Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3066

Search results for: oxidative status

3066 Appraisal of Oxidative Stress in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Non Descript Goat from Arid Tracts in India

Authors: Sudha Summarwar, Sudesh Agarwal, Deepali Lall, Nalini Kataria, Jyotsana Pandey

Abstract:

Assessment of antioxidant status is an effective tool to appraise the presence of oxidative stress. A combination of assays can be used to evaluate the antioxidant status like serum catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and monoamine oxidase (MAO). In human medicine pregnancy is known to be associated with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress produces harmful effects to the developing foetus. Several metabolic changes occur in the maternal body to meet the demand of energy of developing foetus. Due to these changes susceptibility of maternal body increases to oxidative stress. There is paucity of research work on this aspect in nondescript goats. Therefore, the present study was intended to appraise the oxidative stress in pregnant and non-pregnant non-descript goat. Blood samples were collected for serum separation in otherwise healthy pregnant and non-pregnant nondescript goats. Mean values of serum CAT, SOD and MAO were found on a higher side (p≤0.05) with serum SOD values showing a rise of 2.5 times higher than the control healthy value. Correlations among all the three parameters were found to be highly significant (p≤0.01) especially greatest in youngest group of pregnant animals. Illustration of result enlightened the veracity of bumped up production of free radicals in pregnant animals. Technical savoir-faire of oxidative stress supervision is essential for upholding of health status of foetus. The upshot of present study undoubtedly implied the development of oxidative stress in pregnant goats on the basis of altered antioxidant status. These findings conclude that initially the oxidative stress due to pregnancy is critically combated by the intricate defensive mechanism of natural antioxidant system of the body. It appears that this imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant must be checked in time to prevent cellular damage by regularly appraising the antioxidant status through laboratory methods.

Keywords: antioxidant, oxidative stress, pregnancy, serum catalase

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3065 Relationship of Oxidative Stress to Elevated Homocysteine and DNA Damage in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

Authors: Shazia Anwer Bukhari, Madiha Javeed Ghani, Muhammad Ibrahim Rajoka

Abstract:

Objective: Biochemical, environmental, physical and genetic factors have a strong effect on the development of coronary disease (CAD). Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level and DNA damage play a pivotal role in its development and progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive strength of an oxidative stress, clinical biomarkers and total antioxidant status (TAS) in CAD patients to find the correlation of homocysteine, TOS and oxidative DNA damage with other clinical parameters. Methods: Sixty confirmed patients with CAD and 60 healthy individuals as control were included in this study. Different clinical and laboratory parameters were studied in blood samples obtained from patients and control subjects using commercially available biochemical kits and statistical software Results: As compared to healthy individuals, CAD patients had significantly higher concentrations of indices of oxidative stress: homocysteine (P=0.0001), total oxidative stress (TOS) (P=0.0001), serum cholesterol (P=0.04), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) (P=0.01), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) (P=0.0001), and malondialdehyde (MDA) (P=0.001) than those of healthy individuals. Plasma homocysteine level and oxidative DNA damage were positively correlated with cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, urea, total protein and albumin (P values= 0.05). Both Hcy and oxidative DNA damage were negatively correlated with TAS and proteins. Conclusion: Coronary artery disease patients had a significant increase in homocysteine level and DNA damage due to increased oxidative stress. In conclusion, our study shows a significantly increase in lipid peroxidation, TOS, homocysteine and DNA damage in the erythrocytes of patients with CAD. A significant decrease level of HDL-C and TAS was observed only in CAD patients. Therefore these biomarkers may be useful diagnosis of patients with CAD and play an important role in the pathogenesis of CAD.

Keywords: antioxidants, coronary artery disease, DNA damage, homocysteine, oxidative stress, malondialdehyde, 8-Hydroxy-2’deoxyguanosine

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3064 The Antioxidant and Antinociceptive Effects of Curcumin in Experimentally Induced Pain in Rats

Authors: Valeriu Mihai But, Sorana Daniela Bolboacă, Adriana Elena Bulboacă

Abstract:

The nutraceutical compound Curcumin (Curcuma longa L.) is known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antioxidant effects. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidative and analgesic effects of Curcumin (CC) compared to Tramadol (T) in chemical-induced nociceptive pain in rats. Thirty-five rats were randomly divided into five groups of seven rats each and were treated as follows: C group (control group): treated with saline solution 0.9%, (1 ml, i.p. administration), ethanoic acid (EA) group: pretreated with saline solution 0.9% - 30 min before EA nociceptive pain induction, (1 ml, i.p. administration), T group: pretreated with Tramadol, 10 mg/kg body weight (bw), i.p. administration - 30 min before EA nociceptive pain induction, CC1-group: pretreated with 1 mg/100g bw Curcumin i.p. administration - 2 days before EA pain induction and CC2-group: pretreated with Curcumin 2 mg/100g bw i.p. administration - 2 days before EA nociceptive pain induction. The following oxidative stress parameters were assessed: malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NOx), total oxidative status (TOS), total antioxidative capacity (TAC), and thiol (Th). The antalgic activity was measured by the ethanoic acid writhing test. Treatment with Curcumin, both 1 mg/100g bw, and 2 mg/100g bw, showed significant differences as compared with the control group (p<0.001) regarding malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NOx), and total oxidative status (TOS) oxidative biomarkers. Pretreatment with 2 mg/100g bw of Curcumin presented a significant decrease in MDA values compared with Tramadol (p<0.001). The TAC significantly increased in pretreatment with Curcumin compared with group control. (p<0.001) The nociceptive response to EA was significantly reduced in Curcumin and Tramadol groups. Treatment with Curcumin at a higher concentration was more effective. In an experimental pain model, this study demonstrates an important antioxidant and antinociceptive activity of Curcumin comparable with Tramadol treatment.

