna Tumbas Saponjac, Aleksandar Fistes

Abstract:

Chocolate is a food that activates pleasure centers in the human brain. In comparison to black and milk chocolate, white chocolate does not contain fat-free cocoa solids and thus lacks bioactive components. The aim of this study was to examine the sensory characteristics of enriched white chocolate with the addition of 10% of raspberry juice encapsulated in maltodextrins (denoted as encapsulate). Chocolate is primarily intended for enjoyment, and therefore, the sensory expectation is a critical factor for consumers when selecting a new type of chocolate. Consumer acceptance of chocolate depends primarily on the appearance and taste, but also very much on the mouthfeel, which mainly depends on the particle size of chocolate. Chocolate samples were evaluated by a panel of 8 trained panelists, food technologists, trained according to ISO 8586 (2012). Panelists developed the list of attributes to be used in this study: intensity of red color (light to dark); glow on the surface (mat to shiny); texture on snap (appearance of cavities or holes on the snap surface that are seen - even to gritty); hardness (hardness felt during the first bite of chocolate sample in half by incisors - soft to hard); melting (the time needed to convert solid chocolate into a liquid state – slowly to quickly); smoothness (perception of evenness of chocolate during melting - very even to very granular); fruitiness (impression of fruity taste - light fruity notes to distinct fruity notes); sweetness (organoleptic characteristic of pure substance or mixture giving sweet taste - lightly sweet to very sweet). The chocolate evaluation was carried out 24 h after sample preparation in the sensory laboratory, in partitioned booths, which were illuminated with fluorescent lights (ISO 8589, 2007). Samples were served in white plastic plates labeled with three-digit codes from a random number table. Panelist scored the perceived intensity of each attribute using a 7-point scale (1 = the least intensity and 7 = the most intensity) (ISO 4121, 2002). The addition of 10% of encapsulate had a big influence on chocolate color, where enriched chocolate got a nice reddish color. At the same time, the enriched chocolate sample had less intensity of gloss on the surface. The panelists noticed that addition of encapsulate reduced the time needed to convert solid chocolate into a liquid state, increasing its hardness. The addition of encapsulate had a significant impact on chocolate flavor. It reduced the sweetness of white chocolate and contributed to the fruity raspberry flavor.

Keywords: white chocolate, encapsulated raspberry juice, color, sensory characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
27 Development of a Symbiotic Milk Chocolate Using Inulin and Bifidobacterium Lactis

Authors: Guity Karim, Valiollah Ayareh

Abstract:

Probiotic dairy products are those that contain biologically active components that may affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond their adequate nutritional effects. As far as chocolate milk is a popular dairy product in the country especially among children and youth, production of a symbiotic (probiotic + peribiotic) new product using chocolate milk, Bifidobacterium lactis (DSM, Netherland) and inulin (Bene, Belgium) would help to promote the nutritional and functional properties of this product. Bifidobacterium Lactis is used as a probiotic in a variety of foods, particularly dairy products like yogurt and as a probiotic bacterium has benefit effects on the human health. Inulin as a peribiotic agent is considered as functional food ingredient. Experimental studies have shown its use as bifidogenic agent. Chocolate milk with different percent of fat (1 and 2 percent), 6 % of sugar and 0.9 % cacao was made, sterilized (UHT) and supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis and inulin (0.5 %) after cooling . A sample was made without inulin as a control. Bifidobacterium lactis population was enumerated at days 0, 4, 8 and 12 together with measurement of pH, acidity and viscosity of the samples. Also sensory property of the product was evaluated by a 15 panel testers. The number of live bacterial cells was maintained at the functional level of 106-108 cfu/ml after keeping for 12 days in refrigerated temperature (4°C). Coliforms were found to be absent in the products during the storage. Chocolate milk containing 1% fat and inulin has the best effect on the survival and number of B. lactis at day 8 and after that. Moreover, the addition of inulin did not affect the sensorial quality of the product. In this work, chocolate has been evaluated as a potential protective carrier for oral delivery of B. lactis and inulin.

Keywords: chocolate milk, synbiotic, bifidobacterium lactis, inulin

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
26 Compositional Analysis and Antioxidant Activities of the Chocolate Fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum CK10

Authors: Hye Rim Kang, So Yae Koh, Ji-Yeon Ryu, Chang Kyu Lee, Ji Hee Lim, Hyeon A. Kim, Geun Hyung Im, Somi Kim Cho

Abstract:

In this study, antioxidant properties and compositional analysis of fermented chocolate were examined. Chocolate was fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum CK10. As fermentation time went by, pH was decreased (5.26±0.02 to 3.98±0.06) while titratable acidity was increased (5.36±0.19 to 13.31±0.34). The total polyphenol contents were maintained through the fermentation. The contents of total polyphenol were slightly increased at 8 hr (6.34±0.12 mg GAE (Gallic acid equivalent)/g), and it reached to comparable levels of the control at 24 hr (control, 5.47±0.36 mg GAE/g); 24 hr, 5.19±0.23 mg GAE/g). Similarly, the total flavonoid contents were not significantly changed during fermentation. The pronounced radical scavenging activities of chocolate, against DPPH-, ABTS-, and Alkyl radical, were observed. The levels of antioxidant activities were not dramatically altered in the course of fermentation. By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the increase in lactic acid was measured and four major compounds, HMF, xanthosine, caffeine, and theobromine, were identified. The relative peak area of caffeine and theobromine was considerably changed during fermentation. However, no significant difference in the levels of caffeine and theobromine were observed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.

