Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1581

Search results for: polymer electrodes

1581 Electrochemical Deposition of Pb and PbO2 on Polymer Composites Electrodes

Authors: A. Merzouki, N. Haddaoui

Abstract:

Polymers have a large reputation as electric insulators. These materials are characterized by weak weight, reduced price and a large domain of physical and chemical properties. They conquered new application domains that were until a recent past the exclusivity of metals. In this work, we used some composite materials (polymers/conductive fillers), as electrodes and we try to cover them with metallic lead layers in order to use them as courant collector grids in lead-acid battery plates.

Keywords: electrodeposition, polymer composites, carbon black, acetylene black

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1580 In-Vitro Evaluation of the Long-Term Stability of PEDOT:PSS Coated Microelectrodes for Chronic Recording and Electrical Stimulation

Authors: A. Schander, T. Tessmann, H. Stemmann, S. Strokov, A. Kreiter, W. Lang

Abstract:

For the chronic application of neural prostheses and other brain-computer interfaces, long-term stable microelectrodes for electrical stimulation are essential. In recent years many developments were done to investigate different appropriate materials for these electrodes. One of these materials is the electrical conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), which has lower impedance and higher charge injection capacity compared to noble metals like gold and platinum. However the long-term stability of this polymer is still unclear. Thus this paper reports on the in-vitro evaluation of the long-term stability of PEDOT coated gold microelectrodes. For this purpose a highly flexible electrocorticography (ECoG) electrode array, based on the polymer polyimide, is used. This array consists of circular gold electrodes with a diameter of 560 µm (0.25 mm2). In total 25 electrodes of this array were coated simultaneously with the polymer PEDOT:PSS in a cleanroom environment using a galvanostatic electropolymerization process. After the coating the array is additionally sterilized using a steam sterilization process (121°C, 1 bar, 20.5 min) to simulate autoclaving prior to the implantation of such an electrode array. The long-term measurements were performed in phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS, pH 7.4) at the constant body temperature of 37°C. For the in-vitro electrical stimulation a one channel bipolar current stimulator is used. The stimulation protocol consists of a bipolar current amplitude of 5 mA (cathodal phase first), a pulse duration of 100 µs per phase, a pulse pause of 50 µs and a frequency of 1 kHz. A PEDOT:PSS coated gold electrode with an area of 1 cm2 serves as the counter electrode. The electrical stimulation is performed continuously with a total amount of 86.4 million bipolar current pulses per day. The condition of the PEDOT coated electrodes is monitored in between with electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The results of this study demonstrate that the PEDOT coated electrodes are stable for more than 3.6 billion bipolar current pulses. Also the unstimulated electrodes show currently no degradation after the time period of 5 months. These results indicate an appropriate long-term stability of this electrode coating for chronic recording and electrical stimulation. The long-term measurements are still continuing to investigate the life limit of this electrode coating.

Keywords: chronic recording, electrical stimulation, long-term stability, microelectrodes, PEDOT

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1579 Bending Test Characteristics for Splicing of Thermoplastic Polymer Using Hot Gas Welding

Authors: Prantasi Harmi Tjahjanti, Iswanto Iswanto, Edi Widodo, Sholeh Pamuji

Abstract:

Materials of the thermoplastic polymer when they break is usually thrown away, or is recycled which requires a long process. The purpose of this study is to splice the broken thermoplastic polymer using hot gas welding with different variations of welding wire/electrodes. Materials of thermoplastic polymer used are Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), and Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by using welding wire like the three materials. The method is carried out by using hot gas welding; there are two materials that cannot be connected, namely PE with PVC welding wire, and PP with PVC welding wire. The permeable liquid penetrant test is PP with PE welding wire, and PVC with PE welding wire. The best bending test result with the longest elongation is PE with PE welding wire with a bending test value of 179.03 kgf/mm². The microstructure was all described in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations.

Keywords: thermoplastic polymers, bending test, polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), hot gas welding, bending test

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1578 Porous Ni Electrodes Modified with Au Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Production

Authors: V. Pérez-Herranz, C. González-Buch, E. M. Ortega, S. Mestre

Abstract:

In this work new macroporous Ni electrodes modified with Au nanoparticles for hydrogen production have been developed. The supporting macroporous Ni electrodes have been obtained by means of the electrodeposition at high current densities. Then, the Au nanoparticles were synthesized and added to the electrode surface. The electrocatalytic behaviour of the developed electrocatalysts was studied by means of pseudo-steady-state polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen discharge curves. The size of the Au synthetized nanoparticles shows a monomodal distribution, with a very sharp band between 10 and 50 nm. The characteristic parameters d10, d50 and d90 were 14, 20 and 31 nm respectively. From Tafel polarization data has been concluded that the Au nanoparticles improve the catalytic activity of the developed electrodes towards the HER respect to the macroporous Ni electrodes. EIS permits to obtain the electrochemically active area by means of the roughness factor value. All the developed electrodes show roughness factor values in the same order of magnitude. From the activation energy results it can be concluded that the Au nanoparticles improve the intrinsic catalytic activity of the macroporous Ni electrodes.