Keywords: curcumin, nociception, oxidative stress, pain

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3063 Oxidative Status and Some Serum Macro Minerals during Estrus, Anestrous and Repeat Breeding in Cholistani Cattle

Authors: Farah Ali, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi, Riaz Hussain, Muhammad Sufyan

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to determine the macro mineral profile and biomarkers of oxidative stress in Cholistani cattle kept at a public farm and various villages in district Bahawalpur. For this purpose 90 blood samples were collected each from estrual, anestrous and repeat breeding cattle having different age and lactation number. Reproductive tract examination of all the cattle was carried out to determine the reproductive status. Blood samples without EDTA were collected for serum separation at day of estrus (normal cyclic), repeat breeder and anestrous cows. The serum calcium levels were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in anestrous (7.31±0.02 mg/dl) cattle as compared to estrus. However, these values were non-significantly different between repeat breeder and cattle having estrus phase. The concentrations of serum phosphorus were significantly higher (P<0.01) in normal estrual (4.99±0.08 mg/dl) as compared torepeat breeder (3.90±0.06 mg/dl) and anestrous (3.82±0.04 mg/dl) Cholistani cattle. Mean serum MDA (nmol/ml) levels of repeat breeder (2.68±0.18) and anestrous (2.54±0.22) were significantly(P<0.01) higher than the estrous (1.71±0.03) cattle. Moreover, the serum nitric oxide levels(µmol/L) were also increased significantly (P<0.01) in repeat breeder(58.28±4.01)and anestrous (61.40±9.40) than the normalestrous (31.67±6.71) cattle. The ratio of Ca: P in normal cyclic animals was lower (1.73:1) as compared to the anestrous animals (1.92:1). It can be concluded from the present study that the level of Ca: P should also be near to 1.5:1 for better reproductive performance.

Keywords: anestrus, cholistani cattle, minerals, oxidative stress, repeat breeder

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3062 Pistachio Supplementation Ameliorates the Motor and Cognitive Deficits in Rotenone-Induced Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: Saida Haider, Syeda Madiha

Abstract:

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurological disorder characterized by motor deficits and loss of dopaminergic neurons. Oxidative stress is said to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of the disease. In the present study, PD was induced by injection of rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for eight days. Pistachio (800 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was given for two weeks. At the end of treatment brains were dissected out and striatum was isolated for biochemical and neurochemical analysis. Morris water maze (MWM) test and novel object recognition (NOR) task was used to test the memory function while motor behavior was determined by open field test (OFT), Kondziela inverted screen test (KIST), pole test (PT), beam walking test (BWT), inclined plane test (IPT) and footprint (FP) test. Several dietary components have been evaluated as potential therapeutic compounds in many neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence shows that nuts have protective effects against various diseases by improving the oxidative status and reducing lipid peroxidation. Pistachio is the only nut that contains anthocyanin, a potent antioxidant having neuroprotective properties. Results showed that pistachio supplementation significantly restored the rotenone-induced motor deficits and improved the memory performance. Moreover, rats treated with pistachio also exhibited enhanced oxidative status and increased dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration in striatum. In conclusion, to our best knowledge, we have for the first time shown that pistachio nut possesses neuroprotective effects against rotenone-induced motor and cognitive deficits. These beneficial effects of pistachio may be attributed to its high content of natural antioxidant and phenolic compounds. Hence, consumption of pistachio regularly as part of a daily diet can be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of PD.

Keywords: rotenone, pistachio, oxidative stress, Parkinson’s disease

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3061 Oxidative Antioxidative Status and DNA Damage Profile Induced by Chemotherapy in Algerian Children with Lymphoma

Authors: Assia Galleze, Abdurrahim Kocyigit, Nacira Cherif, Nidel Benhalilou, Nabila Attal, Chafia Touil Boukkoffa, Rachida Raache

Abstract:

Introduction and aims: Chemotherapeutic agents used to inhibit cell division and reduce tumor growth, increase reactive oxygen species levels, which contributes to their genotoxicity [1]. The comet assay is an inexpensive and rapid method to detect the damage at cellular levels and has been used in various cancer populations undergoing chemotherapy [2,3]. The present study aim to assess the oxidative stress and the genotoxicity induced by chemotherapy by the determination of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level, protein carbonyl (PC) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and lymphocyte DNA damage in Algerian children with lymphoma. Materials and Methods: For our study, we selected thirty children with lymphoma treated in university hospital of Beni Messous, Algeria, and fifty unrelated subjects as controls, after obtaining the informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (1964). Plasma levels of MDA, PC and SOD activity were spectrophotometrically measured, while DNA damage was assessed by alkaline comet assay in peripheral blood leukocytes. Results and Discussion: Plasma MDA, PC levels and lymphocyte DNA damage, were found to be significantly higher in lymphoma patients than in controls (p < 0.001). Whereas, SOD activity in lymphoma patients was significantly lower than in healthy controls (p < 0.001). There were significant positive correlations between DNA damage, MDA and PC in patients (r = 0.96, p < 0.001, r = 0.97, p < 0.001, respectively), and negative correlation with SOD (r = 0.87, p < 0.01). Conclusion and Perspective: Our results indicated that, leukocytes DNA damage and oxidative stress were significantly higher in lymphoma patients, suggesting that the direct effect of chemotherapy and the alteration of the redox balance may influence oxidative/antioxidative status.