Keywords: antioxidant, chocolate, compositional analysis, fermentation, Lactobaillus plantarum

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
25 Spinach Lipid Extract as an Alternative Flow Aid for Fat Suspensions

Authors: Nizaha Juhaida Mohamad, David Gray, Bettina Wolf

Abstract:

Chocolate is a material composite with a high fraction of solid particles dispersed in a fat phase largely composed of cocoa butter. Viscosity properties of chocolate can be manipulated by the amount of fat - increased levels of fat lead to lower viscosity. However, a high content of cocoa butter can increase the cost of the chocolate and instead surfactants are used to manipulate viscosity behaviour. Most commonly, lecithin and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) are used. Lecithin is a natural lipid emulsifier which is based on phospholipids while PGPR is a chemically produced emulsifier which based on the long continuous chain of ricinoleic acid. Lecithin and PGPR act to lower the viscosity and yield stress, respectively. Recently, natural lipid emulsifiers based on galactolipid as the functional ingredient have become of interest. Spinach lipid is found to have a high amount of galactolipid, specifically MGDG and DGDG. The aim of this research is to explore the influence of spinach lipid in comparison with PGPR and lecithin on the rheological properties of sugar/oil suspensions which serve as chocolate model system. For that purpose, icing sugar was dispersed from 40%, 45% and 50% (w/w) in oil which has spinach lipid at concentrations from 0.1 – 0.7% (w/w). Based on viscosity at 40 s-1 and yield value reported as shear stress measured at 5 s-1, it was found that spinach lipid shows viscosity reducing and yield stress lowering effects comparable to lecithin and PGPR, respectively. This characteristic of spinach lipid demonstrates great potential for it to act as single natural lipid emulsifier in chocolate.

Keywords: chocolate viscosity, lecithin, polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR), spinach lipid

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
24 Rheological and Crystallization Properties of Dark Chocolate Formulated with Essential Oil of Orange and Carotene Extracted from Pineapple Peels

Authors: Mayra Pilamunga, Edwin Vera

Abstract:

The consumption of dark chocolate is beneficial due to its high content of flavonoids, catechins, and procyanidins. To improve its properties, fortification of chocolate with polyphenols, anthocyanins, soy milk powder and other compounds has been evaluated in several studies. However, to our best knowledge, the addition of carotenes to chocolate has not been tested. Carotenoids, especially ß-carotene and lutein, are widely distributed in fruits and vegetables so that they could be extracted from agro-industrial waste, such as fruit processing. On the other hand, limonene produces crystalline changes of cocoa butter and improves its consistency and viscosity. This study aimed to evaluate the production of dark chocolate with the addition of carotenes extracted from an agro industrial waste and to improve its rheological properties and crystallization, with orange essential oil. The dried and fermented cocoa beans were purchased in Puerto Quito, Ecuador, and had a fat content of 51%. Six types of chocolates were formulated, and two formulations were chosen, one at 65% cocoa and other at 70% cocoa, both with a solid: fat ratio of 1.4:1. With the formulations selected, the influence of the addition of 0.75% and 1.5% orange essential oil was evaluated, and analysis to measure the viscosity, crystallization and sensory analysis were done. It was found that essential oil does not generate significant changes in the properties of chocolate, but has an important effect on aroma and coloration, which changed from auburn to brown. The best scores on sensory analysis were obtained for the samples formulated with 0.75% essential oil. Prior to the formulation with carotenes, the extraction of these compounds from pineapple peels were performed. The process was done with and without a previous enzymatic treatment, with three solid-solvent ratios. The best treatment was using enzymes in a solids-solvent ratio of 1:12.5; the extract obtained under these conditions had 4.503 ± 0.214 μg Eq. β-carotene/mL. This extract was encapsulated with gum arabic and maltodextrin, and the solution was dried using a freeze dryer. The encapsulated carotenes were added to the chocolate in an amount of 1.7% however 60,8 % of them were lost in the final product.

Keywords: cocoa, fat crystallization, limonene, carotenoids, pineapple peels

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
23 Halal Authentication for Some Product Collected from Jordanian Market Using Real-Time PCR

Authors: Omar S. Sharaf

Abstract:

The mitochondrial 12s rRNA (mt-12s rDNA) gene for pig-specific was developed to detect material from pork species in different products collected from Jordanian market. The amplification PCR products of 359 bp and 531 bp were successfully amplified from the cyt b gene of pig the amplification product using mt-12S rDNA gene were successfully produced a single band with a molecular size of 456 bp. In the present work, the PCR amplification of mtDNA of cytochrome b has been shown as a suitable tool for rapid detection of pig DNA. 100 samples from different dairy, gelatin and chocolate based products and 50 samples from baby food formula were collected and tested to a presence of any pig derivatives. It was found that 10% of chocolate based products, 12% of gelatin and 56% from dairy products and 5.2% from baby food formula showed single band from mt-12S rDNA gene.

Keywords: halal food, baby infant formula, chocolate based products, PCR, Jordan

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
22 Strategies for Synchronizing Chocolate Conching Data Using Dynamic Time Warping

Authors: Fernanda A. P. Peres, Thiago N. Peres, Flavio S. Fogliatto, Michel J. Anzanello

Abstract:

Batch processes are widely used in food industry and have an important role in the production of high added value products, such as chocolate. Process performance is usually described by variables that are monitored as the batch progresses. Data arising from these processes are likely to display a strong correlation-autocorrelation structure, and are usually monitored using control charts based on multiway principal components analysis (MPCA). Process control of a new batch is carried out comparing the trajectories of its relevant process variables with those in a reference set of batches that yielded products within specifications; it is clear that proper determination of the reference set is key for the success of a correct signalization of non-conforming batches in such quality control schemes. In chocolate manufacturing, misclassifications of non-conforming batches in the conching phase may lead to significant financial losses. In such context, the accuracy of process control grows in relevance. In addition to that, the main assumption in MPCA-based monitoring strategies is that all batches are synchronized in duration, both the new batch being monitored and those in the reference set. Such assumption is often not satisfied in chocolate manufacturing process. As a consequence, traditional techniques as MPCA-based charts are not suitable for process control and monitoring. To address that issue, the objective of this work is to compare the performance of three dynamic time warping (DTW) methods in the alignment and synchronization of chocolate conching process variables’ trajectories, aimed at properly determining the reference distribution for multivariate statistical process control. The power of classification of batches in two categories (conforming and non-conforming) was evaluated using the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm. Real data from a milk chocolate conching process was collected and the following variables were monitored over time: frequency of soybean lecithin dosage, rotation speed of the shovels, current of the main motor of the conche, and chocolate temperature. A set of 62 batches with durations between 495 and 1,170 minutes was considered; 53% of the batches were known to be conforming based on lab test results and experts’ evaluations. Results showed that all three DTW methods tested were able to align and synchronize the conching dataset. However, synchronized datasets obtained from these methods performed differently when inputted in the KNN classification algorithm. Kassidas, MacGregor and Taylor’s (named KMT) method was deemed the best DTW method for aligning and synchronizing a milk chocolate conching dataset, presenting 93.7% accuracy, 97.2% sensitivity and 90.3% specificity in batch classification, being considered the best option to determine the reference set for the milk chocolate dataset. Such method was recommended due to the lowest number of iterations required to achieve convergence and highest average accuracy in the testing portion using the KNN classification technique.

Keywords: batch process monitoring, chocolate conching, dynamic time warping, reference set distribution, variable duration

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
21 Roasting Degree of Cocoa Beans by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Based Electronic Nose System and Gas Chromatography (GC)

Authors: Juzhong Tan, William Kerr

Abstract:

Roasting is one critical procedure in chocolate processing, where special favors are developed, moisture content is decreased, and better processing properties are developed. Therefore, determination of roasting degree of cocoa bean is important for chocolate manufacturers to ensure the quality of chocolate products, and it also decides the commercial value of cocoa beans collected from cocoa farmers. The roasting degree of cocoa beans currently relies on human specialists, who sometimes are biased, and chemical analysis, which take long time and are inaccessible to many manufacturers and farmers. In this study, a self-made electronic nose system consists of gas sensors (TGS 800 and 2000 series) was used to detecting the gas generated by cocoa beans with a different roasting degree (0min, 20min, 30min, and 40min) and the signals collected by gas sensors were used to train a three-layers ANN. Chemical analysis of the graded beans was operated by traditional GC-MS system and the contents of volatile chemical compounds were used to train another ANN as a reference to electronic nosed signals trained ANN. Both trained ANN were used to predict cocoa beans with a different roasting degree for validation. The best accuracy of grading achieved by electronic nose signals trained ANN (using signals from TGS 813 826 820 880 830 2620 2602 2610) turned out to be 96.7%, however, the GC trained ANN got the accuracy of 83.8%.

Keywords: artificial neutron network, cocoa bean, electronic nose, roasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
20 Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Terminalia arjuna Encapsulated Dairy Drink

Authors: Sawale Pravin Digambar, G. R. Patil, Shaik Abdul Hussain

Abstract:

Terminalia arjuna (TA), an important medicinal plant in Indian System of Medicine, is specifically recognized for its recuperative effect on heart ailments. Alcoholic extract of TA (both free and encapsulated) was incorporated into milk to obtain functional dairy beverages. The respective beverages were appropriately flavored and optimized using response surface methodology to improve the sensory appeal. The beverages were evaluated for their compositional, anti-oxidative and various other physico-chemical aspects. Addition of herb (0.3%) extract to flavoured dairy drink (Drink 1) resulted in significantly lowered (p>0.05) HMF content and increased antioxidant activity, total phenol content as compared with control (Control 1). Subsequently, a significant (p>0.05) increase in acidity and sedimentation was also observed. Encapsulated herb (1.8%) incorporated drink (Drink 2) had significantly (P>0.05) enhanced HMF value and decreased antioxidant activity, phenol content as compared to herb added vanilla chocolate dairy drink (Drink 1). It can be concluded that addition of encapsulated TA extract and non-encapsulated TA extract to chocolate dairy drink at 0.3% concentration altered the functional properties vanilla chocolate dairy drink which could be related to the interaction of herb components such as polyphenol with milk protein or maltodextrin/ gum Arabic matrix.

Keywords: Terminalia arjuna, encapsulate, antioxidant activity, physicochemical study

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
19 Chocomerr (Merr Leaves Chocolate) Alternative Food in Increasing Breastmilk Quantity

Authors: Rara Wulan Anggareni, Narita Putri, Riski Septianing Astuti

Abstract:

Breastfeeding is a key to prevent mortality and morbidity in children. It is also the second highest risk responsible for Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) among children below five years old. UNICEF estimates that during 1995 – 2003, there are only about 38% infants in developing countries who get to be exclusively breastfed during the first six months of their lives. According to Demography and Health Survey in Indonesia 2007, breastfeed practice rate still considered as low which is about 41%. One of the factors causing the low breastfeed practice rate in Indonesia is the anxiety and postpartum depression, and also the weanling dilemma in which mother feels that her breastmilk cannot suffice infant needs. Those factors finally resulting into low or even stopped production of breastmilk. Breastmilk production can be enhanced by consuming food containing phytosterol and lactogoga effect. Food with the highest phytosterol level is Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr leaf (merr leaf). In this study, we made alternative food which named Chocomerr for breastfeeding mothers. Chocomerr consists of merr leaves which have lactogoga effect and chocolate for relaxation. Based on organoleptic tests conducted towards 2 age groups, which are 18 – 21 and 25 – 40 years old, this product gets good acceptance in taste, texture, and colour categories. Chocomerr can be used as an alternative way for increasing breastmilk production to aim for the decreasing number of DALYs among children aged under 5 years old.