Keywords: Au nano particles, hydrogen evolution reaction, porous Ni electrodes, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

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1577 Effect of Electrodes Spacing on Energy Consumption of Electrocoagulation Cells

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Al-Khaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola

Abstract:

In spite of the acknowledged advantages of the electrocoagulation (EC) method to remove a wide range of pollutants from waters and wastewaters, its efficiency is limited by several operational parameters (such as electrolysis time, current density, electrode material, distance between electrodes, and water temperature). Hence, optimizing these key operating parameters is considered a vital step to remove a pollutant efficiently. In this context, the present study has been carried out to explore the influence of electrodes spacing on energy consumption, temperature of the water being treated, and iron removal from water. To achieve this target, iron containing synthetic water samples were electrolysed for 20 min, using a new flow column electrocoagulation reactor (FCER), at three different gaps between electrodes (5, 10, and 20 mm). These batch experiments were commenced at a constant current density of 1.5 mA/cm² and initial pH of 6. The obtained results demonstrated that increasing gap between electrodes negatively influenced the performance of the EC method. It was found that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the energy consumption from about 3.3 to 7.3 kW.h/m³, and water temperature from 20.2 to 22 °C, respectively. In addition, it has been found, after 20 min of electrolysing, that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the residual iron concentration from 0.05 to 1.01 mg/L, respectively.

Keywords: electrocoagulation, water, electrodes, iron

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1576 Dynamics Characterizations of Dielectric Electro- Active Polymer Pull Actuator for Vibration Control

Authors: A. M. Wahab, E. Rustighi

Abstract:

Elastomeric dielectric material has recently become a new alternative for actuator technology. The characteristics of dielectric elastomers placed between two electrodes to withstand large strain when electrodes are charged has attracted the attention of many researcher to study this material for actuator technology. Thus, in the past few years Danfoss Ventures A/S has established their own dielectric electro-active polymer (DEAP), which was called PolyPower. The main objective of this work was to investigate the dynamic characteristics for vibration control of a PolyPower actuator folded in ‘pull’ configuration. A range of experiments was carried out on the folded actuator including passive (without electrical load) and active (with electrical load) testing. For both categories static and dynamic testing have been done to determine the behavior of folded DEAP actuator. Voltage-Strain experiments show that the DEAP folded actuator is a non-linear system. It is also shown that the voltage supplied has no effect on the natural frequency. Finally, varying AC voltage with different amplitude and frequency shows the parameters that influence the performance of DEAP folded actuator. As a result, the actuator performance dominated by the frequency dependence of the elastic response and was less influenced by dielectric properties.

Keywords: dielectric electro-active polymer, pull actuator, static, dynamic, electromechanical

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1575 Characterization of Graphene Oxide Coated Gold Electrodes for Bioimpedance Measurements

Authors: Fatma Gülden Şi̇mşek, Osman Meli̇h Can, Mehmet Yumak, Bora Gari̇pcan, Yekta Ülgen

Abstract:

In this study, the impedance spectroscopy is used as a detection tool in order to characterize surface coating with graphene oxide. Gold electrodes are produced by standard lithography procedures and then coated with graphene oxide using self-assembly method. The impedance of redox solution through bare gold electrodes and graphene oxide coated gold electrodes is measured in the low and high frequency range. The graphene oxide coating reduces the impedance value of the gold electrode and this reduction is distinguishable in the low-frequency range.

Keywords: bioimpedance, electrode characterization, graphene oxide, gold electrodes, impedance spectroscopy

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1574 Study on the Voltage Induced Wrinkling of Elastomer with Different Electrode Areas

Authors: Zhende Hou, Fan Yang, Guoli Zhang

Abstract:

Dielectric elastomer is a promising class of Electroactive polymers which can deform in response to an applied electric field. Comparing general smart material, the Dielectric elastomer is more compliance and can achieve higher energy density, which can be for diverse applications such as actuators, artificial muscles, soft robotics, and energy harvesters. The coupling of the Electroactive polymers and the electric field is that the elastomer is sandwiched between two compliant electrodes and when the electrodes are subjected to a voltage, the positive and negative charges on the two electrodes compress the polymer, so that the polymer reduces in thickness and expands in area. However, the pre-stretched dielectric elastomer film not only can achieve large electric-field induced deformation but also is prone to wrinkling, under the interaction of its own strain energy and the applied electric field energy. For a uniaxially pre-stretched dielectric elastomer film, the electrode area is an important parameter to the electric-field induced deformation and may also be a key factor affecting the film wrinkling. To determine and quantify the effect experimentally, VHB 9473 tapes were employed and compliant electrodes with different areas were pant on each of them. The tape was first tensed to a uniaxial stretch of 8. Then a DC voltage was applied to the electrodes and increased gradually until wrinkling occurred in the film. Then, the critical wrinkling voltages of the film with different electrode areas were obtained, and the wrinkle wavelengths were obtained simultaneously for analyzing the wrinkling characteristics. Experimental results indicate when the electrode area is smaller the wrinkling voltage is higher, and with the increases of electrode area, the wrinkling voltage decreases rapidly until a specific area. Beyond that, the wrinkling voltage becomes larger gradually with the increases of the area. While the wrinkle wavelength decreases gradually with the increase of voltage monotonically. That is, the relation between the critical wrinkling voltage and the electrode areas is U-shaped. Analysis believes that the film wrinkling is a kind of local effect, the interaction and the energy transfer between electrode region and non-electrode region have great influence on wrinkling. In the experiment, very thin copper wires are used as the electrode leads that just contact with the electrodes, which can avoid the stiffness of the leads affecting the wrinkling.