Keywords: chemotherapy, comet assay, DNA damage, lymphoma

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3060 The Oxidative Damage Marker for Sodium Formate Exposure on Lymphocytes

Authors: Malinee Pongsavee

Abstract:

Sodium formate is the chemical substance used for food additive. Catalase is the important antioxidative enzyme in protecting the cell from oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The resultant level of oxidative stress in sodium formatetreated lymphocytes was investigated. The sodium formate concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/mL were treated in human lymphocytes for 12 hours. After 12 treated hours, catalase activity change was measured in sodium formate-treated lymphocytes. The results showed that the sodium formate concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6 mg/mL significantly decreased catalase activities in lymphocytes (P < 0.05). The change of catalase activity in sodium formate-treated lymphocytes may be the oxidative damage marker for detect sodium formate exposure in human.

Keywords: sodium formate, catalase activity, oxidative damage marker, toxicity

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3059 Determination of the Oxidative Potential of Organic Materials: Method Development

Authors: Jui Afrin, Akhtarul Islam

Abstract:

In this paper, the solution of glucose, yeast and glucose yeast mixture are being used as sample solution for determining the chemical oxygen demand (COD). In general COD determination method used to determine the different rang of oxidative potential. But in this work has shown to determine the definite oxidative potential for different concentration for known COD value and wanted to see the difference between experimental value and the theoretical value for evaluating the method drawbacks. In this study, made the values of oxidative potential like 400 mg/L, 500 mg/L, 600 mg/L, 700 mg/L and 800mg/L for various sample solutions and determined the oxidative potential according to our developed method. Plotting the experimental COD values vs. sample solutions of various concentrations in mg/L to draw the curve. From these curves see that the curves for glucose solution is not linear; its deviate from linearity for the lower concentration and the reason for this deviation is unknown. If these drawback can be removed this method can be effectively used to determine Oxidative Potential of Industrial wastewater (such as: Leather industry wastewater, Municipal wastewater, Food industry wastewater, Textile wastewater, Pharmaceuticals waste water) that’s why more experiment and study required.

Keywords: bod (biological oxygen demand), cod (chemical oxygen demand), oxidative potential, titration, waste water, development

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3058 Epigallocatechin Gallate Protects against Oxidative Stress-Mediated Neurotoxicity and Hippocampus Dysfunction Induced by Fluoride in Rats

Authors: S. Thangapandiyan, S. Miltonprabu

Abstract:

Fl (Fl) exposure engenders neurodegeneration and induces oxidative stress in the brain. The Neuroprotective role of EGCG on oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity in Fl intoxicated rat hippocampus has not yet been explored so far. Hence, the present study is focused on witnessing whether EGCG (40mg/kg) supplementation prevents Fl induced oxidative stress in the brain of rats with special emphasis on the hippocampus. Fl (25mg/kg) intoxication for four weeks in rats showed an increase in Fl concentration along with the decrease the AChE, NP, DA, and 5-HT activity in the brain. The oxidative stress markers (ROS, TBARS, NO, and PC) were significantly increased with decreased enzymatic (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, GST, and G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH, TSH, and Vit.C) in Fl intoxicated rat hippocampus. Moreover, Fl intoxicated rats exhibited an intrinsic and extrinsic pathway mediated apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats. Fl intoxication significantly increased the DNA damage as evidenced by increased DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, the toxic impact of Fl on hippocampus was also proved by the immunohistochemical, histological, and ultrastructural studies. Pre-administration of EGCG has significantly protected the Fl induced oxidative stress, biochemical changes, cellular apoptotic, and histological alternations in the hippocampus of rats. In conclusion, EGCG supplementation significantly attenuated the Fl induced oxidative stress mediated neurotoxicity via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity.

Keywords: brain, hippocampal, NaF, ROS, EGCG

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3057 Protective Role of Peroxiredoxin V against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Mice

Authors: Eun Gyeong Lee, Ji Young Park, Hyun Ae Woo

Abstract:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is involved in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in kidney of mice. Oxidative stress develops from an imbalance between ROS production and reduced antioxidant defenses. Many enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems including peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are present in kidney to maintain an appropriate level of ROS and prevent oxidative damage. Prxs are a family of peroxidases that reduce peroxides, with a conserved cysteine residue serving as the site of oxidation by peroxides. In this study, we examined the protective role of Prx V against I/R-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) using Prx V wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. We compared the response of Prx V WT and KO mice in mice model of I/R injury. Renal structure, functions, oxidative stress markers, protein levels of oxidative damage marker were worse in Prx V KO mice. Ablation of Prx V enhanced susceptibility to I/R-induced oxidative stress. Prx V KO mice were seen to have more severe renal damage than Prx V WT mice in mice model of I/R injury. Our results demonstrate that Prx V is protective against I/R-induced AKI.

Keywords: peroxiredoxin, ischemia/reperfusion, kidney, oxidative stress

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3056 Biochemical Studies on the Effects of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon Grass) on Wistar Albino Rats

Authors: Adegbegi Ademuyiwa Joshua, Onoagbe Iyare

Abstract:

Medicinal plants have been recognized to have therapeutic effects and they may also have toxic side effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of extracts of Cymbopogon citratus on normal rats. Blood glucose levels of all animals were determined. Biochemical studies carried out to determine the oxidative status by measuring activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and in the liver, kidney and pancrease. Oral administration of ethanolic and aqueous extract of C. citratus at a doses of 200 mg/kg body weight, for a period of 30 days, caused a significant (p<0.05) reduction in blood glucose levels. Effect on hormonal profile (TSH, T3, and T4) was also determined, and was found to be significantly higher in all the administered groups when compared with control. Lipid profiles levels; Total cholesterols, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were significantly (p>0.05) higher for all treated rats as compared against control. SOD, catalase, GSH and Vitamin C activities in the tissues (liver, kidney and pancrease) of the rats treated with the medicinal plants were generally higher or statistical slightly similar to control. Histopathology result showed that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (200 mg/kg body weight) of C. citratus was safer as no adverse effects were observed in the organs examined. Findings in this study showed that this plant has hypoglycemic properties and did not exert oxidative damage; in some instances, particularly in the liver, kidney and pancreas as well as its relative safety and possible use for weight gain.