Keywords: breastfeeding, increasing, chocolate, merr leaves

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
18 Induced Breeding of Neolissochilus hexagonolepis Using Pituitary and Synthetic Hormone under the Agro-Climatic Condition of Meghalaya, India

Authors: Lydia Booney Jyrwa, Rabindra Nath Bhuyan

Abstract:

Chocolate Mahseer (Neolissochilus hexagonolepis) is one of the Mahseer species inhabiting the North-eastern region of India and is a native species to the state of Meghalaya since it can adapt and grow well under the agro climatic conditions of the region. The natural population of this fish has been declining over the years from this part of the country. The natural population of this fish has been declining over the years from this part of the country. The fish is considered as one of the endangered species of the Mahseer group, which is having tremendous scope for culture, sports and tourism. But non-availability of quality seed is a hindrance for the culture of this fish. Thus induced breeding of the fish by hormonal administration with pituitary gland and synthetic hormones is the only reliable method to procure the pure seed of the fish. Chocolate Mahseer was successfully bred at the Hatchery Complex, St. Anthony’s College, Shillong, Meghalaya by using pituitary extract and synthetic hormone viz. ovaprim, ovatide and gonopro-FH. The dose standardized is @ 4mg/kg body weight to both male and female as 1st dose and @ 7.9 mg/kg body weight only to female as 2nd dose for pituitary extract and single dose @ 0.8 ml/kg body weight to female and @ 0.3 ml/kg body weight to male of both ovaprim and ovatide, while a single dose @ 0.9 ml/kg body weight to female and @ 0.3 ml/kg body weight to male of gonopro-FH. The doses are standardized after a series of trial and error experiment performed. The fecundity of the fish was 3500 eggs/ kg body weight. The final hatching percentage achieved was 60%. The survival rate of hatchling was 50% up to fry stage. The use of synthetic hormone and positive response of the fish to the hormone will go in long way for production of quality seed of the fish which in turn help in culture of the species as the fish can be a very good candidate species for the culture in the state. This study will also help in the ranching of the fish in the natural habitat leading to conservation of the species. However, the study should be continued further for the large scale production of seeds.

Keywords: chocolate mahseer, induced breeding, pituitary extract, synthetic hormone

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
17 Homogenization of Cocoa Beans Fermentation to Upgrade Quality Using an Original Improved Fermenter

Authors: Aka S. Koffi, N’Goran Yao, Philippe Bastide, Denis Bruneau, Diby Kadjo

Abstract:

Cocoa beans (Theobroma cocoa L.) are the main components for chocolate manufacturing. The beans must be correctly fermented at first. Traditional process to perform the first fermentation (lactic fermentation) often consists in confining cacao beans using banana leaves or a fermentation basket, both of them leading to a poor product thermal insulation and to an inability to mix the product. Box fermenter reduces this loss by using a wood with large thickness (e>3cm), but mixing to homogenize the product is still hard to perform. Automatic fermenters are not rentable for most of producers. Heat (T>45°C) and acidity produced during the fermentation by microbiology activity of yeasts and bacteria are enabling the emergence of potential flavor and taste of future chocolate. In this study, a cylindro-rotative fermenter (FCR-V1) has been built and coconut fibers were used in its structure to confine heat. An axis of rotation (360°) has been integrated to facilitate the turning and homogenization of beans in the fermenter. This axis permits to put fermenter in a vertical position during the anaerobic alcoholic phase of fermentation, and horizontally during acetic phase to take advantage of the mid height filling. For circulation of air flow during turning in acetic phase, two woven rattan with grid have been made, one for the top and second for the bottom of the fermenter. In order to reduce air flow during acetic phase, two airtight covers are put on each grid cover. The efficiency of the turning by this kind of rotation, coupled with homogenization of the temperature, caused by the horizontal position in the acetic phase of the fermenter, contribute to having a good proportion of well-fermented beans (83.23%). In addition, beans’pH values ranged between 4.5 and 5.5. These values are ideal for enzymatic activity in the production of the aromatic compounds inside beans. The regularity of mass loss during all fermentation makes it possible to predict the drying surface corresponding to the amount being fermented.

Keywords: cocoa fermentation, fermenter, microbial activity, temperature, turning

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
16 Is Liking for Sampled Energy-Dense Foods Mediated by Taste Phenotypes?

Authors: Gary J. Pickering, Sarah Lucas, Catherine E. Klodnicki, Nicole J. Gaudette

Abstract:

Two taste pheno types that are of interest in the study of habitual diet-related risk factors and disease are 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) responsiveness and thermal tasting. Individuals differ considerable in how intensely they experience the bitterness of PROP, which is partially explained by three major single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the TAS2R38 gene. Importantly, this variable responsiveness is a useful proxy for general taste responsiveness, and links to diet-related disease risk, including body mass index, in some studies. Thermal tasting - a newly discovered taste phenotype independent of PROP responsiveness - refers to the capacity of many individuals to perceive phantom tastes in response to lingual thermal stimulation, and is linked with TRPM5 channels. Thermal tasters (TTs) also experience oral sensations more intensely than thermal non-tasters (TnTs), and this was shown to associate with differences in self-reported food preferences in a previous survey from our lab. Here we report on two related studies, where we sought to determine whether PROP responsiveness and thermal tasting would associate with perceptual differences in the oral sensations elicited by sampled energy-dense foods, and whether in turn this would influence liking. We hypothesized that hyper-tasters (thermal tasters and individuals who experience PROP intensely) would (a) rate sweet and high-fat foods more intensely than hypo-tasters, and (b) would differ from hypo-tasters in liking scores. (Liking has been proposed recently as a more accurate measure of actual food consumption). In Study 1, a range of energy-dense foods and beverages, including table cream and chocolate, was assessed by 25 TTs and 19 TnTs. Ratings of oral sensation intensity and overall liking were obtained using gVAS and gDOL scales, respectively. TTs and TnTs did not differ significantly in intensity ratings for most stimuli (ANOVA). In a 2nd study, 44 female participants sampled 22 foods and beverages, assessing them for intensity of oral sensations (gVAS) and overall liking (9-point hedonic scale). TTs (n=23) rated their overall liking of creaminess and milk products lower than did TnTs (n=21), and liked milk chocolate less. PROP responsiveness was negatively correlated with liking of food and beverages belonging to the sweet or sensory food grouping. No other differences in intensity or liking scores between hyper- and hypo-tasters were found. Taken overall, our results are somewhat unexpected, lending only modest support to the hypothesis that these taste phenotypes associate with energy-dense food liking and consumption through differences in the oral sensations they elicit. Reasons for this lack of concordance with expectations and some prior literature are discussed, and suggestions for future research are advanced.