Keywords: elastomers, uniaxial stretch, electrode area, wrinkling

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1573 Depth of Penetration and Nature of Interferential Current in Cutaneous, Subcutaneous and Muscle Tissues

Authors: A. Beatti, L. Chipchase, A. Rayner, T. Souvlis

Abstract:

The aims of this study were to investigate the depth of interferential current (IFC) penetration through soft tissue and to investigate the area over which IFC spreads during clinical application. Premodulated IFC and ‘true’ IFC at beat frequencies of 4, 40 and 90Hz were applied via four electrodes to the distal medial thigh of 15 healthy subjects. The current was measured via three Teflon coated fine needle electrodes that were inserted into the superficial layer of skin, then into the subcutaneous tissue (≈1 cm deep) and then into muscle tissue (≈2 cm deep). The needle electrodes were placed in the middle of the four IFC electrodes, between two channels and outside the four electrodes. Readings were taken at each tissue depth from each electrode during each treatment frequency then digitized and stored for analysis. All voltages were greater at all depths and locations than baseline (p < 0.01) and voltages decreased with depth (P=0.039). Lower voltages of all currents were recorded in the middle of the four electrodes with the highest voltage being recorded outside the four electrodes in all depths (P=0.000).For each frequency of ‘true’ IFC, the voltage was higher in the superficial layer outside the electrodes (P ≤ 0.01).Premodulated had higher voltages along the line of one circuit (P ≤ 0.01). Clinically, IFC appears to pass through skin layers to depth and is more efficient than premodulated IFC when targeting muscle tissue.

Keywords: electrotherapy, interferential current, interferential therapy, medium frequency current

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1572 Enhanced Performance of an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Employing Graphene Modified Carbon Paper Electrodes

Authors: Barun Chakrabarti, Dan Nir, Vladimir Yufit, P. V. Aravind, Nigel Brandon

Abstract:

Fuel cell grade gas-diffusion layer carbon paper (CP) electrodes are subjected to electrophoresis in N,N’-dimethylformamide (DMF) consisting of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The rGO modified electrodes are compared with CP in a single asymmetric all-vanadium redox battery system (employing a double serpentine flow channel for each half-cell). Peak power densities improved by 4% when the rGO deposits were facing the ion-exchange membrane (cell performance was poorer when the rGO was facing the flow field). Cycling of the cells showed least degradation of the CP electrodes that were coated with rGO in comparison to pristine samples.

Keywords: all-vanadium redox flow batteries, carbon paper electrodes, electrophoretic deposition, reduced graphene oxide

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1571 Electrochemical Studies of Nickel Nanoparticles Decorated the Surface of Some Conducting Polymers for Glucose Oxidation in Biofuel Cells

Authors: Z. Khalifa, K. M. Hassan, M. Abdel Azzem

Abstract:

Potential strategies for deriving useful forms of renewable high density energy from abundant energy stored in carbohydrates is direct conversion of glucose (GLU) to electrical power. A three novel versatile modified electrodes, synthesized by electrochemical polymerization of organic monomers on glassy carbon electrodes (GC), have been developed for biofuel cells results in stable and long-term power production. Electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in alkaline solution on conducting polymers electrodes modified by incorporation of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) onto poly(1,5-aminonaphthalene) (1,5-PDAN), poly(1,8-diaminonaphthalene) (1,8-PDAN) and poly(1-amino-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone) (PAMAQ) was investigated. The electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose at NiNPs-modified 1,5-PDAN/GC, 1,8-PDAN/GC and PAMAQ/GC electrodes has been studied using voltammetry technique. The PDAN electrodes show a slight activity in the potential of interest. The prepared NiNPs/PAMAQ/GC catalyst showed a very interesting catalytic activity that was nicely comparable to the NiNPs/1,5-PDAN/GC, NiNPs/1,8-PDAN/GC modified electrodes. In advance, both shows a significant more catalytic activity compared to the reported data for electrodes for glucose electrocatalytic oxidation.

