Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 466

Search results for: Chang Kyu Lee

466 A Corpus Based Study of Eileen Chang’s Self-Translating Style: A Case Study on The Rice Sprout Song

Authors: Yi-Wei Huang

Abstract:

Eileen Chang is a well-known writer of modern Chinese literature. She is also a translator that publishes her self-translation The Rice Sprout Song. The purpose of the study is to identify the style of Eileen Chang’s self-translations by corpora, especially in the case of The Rice Sprout Song. The Rice Sprout Song is first written in English and then translated into Chinese by the author herself. The procedure of translation is complicated due to the bilingual transition by the same person. Therefore, the aim of the study is to identify Eileen Chang’s style on her self-translation by comparing her works The Old Man and the Sea, The Rice Sprout Song, and The Rouge of The North. The study uses computer-aided software like AntConc, Notepad++, StanfordCoreNLP, and Python to analyze the style of the works, especially focuses on reduplications and the composition of the sentences. Reduplications are commonly seen in Eileen Chang’s works, and they often appear with colors or onomatopoeia. With these criteria, the style of self-translating can be detected and analyzed.

Keywords: corpora, Eileen Chang, reduplications, self-translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
465 The Microstructure of Aging ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films

Authors: Zue Chin Chang, Shih-Chang Liang

Abstract:

RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The electric conduction mechanism of the AZO and GZO films came mainly from the Al and Ga, the oxygen vacancies, Zn interstitial atoms, and Al and/or Ga interstitial atoms. AZO and GZO films achieved higher conduction than did ZnO film, it being ion vacant and nonstoichiometric. The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films.

Keywords: ZnO, AZO, GZO, doped, sputtering

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
464 Estimating Solar Irradiance on a Tilted Surface Using Artificial Neural Networks with Differential Outputs

Authors: Hsu-Yung Cheng, Kuo-Chang Hsu, Chi-Chang Chan, Mei-Hui Tseng, Chih-Chang Yu, Ya-Sheng Liu

Abstract:

Photovoltaics modules are usually not installed horizontally to avoid water or dust accumulation. However, the measured irradiance data on tilted surfaces are rarely available since installing pyranometers with various tilt angles induces high costs. Therefore, estimating solar irradiance on tilted surfaces is an important research topic. In this work, artificial neural networks (ANN) are utilized to construct the transfer model to estimate solar irradiance on tilted surfaces. Instead of predicting tilted irradiance directly, the proposed method estimates the differences between the horizontal irradiance and the irradiance on a tilted surface. The outputs of the ANNs in the proposed design are differential values. The experimental results have shown that the proposed ANNs with differential outputs can substantially improve the estimation accuracy compared to ANNs that estimate the titled irradiance directly.

Keywords: photovoltaics, artificial neural networks, tilted irradiance, solar energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
463 Study on Hydrophilicity of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates with TiO2-NTs

Authors: Yu-Wei Chang, Hsuan-Yu Ku, Jo-Shan Chiu, Shao-Fu Chang, Chien-Chon Chen

Abstract:

This paper aims to discuss the hydrophilicity about the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template with titania nanotubes (NTs). The AAO templates with pore size diameters of 20-250 nm were generated by anodizing 6061 aluminum alloy substrates in acid solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), oxalic acid (COOH)2, and phosphoric acid (H3PO4), respectively. TiO2-NTs were grown on AAO templates by the sol-gel deposition process successfully. The water contact angle on AAO/TiO2-NTs surface was lower compared to the water contact angle on AAO surface. So, the characteristic of hydrophilicity was significantly associated with the AAO pore size and what kinds of materials were immersed variables.

Keywords: AAO, nanotube, sol-gel, anodization, hydrophilicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
462 Stray Light Reduction Methodology by a Sinusoidal Light Modulation and Three-Parameter Sine Curve Fitting Algorithm for a Reflectance Spectrometer

Authors: Hung Chih Hsieh, Cheng Hao Chang, Yun Hsiang Chang, Yu Lin Chang

Abstract:

In the applications of the spectrometer, the stray light that comes from the environment affects the measurement results a lot. Hence, environment and instrument quality control for the stray reduction is critical for the spectral reflectance measurement. In this paper, a simple and practical method has been developed to correct a spectrometer's response for measurement errors arising from the environment's and instrument's stray light. A sinusoidal modulated light intensity signal was incident on a tested sample, and then the reflected light was collected by the spectrometer. Since a sinusoidal signal modulated the incident light, the reflected light also had a modulated frequency which was the same as the incident signal. Using the three-parameter sine curve fitting algorithm, we can extract the primary reflectance signal from the total measured signal, which contained the primary reflectance signal and the stray light from the environment. The spectra similarity between the extracted spectra by this proposed method with extreme environment stray light is 99.98% similar to the spectra without the environment's stray light. This result shows that we can measure the reflectance spectra without the affection of the environment's stray light.