Keywords: taste phenotypes, sensory evaluation, PROP, thermal tasting, diet-related health risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
15 Characterization of Nanoemulsion Incorporating Crude Cocoa Polyphenol

Authors: Suzannah Sharif, Aznie Aida Ahmad, Maznah Ismail

Abstract:

Cocoa bean is the raw material for products such as cocoa powder and chocolate. Cocoa bean contains polyphenol which has been shown in several clinical studies to confer beneficial health effects. However studies showed that cocoa polyphenol absorption in the human intestinal tracts are very low. Therefore nanoemulsion may be one way to increase the bioavailability of cocoa polyphenol. This study aim to characterize nanoemulsion incorporating crude cocoa polyphenol produced using high energy technique. Cocoa polyphenol was extracted from fresh freeze-dried cocoa beans from Malaysia. The particle distribution, particle size, and zeta potential were determined. The emulsion was also analysed using transmission electron microscope to visualize the particles. Solubilization study was conducted by titrating the nanoemulsion into distilled water or 1% surfactant solution. Result showed that the nanoemulsion contains particle which have narrow size distribution. The particles size average at 112nm with zeta potential of -45mV. The nanoemulsions behave differently in distilled water and surfactant solution.

Keywords: cocoa, nanoemulsion, cocoa polyphenol, solubilisation study

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
14 Characterization of Coronary Artery Obstruction and Related Findings in Ischemic Heart Patients Using Cardiac Scintigraphy

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Eltayeb Wagi Allah Eltayeb, Mohamed E. Gar-elnabi, Mohamed Ahmed Ali

Abstract:

To characterize coronary artery obstruction and related findings in ischemic heart patients using cardiac scintigraphy for the identification of myocardial ischemia, 146 patients were studied at basal conditions and also asked for fasting after night till the intravenous injection of the radiopharmaceutical. After the injection time about 15 to 20 minutes, the patient should eat a fatty meal and chocolate for the good excretion of the gall bladder, to evaluate the performance and regional wall motion of the left ventricle (LV). The results showed that the body mass index percentage in this sample was in range of 43.05 to 61.05. The number of patients who were catheter candidates were 56 with 43% and the patients that were not candidate to cathode were 74 patients with 57% of all patients. For the group of patients where type of ischemia was assessed, 29.5% of patients had reversible posterior and inferior wall, 15.1% of patients had fixed large from apex to base, 9.6% of patients had mild basal inferior wall, 4.8 % of patients had mild anterior wall, 6.2% of patients had antro-septal and 34.9% of patients had moderate ischemia.

Keywords: myocardial ischemia, myocardial scintigraphy, contrast ventriculography, coronary artery obstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
13 Findings in Vascular Catheter Cultures at the Laboratory of Microbiology of General Hospital during One Year

Authors: P. Christodoulou, M. Gerasimou, S. Mantzoukis, N. Varsamis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos

Abstract:

Abstract— Purpose: The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) environment is conducive to the growth of microorganisms. A variety of microorganisms gain access to the intravascular area and are transported throughout the circulatory system. Therefore, examination of the catheters used in ICU patients is of paramount importance. Material and Method: The culture medium is a catheter tip, which is enriched with Tryptic soy broth (TSB). After one day of incubation, the broth is passaged in the following selective media: Blood, Mac conkey No. 2, chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman, and Saboureaud agar. The above selective media is incubated for 2 days. After this period, if any number of microbial colonies is detected, gram staining is performed and then the microorganisms are identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan (Siemens) system followed by a sensitivity test in the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) technique. The sensitivity test is verified by a Kirby Bauer test. Results: In 2017, the Microbiology Laboratory received 84 catheters from the ICU. 42 were found positive. Of these, S. epidermidis was identified at 8, A. baumannii in 10, K. pneumoniae in 6, P. aeruginosa in 6, P. mirabilis in 3, S. simulans in 1, S. haemolyticus in 4, S. aureus in 3 and S. hominis in 1. Conclusions: The results show that the placement and maintenance of the catheters in ICU patients are relatively successful, despite the unfavorable environment of the unit.

Keywords: culture, intensive care unit, microorganisms, vascular catheters

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
12 Retrospective Study of Bronchial Secretions Cultures Carried out in the Microbiology Department of General Hospital of Ioannina in 2017

Authors: S. Mantzoukis, M. Gerasimou, P. Christodoulou, N. Varsamis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos

Abstract:

Purpose: Patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU) are exposed to a different spectrum of microorganisms relative to the hospital. Due to the fact that the majority of these patients are intubated, bronchial secretions should be examined. Material and Method: Bronchial secretions should be taken with care so as not to be mixed with sputum or saliva. The bronchial secretions are placed in a sterile container and then inoculated into blood, Mac Conkey No2, Chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman and Saboureaud agar. After this period, if any number of microbial colonies are detected, gram staining is performed and then the isolated organisms are identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan system (Siemens) followed by a sensitivity test in the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC technique. The sensitivity test is verified by a Kirby Bauer test. Results: In 2017 the Laboratory of Microbiology received 365 samples of bronchial secretions from the Intensive Care Unit. 237 were found positive. S. epidermidis was identified in 1 specimen, A. baumannii in 60, K. pneumoniae in 42, P. aeruginosa in 50, C. albicans in 40, P. mirabilis in 4, E. coli in 4, S. maltophilia in 6, S. marcescens in 6, S. aureus in 12, S. pneumoniae in 1, S. haemolyticus in 4, P. fluorescens in 1, E. aerogenes in 1, E. cloacae in 5. Conclusions: The majority of ICU patients appear to be a fertile ground for the development of infections. The nature of the findings suggests that a significant part of the bacteria found comes from the unit (nosocomial infection).

