Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3922

Search results for: contact resistance

3922 Ruthenium Based Nanoscale Contact Coatings for Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov

Abstract:

Magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MCMEMS) switches is one of the directions in the field of micropower switching technology. MCMEMS switches are a promising alternative to Hall sensors and reed switches. The most important parameter for MCMEMS is the contact resistance, which should have a minimum value and is to be stable for the entire duration of service life. The value and stability of the contact resistance is mainly determined by the contact coating material. This paper presents the research results of a contact coating based on nanoscale ruthenium films obtained by electrolytic deposition. As a result of the performed investigations, the deposition modes of ruthenium films are chosen, the regularities of the contact resistance change depending on the number of contact switching, and the coating roughness are established. It is shown that changing the coating roughness makes it possible to minimize the contact resistance.

Keywords: contact resistance, electrode coating, electrolytic deposition, magnetically controlled MEMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
3921 Thermal Contact Resistance of Nanoscale Rough Surfaces

Authors: Ravi Prasher

Abstract:

In nanostructured material thermal transport is dominated by contact resistance. Theoretical models describing thermal transport at interfaces assume perfectly flat surface whereas in reality surfaces can be rough with roughness ranging from sub-nanoscale dimension to micron scale. Here we introduce a model which includes both nanoscale contact mechanics and nanoscale heat transfer for rough nanoscale surfaces. This comprehensive model accounts for the effect of phonon acoustic mismatch, mechanical properties, chemical properties and randomness of the rough surface.

Keywords: adhesion and contact resistance, Kaptiza resistance of rough surfaces, nanoscale thermal transport

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
3920 Transparent and Solution Processable Low Contact Resistance SWCNT/AZONP Bilayer Electrodes for Sol-Gel Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistor

Authors: Su Jeong Lee, Tae Il Lee, Jung Han Kim, Chul-Hong Kim, Gee Sung Chae, Jae-Min Myoung

Abstract:

The contact resistance between source/drain electrodes and semiconductor layer is an important parameter affecting electron transporting performance in the thin film transistor (TFT). In this work, we introduced a transparent and the solution prossable single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/Al-doped ZnO nano particle (AZO NP) bilayer electrodes showing low contact resistance with indium-oxide (In2O3) sol gel thin film. By inserting low work function AZO NPs into the interface between the SWCNTs and the In2O3 which has a high energy barrier, we could obtain an electrical Ohmic contact between them. Finally, with the SWCNT-AZO NP bilayer electrodes, we successfully fabricated a TFT showing a field effect mobility of 5.38 cm2/V∙s at 250 °C.

Keywords: single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanoparticle, contact resistance, thin-film transistor (TFT)

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
3919 Study on Properties of Carbon-based Layer for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Application

Authors: Pei-Jung Wu, Ching-Ying Huang, Chih-Chia Lin, Chun-Han Li, Chien-Yuan Wang

Abstract:

The fuel cell market has considerable development potential, but the cost is still less competitive. Replacing the traditional graphite plate with a stainless steel plate as a bipolar plate can greatly reduce the weight and volume of the stack, and has more cost advantages. However, the passivation layer on the surface of stainless steel makes the contact resistance reach the ohmic level and reduces the performance of the fuel cell. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the interfacial contact resistance through the surface treatment. In this research, the thickness, uniformity, interfacial contact resistance (ICR), and adhesion of the carbon-based layer was analyzed. On the other hand, the effect of coating properties on the performance of the fuel cell was verified through I-V tests. The results show that after coating the contact resistance is greatly reduced by three stages to the microohm level, and as the film thickness is reduced, the contact resistance is reduced from 229~118 mΩ-cm² to 135~73 mΩ-cm² at a general assembly pressure of 1 to 2 MPa., and the current density at 0.6 V increased from 485.7 mA/cm² to 575.7 mA/cm². This study verifies the importance of the uniformity and ICR of the coating on proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), and the surface coating technology is the key to affecting the characteristics of the coating.