Keywords: biofuel cells, glucose oxidation, electrocatalysis, nanoparticles and modified electrodes

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1570 Luminescent Dye-Doped Polymer Nanofibers Produced by Electrospinning Technique

Authors: Monica Enculescu, A. Evanghelidis, I. Enculescu

Abstract:

Among the numerous methods for obtaining polymer nanofibers, the electrospinning technique distinguishes itself due to the more growing interest induced by its proved utility leading to developing and improving of the method and the appearance of novel materials. In particular, production of polymeric nanofibers in which different dopants are introduced was intensively studied in the last years because of the increased interest for the obtaining of functional electrospun nanofibers. Electrospinning is a facile method of obtaining polymer nanofibers with diameters from tens of nanometers to micrometrical sizes that are cheap, flexible, scalable, functional and biocompatible. Besides the multiple applications in medicine, polymeric nanofibers obtained by electrospinning permit manipulation of light at nanometric dimensions when doped with organic dyes or different nanoparticles. It is a simple technique that uses an electrical field to draw fine polymer nanofibers from solutions and does not require complicated devices or high temperatures. Different morphologies of the electrospun nanofibers can be obtained for the same polymeric host when different parameters of the electrospinning process are used. Consequently, we can obtain tuneable optical properties of the electrospun nanofibers (e.g. changing the wavelength of the emission peak) by varying the parameters of the fabrication method. We focus on obtaining doped polymer nanofibers with enhanced optical properties using the electrospinning technique. The aim of the paper is to produce dye-doped polymer nanofibers’ mats incorporating uniformly dispersed dyes. Transmission and fluorescence of the fibers will be evaluated by spectroscopy methods. The morphological properties of the electrospun dye-doped polymer fibers will be evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We will tailor the luminescent properties of the material by doping the polymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone or polymethylmetacrilate) with different dyes (coumarins, rhodamines and sulforhodamines). The tailoring will be made taking into consideration the possibility of changing the luminescent properties of electrospun polymeric nanofibers that are doped with different dyes by using different parameters for the electrospinning technique (electric voltage, distance between electrodes, flow rate of the solution, etc.). Furthermore, we can evaluated the influence of the concentration of the dyes on the emissive properties of dye-doped polymer nanofibers using different concentrations. The advantages offered by the electrospinning technique when producing polymeric fibers are given by the simplicity of the method, the tunability of the morphology allowed by the possibility of controlling all the process parameters (temperature, viscosity of polymeric solution, applied voltage, distance between electrodes, etc.), and by the absence of necessity of using harsh and supplementary chemicals such as the ones used in the traditional nanofabrication techniques. Acknowledgments: The authors acknowledge the financial support received through IFA CEA Project No. C5-08/2016.

Keywords: electrospinning, luminescence, polymer nanofibers, scanning electron microscopy

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1569 Developing Biocompatible Iridium Oxide Electrodes for Bone-Guided Extra-Cochlear Implant

Authors: Yung-Shan Lu, Chia-Fone Lee, Shang-Hsuan Li, Chien-Hao Liu

Abstract:

Recently, various bioelectronic devices have been developed for neurologic disease treatments via electro-stimulations such as cochlear implants and retinal prosthesis. Since the electric signal needs electrodes to be transmitted to an organism, electrodes play an important role of stimulations. The materials of stimulation electrodes affect the efficiency of the delivered currents. The higher the efficiency of the electrodes, the lower the threshold current can be used to stimulate the organism which minimizes the potential damages to the adjacent tissues. In this study, we proposed a biocompatible composite electrode composed of high-charge-capacity iridium oxide (IrOₓ) film for a bone-guide extra-cochlear implant. IrOₓ was exploited to decrease the threshold current due to its high capacitance and low impedance. The IrOₓ electrode was fabricated via microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) photolithography and examined with in-vivo tests with guinea pigs. Based on the measured responses of brain waves to sound, the results demonstrated that IrOₓ electrodes have a lower threshold current compared with the Platinum (Pt) electrodes. The research results are expected to be beneficial for implantable and biocompatible electrodes for electrical stimulations.

Keywords: cochlear implants, electrode, electrical stimulation, iridium oxide

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1568 Effects of Array Electrode Placement on Identifying Localised Muscle Fatigue

Authors: Mohamed R. Al-Mulla, Bader Al-Bader, Firouz K. Ghaaedi, Francisco Sepulveda

Abstract:

Surface electromyography (sEMG) is utilised in numerous studies on muscle activity. In the beginning, single electrodes were utilised; however, the newest approach is to use an array of electrodes or a grid of electrodes to improve the accuracy of the recorded reading. This research focuses on electrode placement on the biceps brachii, using an array of electrodes placed longitudinal and diagonally on the muscle belly. Trials were conducted on four healthy males, with sEMG signal acquisition from fatiguing isometric contractions. The signal was analysed using the power spectrum density. The separation between the two classes of fatigue (non-fatigue and fatigue) was calculated using the Davies-Bouldin Index (DBI). Results show that higher separability between the fatigue content of the sEMG signal when placed longitudinally, in the same direction as the muscle fibers.