Keywords: bronchial secretions, cultures, infections, intensive care units

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
11 Two Years Retrospective Study of Body Fluid Cultures Obtained from Patients in the Intensive Care Unit of General Hospital of Ioannina

Authors: N. Varsamis, M. Gerasimou, P. Christodoulou, S. Mantzoukis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos

Abstract:

Purpose: Body fluids (pleural, peritoneal, synovial, pericardial, cerebrospinal) are an important element in the detection of microorganisms. For this reason, it is important to examine them in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Material and Method: Body fluids are transported through sterile containers and enriched as soon as possible with Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB). After one day of incubation, the broth is poured into selective media: Blood, Mac Conkey No. 2, Chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman and Saboureaud agar. The above selective media are incubated directly for 2 days. After this period, if any number of microbial colonies are detected, gram staining is performed. After that, the isolated organisms are identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan system (Siemens) and followed by a sensitivity test on the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC technique. The sensitivity test is verified by Kirby Bauer-based plate test. Results: In 2017 the Laboratory of Microbiology received 60 samples of body fluids from the ICU. More specifically the Microbiology Department received 6 peritoneal fluid specimens, 18 pleural fluid specimens and 36 cerebrospinal fluid specimens. 36 positive cultures were tested. S. epidermidis was identified in 18 specimens, S. haemolyticus in 6, and E. faecium in 12. Conclusions: The results show low detection of microorganisms in body fluid cultures.

Keywords: body fluids, culture, intensive care unit, microorganisms

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
10 Retrospective Study of Positive Blood Cultures Carried out in the Microbiology Department of General Hospital of Ioannina in 2017

Authors: M. Gerasimou, S. Mantzoukis, P. Christodoulou, N. Varsamis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos

Abstract:

Purpose: Microbial infection of the blood is a serious condition where bacteria invade the bloodstream and cause systemic disease. In such cases, blood cultures are performed. Blood cultures are a key diagnostic test for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Material and method: The BacT/Alert system, which measures the production of carbon dioxide with metabolic organisms, is used. The positive result in the BacT/Alert system is followed by culture in the following selective media: Blood, Mac Conkey No 2, Chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman and Sabaureaud agar. Gram staining method was used to differentiate bacterial species. The microorganisms were identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan (Siemens) system and followed by a sensitivity test on the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC technique. The sensitivity test is verified by a Kirby Bauer-based test. Results: In 2017 the Laboratory of Microbiology received 3347 blood cultures. Of these, 170 came from the ICU. 116 found positive. Of these S. epidermidis was identified in 42, A. baumannii in 27, K. pneumoniae in 12 (4 of these KPC ‘Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase’), S. hominis in 8, E. faecium in 7, E. faecalis in 5, P. aeruginosa in 3, C. albicans in 3, S. capitis in 2, K. oxytoca in 2, P. mirabilis in 2, E. coli in 1, S. intermidius in 1 and S. lugdunensis in 1. Conclusions: The study of epidemiological data and microbial resistance phenotypes is essential for the choice of therapeutic regimen for the early treatment and limitation of multivalent strains, while it is a crucial factor to solve diagnostic problems.

Keywords: blood culture, bloodstream, infection, intensive care unit

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
9 Influence of Parent’s Food Habits on Nutrition Behaviours of Children under 7 Years in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Katayoun Bagheri, Farzad Berahmandpour

Abstract:

Several studies about food habits in diverse population show, early living years play significant role in building of current food habits. Suitable nutrition in children is also influenced by parent’s food habits. The aim of study is to survey the role of parent’s food habits to form of nutrition behaviours in children under 7 years in Tehran - Iran. The study is a Descriptive study. The participants were 19 children under 7 years with their mothers from a kindergarten in the central Tehran. The sampling method was random sampling. The data was collected by food habits questionnaires and implementation of consultation meetings with the mothers. The data analysis was qualitative analysis. The findings show that 79% children and their parents have eaten enough and variety breakfast, but food choices of children were depended on food choices of parents. In the other meals, the majority of children enjoyed to eat dinner (58%), because the more families could eat dinner together. According to mother opinions, the children enjoy eating macaroni, chicken, fried potatoes, chips and fruit juices. The researchers argue that mother’s role is unavoidable in the food preferences among children. Fortunately, the results believe that children tend to drink simple milk (79%). Moreover, their parents lead them to chocolate milk consumption (42%) instead of other flavored milk. Finally, despite popular belief claim that mothers influence on nutrition behavior of children, but the study argues that the fathers have more effects on children’s nutrition behaviours. In conclusion, it seems that the general trainings about promoting healthy nutrition behavior for parents by mass media can improve nutrition habits and behaviours of pre school children.