Keywords: contact resistance, proton exchange membrane fuel cell, PEMFC, SS bipolar plate, spray coating process

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3918 Effects of Alkaline Pretreatment Parameters on the Corrosion Resistance and ‎Wettability of Magnesium Implant

Authors: Mahtab Assadian, Mohd Hasbullah Idris, Mostafa Rezazadeh Shirdar, Mohammad Mahdi Taheri, ‎S. Izman

Abstract:

Corrosion behaviour and surface roughness of magnesium substrate were investigated after NaOH pretreatment in different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 molar) and duration of (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h and 24 h). Creation of Mg(OH)2 barrier layer after pretreatment enhanced corrostion resistance as well as wettability of substrate surface. Characterization including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was conducted to detect the existence of this barrier layer. Surface roughness and wettability of substrate was evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurement respectively. It is found that magnesium treated by 1M NaOH for 30 min reveals higher corrosion resistance and lower water contact angle of substrate surface. In addition, this investigation indicates that pH value of SBF solution is strongly influenced by different time and concentration of alkaline pretreatment.

Keywords: magnesium, NaOH pretreatment, corrosion resistance, wettability

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
3917 Microswitches with Sputtered Au, Aupd, Au-on-Aupt, and Auptcu Alloy - Electric Contacts

Authors: Nikolay Konukhov

Abstract:

This paper to report on a new analytic model for predicting microcontact resistance and the design, fabrication, and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) metal contact switches with sputtered bimetallic (i.e., gold (Au)-on-Au-platinum (Pt), (Au-on-Au-(6.3at%)Pt)), binary alloy (i.e., Au-palladium (Pd), (Au-(3.7at%)Pd)), and ternary alloy (i.e., Au-Pt-copper (Cu), (Au-(5.0at%)Pt-(0.5at%)Cu)) electric contacts. The microswitches with bimetallic and binary alloy contacts resulted in contact resistance values between 1–2

Keywords: alloys, electric contacts, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microswitch

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
3916 Annealing of the Contact between Graphene and Metal: Electrical and Raman Study

Authors: A. Sakavičius, A. Lukša, V. Nargelienė, V. Bukauskas, G. Astromskas, A. Šetkus

Abstract:

We investigate the influence of annealing on the properties of a contact between graphene and metal (Au and Ni), using circular transmission line model (CTLM) contact geometry. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy are applied for characterization of the surface and interface properties. Annealing causes a decrease of the metal-graphene contact resistance for both Ni and Au.

Keywords: Au/Graphene contacts, graphene, Kelvin force probe microscopy, NiC/Graphene contacts, Ni/Graphene contacts, Raman spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
3915 Study on The Model of Microscopic Contact Parameters for Grinding M300 Using Elastic Abrasive Tool

Authors: Wu Xiaojun, Liu Ruiping, Yu Xingzhan, Wu Qian

Abstract:

In precision grinding, utilizing the elastic matrix ball has higher processing efficiency and better superficial quality than traditional grinding. The diversity of characteristics which elastic abrasive tool contact with bend surface results in irregular wear abrasion,and abrasive tool machining status get complicated. There is no theoretical interpretation that parameters affect the grinding accuracy.Aiming at corrosion resistance, wear resistance and other characteristics of M 300 material, it is often used as a material on aerospace precision components. The paper carried out grinding and polishing experiments by using material of M 300,to theoretically show the relationship between stress magnitude and grinding efficiency,and predict the optimal combination of grinding parameter for effective grinding, just for the high abrasion resistance features of M 300, analyzing the micro-contact of elastic ball abrasive tool (Whetstone), using mathematical methods deduce the functional relationship between residual peak removal rate and the main parameters which impact the grinding accuracy on the plane case.Thus laying the foundation for the study of elastic abrasive prediction and compensation.

Keywords: flexible abrasive tool, polishing parameters, Hertz theory, removal rate

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3914 Low-Temperature Poly-Si Nanowire Junctionless Thin Film Transistors with Nickel Silicide

Authors: Yu-Hsien Lin, Yu-Ru Lin, Yung-Chun Wu

Abstract:

This work demonstrates the ultra-thin poly-Si (polycrystalline Silicon) nanowire junctionless thin film transistors (NWs JL-TFT) with nickel silicide contact. For nickel silicide film, this work designs to use two-step annealing to form ultra-thin, uniform and low sheet resistance (Rs) Ni silicide film. The NWs JL-TFT with nickel silicide contact exhibits the good electrical properties, including high driving current (>10⁷ Å), subthreshold slope (186 mV/dec.), and low parasitic resistance. In addition, this work also compares the electrical characteristics of NWs JL-TFT with nickel silicide and non-silicide contact. Nickel silicide techniques are widely used for high-performance devices as the device scaling due to the source/drain sheet resistance issue. Therefore, the self-aligned silicide (salicide) technique is presented to reduce the series resistance of the device. Nickel silicide has several advantages including low-temperature process, low silicon consumption, no bridging failure property, smaller mechanical stress, and smaller contact resistance. The junctionless thin-film transistor (JL-TFT) is fabricated simply by heavily doping the channel and source/drain (S/D) regions simultaneously. Owing to the special doping profile, JL-TFT has some advantages such as lower thermal the budget which can integrate with high-k/metal-gate easier than conventional MOSFETs (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors), longer effective channel length than conventional MOSFETs, and avoidance of complicated source/drain engineering. To solve JL-TFT has turn-off problem, JL-TFT needs ultra-thin body (UTB) structure to reach fully depleted channel region in off-state. On the other hand, the drive current (Iᴅ) is declined as transistor features are scaled. Therefore, this work demonstrates ultra thin poly-Si nanowire junctionless thin film transistors with nickel silicide contact. This work investigates the low-temperature formation of nickel silicide layer by physical-chemical deposition (PVD) of a 15nm Ni layer on the poly-Si substrate. Notably, this work designs to use two-step annealing to form ultrathin, uniform and low sheet resistance (Rs) Ni silicide film. The first step was promoted Ni diffusion through a thin interfacial amorphous layer. Then, the unreacted metal was lifted off after the first step. The second step was annealing for lower sheet resistance and firmly merged the phase.The ultra-thin poly-Si nanowire junctionless thin film transistors NWs JL-TFT with nickel silicide contact is demonstrated, which reveals high driving current (>10⁷ Å), subthreshold slope (186 mV/dec.), and low parasitic resistance. In silicide film analysis, the second step of annealing was applied to form lower sheet resistance and firmly merge the phase silicide film. In short, the NWs JL-TFT with nickel silicide contact has exhibited a competitive short-channel behavior and improved drive current.

Keywords: poly-Si, nanowire, junctionless, thin-film transistors, nickel silicide

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
3913 Analysis of Contact Width and Contact Stress of Three-Layer Corrugated Metal Gasket

Authors: I. Made Gatot Karohika, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi, Oke Oktavianty, Didik Nurhadiyanto

Abstract:

Contact width and contact stress are important parameters related to the leakage behavior of corrugated metal gasket. In this study, contact width and contact stress of three-layer corrugated metal gasket are investigated due to the modulus of elasticity and thickness of surface layer for 2 type gasket (0-MPa and 400-MPa mode). A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution to analysis the effect of each parameter. The result indicated that lowering the modulus of elasticity ratio of surface layer will result in better contact width but the average contact stresses are smaller. When the modulus of elasticity ratio is held constant with thickness ratio increase, its contact width has an increscent trend otherwise the average contact stress has decreased trend.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
3912 Buckling Resistance of GFRP Sandwich Infill Panels with Different Cores under Increased Temperatures

Authors: WooYoung Jung, V. Sim

Abstract:

This paper presents numerical analysis in terms of buckling resistance strength of polymer matrix composite (PMC) infill panels system under the influence of temperature on the foam core. Failure mode under in-plane compression is investigated by means of numerical analysis with ABAQUS platform. Parameters considered in this study are contact length and both the type of foam for core and the variation of its Young's Modulus under the thermal influence. Variation of temperature is considered in static cases and only applied to core. Indeed, it is shown that the effect of temperature on the panel system mechanical properties is significance. Moreover, the variations of temperature result in the decrements of the system strength. This is due to the polymeric nature of this material. Additionally, the contact length also displays the effect on performance of infill panel. Their significance factors are based on type of polymer for core. Hence, by comparing difference type of core material, the variation can be reducing.