Keywords: spectrometer, stray light, three-parameter sine curve fitting, spectra extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
461 Derivative Usage, Ownership Structure, and Bank Value in European Countries

Authors: Chuang-Chang Chang, Keng-Yu Ho, Yu-Jen Hsiao, Hsin-Ni Yang

Abstract:

Using a sample of detailed ownership data of 1,032 listed commercial bank observations in 30 European countries from 2004 to 2010, we explore what categories of shareholder are more likely to use derivatives and how different types of owners affect the bank value. We find that a shift in equity from bank investors to either non-financial companies or institutional investors have increase incentives to use derivatives. Moreover, we have significant evidence that a shift in equity from bank investors to either family or manager shareholders who attend derivative activities will decrease bank value. However, a shift in equity from bank investors to non-financial companies who use derivative instrument will increase the bank value. Our results are also robustness to address for the potential endogeneity problems.

Keywords: derivative usage, ownership structure, bank value

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
460 Performance Variation of the TEES According to the Changes in Cold-Side Storage Temperature

Authors: Young-Jin Baik, Minsung Kim, Junhyun Cho, Ho-Sang Ra, Young-Soo Lee, Ki-Chang Chang

Abstract:

Surplus electricity can be converted into potential energy via pumped hydroelectric storage for future usage. Similarly, thermo-electric energy storage (TEES) uses heat pumps equipped with thermal storage to convert electrical energy into thermal energy; the stored energy is then converted back into electrical energy when necessary using a heat engine. The greatest advantage of this method is that, unlike pumped hydroelectric storage and compressed air energy storage, TEES is not restricted by geographical constraints. In this study, performance variation of the TEES according to the changes in cold-side storage temperature was investigated by simulation method.

Keywords: energy storage system, heat pump, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
459 Color Image Enhancement Using Multiscale Retinex and Image Fusion Techniques

Authors: Chang-Hsing Lee, Cheng-Chang Lien, Chin-Chuan Han

Abstract:

In this paper, an edge-strength guided multiscale retinex (EGMSR) approach will be proposed for color image contrast enhancement. In EGMSR, the pixel-dependent weight associated with each pixel in the single scale retinex output image is computed according to the edge strength around this pixel in order to prevent from over-enhancing the noises contained in the smooth dark/bright regions. Further, by fusing together the enhanced results of EGMSR and adaptive multiscale retinex (AMSR), we can get a natural fused image having high contrast and proper tonal rendition. Experimental results on several low-contrast images have shown that our proposed approach can produce natural and appealing enhanced images.

Keywords: image enhancement, multiscale retinex, image fusion, EGMSR

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
458 Evaluation of Duncan-Chang Deformation Parameters of Granular Fill Materials Using Non-Invasive Seismic Wave Methods

Authors: Ehsan Pegah, Huabei Liu

Abstract:

Characterizing the deformation properties of fill materials in a wide stress range always has been an important issue in geotechnical engineering. The hyperbolic Duncan-Chang model is a very popular model of stress-strain relationship that captures the nonlinear deformation of granular geomaterials in a very tractable manner. It consists of a particular set of the model parameters, which are generally measured from an extensive series of laboratory triaxial tests. This practice is both time-consuming and costly, especially in large projects. In addition, undesired effects caused by soil disturbance during the sampling procedure also may yield a large degree of uncertainty in the results. Accordingly, non-invasive geophysical seismic approaches may be utilized as the appropriate alternative surveys for measuring the model parameters based on the seismic wave velocities. To this end, the conventional seismic refraction profiles were carried out in the test sites with the granular fill materials to collect the seismic waves information. The acquired shot gathers are processed, from which the P- and S-wave velocities can be derived. The P-wave velocities are extracted from the Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) technique while S-wave velocities are obtained by the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method. The velocity values were then utilized with the equations resulting from the rigorous theories of elasticity and soil mechanics to evaluate the Duncan-Chang model parameters. The derived parameters were finally compared with those from laboratory tests to validate the reliability of the results. The findings of this study may confidently serve as the useful references for determination of nonlinear deformation parameters of granular fill geomaterials. Those are environmentally friendly and quite economic, which can yield accurate results under the actual in-situ conditions using the surface seismic methods.