Keywords: food habits, parents, nutrition behaviours, children, promoting nutrition

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
8 Consumer Preferences towards Sorbets: A Questionnaire Study

Authors: Kinga Topolska, Agnieszka Filipiak-Florkiewicz, Adam Florkiewicz, Daria Chechelska, Iwona Cieślik, Ewa Cieślik

Abstract:

Food choice is a complex human behaviour, that is influenced by many interrelating factors. It is important to understand what consumers really want to eat. Nowadays, the growing popularity of frozen desserts is observed. Among them, sorbets are of the special interest. They are made primarily of fruit juice or fruit purée, water and sugar. A questionnaire study was done to evaluate the consumer preferences towards sorbets. A hundred respondents were included in the study. The respondents answered the questions concerning, inter alia, on the favourite taste of sorbets, additional ingredients (pieces of fruits, nuts etc.), the reason for choosing the product and also the opinion about potential purchasing or not the new product. Women, more frequently than men, indicated strawberry sorbet or the product on the basis of citrus fruits as a favourite one. In turn, 14% of men chose the apple taste. Pieces of chocolate were chosen by most of respondents. Men, more often than women, regarded raisins, alcohol and nuts as the most desirable additional ingredients of sorbets. The candied fruits and spices were indicated more frequently by women. Most of respondents indicated the taste as the major reason for sorbet buying. In turn, for 20% women the most important determinant was the care for their figure. It was observed that more than a half of women regarded sorbets as healthier than traditional ice creams. Answering the question: 'If you had the opportunity to try a new sorbet, containing the ingredient with proven healthy properties, would you buy it?', significantly more men than women answered 'yes, because I like novelty'. Meanwhile, for 14% respondents (independently of gender) it would be only a publicity stunt. Knowing what the consumers desire in selecting a product, is a very important information to design and offer them a new one. Sorbets could be an interesting alternative to ice creams.

Keywords: consumer, preferences, sorbets, questionnaire study

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
7 A Relationship Model That Illustrates the Effect of Humorous Packaging Designs on Brand Awareness and Brand Attitude

Authors: Shu-Yuan Lin, Tung-Chin Chou

Abstract:

As products become increasingly similar in competitive markets, achieving product segmentation and differentiation through packaging design has become the primary task when designing retail product packaging. When the main focus of brand marketing is no longer the product itself, emotional marketing, such as the use of humorous packaging designs, may be employed to successfully promote the brand. Such efforts will capture the hearts of consumers, generate discussions, and allow the brand to leave a deep impression in consumers. In this study, snack packaging was used to develop a relationship model that illustrated the effect of humorous packaging designs on brand awareness and brand attitude. The study was divided into three stages: In the first stage, in-depth interviews and focus group interviews were conducted with experts to construct 24 indicators for assessing humorous packaging designs. In the second stage, survey questionnaires were distributed to a young consumer group; the results showed that the group had a high and low product involvement with chocolate and dried shredded squid, respectively. Humorous packaging designs were subsequently created for two snack types to produce a study sample of 12 different packaging. In the third stage, packaging designs were evaluated by obtaining scores for the consumers’ brand awareness, brand attitude, and perceived effects of the packaging designs. Finally, a relationship model was developed to show the effect of humorous packaging designs on brand awareness and brand attitude, confirming that two perceived effects of humorous packaging designs (i.e., ‘pleasant and emotionally healing’ and ‘connected to people’s daily life’) exhibited a significant and positive effect on ‘perceived brand value,’ where the effect of ‘pleasant and emotionally healing’ was the most significant. In addition, ‘pleasant and emotionally healing’ exerted a significant and positive effect on ‘brand purchase intention.’ Furthermore, packaging designs with humorous elements helped foster brand awareness.

Keywords: brand awareness, brand attitude, humorous design, packaging design

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
6 Optimization of Mechanical Cacao Shelling Parameters Using Unroasted Cocoa Beans

Authors: Jeffrey A. Lavarias, Jessie C. Elauria, Arnold R. Elepano, Engelbert K. Peralta, Delfin C. Suministrado

Abstract:

Shelling process is one of the primary processes and critical steps in the processing of chocolate or any product that is derived from cocoa beans. It affects the quality of the cocoa nibs in terms of flavor and purity. In the Philippines, small-scale food processor cannot really compete with large scale confectionery manufacturers because of lack of available postharvest facilities that are appropriate to their level of operation. The impact of this study is to provide the needed intervention that will pave the way for cacao farmers of engaging on the advantage of value-adding as way to maximize the economic potential of cacao. Thus, provision and availability of needed postharvest machines like mechanical cacao sheller will revolutionize the current state of cacao industry in the Philippines. A mechanical cacao sheller was developed, fabricated, and evaluated to establish optimum shelling conditions such as moisture content of cocoa beans, clearance where of cocoa beans passes through the breaker section and speed of the breaking mechanism on shelling recovery, shelling efficiency, shelling rate, energy utilization and large nib recovery; To establish the optimum level of shelling parameters of the mechanical sheller. These factors were statistically analyzed using design of experiment by Box and Behnken and Response Surface Methodology (RSM). By maximizing shelling recovery, shelling efficiency, shelling rate, large nib recovery and minimizing energy utilization, the optimum shelling conditions were established at moisture content, clearance and breaker speed of 6.5%, 3 millimeters and 1300 rpm, respectively. The optimum values for shelling recovery, shelling efficiency, shelling rate, large nib recovery and minimizing energy utilization were recorded at 86.51%, 99.19%, 21.85kg/hr, 89.75%, and 542.84W, respectively. Experimental values obtained using the optimum conditions were compared with predicted values using predictive models and were found in good agreement.