Keywords: array electrodes, biceps brachii, electrode placement, EMG, isometric contractions, muscle fatigue

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1567 Studying the Bond Strength of Geo-Polymer Concrete

Authors: Rama Seshu Doguparti

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental investigation on the bond behavior of geo polymer concrete. The bond behavior of geo polymer concrete cubes of grade M35 reinforced with 16 mm TMT rod is analyzed. The results indicate that the bond performance of reinforced geo polymer concrete is good and thus proves its application for construction.

Keywords: geo-polymer, concrete, bond strength, behaviour

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1566 Studies on the Feasibility of Cow Dung as a Non-Conventional Energy Source

Authors: Raj Kumar Rajak, Bharat Mishra

Abstract:

Bio-batteries represent an entirely new long-term, reasonable, reachable and ecofriendly approach to produce sustainable energy. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of generation of power by bio-battery using different electrode pairs. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow dung as an electrolyte. C-Mg electrode pair shows maximum voltage and SCC (Short Circuit Current) while C-Zn electrode pair shows less OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) and SCC. We have chosen C-Zn electrodes because Mg electrodes are not economical. By the studies of different electrodes and cow dung, it is found that C-Zn electrode battery is more suitable. This result shows that the bio-batteries have the potency to full fill the need of electricity demand for lower energy equipment.

Keywords: bio-batteries, electricity, cow-dung, electrodes, non-conventional

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1565 Defects Analysis, Components Distribution, and Properties Simulation in the Fuel Cells and Batteries by 2D and 3D Characterization Techniques

Authors: Amir Peyman Soleymani, Jasna Jankovic

Abstract:

The augmented demand of the clean and renewable energy has necessitated the fuel cell and battery industries to produce more efficient devices at the lower prices, which can be achieved through the improvement of the electrode. Microstructural characterization, as one of the main materials development tools, plays a pivotal role in the production of better clean energy devices. In this study, methods for characterization and studying of the defects and components distribution were performed on the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and Li-ion battery (LIB) electrodes in 2D and 3D. The particles distribution, porosity, mechanical defects, and component distribution were studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), SEM-Focused Ion Beam (SEM-FIB), and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (STEM-EDS). The 3D results obtained from X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) revealed the pathways for electron and ion conductivity and defects progression maps. Computer-aided methods (Avizo) were employed to simulate the properties and performance of the microstructure in the electrodes. The suggestions were provided to improve the performance of PEMFCs and LIBs by adjusting the microstructure and the distribution of the components in the electrodes.

Keywords: PEM fuel cells, Li-ion batteries, 2D and 3D imaging, materials characterizations

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1564 Hydrogen Production Using Solar Energy

Authors: I. M. Sakr, Ali M. Abdelsalam, K. A. Ibrahim, W. A. El-Askary

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental study for hydrogen production using alkaline water electrolysis operated by solar energy. Two methods are used and compared for separation between the cathode and anode, which are acrylic separator and polymeric membrane. Further, the effects of electrolyte concentration, solar insolation, and space between the pair of electrodes on the amount of hydrogen produced and consequently on the overall electrolysis efficiency are investigated. It is found that the rate of hydrogen production increases using the polymeric membrane installed between the electrodes. The experimental results show also that, the performance of alkaline water electrolysis unit is dominated by the electrolyte concentration and the gap between the electrodes. Smaller gaps between the pair of electrodes are demonstrated to produce higher rates of hydrogen with higher system efficiency.

Keywords: hydrogen production, water electrolysis, solar energy, concentration

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1563 Reduction of Wear via Hardfacing of Rotavator Blades

Authors: Gurjinder Singh Randhawa, Jonny Garg, Sukhraj Singh, Gurmeet Singh Cheema

Abstract:

A major problem related to the use of rotavator is wear of rotavator blades due to abrasion by soil hard particles, as it seriously affects tillage quality and agricultural production economy. The objective of this study was to increase the wear resistance by covering the rotavator blades with two different hard facing electrodes. These blades are generally produced from low carbon or low alloy steel. During the field work i.e. preparing land for the cultivation these blades are subjected to severe wear conditions. Comparative wear tests on a regular rotavator blade and two kinds of hardfacing with electrodes were conducted in the field. These two different hardfacing electrodes, which are designated HARD ALLOY-400 and HARD ALLOY-650, were used for hardfacing. The wear rate in the field tests was found to be significantly different statistically. When the cost is taken into consideration; HARD ALLOY-650 and HARD ALLOY-400 have been found to be the best hardfacing electrodes.

Keywords: hardfacing, rotavator blades, hard alloy-400, abrasive wear

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1562 A Virtual Electrode through Summation of Time Offset Pulses

Authors: Isaac Cassar, Trevor Davis, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu

Abstract:

Retinal prostheses have been successful in eliciting visual responses in implanted subjects. As these prostheses progress, one of their major limitations is the need for increased resolution. As an alternative to increasing the number of electrodes, virtual electrodes may be used to increase the effective resolution of current electrode arrays. This paper presents a virtual electrode technique based upon time-offsets between stimuli. Two adjacent electrodes are stimulated with identical pulses with too short of pulse widths to activate a neuron, but one has a time offset of one pulse width. A virtual electrode of twice the pulse width was then shown to appear in the center, with a total width capable of activating a neuron. This can be used in retinal implants by stimulating electrodes with pulse widths short enough to not elicit responses in neurons, but with their combined pulse width adequate to activate a neuron in between them.