Keywords: Duncan-Chang deformation parameters, granular fill materials, seismic waves velocity, multichannel analysis of surface waves, seismic refraction tomography

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
457 Impact of Education on Levels of Physical Activity and Depression in Taiwanese Vegetarians and Omnivores

Authors: Ya-Lin Chang, Chia Chen Chang, Yu-Ru Liang, Joyce Chen, You-Kang Chang, Tina Chiu

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Physical activity and mental health status are important for health. The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activities and depression in Taiwanese vegetarians (VEG) and omnivores (OMNI). Sixty-three vegetarians (20 males) and 56 omnivores (23 males) with an average age of 51 years were recruited for a food frequency validation study at Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital from July to September in 2016. Participants filled out a validated Chinese version international physical activity questionnaire-short-form (IPAQ), Beck Depression Inventory-II-Chinese version (BDI), food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a questionnaire on demographics and medical history upon recruitment. Total BDI scores were calculated for depression and the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) was calculated for physical activity levels. Mann-Whitney U tests and Chi-square test were used to compare demographics, physical activity levels and depression scores. VEG and OMNI did not differ significantly on MET (1441.9 ± 3387.3 vs. 1605.8 ± 2486.1. p=0.2652, respectively). VEG scored slightly lower on BDI compared to OMNI without statistical significance (5.6 ± 5.7 vs. 7.4 ± 6.3. p=0.06). In addition, we found that regardless of diet practice, those who held a college degree and above scored better on MET (1788.1 ± 2532.6 vs. 1215.5 ± 3425.5. p=0.0014) and BDI (5.2 ± 5.1 vs. 7.8 ± 6.7. p=0.03). In this cross-sectional study, Taiwanese vegetarians and omnivores scored comparatively on physical activity levels and depression. However, education is a significant determinant of physical activity and depression.

Keywords: BDI, diet, education, physical activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
456 Impact of Climate Change on Water Resource Systems in Taiwan

Authors: Chia-Ling Chang, Hao-Bo Chang

Abstract:

Global climate change alters rainfall characteristics, while the variation of these characteristics further influences environmental conditions, such as hydrologic responses, landslide areas, and the amounts of diffuse pollution. The variations of environmental conditions may impact the stability of water resource systems. The objective of this study is to assess the present conditions of major water resource systems in Taiwan. The impact of climate change on each system is also discussed herein. Compared to the water resource systems in northern Taiwan, the ratio of the precipitation during the rainy season to that during the dry season has a larger increase in southern Taiwan. This variation of hydrologic condition impacts the stability of water resource systems and increases the risk of normal water supply. The findings in this work can be important references for water resource management.

Keywords: basin management, climate change, water resource system, water resource management

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
455 Local Activities of the Membranes Associated with Glycosaminoglycan-Chitosan Complexes in Bone Cells

Authors: Chih-Chang Yeh, Min-Fang Yang, Hsin-I Chang

Abstract:

Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide derived from the partial deacetylation of chitin. Hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparin (HP) are anionic glycosaminoglycans (GCGs) which can regulate osteogenic activity. In this study, chitosan membranes were prepared by glutaraldehyde crosslinking reaction and then complexed with three different types of GCGs. 7F2 osteoblasts-like cells and macrophages Raw264.7 were used as models to study the influence of chitosan membranes on osteometabolism. Although chitosan membranes are highly hydrophilic, the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes showed about 60-70% cell attachment. Furthermore, the membranes associated with HP-chitosan complexes could increase ALP activity in comparison with chitosan films only. Three types of the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes could significantly inhibit LPS induced-nitric oxide expression. In addition, chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA can down-regulate tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity but not CS-chitosan complexes. Based on these results, we conclude that chitosan membranes associated with HP can increase ALP activity in osteoblasts and chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA reduce TRAP activity in osteoclasts.

Keywords: osteoblast, osteoclast, chitosan, glycosaminoglycan

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
454 Unsteady Simulation of Burning Off Carbon Deposition in a Coke Oven

Authors: Uzu-Kuei Hsu, Keh-Chin Chang, Joo-Guan Hang, Chang-Hsien Tai

Abstract:

Carbon Deposits are often occurred inside the industrial coke oven during the coking process. Accumulation of carbon deposits may cause a big issue, which seriously influences the coking operation. The carbon is burning off by injecting fresh air through pipes into coke oven which is an efficient way practically operated in industries. The burning off carbon deposition in coke oven performed by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method has provided an evaluation of the feasibility study. A three-dimensional, transient, turbulent reacting flow simulation has performed with three different injecting air flow rate and another kind of injecting configuration. The result shows that injection higher air flow rate would effectively reduce the carbon deposits. In the meantime, the opened charging holes would suck extra oxygen from the atmosphere to participate in reactions. In term of coke oven operating limits, the wall temperatures are monitored to prevent over-heating of the adiabatic walls during the burn-off process.