Keywords: buckling, contact length, foam core, temperature dependent

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
3911 Environmental Pb-Free Cu Front Electrode for Si-Base Solar Cell Application

Authors: Wen-Hsi Lee, C.G. Kao

Abstract:

In this study, Cu paste was prepared and printed with narrow line screen printing process on polycrystalline Si solar cell which has already finished the back Al printing and deposition of double anti-reflection coatings (DARCs). Then, two-step firing process was applied to sinter the front electrode and obtain the ohmic contact between front electrode and solar cell. The first step was in air atmosphere. In this process, PbO-based glass frit etched the DARCs and Ag recrystallized at the surface of Si, constructing the preliminary contact. The second step was in reducing atmosphere. In this process, CuO reduced to Cu and sintered. Besides, Ag nanoparticles recrystallized in the glass layer at interface due to the interactions between H2, Ag and PbO-based glass frit and the volatility of Pb, constructing the ohmic contact between electrode and solar cell. By experiment and analysis, reaction mechanism in each stage was surmised, and it was also proven that ohmic contact and good sheet resistance for front electrode could both be obtained by applying newly-invented paste and process.

Keywords: front electrode, solar cell, ohmic contact, screen printing, paste

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
3910 Study on the Non-Contact Sheet Resistance Measuring of Silver Nanowire Coated Film Using Terahertz Wave

Authors: Dong-Hyun Kim, Wan-Ho Chung, Hak-Sung Kim

Abstract:

In this work, non-destructive evaluation was conducted to measure the sheet resistance of silver nanowire coated film and find a damage of that film using terahertz (THz) wave. Pulse type THz instrument was used, and the measurement was performed under transmission and pitch-catch reflection modes with 30 degree of incidence angle. In the transmission mode, the intensity of the THz wave was gradually increased as the conductivity decreased. Meanwhile, the intensity of THz wave was decreased as the conductivity decreased in the pitch-catch reflection mode. To confirm the conductivity of the film, sheet resistance was measured by 4-point probe station. Interaction formula was drawn from a relation between the intensity and the sheet resistance. Through substituting sheet resistance to the formula and comparing the resultant value with measured maximum THz wave intensity, measurement of sheet resistance using THz wave was more suitable than that using 4-point probe station. In addition, the damage on the silver nanowire coated film was detected by applying the THz image system. Therefore, the reliability of the entire film can be also be ensured. In conclusion, real-time monitoring using the THz wave can be applied in the transparent electrodes with detecting the damaged area as well as measuring the sheet resistance.

Keywords: terahertz wave, sheet resistance, non-destructive evaluation, silver nanowire

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3909 Current Status of Mosquitoes Vector Research and Control in Iran

Authors: Seyed Hassan Moosa-kazemi, Hassan Vatandoost

Abstract:

Malaria, Dirofilaria immitis (dog heart worm), and D. repens (dirofilariasis), which are transmitted by mosquitoes, have been reported in Iran. The Iranian mosquito fauna includes seven genera, 65 species, and three subspecies. Aedes albopictus has been reported since. West Nile, Sindbis, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis viruses, and the nematode Setaria (setariasis) has been reported in the country but there are no information about their vectors in Iran. Iran is malaria elimination phase. Insecticides residual spraying (IRS), distributed of insecticides long lasting treated nets (ITNs), fogging, release of larvivours fishes and Bacillus thuringiensis, chemical larviciding, as well as case finding and manipulation and modification of breeding places carried out thought the IVM program in the country. Prolonged exposure to insecticides over several generations of the vectors, develop resistance, a capacity to survive contact with insecticides. However, use of insecticides in agriculture has often been implicated as contributing to resistance in mosquito’s vectors. Resistance of mosquitoes to some insecticides has been documented just within a few years after the insecticides were introduced. Some enzymes such as monooxygenases, esterases and glutathione S-transferases have been considered as a reason for resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. In conclusion, regarding to documented resistance and tolerance of mosquitoes vectors to some insecticides, resistance management is suggested by using new insecticide with novel mode of action.