Keywords: electrical stimulation, neuroprosthesis, retinal implant, retinal prosthesis, virtual electrode

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1561 PVDF-HFP Based Nanocomposite Gel Polymer Electrolytes Dispersed with Zro2 for Li-Ion Batteries

Authors: R. Sharma, A. Sil, S. Ray

Abstract:

Nanocomposites gel polymer electrolytes are gaining more and more attention among the researchers worldwide due to their possible applications in various electrochemical devices particularly in solid-state Li-ion batteries. In this work we have investigated the effect of nanofibers on the electrical properties of PVDF-HFP based gel electrolytes. The nanocomposites polymer electrolytes have been synthesized by solution casting technique with 10wt% of ZrO2. By analysis of impedance spectroscopy it has been demonstrated that the incorporation of ZrO2 into PVDF-HFP–(PC+DEC)–LiClO4 gel polymer electrolyte system significantly enhances the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte. The enhancement of ionic conductivity seems to be correlated with the fact that the dispersion of ZrO2 to PVDF-HFP prevents polymer chain reorganization due to the high aspect ratio of ZrO2, resulting in reduction in polymer crystallinity, which gives rise to an increase in ionic conductivity. The decrease of crystallinity of PVDF-HFP due the addition of ZrO2 has been confirmed by XRD. The interaction of ZrO2 with various constituents of polymer electrolytes has been studied by FTIR spectroscopy. TEM results show that the fillers (ZrO2) has distributed uniformly in the polymer electrolytes. Moreover, ZrO2 added gel polymer electrolytes offer better thermal stability as compared to that of ZrO2 free electrolytes as confirmed by TGA analysis.

Keywords: polymer electrolytes, ZrO2, ionic conductivity, FTIR

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1560 Transparent and Solution Processable Low Contact Resistance SWCNT/AZONP Bilayer Electrodes for Sol-Gel Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistor

Authors: Su Jeong Lee, Tae Il Lee, Jung Han Kim, Chul-Hong Kim, Gee Sung Chae, Jae-Min Myoung

Abstract:

The contact resistance between source/drain electrodes and semiconductor layer is an important parameter affecting electron transporting performance in the thin film transistor (TFT). In this work, we introduced a transparent and the solution prossable single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/Al-doped ZnO nano particle (AZO NP) bilayer electrodes showing low contact resistance with indium-oxide (In2O3) sol gel thin film. By inserting low work function AZO NPs into the interface between the SWCNTs and the In2O3 which has a high energy barrier, we could obtain an electrical Ohmic contact between them. Finally, with the SWCNT-AZO NP bilayer electrodes, we successfully fabricated a TFT showing a field effect mobility of 5.38 cm2/V∙s at 250 °C.

Keywords: single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanoparticle, contact resistance, thin-film transistor (TFT)

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1559 Single-Molecule Analysis of Structure and Dynamics in Polymer Materials by Super-Resolution Technique

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki

Abstract:

The physical properties of polymer materials are dependent on the conformation and molecular motion of a polymer chain. Therefore, the structure and dynamic behavior of the single polymer chain have been the most important concerns in the field of polymer physics. However, it has been impossible to directly observe the conformation of the single polymer chain in a bulk medium. In the current work, the novel techniques to study the conformation and dynamics of a single polymer chain are proposed. Since a fluorescence method is extremely sensitive, the fluorescence microscopy enables the direct detection of a single molecule. However, the structure of the polymer chain as large as 100 nm cannot be resolved by conventional fluorescence methods because of the diffraction limit of light. In order to observe the single chains, we developed the labeling method of polymer materials with a photo-switchable dye and the super-resolution microscopy. The real-space conformational analysis of single polymer chains with the spatial resolution of 15-20 nm was achieved. The super-resolution microscopy enables us to obtain the three-dimensional coordinates; therefore, we succeeded the conformational analysis in three dimensions. The direct observation by the nanometric optical microscopy would reveal the detailed information on the molecular processes in the various polymer systems.

Keywords: polymer materials, single molecule, super-resolution techniques, conformation

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1558 Numerical Study on the EHD Pump with a Recirculating Channel

Authors: Dong Sik Cho, Yong Kweon Suh

Abstract:

Numerical study has been conducted on the electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) pumping method in terms of a recirculating channel. The method relies on the principle of EHD generated by the electric-field dependent electrical conductivity (Onsager effect). Before considering the full three-dimensional simulation, we solved the two-dimensional problem of EHD flow in a circular channel like a doughnut shape. We observed that when dc voltage was applied a fast and regular flow was produced around electrodes, which is then used as a driving force for the fluid pumping. In this parametric study, the diameters of circular electrodes are varied in the range 0.3mm~3mm and the gap between the electrodes pair is varied in the range 0.3mm~2mm. We found that both the volume flow rate and the pumping efficiency are increased as the distance between the electrodes is decreased. Finally, we also performed the numerical simulation for the three-dimensional channel and found that the averaged flow velocity is in the same order of magnitude as the two-dimensional one.