Keywords: coke oven, burning off, carbon deposits, carbon combustion, CFD

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453 Study Case of Spacecraft Instruments in Structural Modelling with Nastran-Patran

Authors: Francisco Borja de Lara, Ali Ravanbakhsh, Robert F. Wimmer-Schweingruber, Lars Seimetz, Fermín Navarro

Abstract:

The intense structural loads during the launch of a spacecraft represent a challenge for the space structure designers because enough resistance has to be achieved while maintaining at the same time the mass and volume within the allowable margins of the mission requirements and inside the limits of the budget project. In this conference, we present the structural analysis of the Lunar Lander Neutron Dosimetry (LND) experiment on the Chang'E4 mission, the first probe to land on the moon’s far side included in the Chinese’ Moon Exploration Program by the Chinese National Space Administration. To this target, the software Nastran/Patran has been used: a structural model in Patran and a structural analysis through Nastran have been realized. Next, the results obtained are used both for the optimization process of the spacecraft structure, and as input parameters for the model structural test campaign. In this way, the feasibility of the lunar instrument structure is demonstrated in terms of the modal modes, stresses, and random vibration and a better understanding of the structural tests design is provided by our results.

Keywords: Chang’E4, Chinese national space administration, lunar lander neutron dosimetry, nastran-patran, structural analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
452 An Extended Basic Period and Power-of-Two Policy for Economic Lot-Size Batch-Shipment Scheduling Problem

Authors: Wen-Tsung Ho, Ku-Kuang Chang, Hsin-Yuan Chang

Abstract:

In this study, we consider an economic lot-size batch-shipment scheduling problem (ELBSP) with extended basic period (EBP) and power-of-two (PoT) policies. In this problem, the supplier using a single facility to manufacture multiple products and equally sized batches are then delivered by the supplier to buyers over an infinite planning horizon. Further, the extended basic period (EBP) and power-of-two (PoT) policy are utilized. Relaxing the production schedule converts the ELBSP to an economic lot-size batch-shipment problem (ELBP) with EBP and PoT policies, and a nonlinear integer programming model of the ELBP is constructed. Using the replenishment cycle division and recursive tightening methods, optimal solutions are then solved separately for each product. The sum of these optimal solutions is the lower bound of the ELBSP. A proposed heuristic method with polynomial complexity is then applied to figure out the near-optimal solutions of the ELBSP. Numerical example is presented to confirm the efficacy of the proposed method.

Keywords: economic lot-size scheduling problem, extended basic period, replenishment cycle division, recursive tightening, power-of-two

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
451 Estimating X-Ray Spectra for Digital Mammography by Using the Expectation Maximization Algorithm: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study

Authors: Chieh-Chun Chang, Cheng-Ting Shih, Yan-Lin Liu, Shu-Jun Chang, Jay Wu

Abstract:

With the widespread use of digital mammography (DM), radiation dose evaluation of breasts has become important. X-ray spectra are one of the key factors that influence the absorbed dose of glandular tissue. In this study, we estimated the X-ray spectrum of DM using the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm with the transmission measurement data. The interpolating polynomial model proposed by Boone was applied to generate the initial guess of the DM spectrum with the target/filter combination of Mo/Mo and the tube voltage of 26 kVp. The Monte Carlo N-particle code (MCNP5) was used to tally the transmission data through aluminum sheets of 0.2 to 3 mm. The X-ray spectrum was reconstructed by using the EM algorithm iteratively. The influence of the initial guess for EM reconstruction was evaluated. The percentage error of the average energy between the reference spectrum inputted for Monte Carlo simulation and the spectrum estimated by the EM algorithm was -0.14%. The normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) and the normalized root max square error (NRMaSE) between both spectra were 0.6% and 2.3%, respectively. We conclude that the EM algorithm with transmission measurement data is a convenient and useful tool for estimating x-ray spectra for DM in clinical practice.

Keywords: digital mammography, expectation maximization algorithm, X-Ray spectrum, X-Ray

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
450 Lower Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Hormone Therapy Users with Use of Chinese Herbal Medicine

Authors: Shu-Hui Wen, Wei-Chuan Chang, Hsien-Chang Wu

Abstract:

Background: Little is known about the benefits and risks of use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in conditions related to hormone therapy (HT) use on the risk of ischemic stroke (IS). The aim of this study is to explore the risk of IS in menopausal women treated with HT and CHM. Materials and methods: A total of 32,441 menopausal women without surgical menopause aged 40- 65 years were selected from 2003 to 2010 using the 2-million random samples of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. According to the medication usage of HT and CHM, we divided the current and recent users into two groups: an HT use-only group (n = 4,989) and an HT/CHM group (n = 9,265). Propensity-score matching samples (4,079 pairs) were further created to deal with confounding by indication. The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of IS during HT or CHM treatment were estimated by the robust Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The incidence rate of IS in the HT/CHM group was significantly lower than in the HT group (4.5 vs. 12.8 per 1000 person-year, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis results indicated that additional CHM use was significant with a lower risk of IS (HR = 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.43). Further subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses had similar findings. Conclusion: We found that combined use of HT and CHM was associated with a lower risk for IS than HT use only. Further study is needed to examine possible mechanism underlying this association.

