Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Nazmi Ekren

8 Process Optimization of Electrospun Fish Sarcoplasmic Protein Based Nanofibers

Authors: Sena Su, Burak Ozbek, Yesim M. Sahin, Sevil Yucel, Dilek Kazan, Faik N. Oktar, Nazmi Ekren, Oguzhan Gunduz

Abstract:

In recent years, protein, lipid or polysaccharide-based polymers have been used in order to develop biodegradable materials and their chemical nature determines the physical properties of the resulting films. Among these polymers, proteins from different sources have been extensively employed because of their relative abundance, film forming ability, and nutritional qualities. In this study, the biodegradable composite nanofiber films based on fish sarcoplasmic protein (FSP) were prepared via electrospinning technique. Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) was blended with the FSP to obtain hybrid FSP/PCL nanofiber mats with desirable physical properties. Mixture solutions of FSP and PCL were produced at different concentrations and their density, viscosity, electrical conductivity and surface tension were measured. Mechanical properties of electrospun nanofibers were evaluated. Morphology of composite nanofibers was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) studies were used for analysis chemical composition of composite nanofibers. This study revealed that the FSP based nanofibers have the potential to be used for different applications such as biodegradable packaging, drug delivery, and wound dressing, etc.

Keywords: edible film, electrospinning, fish sarcoplasmic protein, nanofiber

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7 Investigation of Electrospun Composites Nanofiber of Poly (Lactic Acid)/Hazelnut Shell Powder/Zinc Oxide

Authors: Ibrahim Sengor, Sumeyye Cesur, Ilyas Kartal, Faik Nuzhet Oktar, Nazmi Ekren, Ahmet Talat Inan, Oguzhan Gunduz

Abstract:

In recent years, many researchers focused on nano-size fiber production. Nanofibers have been studied due to their different and superior physical, chemical and mechanical properties. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA), is a type of biodegradable thermoplastic polyester derived from renewable sources used in biomedical owing to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. In addition, zinc oxide is an antibacterial material and hazelnut shell powder is a filling material. In this study, nanofibers were obtained by adding of different ratio Zinc oxide, (ZnO) and hazelnut shell powder at different concentration into Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) by using electrospinning method which is the most common method to obtain nanofibers. After dissolving the granulated polylactic acids in % 1,% 2,% 3 and% 4 with chloroform solvent, they are homogenized by adding tween and hazelnut shell powder at different ratios and then by electrospinning, nanofibers are obtained. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and physical analysis such as density, electrical conductivity, surface tension, viscosity measurement and antimicrobial test were carried out after production process. The resulting structures of the nanofiber possess antimicrobial and antiseptic properties, which are attractive for biomedical applications. The resulting structures of the nanofiber possess antimicrobial, non toxic, self-cleaning and rigid properties, which are attractive for biomedical applications.

Keywords: electrospinning, hazelnut shell powder, nanofibers, poly (lactic acid), zinc oxide

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6 Evaluation of Non-Destructive Application to Detect Pesticide Residue on Leaf Mustard Using Spectroscopic Method

Authors: Nazmi Mat Nawi, Muhamad Najib Mohamad Nor, Che Dini Maryani Ishkandar

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of spectroscopic methods to detect the presence of pesticide residues on leaf mustard. A total of 105 leaf mustard used were divided into five batches, four batches were treated with four different types of pesticides whereas one batch with no pesticide applied. Spectral data were obtained using visible shortwave near infrared spectrometer (VSWNIRS) which is Ocean Optics HR4000 High-resolution Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer. Reflectance value was collected to determine the difference between one pesticide to the other. The obtained spectral data were pre-processed for optimum performance. The effective wavelength of approximate 880 nm, 675-710 nm also 550 and 700 nm indicates the overtones -CH stretching vibration, tannin, also chlorophyll content present in the leaf mustard respectively. This study has successfully demonstrated that the spectroscopic method was able to differentiate between leaf mustard sample with and without pesticide residue.