Keywords: electro-hydrodynamic, electric-field, onsager effect, DC voltage

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1557 Zinc Oxide Nanorods Decorated Nanofibers Based Flexible Electrodes for Capacitive Energy Storage Applications

Authors: Syed Kamran Sami, Saqib Siddiqui

Abstract:

In recent times, flexible supercapacitors retaining high electrochemical performance and steadiness along with mechanical endurance has developed as a spring of attraction due to the exponential progress and innovations in energy storage devices. To meet the rampant increasing demand of energy storage device with the small form factor, a unique, low cost and high-performance supercapacitor with considerably higher capacitance and mechanical robustness is required to recognize their real-life applications. Here in this report, synthesis route of electrode materials with low rigidity and high charge storage performance is reported using 1D-1D hybrid structure of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods, and conductive polymer smeared polyvinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene (P(VDF–TrFE)) electrospun nanofibers. The ZnO nanorods were uniformly grown on poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) coated P(VDF-TrFE) nanofibers using hydrothermal growth to manufacture light weight, permeable electrodes for supercapacitor. The PEDOT: PSS coated P(VDF-TrFE) porous web of nanofibers act as framework with high surface area. The incorporation of ZnO nanorods further boost the specific capacitance by 59%. The symmetric device using the fabricated 1D-1D hybrid electrodes reveals fairly high areal capacitance of 1.22mF/cm² at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm² with a power density of more than 1600 W/Kg. Moreover, the fabricated electrodes show exceptional flexibility and high endurance with 90% and 76% specific capacitance retention after 1000 and 5000 cycles respectively signifying the astonishing mechanical durability and long-term stability. All the properties exhibited by the fabricated electrode make it convenient for making flexible energy storage devices with the low form factor.

Keywords: ZnO nanorods, electrospinning, mechanical endurance, flexible supercapacitor

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1556 Effects of Polymer Adsorption and Desorption on Polymer Flooding in Waterflooded Reservoir

Authors: Sukruthai Sapniwat, Falan Srisuriyachai

Abstract:

Polymer Flooding is one of the most well-known methods in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technology which can be implemented after either primary or secondary recovery, resulting in favorable conditions for the displacement mechanism in order to lower the residual oil in the reservoir. Polymer substances can lower the mobility ratio of the whole process by increasing the viscosity of injected water. Therefore, polymer flooding can increase volumetric sweep efficiency, which leads to a better recovery factor. Moreover, polymer adsorption onto rock surface can help decrease reservoir permeability contrast with high heterogeneity. Due to the reduction of the absolute permeability, effective permeability to water, representing flow ability of the injected fluid, is also reduced. Once polymer is adsorbed onto rock surface, polymer molecule can be desorbed when different fluids are injected. This study is performed to evaluate the effects of the adsorption and desorption process of polymer solutions to yield benefits on the oil recovery mechanism. A reservoir model is constructed by reservoir simulation program called STAR® commercialized by the Computer Modeling Group (CMG). Various polymer concentrations, starting times of polymer flooding process and polymer injection rates were evaluated with selected values of polymer desorption degrees including 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. The higher the value, the more adsorbed polymer molecules to return back to flowing fluid. According to the results, polymer desorption lowers polymer consumption, especially at low concentrations. Furthermore, starting time of polymer flooding and injection rate affect the oil production. The results show that waterflooding followed by earlier polymer flooding can increase the oil recovery factor while the higher injection rate also enhances the recovery. Polymer concentration is related to polymer consumption due to the two main benefits of polymer flooding control described above. Therefore, polymer slug size should be optimized based on polymer concentration. Polymer desorption causes polymer re-employment that is previously adsorbed onto rock surface, resulting in an increase of sweep efficiency in the further period of polymer flooding process. Even though waterflooding supports polymer injectivity, water cut at the producer can prematurely terminate the oil production. The injection rate decreases polymer adsorption due to decreased retention time of polymer flooding process.

Keywords: enhanced oil recovery technology, polymer adsorption and desorption, polymer flooding, reservoir simulation

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1555 In Situ Laser-Induced Synthesis of Copper Microstructures with High Catalytic Properties and Sensory Characteristics

Authors: Maxim Panov, Evgenia Khairullina, Sergey Ermakov, Oleg Gundobin, Vladimir Kochemirovsky

Abstract:

The continuous in situ laser-induced catalysis proceeding via generation and growth of nano-sized copper particles was discussed. Also, the simple and lost-cost method for manufacturing of microstructural copper electrodes was proposed. The electrochemical properties of these electrodes were studied by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The surface of the deposited copper structures (electrodes) was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. These microstructures are highly conductive and porous with a dispersion of pore size ranging from 50 nm to 50 μm. An analytical response of the fabricated copper electrode is 30 times higher than those observed for a pure bulk copper with similar geometric parameters. A study of sensory characteristics for hydrogen peroxide determination showed that the value of Faraday current at the fabricated copper electrode is 2-2.5 orders of magnitude higher than for etalon one.