Keywords: Chinese herbal medicine, hormone therapy, ischemic stroke, menopause

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
449 Observation of the Orthodontic Tooth's Long-Term Movement Using Stereovision System

Authors: Hao-Yuan Tseng, Chuan-Yang Chang, Ying-Hui Chen, Sheng-Che Chen, Chih-Han Chang

Abstract:

Orthodontic tooth treatment has demonstrated a high success rate in clinical studies. It has been agreed upon that orthodontic tooth movement is based on the ability of surrounding bone and periodontal ligament (PDL) to react to a mechanical stimulus with remodeling processes. However, the mechanism of the tooth movement is still unclear. Recent studies focus on the simple principle compression-tension theory while rare studies directly measure tooth movement. Therefore, tracking tooth movement information during orthodontic treatment is very important in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism responses of the tooth movement during the orthodontic treatments. A stereovision system applied to track the tooth movement of the patient with the stamp brackets. The system was established by two cameras with their relative position calibrate. And the orthodontic force measured by 3D printing model with the six-axis load cell to determine the initial force application. The result shows that the stereovision system accuracy revealed the measurement presents a maximum error less than 2%. For the study on patient tracking, the incisor moved about 0.9 mm during 60 days tracking, and half of movement occurred in the first few hours. After removing the orthodontic force in 100 hours, the distance between before and after position incisor tooth decrease 0.5 mm consisted with the release of the phenomenon. Using the stereovision system can accurately locate the three-dimensional position of the teeth and superposition of 3D coordinate system for all the data to integrate the complex tooth movement.

Keywords: orthodontic treatment, tooth movement, stereovision system, long-term tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
448 The Influence of Air Temperature Controls in Estimation of Air Temperature over Homogeneous Terrain

Authors: Fariza Yunus, Jasmee Jaafar, Zamalia Mahmud, Nurul Nisa’ Khairul Azmi, Nursalleh K. Chang, Nursalleh K. Chang

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Variation of air temperature from one place to another is cause by air temperature controls. In general, the most important control of air temperature is elevation. Another significant independent variable in estimating air temperature is the location of meteorological stations. Distances to coastline and land use type are also contributed to significant variations in the air temperature. On the other hand, in homogeneous terrain direct interpolation of discrete points of air temperature work well to estimate air temperature values in un-sampled area. In this process the estimation is solely based on discrete points of air temperature. However, this study presents that air temperature controls also play significant roles in estimating air temperature over homogenous terrain of Peninsular Malaysia. An Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation technique was adopted to generate continuous data of air temperature. This study compared two different datasets, observed mean monthly data of T, and estimation error of T–T’, where T’ estimated value from a multiple regression model. The multiple regression model considered eight independent variables of elevation, latitude, longitude, coastline, and four land use types of water bodies, forest, agriculture and build up areas, to represent the role of air temperature controls. Cross validation analysis was conducted to review accuracy of the estimation values. Final results show, estimation values of T–T’ produced lower errors for mean monthly mean air temperature over homogeneous terrain in Peninsular Malaysia.

Keywords: air temperature control, interpolation analysis, peninsular Malaysia, regression model, air temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
447 The Relationship among Perceived Risk, Product Knowledge, Brand Image and the Insurance Purchase Intention of Taiwanese Working Holiday Youths

Authors: Wan-Ling Chang, Hsiu-Ju Huang, Jui-Hsiu Chang

Abstract:

In 2004, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Taiwan launched ‘An Arrangement on Working Holiday Scheme’ with 15 countries including New Zealand, Japan, Canada, Germany, South Korea, Britain, Australia and others. The aim of the scheme is to allow young people to work and study English or other foreign languages. Each year, there are 30,000 Taiwanese youths applied for participating in the working holiday schemes. However, frequent accidents could cause huge medical expenses and post-delivery fee, which are usually unaffordable for most families. Therefore, this study explored the relationship among perceived risk toward working holiday, insurance product knowledge, brand image and insurance purchase intention for Taiwanese youths who plan to apply for working holiday. A survey questionnaire was distributed for data collection. A total of 316 questionnaires were collected for data analyzed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent samples T-test, one-way ANOVA, correlation analysis, regression analysis and hierarchical regression methods of analysis and hypothesis testing. The results of this research indicate that perceived risk has a negative influence on insurance purchase intention. On the opposite, product knowledge has brand image has a positive influence on the insurance purchase intention. According to the mentioned results, practical implications were further addressed for insurance companies when developing a future marketing plan.