Keywords: medicinal plants, blood glucose, cymbopogon citratus, hypoglycaemic, oxidative status

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3055 A Novel CeO2-WOx-TiO2 Catalyst for Oxidative Desulfurization of Model Fuel Oil

Authors: Corazon Virtudazo-Ligaray, Mark Daniel G. de Luna, Meng-Wei Wan, Ming-Chun Lu

Abstract:

A series of ternary compound catalyst with nanocomposites of ceria, tungsten trioxide and titania (CeO2-WOx-TiO2) with different WOx mole fraction (10, 20, 30, 40) have been synthesized by sol-gel method. These nanocomposite catalysts were used for oxidative extractive desulfurization of model fuel oil, which were composed of dibenzothiophene (DBT) dissolved in toluene. The 30% hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 was used as oxidant and acetonitrile as extractant. These catalysts were characterized by SEM-EDS to determine the morphology. Catalytic oxidation results show that the catalysts have high selectivity in refractory fuel oil with organo sulfur contents. The oxidative removal of DBT increases as the HPW content increases. The nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 also shows high selectivity for DBT oxidation in the DBT–toluene acetonitrile system. The catalytic oxidative desulfurization ratio of model fuel reached to 100% with nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 (35-30-35) mol percent catalyst nanocomposition under 333 K in 30 minutes.

Keywords: ceria, oxidative desulfurization, titania, phosphotungstic acid

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3054 In vitro Effects of Berberine on the Vitality and Oxidative Profile of Bovine Spermatozoa

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Hana Greifová, Peter Ivanič, Norbert Lukáč

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose- and time-dependent in vitro effects of berberine (BER), a natural alkaloid with numerous biological properties on bovine spermatozoa during three time periods (0 h, 2 h, 24 h). Bovine semen samples were diluted and cultivated in physiological saline solution containing 0.5% DMSO together with 200, 100, 50, 10, 5, and 1 μmol/L BER. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the computer assisted semen analyzer. The viability of spermatozoa was assessed by the metabolic (MTT) assay, production of superoxide radicals was quantified using the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, and chemiluminescence was used to evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cell lysates were prepared and the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was evaluated using the TBARS assay. The results of the movement activity showed a significant increase in the motility during long term cultivation in case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 10 μmol/L BER (P < 0.01; P < 0.001; 24 h). At the same time, supplementation of 1, 5 and 10 μmol/L BER led to a significant preservation of the cell viability (P < 0.001; 24 h). BER addition at a range of 1-50 μmol/L also provided a significantly higher protection against superoxide (P < 0.05) and ROS (P < 0.001; P < 0.01) overgeneration as well as LPO (P < 0.01; P<0.05) after a 24 h cultivation. We may suggest that supplementation of BER to bovine spermatozoa, particularly at concentrations ranging between 1 and 50 μmol/L, may offer protection to the motility, viability and oxidative status of the spermatozoa, particularly notable at 24 h.

Keywords: berberine, bulls, motility, oxidative profile, spermatozoa, viability

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3053 The Hepatoprotective Effects of Aquatic Extract of Levesticum Officinale against Paraquat Toxicity of Hepatocytes

Authors: Hasan Afarnegan, Ali Shahraki, Jafar Shahraki

Abstract:

Paraquat is widely used as a strong nitrogen-based herbicide for controlling of weeds in agriculture. This poison is extremely toxic for humans which induces several – organ failure by accumulation in cells and many instances of death occurred due to its poisoning. Paraquat metabolized primarily in the liver. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of aquatic extract of levisticum officinale on oxidative status and biochemical factors in hepatocytes exposed to paraquat. Our results determined that hepatocytes destruction induced by paraquat is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential were significantly (P<0.05) prevented by aquatic extract of Levisicum officinale (100, 200 and 300 µg/ml). These effects of paraquat also prevented via antioxidants and ROS scavengers (α-tocopherol, DMSO, manitol), mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore sealing compound (carnitine).MPT pore sealing compound inhibited the hepatotoxicity, indicating that paraquat induced cell death via mithochondrial pathway. Pretreatment of hepatocytes with aquatic extracts of Levisticum officinale, antioxidants and ROS scavengers also blocked hepatic cell death caused by paraquat, suggesting that oxidative stress may be directly induced decline of mithochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, paraquat hepatotoxicity can be attributed to oxidative stress and continued by mithochondrial membrane potential disruption. Levisticum officinale aquatic extract, presumably due to its strong antoxidant properties, could protect the destructive effects of paraquat on rat hepatocytes.

Keywords: hepatocyte protection, levisticum officinale, oxidative stress, paraquat

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3052 Studies on the Physicochemical Properties of Biolubricants Obtained from Vegetable Oils and Their Oxidative Stability

Authors: Expedito J. S. Parente Jr., Italo C. Rios, Joao Paulo C. Marques, Rosana M. A. Saboya, F. Murilo T. Luna, Célio L. Cavalcante Jr.

Abstract:

Increasing constraints of environmental regulation around the world have led to higher demand for biodegradable products. Vegetable oils present some properties that may favor their use as biolubricants; however, there are others, such as resistance to oxidation and pour point, which affect possible commercial applications. In this study, the physicochemical properties of biolubricants synthesized from different vegetable oils were evaluated and compared with petroleum-based lubricant and pure vegetable oil. Chemical modifications applied to the original vegetable oil improved their oxidative stability and pour point significantly. The addition of commercial antioxidants to the bio-based lubricants was evaluated, yielding values of oxidative stability close to those of mineral basestock oil.