Keywords: control, Iran, resistance, vector

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
3908 Selection Effects on the Molecular and Abiotic Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

Authors: Abishek Rajkumar

Abstract:

Antibiotic resistance can occur naturally given the selective pressure placed on antibiotics. Within a large population of bacteria, there is a significant chance that some of those bacteria can develop resistance via mutations or genetic recombination. However, a growing public health concern has arisen over the fact that antibiotic resistance has increased significantly over the past few decades. This is because humans have been over-consuming and producing antibiotics, which has ultimately accelerated the antibiotic resistance seen in these bacteria. The product of all of this is an ongoing race between scientists and the bacteria as bacteria continue to develop resistance, which creates even more demand for an antibiotic that can still terminate the newly resistant strain of bacteria. This paper will focus on a myriad of aspects of antibiotic resistance in bacteria starting with how it occurs on a molecular level and then focusing on the antibiotic concentrations and how they affect the resistance and fitness seen in bacteria.

Keywords: antibiotic, molecular, mutation, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
3907 Dynamic Thin Film Morphology near the Contact Line of a Condensing Droplet: Nanoscale Resolution

Authors: Abbasali Abouei Mehrizi, Hao Wang

Abstract:

The thin film region is so important in heat transfer process due to its low thermal resistance. On the other hand, the dynamic contact angle is crucial boundary condition in numerical simulations. While different modeling contains different assumption of the microscopic contact angle, none of them has experimental evidence for their assumption, and the contact line movement mechanism still remains vague. The experimental investigation in complete wetting is more popular than partial wetting, especially in nanoscale resolution when there is sharp variation in thin film profile in partial wetting. In the present study, an experimental investigation of water film morphology near the triple phase contact line during the condensation is performed. The state-of-the-art tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) was used to get the high-resolution film profile goes down to 2 nm from the contact line. The droplet was put in saturated chamber. The pristine silicon wafer was used as a smooth substrate. The substrate was heated by PI film heater. So the chamber would be over saturated by droplet evaporation. By turning off the heater, water vapor gradually started condensing on the droplet and the droplet advanced. The advancing speed was less than 20 nm/s. The dominant results indicate that in contrast to nonvolatile liquid, the film profile goes down straightly to the surface till 2 nm from the substrate. However, small bending has been observed below 20 nm, occasionally. So, it can be claimed that for the low condensation rate the microscopic contact angle equals to the optically detectable macroscopic contact angle. This result can be used to simplify the heat transfer modeling in partial wetting. The experimental result of the equality of microscopic and macroscopic contact angle can be used as a solid evidence for using this boundary condition in numerical simulation.

Keywords: advancing, condensation, microscopic contact angle, partial wetting

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3906 Development of 25A-Size Three-Layer Metal Gasket by Using FEM Simulation

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, I Made Gatot Karohika, Akinori Sato, Didik Nurhadiyanto, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

Contact width and contact stress are important design parameters for optimizing corrugated metal gasket performance based on elastic and plastic contact stress. In this study, we used a three-layer metal gasket with Al, Cu, Ni as the outer layer, respectively. A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution. The gasket model was simulated by using two simulation stages which are forming and tightening simulation. The simulation result shows that aluminum with tangent modulus, Ehal = Eal/150 has the highest slope for contact width. The slope of contact width for plastic mode gasket was higher than the elastic mode gasket.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
3905 Bacterial Diversity and Antibiotic Resistance in Coastal Sediments of Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea

Authors: Ilknur Tuncer, Nihayet Bizsel

Abstract:

The scarcity of research in bacterial diversity and antimicrobial resistance in coastal environments as in Turkish coasts leads to difficulties in developing efficient monitoring and management programs. In the present study, biogeochemical analysis of sediments and antimicrobial susceptibility analysis of bacteria in Izmir Bay, eastern Aegean Sea under high anthropogenic pressure were aimed in summer period when anthropogenic input was maximum and at intertidal zone where the first terrigenious contact occurred for aquatic environment. Geochemical content of the intertidal zone of Izmir Bay was firstly illustrated such that total and organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents were high and the grain size distribution varied as sand and gravel. Bacterial diversity and antibiotic resistance were also firstly given for Izmir Bay. Antimicrobially assayed isolates underlined the multiple resistance in the inner, middle and outer bays with overall 19% high MAR (multiple antibiotic resistance) index. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that 67 % of isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus and the rest included the families Alteromonadaceae, Bacillaceae, Exiguobacteriaceae, Halomonadaceae, Planococcaceae, and Staphylococcaceae.