Keywords: insurance product knowledges, insurance purchase intention, perceived risk, working holiday

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
446 Finite Element Analysis of the Lumbar Spine after Unilateral and Bilateral Laminotomies and Laminectomy

Authors: Chih-Hsien Chen, Yi-Hung Ho, Chih-Wei Wang, Chih-Wei Chang, Yen-Nien Chen, Chih-Han Chang, Chun-Ting Li

Abstract:

Laminotomy is a spinal decompression surgery compatible with a minimally invasive approach. However, the unilateral laminotomy for bilateral side decompression leads to more perioperative complications than the bilateral laminotomy. Although the unilateral laminotomy removes the least bone tissue among the spinal decompression surgeries, the difference of spinal stability between unilateral and bilateral laminotomy and laminectomy is rarely investigated. This study aims to compare the biomechanical effects of unilateral and bilateral laminotomy and laminectomy on the lumbar spine by finite element (FE) simulation. A three-dimensional FE model of the lumbar spine (L1–L5) was constructed with the vertebral body, discs, and ligaments, as well as the sacrum was constructed. Three different surgical methods, namely unilateral laminotomy, bilateral laminotomy and laminectomy, at L3–L4 and L4–L5 were considered. Partial pedicle and entire ligamentum flavum were removed to simulate bilateral decompression in laminotomy. The entire lamina and spinal processes from the lower L3 to upper L5 were detached in the laminectomy model. Then, four kinds of loadings, namely flexion, extension, lateral bending and rotation, were applied on the lumbar with various decompression conditions. The results indicated that the bilateral and unilateral laminotomy both increased the range of motion (ROM) compared with intact lumbar, while the laminectomy increased more ROM than both laminotomy did. The difference of ROM between the bilateral and unilateral laminotomy was very minor. Furthermore, bilateral laminotomy demonstrated similar poster element stress with unilateral laminotomy. Unilateral and bilateral laminotomy are equally suggested to bilateral decompression of lumbar spine with minimally invasive technique because limited effect was aroused due to more bone remove in the bilateral laminotomy on the lumbar stability. Furthermore, laminectomy is the last option for lumbar decompression.

Keywords: minimally invasive technique, lumbar decompression, laminotomy, laminectomy, finite element method

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445 Maximum Induced Subgraph of an Augmented Cube

Authors: Meng-Jou Chien, Jheng-Cheng Chen, Chang-Hsiung Tsai

Abstract:

Let maxζG(m) denote the maximum number of edges in a subgraph of graph G induced by m nodes. The n-dimensional augmented cube, denoted as AQn, a variation of the hypercube, possesses some properties superior to those of the hypercube. We study the cases when G is the augmented cube AQn.

Keywords: interconnection network, augmented cube, induced subgraph, bisection width

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
444 Dengue Prevention and Control in Kaohsiung City

Authors: Chiu-Wen Chang, I-Yun Chang, Wei-Ting Chen, Hui-Ping Ho, Ruei-Hun Chang, Joh-Jong Huang

Abstract:

Kaohsiung City is located in the tropical region where has Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus distributed; once the virus invades, it’s can easily trigger local epidemic. Besides, Kaohsiung City has a world-class airport and harbor, trade and tourism are close and frequently with every country, especially with the Southeast Asian countries which also suffer from dengue. Therefore, Kaohsiung City faces the difficult challenge of dengue every year. The objectives of this study was to enhance dengue clinical care, border management and vector surveillance in Kaohsiung City by establishing an larger scale, innovatively and more coordinated dengue prevention and control strategies in 2016, including (1) Integrated medical programs: facilitated 657 contract medical institutions, widely set up NS1 rapid test in clinics, enhanced triage and referrals system, dengue case daily-monitoring management (2) Border quarantine: comprehensive NS1 screening for foreign workers and fisheries when immigration, hospitalization and isolation for suspected cases, health education for high risk groups (foreign students, other tourists) (3) Mosquito control: Widely use Gravitrap to monitor mosquito density in environment, use NS1 rapid screening test to detect community dengue virus (4) Health education: create a dengue app for people to immediately inquire the risk map and nearby medical resources, routine health education to all districts to strengthen public’s dengue knowledge, neighborhood cleaning awards program. The results showed that after new integration of dengue prevention and control strategies fully implemented in Kaohsiung City, the number of confirmed cases in 2016 declined to 342 cases, the majority of these cases are the continuation epidemic in 2015; in fact, only two cases confirmed after the 2016 summer. Besides, the dengue mortality rate successfully decreased to 0% in 2016. Moreover, according to the reporting rate from medical institutions in 2014 and 2016, it dropped from 27.07% to 19.45% from medical center, and it decreased from 36.55% to 29.79% from regional hospital; however, the reporting rate of district hospital increased from 11.88% to 15.87% and also increased from 24.51% to 34.89% in general practice clinics. Obviously, it showed that under the action of strengthening medical management, it reduced the medical center’s notification ratio and improved the notification ratio of general clinics which achieved the great effect of dengue clinical management and dengue control.