Keywords: biolubricant, vegetable oil, oxidative stability, pour point, antioxidants

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3051 Improving Oxidative Stability of Encapsulated Krill and Black Cumin Oils and its Application in Functional Yogurt

Authors: Tamer El-Messery, Beraat Ozcelik

Abstract:

This study aimed to produce functional yogurt supplemented with microencapsulated krill oil as a source of omega 3, which is known, to maintain the normal brain function, reduce the risk of cancer, and preventing cardiovascular disease. Krill oil was mixed with black cumin oil (1:1) in order to increase its oxidative stability. β-caroteine (10 mg/100 ml) was used as a standard antioxidant. Maltodextrin (MD) was mixed with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and gum Arabic (GA) at the ratio of 8:2:0.5 ratios and used for microencapsulation of single or mixed oils. The microcapsules were dried by freeze and spray drying in order to maximize encapsulation efficiency and minimize lipid oxidation. The feed emulsions used for particle production were characterized for stability, viscosity and particle size, zeta potential, and oxidative stability. The oxidative stability for mixed krill oil and black cumin oil was the highest. The highest encapsulation efficiency was obtained using spray drying, which also showed the highest oxidative stability. The addition of encapsulated krill and black cumin oils (1:1) powder in yogurt manufacture reduced slightly effects on the development of acidity, textural parameters, and water holding capacity of yogurt as compared to control.

Keywords: Krill oil, black cumin oil, micro-encapsulation, oxidative stability, functional yogurt

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3050 Sulfur Removal of Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Oxidative Desulfurization Enhanced by Fenton Process

Authors: Mahsa Ja’fari, Mohammad R. Khosravi-Nikou, Mohsen Motavassel

Abstract:

A comprehensive development towards the production of ultra-clean fuels as a feed stoke is getting to raise due to the increasing use of diesel fuels and global air pollution. Production of environmental-friendly fuels can be achievable by some limited single methods and most integrated ones. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) presents vast ranges of technologies possessing suitable characteristics with regard to the Fenton process. Using toluene as a model fuel feed with dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sulfur compound under various operating conditions is the attempt of this study. The results showed that this oxidative process followed a pseudo-first order kinetics. Removal efficiency of 77.43% is attained under reaction time of 40 minutes with (Fe+2/H2O2) molar ratio of 0.05 in acidic pH environment. In this research, temperature of 50 °C represented the most influential role in proceeding the reaction.

Keywords: design of experiment (DOE), dibenzothiophene (DBT), optimization, oxidative desulfurization (ODS)

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3049 Tomato Peels Prevented Margarine and Soya/Sunflower Oils Oxidation

Authors: S. Zidani, A. Benakmoum, A. Mansouri, A. Ammouche

Abstract:

In this research paper, we studied the oxidative stability of table margarine and soya/sunflower oils rich in lycopene with tomato peel powder (TPP). For this 1%, 2%, and 3% (w/w) of TPP was added to oil used in margarine manufacture. Chromatic characteristics of margarine and soya/sunflower oil have been studied using 'Tristimulus Colorimetry' method. The main point of the research was to determine the antioxidant activity and the oxidative resistance of soya/sunflower and margarine with TPP (peroxide index, TBA index, and rancimat test). The sensory and textural properties, overall acceptability of margarine and oil were good, indicating that TPP could be added to oil to produce a margarine enriched in lycopene with excellent stability oxidative.

Keywords: tomato peel powder, lycopene, table margarine, soya/sunflower oils, antioxidant activity, stability oxidative

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3048 Night Shift Work as an Oxidative Stressor: A Systematic Review

Authors: Madeline Gibson

Abstract:

Night shift workers make up an essential part of the modern workforce. However, night shift workers have higher incidences of late in life diseases and earlier mortality. Night shift workers are exposed to constant light and experience circadian rhythm disruption. Sleep disruption is thought to increase oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance of excess pro-oxidative factors and reactive oxygen species over anti-oxidative activity. Oxidative stress can damage cells, proteins and DNA and can eventually lead to varied chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s and dementia. This review aimed to understand whether night shift workers were at greater risk of oxidative stress and to contribute to a consensus on this relationship. Twelve studies published in 2001-2019 examining 2,081 workers were included in the review. Studies compared both the impact of working a single shift and in comparisons between those who regularly work night shifts and only day shifts. All studies had evidence to support this relationship across a range of oxidative stress indicators, including increased DNA damage, reduced DNA repair capacity, increased lipid peroxidation, higher levels of reactive oxygen species, and to a lesser extent, a reduction in antioxidant defense. This research supports the theory that melatonin and the sleep-wake cycle mediate the relationship between shift work and oxidative stress. It is concluded that night shift work increases the risk for oxidative stress and, therefore, future disease. Recommendations are made to promote the long-term health of shift workers considering these findings.

Keywords: night shift work, coxidative stress, circadian rhythm, melatonin, disease, circadian rhythm disruption

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3047 The Antioxidant Effect of Vitamin C against Oxidative Stress Generate by Dietary Zn-Deficiency in Diabetic Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid

Abstract:

This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress induced by dietary Zn-deficiency in albino diabetic rats. Thirty two males alloxan-diabetic rats divided into two groups of 16 individuals each; the first group was fed a zinc adequate diet (54 mg zinc/kg). The second group had given low zinc diet (1 mg zinc/kg). Then, half of each group was treated with vitamin C (1 g/l) in drinking water. After four weeks, animals were sacrificed and different parameters were determined. The findings showed that dietary deficiency zinc intake significantly increased serum glucose. Zn-deficiency was also led to an increase in oxidative stress, which was indicated by an increase of MDA level and glutathione-S-transferase activity. Meanwhile it was result in a decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione peroxidase GSH-Px and catalase activities in liver. However, the administration of vitamin C restored all the previous parameters approximately to their normal values. In conclusion, vitamin C probably played a key role strong as antioxidant factor against oxidative stress provoked by dietary zinc inadequate. Therefore, it might be contributed in reduction diabetes complications.