Keywords: bacterial phylogeny, multiple antibiotic resistance, 16S rRNA genes, Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
3904 Modeling of Induced Voltage in Disconnected Grounded Conductor of Three-Phase Power Line

Authors: Misho Matsankov, Stoyan Petrov

Abstract:

The paper presents the methodology and the obtained mathematical models for determining the value of the grounding resistance of a disconnected conductor in a three-phase power line, for which the contact voltage is safe, by taking into account the potentials, induced by the non-disconnected phase conductors. The mathematical models have been obtained by implementing the experimental design techniques.

Keywords: contact voltage, experimental design, induced voltage, safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
3903 Laser Welding Technique Effect for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Application

Authors: Chih-Chia Lin, Ching-Ying Huang, Cheng-Hong Liu, Wen-Lin Wang

Abstract:

A complete fuel cell stack comprises several single cells with end plates, bipolar plates, gaskets and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components. Electrons generated from cells are conducted through bipolar plates. The amount of cells' components increases as the stack voltage increases, complicating the fuel cell assembly process and mass production. Stack assembly error influence cell performance. PEM fuel cell stack importing laser welding technique could eliminate transverse deformation between bipolar plates to promote stress uniformity of cell components as bipolar plates and MEA. Simultaneously, bipolar plates were melted together using laser welding to decrease interface resistance. A series of experiments as through-plan and in-plan resistance measurement test was conducted to observe the laser welding effect. The result showed that the through-plane resistance with laser welding was a drop of 97.5-97.6% when the contact pressure was about 1MPa to 3 MPa, and the in-plane resistance was not significantly different for laser welding.

Keywords: PEM fuel cell, laser welding, through-plan, in-plan, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
3902 Scaling Analysis of the Contact Line and Capillary Interaction Induced by a Floating Tilted Cylinder

Authors: ShiQing Gao, XingYi Zhang, YouHe Zhou

Abstract:

When a floating tilted cylinder pierces a fluid interface, the fulfilment of constant-contact-angle condition along the cylinder results in shift, stretch and distortion of the contact line, thus leading to a capillary interaction. We perform an investigation of the scaling dependence of tilt angle, contact angle, and cylinder radius on the contact line profile and the corresponding capillary interaction by numerical simulation and experiment. Characterized by three characteristic parameters respectively, the dependences for each deformation mode are systematically analyzed. Both the experiment and simulation reveals an invariant structure that is independent of contact angle and radius to characterize the stretch of the contact line for every tilted case. Based on this observation, we then propose a general capillary force scaling law to incredibly grasp all the simulated results, by simply approximating the contact line profile as tilted ellipse.

Keywords: gas-liquid/liquid-fluid interface, colloidal particle, contact line shape, capillary interaction, surface evolver (SE)

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
3901 Social Contact Patterns among School-Age Children in Taiwan

Authors: Dih Ling Luh, Zhi Shih You, Szu Chieh Chen

Abstract:

Social contact patterns among school-age children play an important role in the epidemiology of infectious disease. Since many of the greatest threats to human health are spread by direct person-to-person contact, understanding the spread of respiratory pathogens and patterns of human interactions are public health priorities. This study used social contact diaries to compare the number of contacts per day per participant across different flu/non-flu seasons and weekend/weekday. We also present contact properties such as sex, age, masking, setting, frequency, duration, and contact types among school-age children (grades 7–8). The sample size with pair-wise comparisons for the seasons (flu/non-flu) and stratification by location were 54 and 83, respectively. There was no difference in the number of contacts during the flu and non-flu seasons, with averages of 16.3 (S.D. = 12.9) and 14.6 (S.D. = 9.5) people, respectively. Weekdays were associated with 23% and 28% more contacts than weekend days during the non-flu and flu seasons, respectively (p < 0.001) (Wilcoxon signed-rank test).