Keywords: cocoa beans, optimization, RSM, shelling parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
5 Dietary Micronutritient and Health among Youth in Algeria

Authors: Allioua Meryem

Abstract:

Similar to much of the developing world, Algeria is currently undergoing an epidemiological transition. While mal- and under-nutrition and infectious diseases used to be the main causes of poor health, today there is a higher proportion of chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, etc. According to estimates for Algeria from the World Health Organization (WHO), NCDs accounted for 63% of all deaths in 2010. The objective of this study was the assessment of eating habits and anthropometric characteristics in a group of youth aged 15 to 19 years in Tlemcen. This study was conducted on a total effective of 806 youth enrolled in a descriptive cross-sectional study; the classification of nutritional status has been established by international standards IOTF, youth were defined as obese if they had a BMI ≥ 95th percentile, and youth with 85th ≤ BMI ≤ 95th percentile were defined as overweight. Wc is classified by the criteria HD, Wc with moderate risk ≥ 90th percentile and Wc with high risk ≥ 95th percentile. The dietary assessment was based on a 24-hour dietary recall assisted by food records. USDA’S nutrient database for Nutrinux® program was used to analyze dietary intake. Nutrients adequacy ratio was calculated by dividing daily individual intake to dietary recommended intake DRI for each nutrient. 9% of the population was overweight, 3% was obese, 7.5% had abdominal obesity, foods eaten in moderation are chips, cookies, chocolate 1-3 times/day and increased consumption of fried foods in the week, almost half of youth consume sugary drinks more than 3 times per week, we observe a decreased intake of energy, protein (P < 0.001, P = 0.003), SFA (P = 0.018), the NAR of phosphorus, iron, magnesium, vitamin B6, vitamin E, folate, niacin, and thiamin reflecting less consumption of fruit, vegetables, milk, and milk products. Youth surveyed have eating habits at risk of developing obesity and chronic disease.

Keywords: food intake, health, anthropometric characteristics, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 424
4 Microbial Pathogens Associated with Banded Sugar Ants (Camponotus consobrinus) in Calabar, Nigeria

Authors: Ofonime Ogba, Augustine Akpan

Abstract:

Objectives and Goals: The study was aimed at determining pathogenic microbial carriage on the external body parts of Camponotus consobrinus which is also known as the banded sugar ant because of its liking for sugar and sweet food. The level of pathogenic microbial carriage of Camponotus consobrinus in association to the environment in which they have been collected is not known. Methods: The ants were purposively collected from four locations including the kitchens, bedroom of various homes, food shops, and bakeries. The sample collection took place within the hours of 6:30 pm to 11:00 pm. The ants were trapped in transparent plastic containers of which sugar, pineapple peels, sugar cane and soft drinks were used as bait. The ants were removed with a sterile spatula and put in 10mls of peptone water in sterile universal bottles. The containers were vigorously shaken to wash the external surface of the ant. It was left overnight and transported to the Microbiology Laboratory, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital for analysis. The overnight peptone broths were inoculated on Chocolate agar, Blood agar, Cystine Lactose Electrolyte-Deficient agar (CLED) and Sabouraud dextrose agar. Incubation was done aerobically and in a carbon dioxide jar for 24 to 48 hours at 37°C. Isolates were identified based on colonial characteristics, Gram staining, and biochemical tests. Results: Out of the 250 Camponotus consobrinus caught for the study, 90(36.0%) were caught in the kitchen, 75(30.0%) in the bedrooms 40(16.0%) in the bakery while 45(18.0%) were caught in the shops. A total of 82.0% prevalence of different microbial isolates was associated with the ants. The kitchen had the highest number of isolates 75(36.6%) followed by the bedroom 55(26.8%) while the bakery recorded the lowest number of isolates 35(17.1%). The profile of micro-organisms associated with Camponotus consobrinus was Escherichia coli 73(30.0%), Morganella morganii 45(18.0%), Candida species 25(10.0%), Serratia marcescens 10(4.0%) and Citrobacter freundii 10(4.0%). Conclusion: Most of the Camponotus consobrinus examined in the four locations harboured potential pathogens. The presence of ants in homes and shops can facilitate the propagation and spread of pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, the development of basic preventive measures and the control of ants must be taken seriously.

Keywords: Camponotus consobrinus, potential pathogens, microbial isolates, spread

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
3 Assessment of the Situation and the Cause of Junk Food Consumption in Iranians: A Qualitative Study

Authors: A. Rezazadeh, B Damari, S. Riazi-Esfahani, M. Hajian

Abstract:

The consumption of junk food in Iran is alarmingly increasing. This study aimed to investigate the influencing factors of junk food consumption and amendable interventions that are criticized and approved by stakeholders, in order to presented to health policy makers. The articles and documents related to the content of study were collected by using the appropriate key words such as junk food, carbonated beverage, chocolate, candy, sweets, industrial fruit juices, potato chips, French fries, puffed corn, cakes, biscuits, sandwiches, prepared foods and popsicles, ice cream, bar, chewing gum, pastilles and snack, in scholar.google.com, pubmed.com, eric.ed.gov, cochrane.org, magiran.com, medlib.ir, irandoc.ac.ir, who.int, iranmedex.com, sid.ir, pubmed.org and sciencedirect.com databases. The main key points were extracted and included in a checklist and qualitatively analyzed. Then a summarized abstract was prepared in a format of a questionnaire to be presented to stakeholders. The design of this was qualitative (Delphi). According to this method, a questionnaire was prepared based on reviewing the articles and documents and it was emailed to stakeholders, who were asked to prioritize and choose the main problems and effective interventions. After three rounds, consensus was obtained.            Studies revealed high consumption of junk foods in the Iranian population, especially in children and adolescents. The most important affecting factors include availability, low price, media advertisements, preference of fast foods taste, the variety of the packages and their attractiveness, low awareness and changing in lifestyle. Main interventions recommended by stakeholders include developing a protective environment, educational interventions, increasing healthy food access and controlling media advertisements and putting pressure from the Industry and Mining Ministry on producers to produce healthy snacks. According to the findings, the results of this study may be proposed to public health policymakers as an advocacy paper and to be integrated in the interventional programs of Health and Education ministries and the media. Also, implementation of supportive meetings with the producers of alternative healthy products is suggested.

Keywords: junk foods, situation, qualitative study, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 132