Keywords: vitamin C, oxidative stress, zinc, experimental diabetes, rats

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3046 Effect of Oxidative Stress from Smoking on Erythrocyte Phosphatidylserine Externalization

Authors: Ratchaneewan Maneemaroj, Paveena Noisuwan, Chonlada Lakhonphon

Abstract:

The smoking is one of the major risk factors in Non-Communicable Disease. Free radicals from cigarette smoke can cause oxidative stress. The oxidative insults can lead to red blood cell (RBC) senescence and are involved in the clearance of red blood cells. The objective of the present study is to assess the association between smoke, oxidative stress evaluated with serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization (biomarker of RBC senescence) evaluated with annexin V binding. A total of sixty-four male volunteers aged 25-60 years old were recruited in this study. MDA was measured by colorimetric method. Annexin V binding was detected by flow cytometry. Our results show that there was a significant increase in MDA levels in cigarette smokers as compared to non-smokers (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant different between annexin V binding (% gate) in cigarette smokers and non-smokers (p = 0.978). These results provide evidence of free radical from smoking is associated with oxidative damage to erythrocytes. However, our results suggest that PS externalization is unlikely to have a role in RBC senescence pathway of stressed erythrocytes from cigarette smoke. The other biomarker of RBC senescence should be determined on cigarette smoker erythrocytes.

Keywords: malondialdehyde, phosphatidylserine, RBC senescence, annexin V

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3045 Protected Status: Violation of the Provisions of Protected Status under International Humanitarian Law during the Liberation War of Bangladesh

Authors: Sabera Sultana

Abstract:

In today's war-torn world, it is crucial to identify, understand, and apply the laws aimed at minimizing civilian casualty during wartime. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the provisions of protected status under international humanitarian law and evaluate the historical facts and shreds of evidences of violation of protected status during the Liberation War of Bangladesh. This legal research paper evaluates the international humanitarian laws and case laws regarding protected status of people during wartime and evaluates them against the historical facts and well-documented evidences of violation of protected status during the Liberation War of Bangladesh. This paper will help to create a brief guideline on Protected Status under international humanitarian law, which will help to protect our civilians during wartime if ever required.

Keywords: civilian protection, international humanitarian laws, liberation war of Bangladesh, protected status

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3044 Implication of Oxidative Stress and Intracellular Mediators in the Protective Effect of Artemisia campestris against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rat Model

Authors: Hichem Sebai, Mohamed Amine Jabri, Kais Rtibi, Haifa Tounsi, Lamjed Marzouki

Abstract:

Artemisia campestris has been widely used in Tunisian traditional medicine for its health beneficial effects. However, the present study aims at evaluating the antiulcer effects of Artemisia campestris aqueous extract (ACAE) as well as the mechanism of action involved in such gastroprotection. In this respect, male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: control, aspirin (ASPR), ASPR + various doses of ACAE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, b.w.), ASPR+ famotidine and ASPR+ caffeic acid. Animals were pre-treated with ACAE extract during 10 days. We firstly showed that aspirin administration was accompanied by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) level, a decrease of sulfhydryl -(SH) groups content and depletion of antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Pre-treatment with ACAE protected against aspirin-induced gastric oxidative stress. More importantly, aspirin administration increased plasma and tissue hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), free iron and calcium levels while the ACAE pre-treatment reversed all aspirin-induced intracellular mediators disturbance. The results of the present study clearly indicated that AEAC gastroprotection might be related, at least in part, to its antioxidant properties as well as to various gastric mucosal defense mechanisms, including the protection of gastric sulfhydryls and an opposite effect on some intracellular mediators such as free iron, hydrogen peroxide, and calcium. However, our data confirm the use of Artemisia campestris extracts in the Tunisian traditional folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases.

Keywords: gastric ulcer, Artemisia campestris, oxidative stress, sulfhydryl groups, Fenton reaction, rat

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3043 The Effect of Santolina Plant Extract on Nitro-Oxidative Stress

Authors: Sabrina Sebbane, Alina Elena Parvu

Abstract:

Introduction: Santolina rosmarinifolia is a plant of the Santolina genus, a family made of medicinal plants widely used. Some of the Santolina species have been proven to have potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. However, no in vivo study has been made to demonstrate this in Santolina rosmarinifolia. The aim of our study is to experimentally evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of Santolina rosmarinifolia plant extracts on acute inflammation in rats. These effects are defined by measuring the modifications on nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidant response in serum. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into 5 groups (n=6). Three groups were given Santolina rosmarinifolia extract by gavage in different concentrations(100%, 50%, 25%) for a week. Inflammation was induced by i.m injection of turpentine oil on the 8th day. One group was only given turpentine oil and the fifth group acted as control and was given only saline solution. Blood was collected and serum separated. Global tests were used to measure the oxidative stress, total oxidative status (TOS), total antioxidant reactivity (TAR) and the modified method of Griess assay to measure NO synthesis. Malondilaldehyde (MDA) and thiols levels were also assessed. Results: Santolina rosmarinifolia did not significantly change the TOS levels (p > 0.05). Santolina rosmarinifolia 25% and 50% decreased significantly the TAR levels (p < 0.001). Santolina 100% didn't have a significant effect on TAR (p > 0.05). All concentrations of Santolina rosmarinifolia increased the oxidative stress index (OSI) significantly(p < 0.05). Santolina rosmarinifolia 100% significantly decreased NO synthesis (p value < 0.05). In the diluted Santolina groups, no significant effect on NO synthesis was observed. In the groups treated with Santolina 100% and Santolina rosmarinifolia 50%, thiols concentration were significantly higher compared to the inflammation group (p < 0.02). A higher stimulatory effect was found in the Santolina 25% group (p value < 0.05). MDA levels were not significantly modified by the administration of Santolina rosmarinifolia (p > 0.05). Conclusion: All three solutions of Santolina rosmarinifolia had no important effect on oxidant production. However, Santolina rosmarinifolia solutions had a positive effect by increasing the thiols concentration in the serum of the models. The sum of all the effects produced by the administration of Santolina did not show a significant decrease of nitro-oxidative stress. Further experiments including smaller concentrations of Santolina rosmarinifolia will be made. Santolina rosmarinifolia should also be tested as a curative treatment.