Keywords: contact patterns, behavior, influenza, social mixing

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
3900 The Influence of Contact Models on Discrete Element Modeling of the Ballast Layer Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: Peyman Aela, Lu Zong, Guoqing Jing

Abstract:

Recently, there has been growing interest in numerical modeling of ballast railway tracks. A commonly used mechanistic modeling approach for ballast is the discrete element method (DEM). Up to now, the effects of the contact model on ballast particle behavior have not been precisely examined. In this regard, selecting the appropriate contact model is mainly associated with the particle characteristics and the loading condition. Since ballast is cohesionless material, different contact models, including the linear spring, Hertz-Mindlin, and Hysteretic models, could be used to calculate particle-particle or wall-particle contact forces. Moreover, the simulation of a dynamic test is vital to investigate the effect of damping parameters on the ballast deformation. In this study, ballast box tests were simulated by DEM to examine the influence of different contact models on the mechanical behavior of the ballast layer under cyclic loading. This paper shows how the contact model can affect the deformation and damping of a ballast layer subjected to cyclic loading in a ballast box.

Keywords: ballast, contact model, cyclic loading, DEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
3899 Influence of Stacking Sequence and Temperature on Buckling Resistance of GFRP Infill Panel

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, SeungHyun Kim, JungKyu Choi, WooYoung Jung

Abstract:

Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) is a major evolution for energy dissipation when used as infill material for seismic retrofitting of steel frame, a basic PMC infill wall system consists of two GFRP laminates surrounding an infill of foam core. This paper presents numerical analysis in terms of buckling resistance of GFRP sandwich infill panels system under the influence of environment temperature and stacking sequence of laminate skin. Mode of failure under in-plane compression is studied by means of numerical analysis with ABAQUS platform. Parameters considered in this study are contact length between infill and frame, laminate stacking sequence of GFRP skin and variation of mechanical properties due to increment of temperature. The analysis is done with four cases of simple stacking sequence over a range of temperature. The result showed that both the effect of temperature and stacking sequence alter the performance of entire panel system. The rises of temperature resulted in the decrements of the panel’s strength. This is due to the polymeric nature of this material. Additionally, the contact length also displays the effect on the performance of infill panel. Furthermore, the laminate stiffness can be modified by orientation of laminate, which can increase the infill panel strength. Hence, optimal performance of the entire panel system can be obtained by comparing different cases of stacking sequence.

Keywords: buckling resistance, GFRP infill panel, stacking sequence, temperature dependent

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
3898 Challenges and Insights by Electrical Characterization of Large Area Graphene Layers

Authors: Marcus Klein, Martina GrießBach, Richard Kupke

Abstract:

The current advances in the research and manufacturing of large area graphene layers are promising towards the introduction of this exciting material in the display industry and other applications that benefit from excellent electrical and optical characteristics. New production technologies in the fabrication of flexible displays, touch screens or printed electronics apply graphene layers on non-metal substrates and bring new challenges to the required metrology. Traditional measurement concepts of layer thickness, sheet resistance, and layer uniformity, are difficult to apply to graphene production processes and are often harmful to the product layer. New non-contact sensor concepts are required to adapt to the challenges and even the foreseeable inline production of large area graphene. Dedicated non-contact measurement sensors are a pioneering method to leverage these issues in a large variety of applications, while significantly lowering the costs of development and process setup. Transferred and printed graphene layers can be characterized with high accuracy in a huge measurement range using a very high resolution. Large area graphene mappings are applied for process optimization and for efficient quality control for transfer, doping, annealing and stacking processes. Examples of doped, defected and excellent Graphene are presented as quality images and implications for manufacturers are explained.

Keywords: graphene, doping and defect testing, non-contact sheet resistance measurement, inline metrology

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
3897 The Contact Behaviors of Seals Under Combined Normal and Tangential Loading: A Multiscale Finite Element Contact Analysis

Authors: Runliang Wang, Jianhua Liu, Duo Jia, Xiaoyu Ding

Abstract:

The contact between sealing surfaces plays a vital role in guaranteeing the sealing performance of various seals. To date, analyses of sealing structures have rarely considered both structural parameters (macroscale) and surface roughness information (microscale) of sealing surfaces due to the complex modeling process. Meanwhile, most of the contact analyses applied to seals were conducted only under normal loading, which still existssome distance from real loading conditions in engineering. In this paper, a multiscale rough contact model, which took both macrostructural parameters of seals and surface roughness information of sealing surfaces into consideration for the cone-cone seal, was established. By using the finite element method (FEM), the combined normal and tangential loading was applied to the model to simulate the assembly process of the cone-cone seal. The evolution of the contact behaviors during the assembly process, such as the real contact area (RCA), the distribution of contact pressure, and contact status, are studied in detail. The results showed the non-linear relationship between the RCA and the load, which was different from the normal loading cases. In addition, the evolution of the real contact area of cone-cone seals with isotropic and anisotropic rough surfaces are also compared quantitatively.