Keywords: dengue control, integrated control strategies, clinical management, NS1

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
443 IPO Price Performance and Signaling

Authors: Chih-Hsiang Chang, I-Fan Ho

Abstract:

This study examines the credibility of the signaling as explanation for IPO initial underpricing. Findings reveal the initial underpricing and the long-term underperformance of IPOs in Taiwan. However, we only find weak support for signaling as explanation of IPO underpricing.

Keywords: signaling, IPO initial underpricing, IPO long-term underperformance, Taiwan’s stock market

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
442 The Effect of Aging of ZnO, AZO, and GZO films on the Microstructure and Photoelectric Property

Authors: Zue-Chin Chang

Abstract:

RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films. The AZO film had the best electrical properties; it had the lowest resistivity of 6.6 × 10-4 cm, the best sheet resistance of 2.2 × 10-1 Ω/square, and the highest carrier concentration of 4.3 × 1020 cm-3, as compared to the ZnO and GZO films.

Keywords: aging, films, microstructure, photoelectric property

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441 Predictive Factors of Prognosis in Acute Stroke Patients Receiving Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapy: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Shaoyi Lu

Abstract:

Background: Traditional Chinese medicine has been used to treat stroke, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. There is, however, no clear agreement about the optimal timing, population, efficacy, and predictive prognosis factors of traditional Chinese medicine supplemental therapy. Method: In this study, we used a retrospective analysis with data collection from stroke patients in Stroke Registry In Chang Gung Healthcare System (SRICHS). Stroke patients who received traditional Chinese medicine consultation in neurology ward of Keelung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from Jan 2010 to Dec 2014 were enrolled. Clinical profiles including the neurologic deficit, activities of daily living and other basic characteristics were analyzed. Through propensity score matching, we compared the NIHSS and Barthel index before and after the hospitalization, and applied with subgroup analysis, and adjusted by multivariate regression method. Results: Totally 115 stroke patients were enrolled with experiment group in 23 and control group in 92. The most important factor for prognosis prediction were the scores of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Barthel index right before the hospitalization. Traditional Chinese medicine intervention had no statistically significant influence on the neurological deficit of acute stroke patients, and mild negative influence on daily activity performance of acute hemorrhagic stroke patient. Conclusion: Efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine as a supplemental therapy for acute stroke patients was controversial. The reason for this phenomenon might be complex and require more research to comprehend. Key words: traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture, Stroke, NIH stroke scale, Barthel index, predictive factor. Method: In this study, we used a retrospective analysis with data collection from stroke patients in Stroke Registry In Chang Gung Healthcare System (SRICHS). Stroke patients who received traditional Chinese medicine consultation in neurology ward of Keelung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from Jan 2010 to Dec 2014 were enrolled. Clinical profiles including the neurologic deficit, activities of daily living and other basic characteristics were analyzed. Through propensity score matching, we compared the NIHSS and Barthel index before and after the hospitalization, and applied with subgroup analysis, and adjusted by multivariate regression method. Results: Totally 115 stroke patients were enrolled with experiment group in 23 and control group in 92. The most important factor for prognosis prediction were the scores of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Barthel index right before the hospitalization. Traditional Chinese medicine intervention had no statistically significant influence on the neurological deficit of acute stroke patients, and mild negative influence on daily activity performance of acute hemorrhagic stroke patient. Conclusion: Efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine as a supplemental therapy for acute stroke patients was controversial. The reason for this phenomenon might be complex and require more research to comprehend.

Keywords: traditional Chinese medicine, complementary and alternative medicine, stroke, acupuncture

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440 On-Site Management from Reactive to Proactive

Authors: Yu-Tzu Chen, Luh-Maan Chang

Abstract:

Construction is an inherently risky industry. The projects have been dominated by reactive actions owing to non-routine in nature. The on-site activities are especially crucial for successful project control. In order to alter actions from reactive to proactive, this paper presents an on-site data collection system utilizing advanced technology RFID and GPS in assisting on-site management with near real time progress monitoring.