Keywords: laser-induced deposition, electrochemical electrodes, non-enzymatic sensors, copper

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1554 Generating a Multiplex Sensing Platform for the Accurate Diagnosis of Sepsis

Authors: N. Demertzis, J. L. Bowen

Abstract:

Sepsis is a complex and rapidly evolving condition, resulting from uncontrolled prolonged activation of host immune system due to pathogenic insult. The aim of this study is the development of a multiplex electrochemical sensing platform, capable of detecting both pathogen associated and host immune markers to enable the rapid and definitive diagnosis of sepsis. A combination of aptamers and molecular imprinting approaches have been employed to generate sensing systems for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), c-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). Gold working electrodes were mechanically polished and electrochemically cleaned with 0.1 M sulphuric acid using cyclic voltammetry (CV). Following activation, a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was generated, by incubating the electrodes with a thiolated anti-LPS aptamer / dithiodibutiric acid (DTBA) mixture (1:20). 3-aminophenylboronic acid (3-APBA) in combination with the anti-LPS aptamer was used for the development of the hybrid molecularly imprinted sensor (apta-MIP). Aptasensors, targeting PCT and CRP were also fabricated, following the same approach as in the case of LPS, with mercaptohexanol (MCH) replacing DTBA. In the case of the CRP aptasensor, the SAM was formed following incubation of a 1:1 aptamer: MCH mixture. However, in the case of PCT, the SAM was formed with the aptamer itself, with subsequent backfilling with 1 μM MCH. The binding performance of all systems has been evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The apta-MIP’s polymer thickness is controlled by varying the number of electropolymerisation cycles. In the ideal number of polymerisation cycles, the polymer must cover the electrode surface and create a binding pocket around LPS and its aptamer binding site. Less polymerisation cycles will create a hybrid system which resembles an aptasensor, while more cycles will be able to cover the complex and demonstrate a bulk polymer-like behaviour. Both aptasensor and apta-MIP were challenged with LPS and compared to conventional imprinted (absence of aptamer from the binding site, polymer formed in presence of LPS) and non-imprinted polymers (NIPS, absence of LPS whilst hybrid polymer is formed). A stable LPS aptasensor, capable of detecting down to 5 pg/ml of LPS was generated. The apparent Kd of the system was estimated at 17 pM, with a Bmax of approximately 50 pM. The aptasensor demonstrated high specificity to LPS. The apta-MIP demonstrated superior recognition properties with a limit of detection of 1 fg/ml and a Bmax of 100 pg/ml. The CRP and PCT aptasensors were both able to detect down to 5 pg/ml. Whilst full binding performance is currently being evaluated, there is none of the sensors demonstrate cross-reactivity towards LPS, CRP or PCT. In conclusion, stable aptasensors capable of detecting LPS, PCT and CRP at low concentrations have been generated. The realisation of a multiplex panel such as described herein, will effectively contribute to the rapid, personalised diagnosis of sepsis.

Keywords: aptamer, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, molecularly imprinted polymers, sepsis

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1553 A Polyimide Based Split-Ring Neural Interface Electrode for Neural Signal Recording

Authors: Ning Xue, Srinivas Merugu, Ignacio Delgado Martinez, Tao Sun, John Tsang, Shih-Cheng Yen

Abstract:

We have developed a polyimide based neural interface electrode to record nerve signals from the sciatic nerve of a rat. The neural interface electrode has a split-ring shape, with four protruding gold electrodes for recording, and two reference gold electrodes around the split-ring. The split-ring electrode can be opened up to encircle the sciatic nerve. The four electrodes can be bent to sit on top of the nerve and hold the device in position, while the split-ring frame remains flat. In comparison, while traditional cuff electrodes can only fit certain sizes of the nerve, the developed device can fit a variety of rat sciatic nerve dimensions from 0.6 mm to 1.0 mm, and adapt to the chronic changes in the nerve as the electrode tips are bendable. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement was conducted. The gold electrode impedance is on the order of 10 kΩ, showing excellent charge injection capacity to record neural signals.

Keywords: impedance, neural interface, split-ring electrode, neural signal recording

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1552 The Effect of Acid Treatment of PEDOT: PSS Anode for Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Ismail Borazan, Ayse Celik Bedeloglu, Ali Demir, David Carroll

Abstract:

In this project, PEDOT:PSS layer was treated with formic acid, sulphuric acid, and hydrochloric acid, methanol, acetone, and dichlorobenzene:methanol. The resistivity measurements with 2-probes were carried out and the best-chosen method was employed to make an organic solar cell device.

Keywords: organic solar cells, PEDOT:PSS, polymer electrodes, resistivity

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