Keywords: inflammation, MDA, nitric oxide, santolina rosmarinifolia, thiols, TAR, TOS

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3042 Fatty Acid Structure and Composition Effects of Biodiesel on Its Oxidative Stability

Authors: Gelu Varghese, Khizer Saeed

Abstract:

Biodiesel is as a mixture of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. Recent studies in the literature suggest that end property of biodiesel such as its oxidative stability (OS) is highly influenced by the structure and composition of its alkyl esters than by environmental conditions. The structure and composition of these long chain fatty acid components have been also associated with trends in Cetane number, heat of combustion, cold flow properties viscosity, and lubricity. In the present work, detailed investigation has been carried out to decouple and correlate the fatty acid structure indices of biodiesel such as degree of unsaturation, chain length, double bond orientation, and composition with its oxidative stability. Measurements were taken using the EN14214 established Rancimat oxidative stability test method (EN141120). Firstly, effects of the degree of unsaturation, chain length and bond orientation were tested for the pure fatty acids to establish their oxidative stability. Results for pure Fatty acid show that Saturated FAs are more stable than unsaturated ones to oxidation; superior oxidative stability can be achieved by blending biodiesel fuels with relatively high in saturated fatty acid contents. A lower oxidative stability is noticed when a greater quantity of double bonds is present in the methyl ester. A strong inverse relationship with the number of double bonds and the Rancimat IP values can be identified. Trans isomer Methyl elaidate shows superior stability to oxidation than its cis isomer methyl oleate (7.2 vs. 2.3). Secondly, the effects of the variation in the composition of the biodiesel were investigated and established. Finally, biodiesels with varying structure and composition were investigated and correlated.

Keywords: biodiesel, fame, oxidative stability, fatty acid structure, acid composition

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3041 Antioxydant Properties and Gastroprotective Effect of Rosa canina Aqueous Extract against Alcohol-Induced Ulceration and Oxidative Stress in Rat Model

Authors: H. Sebai, M. A. Jabria, D. Wannes, H. Tounsi, L. Marzouki

Abstract:

We aimed in the present study to investigate the protective effects of Tunisian Rosa canina aqueous extract (RCAE) against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration and oxidative stress in a rat model. In this respect, adult male Wistar rats were used and divided into six groups of ten each: control, EtOH, EtOH plus various doses of RCAE, EtOH plus famotidine and EtOH + gallic acid. Phytochemical and biochemical analysis were performed using colorimetric methods. We found that RCAE is rich in total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins, and exhibited an importance in vitro antioxidant activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. In vivo, the results showed that oral administration of EtOH caused macroscopic and histological changes in gastric mucosa. These injuries are accompanied by an oxidative stress status as assessed by an increase of lipid peroxidation as well as a decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Alcohol intoxication also induced intracellular mediators deregulation as assessed by an increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), calcium and free iron levels in gastric mucosa. More, importantly, RCAE pretreatment reversed all macroscopic, histological and biochemical changes induced by EtOH administration. In conclusion, we suggest that RCAE has potent protective effects on acute ethanol-induced gastric ulceration related in part in part its antioxidant properties and its opposite effect on intracellular mediators. Indeed, Rosa canina can be offered as a food additive to protect against alcohol consumption-induced gastric and oxidative damage.

Keywords: alcohol, antioxidant properties, food additive, gastric ulceration, rat model, Rosa canina

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3040 Antioxidant Status in Synovial Fluid from Osteoarthritis Patients: A Pilot Study in Indian Demography

Authors: S. Koppikar, P. Kulkarni, D. Ingale , N. Wagh, S. Deshpande, A. Mahajan, A. Harsulkar

Abstract:

Crucial role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the progression Osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis has been endorsed several times though its exact mechanism remains unclear. Oxidative stress is known to instigate classical stress factors such as cytokines, chemokines and ROS, which hampers cartilage remodelling process and ultimately results in worsening the disease. Synovial fluid (SF) is a biological communicator between cartilage and synovium that accumulates redox and biochemical signalling mediators. The present work attempts to measure several oxidative stress markers in the synovial fluid obtained from knee OA patients with varying degree of disease severity. Thirty OA and five Meniscal-tear (MT) patients were graded using Kellgren-Lawrence scale and assessed for Nitric oxide (NO), Nitrate-Nitrite (NN), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels for comparison. Out of various oxidative markers studied, NO and SOD showed significant difference between moderate and severe OA (p= 0.007 and p= 0.08, respectively), whereas CAT demonstrated significant difference between MT and mild group (p= 0.07). Interestingly, NN revealed statistically positive correlation with OA severity (p= 0.001 and p= 0.003). MDA, a lipid peroxidation by-product was estimated maximum in early OA when compared to MT (p= 0.06). However, FRAP did not show any correlation with OA severity or MT control. NO is an essential bio-regulatory molecule essential for several physiological processes, and inflammatory conditions. However, due to its short life, exact estimation of NO becomes difficult. NO and its measurable stable products are still it is considered as one of the important biomarker of oxidative damage. Levels of NO and nitrite-nitrate in SF of patients with OA indicated its involvement in the disease progression. When SF groups were compared, a significant correlation among moderate, mild and MT groups was established. To summarize, present data illustrated higher levels of NO, SOD, CAT, DPPH and MDA in early OA in comparison with MT, as a control group. NN had emerged as a prognostic bio marker in knee OA patients, which may act as futuristic targets in OA treatment.