Keywords: On-Site management, progress monitoring, RFID, GPS

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439 Identification of miRNA-miRNA Interactions between Virus and Host in Human Cytomegalovirus Infection

Authors: Kai-Yao Huang, Tzong-Yi Lee, Pin-Hao Ho, Tzu-Hao Chang, Cheng-Wei Chang

Abstract:

Background: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects much people around the world, and there were many researches mention that many diseases were caused by HCMV. To understand the mechanism of HCMV lead to diseases during infection. We observe a microRNA (miRNA) – miRNA interaction between HCMV and host during infection. We found HCMV miRNA sequence component complementary with host miRNA precursors, and we also found that the host miRNA abundances were decrease in HCMV infection. Hence, we focus on the host miRNA which may target by the other HCMV miRNA to find theirs target mRNAs expression and analysis these mRNAs affect what kind of signaling pathway. Interestingly, we found the affected mRNA play an important role in some diseases related pathways, and these diseases had been annotated by HCMV infection. Results: From our analysis procedure, we found 464 human miRNAs might be targeted by 26 HCMV miRNAs and there were 291 human miRNAs shows the concordant decrease trend during HCMV infection. For case study, we found hcmv-miR-US22-5p may regulate hsa-mir-877 and we analysis the KEGG pathway which built by hsa-mir-877 validate target mRNA. Additionally, through survey KEGG Disease database found that these mRNA co-regulate some disease related pathway for instance cancer, nerve disease. However, there were studies annotated that HCMV infection casuse cancer and Alzheimer. Conclusions: This work supply a different scenario of miRNA target interactions(MTIs). In previous study assume miRNA only target to other mRNA. Here we wonder there is possibility that miRNAs might regulate non-mRNA targets, like other miRNAs. In this study, we not only consider the sequence similarity with HCMV miRNAs and human miRNA precursors but also the expression trend of these miRNAs. Then we analysis the human miRNAs validate target mRNAs and its associated KEGG pathway. Finally, we survey related works to validate our investigation.

Keywords: human cytomegalovirus, HCMV, microRNA, miRNA

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438 A Trends Analysis of Yatch Simulator

Authors: Jae-Neung Lee, Keun-Chang Kwak

Abstract:

This paper describes an analysis of Yacht Simulator international trends and also explains about Yacht. Examples of yacht Simulator using Yacht Simulator include image processing for totaling the total number of vehicles, edge/target detection, detection and evasion algorithm, image processing using SIFT (scale invariant features transform) matching, and application of median filter and thresholding.

Keywords: yacht simulator, simulator, trends analysis, SIFT

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437 Dimensional-Controlled Functional Gold Nanoparticles and Zinc Oxide Nanorods for Solar Water Splitting

Authors: Kok Hong Tan, Hing Wah Lee, Jhih-Wei Chen, Chang Fu Dee, Chung-Lin Wu, Siang-Piao Chai, Wei Sea Chang

Abstract:

Semiconductor photocatalyst is known as one of the key roles in developing clean and sustainable energy. However, most of the semiconductor only possesses photoactivity within the UV light region, and hence, decreases the overall photocatalyst efficiency. Generally, the overall effectiveness of the photocatalyst activity is determined by three critical steps: (i) light absorption efficiency and photoexcitation electron-hole pair generation, (ii) separation and migration of charge carriers to the surface of the photocatalyst, and (iii) surface reaction of the carriers with its environment. Much effort has been invested on optimizing hierarchical nanostructures of semiconductors for efficient photoactivity due to the fact that the visible light absorption capability and occurrence of the chemical reactions mostly depend on the dimension of photocatalysts. In this work, we incorporated zero-dimensional (0D) gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and one dimensional (1D) Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) onto strontium titanate (STO) for efficient visible light absorption, charge transfer, and separation. We demonstrate that the electrical and optical properties of the photocatalyst can be tuned by controlling the dimensional structures of AuNPs and ZnO NRs. We found that smaller AuNPs sizes exhibited higher photoactivity because of Fermi level shifting toward the conductive band of STO, STO band gap narrowing and broadening of absorption spectrum to the visible light region. For ZnO NRs, it was found that the average ZnO NRs c-axis length must achieve of certain length to induce multiphoton absorption as a result of light reflection and trapping behavior in the free space between adjacent ZnO NRs hence broadening the absorption spectrum of ZnO from UV to visible light region. This work opens up a new way of broadening the absorption spectrum by incorporating controllable nanostructures of semiconductors, which is important in optimizing the solar water splitting process.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, photoelectrochemical, PEC, semiconductor photocatalyst, zinc oxide nanorods

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