Keywords: contact mechanics, FEM, randomly rough surface, real contact area, sealing

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
3896 Two-Dimensional Seismic Response of Concrete Gravity Dams Including Base Sliding

Authors: Djamel Ouzandja, Boualem Tiliouine

Abstract:

The safety evaluation of the concrete gravity dams subjected to seismic excitations is really very complex as the earthquake response of the concrete gravity dam depends upon its contraction joints with foundation soil. This paper presents the seismic response of concrete gravity dams considering friction contact and welded contact. Friction contact is provided using contact elements. Two-dimensional (2D) finite element model of Oued Fodda concrete gravity dam, located in Chlef at the west of Algeria, is used for this purpose. Linear and nonlinear analyses considering dam-foundation soil interaction are performed using ANSYS software. The reservoir water is modeled as added mass using the Westergaard approach. The Drucker-Prager model is preferred for dam and foundation rock in nonlinear analyses. The surface-to-surface contact elements based on the Coulomb's friction law are used to describe the friction. These contact elements use a target surface and a contact surface to form a contact pair. According to this study, the seismic analysis of concrete gravity dams including base sliding. When the friction contact is considered in joints, the base sliding displacement occurs along the dam-foundation soil contact interface. Besides, the base sliding may generally decrease the principal stresses in the dam.

Keywords: concrete gravity dam, dynamic soil-structure interaction, friction contact, sliding

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
3895 Four-Week Plyometric and Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Sprint Performance in Wheelchair Racing Athletes

Authors: K. Thawichai, R. Pornthep

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a four week training period of combined plyometric and resistance training or resistance training alone on muscle strength and sprint performance in wheelchair racing athletes. The participants were sixteen healthy male wheelchair racing athletes of the Thai national team. All participants were randomly assignments into two groups in the plyometric and resistance training group (n = 8) performed plyometric exercises followed by resistance training, whereas the resistance training group (n = 8) performed static stretching and the same resistance training program. At baseline and after training all participants were tested on 1-RM bench press for muscle strength and 100-m cycling sprint performance. The results of this study show that the plyometric and resistance training group made significantly greater improvements in overall muscle strength and sprint performance than the resistance training group following training. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the addition of a four week plyometric and resistance training program more beneficial than resistance training alone on muscle strength and sprint performance in wheelchair racing athletes.

Keywords: plyometric, resistance training, strength, sprint, wheelchair athletes

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
3894 Cable Diameter Effect on the Contact Temperature of Power Automotive Connector

Authors: Amine Beloufa, Mohamed Amirat

Abstract:

In the electric vehicle, high power leads to high current; automotive power connector should resist to this high current in order to avoid a serious damage caused by the increase of contact temperature. The purpose of this paper is to analyze experimentally and numerically the effect of the cable diameter variation on the decrease of contact temperature. For this reason, a finite element model was developed to calculate the numerical contact temperature for several cable diameters and several electrical high currents. Also, experimental tests were established in order to validate this numerical model. Results show that the influence of cable diameter on the contact temperature is never neglected.

Keywords: contact temperature, experimental test, finite element, power automotive connector

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
3893 Electrical Characterization of Hg/n-bulk GaN Schottky Diode

Authors: B. Nabil, O. Zahir, R. Abdelaziz

Abstract:

We present the results of electrical characterizations current-voltage and capacity-voltage implementation of a method of making a Schottky diode on bulk gallium nitride doped n. We made temporary Schottky contact of Mercury (Hg) and an ohmic contact of silver (Ag), the electrical characterizations current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) allows us to determine the difference parameters of our structure (Hg /n-GaN) as the barrier height (ΦB), the ideality factor (n), the series resistor (Rs), the voltage distribution (Vd), the doping of the substrate (Nd) and density of interface states (Nss).

Keywords: Bulk Gallium nitride, electrical characterization, Schottky diode, series resistance, substrate doping

Procedia PDF Downloads 384