Keywords: antioxidant, knee osteoarthritis, oxidative stress, synovial fluid

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3039 The Effects of Grape Waste Bioactive Compounds on the Immune Response and Oxidative Stress in Pig Kidney

Authors: Mihai Palade, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Mariana Stancu, Veronica Chedea, Ionelia Taranu

Abstract:

Nutrition is an important determinant of general health status, with especially focus on prevention and/or attenuation of the inflammatory-associated pathologies. People with chronic kidney disease can experience chronic inflammation that can lead to cardiovascular disease and even an increased rate of death. There are important links between chronic kidney diseases, inflammation and nutritional strategies that may prevent or protect against undesirable inflammation and oxidative stress. The grape by-products either seeds or pomace are rich in polyphenols which may be beneficial in prevention of inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial processes. As a model for studying the impact of grape seeds on renal inflammation and oxidative stress, we used in this study weaned piglets. After a feeding trial of 30 days with a control diet and an experimental diet containing 5% grape seed (GS), kidney samples were collected. In renal tissues were determined the expression and activity of important markers of immune respose and oxidative stress: pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-gamma), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10), anti-oxidant enzymes (catalase CAT, superoxide dismutase SOD, glutathione peroxidise GPx) and important mediators belonging to nuclear receptors (NF-kB1, Nrf-2 and PPAR-gamma). Gene expression was evaluated by qPCR, whereas protein concentration was determined using proteomic techniques (ELISA). The activity of anti-oxidant enzymes was determined using specific kits. Our results showed that GS enriched in polyphenols does not have effect on TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1 beta gene expression and protein concentration in kidney. By contrast, the gene expression and protein level of IL-8 and IFN-gamma were decreased in GS kidney. Anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 gene levels were increased in kidneys collected from GS piglets in comparison with controls, with no modification of protein levels between the two groups. The activities of anti-oxidant enzymes CAT and GPx were increased in kidney by GS, whereas SOD activity was unmodified in comparison with control samples. Also, the GS diet was associated with no modulation of mRNAs for nuclear receptors NF-kB1, Nrf-2 and PPAR-gamma gene expressions in kidneys. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that GS enriched in bioactive compounds such polyphenols could modulate inflammation and oxidative stress markers in kidney tissues. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of action of GS compounds in case kidney inflammation associated with oxidative stress, and signalling molecules involved in these mechanisms.

Keywords: animal model, kidney inflammation, oxidative stress, grape seed

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3038 Current and Emerging Pharmacological Treatment for Status Epilepticus in Adults

Authors: Mathew Tran, Deepa Patel, Breann Prophete, Irandokht Khaki Najafabadi

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Status epilepticus is a neurological disorder requiring emergent control with medical therapy. Based on guideline recommendations for adults with status epilepticus, the first-line treatment is to start a benzodiazepine, as they are quick at seizure control. The second step is to initiate a non-benzodiazepine anti-epileptic drug to prevent refractory seizures. Studies show that the anti-epileptic drugs are approximately equivalent in status epilepticus control once a benzodiazepine has been given. This review provides a brief overview of the management of status epilepticus based on evidence from the literature and evidence-based guidelines.

Keywords: neurological disorder, seizure, status epilepticus, benzo diazepines, antiepileptic agents

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3037 Therapeutic Effect of Cichorium Intybus Aerial Parts Extract against Oxidative Stress and Nephropathy Induced by Streptozotocin in Rats

Authors: Josline Salib, Sayed El-Toumy, Abeer Salama, Enayat Omara, Emad Hassan

Abstract:

Diabetic nephropathy is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and is now among the most common causes of end-stage renal failure (ESRF) in developed countries. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the phenolic compounds content of Cichorium intybus aerial parts extracts as well as the therapeutic effects on diabetic nephropathy, oxidative stress, and anti-inflammatory by characterizing biochemical, histopathological changes and immunohistochemistry in an experimental diabetic rat model as compared with Amaryl. Ten known compounds of flavonoids, coumarins and phenolic acid derivatives were isolated from the C. intybus aqueous methanolic extract. Structures of the isolated compounds were established by chromatography, UV and 1D⁄2D 1H⁄ 13C spectroscopy. The aqueous methanol extract of C. intybus aerial parts was administered to Streptozotocin diabetes rats at doses (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 21 days. After treatment, blood glucose, serum insulin, urea, creatinine, and TNF-α were evaluated. Enzymatic scavengers including catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined to evaluate the oxidative status in the renal tissue. Diabetic rats treated with C. intybus extract showed a dose-dependent reduction of fasting blood glucose and kidney antioxidant status in comparison to the diabetic control group. The extract was able to enhance the antioxidant defenses of the kidney by increasing the reduced GSH and CAT content and decreasing MDA content in addition to significantly decreasing kidney nitric oxide content compared to diabetic control rats. Furthermore, the histopathological findings in C. intybus extract administered rats were observed at markedly lesser extent than the diabetic control group. Also, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels were decreased significantly after the administration of high-dose C. intybus extract in diabetic rats. Showing significant antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties of C. intybus aerial parts extract, which is attributed to its polyphenolic content, may offer a potential source for the treatment of diabetes.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, anti-diabetic nephropathy, cichorium intybus aerial parts, phenolic compounds

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