Keywords: detect, leaf mustard, non-destructive, pesticide residue

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5 To Study the Effect of Drying Temperature Towards Extraction of Aquilaria subintegra Dry Leaves Using Vacuum Far Infrared

Authors: Tengku Muhammad Rafi Nazmi Bin Tengku Razali, Habsah Alwi

Abstract:

This article based on effect of temperature towards extraction of Aquilaria Subintegra. Aquilaria Subintegra which its main habitat is in Asia-tropical and particularly often found in its native which is Thailand. There is claim which is Aquilaria Subintegra contains antipyretic properties that helps fight fever. Research nowadays also shown that paracetamol consumed bring bad effect towards consumers. This sample will first dry using Vacuum Far Infrared which provides better drying than conventional oven. Soxhlet extractor used to extract oil from sample. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer used to analyze sample to determine its compound. Objective from this research was to determine the active ingredients that exist in the Aquilaria Subintegra leaves and to determine whether compound of Acetaminophen exist or not inside the leaves. Moisture content from 400C was 80%, 500C was 620% and 600C was 36%. The greater temperature resulting lower moisture content inside sample leaves. 7 components were identified in sample T=400C while only 5 components were identified in sample at T=50C and T=60C. Four components were commonly identified in three sample which is 1n-Hexadecanoic acid, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester (z,z,z), Vitamin E and Squalene. Further studies are needed with new series of temperature to refine the best results.

Keywords: aquilaria subintegra, vacuum far infrared, SOXHLET extractor, gas chromatography mass spectrometer, paracetamol

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4 Crystallized Colored Towels Obtained by Special Coloration of Yarns

Authors: Hasan Eskin, Gizem Özmen, A. Nazmi Çeler

Abstract:

When we examine the home textile development process, it follows a parallel line with the other textile products especially in the garment fabrics in terms of raw materials, production technologies and pattern characteristics. As a result, the expectations of people regarding textile, comfort, pattern (texture) and color properties are increasing. One of the places where comfort is most sought after is bath, pool, sea and baths. In addition to the material and technique that make up the physical structure in woven fabrics, color has an impressive importance with its strong effects. Color is the most prominent element in the fabric, and the color and texture are visually reinforcing. Evaluation of color in fabric is a personal phenomenon. Factors that determine color determination in fabric are the amount of color used, color ratio and its relationship with other colors. In this project; Considering the effect of color dimensions on human, we are talking about the crystallized colored towel that we developed in terms of comfort and texture properties. The basis of the effect created in the towel; It is formed by bending the yarn from its own special blend and the harmonious appearance of the natural crystallized rainbow colors with the pattern effect it determines on the warp yarns by using the weft yarns in the weaving. In addition, by using different weaving techniques and colors, alternatives can be created and personalized patterns can be created. One side of the towel determines the properties related to color, while the pile part determines the comfort characteristics with its soft touch and water absorbency.

Keywords: color effect, comfort, towel, weaving technique

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3 Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Calpain1 Gene and Meat Tenderness Traits in Different Genotypes of Chicken: Malaysian Native and Commercial Broiler Line

Authors: Abtehal Y. Anaas, Mohd. Nazmi Bin Abd. Manap

Abstract:

Meat Tenderness is one of the most important factors affecting consumers' assessment of meat quality. Variation in meat tenderness is genetically controlled and varies among breeds, and it is also influenced by environmental factors that can affect its creation during rigor mortis and postmortem. The final postmortem meat tenderization relies on the extent of proteolysis of myofibrillar proteins caused by the endogenous activity of the proteolytic calpain system. This calpain system includes different calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, and an inhibitor, calpastatin. It is widely accepted that in farm animals including chickens, the μ-calpain gene (CAPN1) is a physiological candidate gene for meat tenderness. This study aimed to identify the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the CAPN1 gene with the tenderness of chicken breast meat from two Malaysian native and commercial broiler breed crosses. Ten, five months old native chickens and ten, 42 days commercial broilers were collected from the local market and breast muscles were removed two hours after slaughter, packed separately in plastic bags and kept at -20ºC for 24 h. The tenderness phenotype for all chickens’ breast meats was determined by Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF). Thawing and cooking losses were also measured in the same breast samples before using in WBSF determination. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify the previously reported C7198A and G9950A SNPs in the CAPN1 gene and assess their associations with meat tenderness in the two breeds. The broiler breast meat showed lower shear force values and lower thawing loss rates than the native chickens (p<0.05), whereas there were similar in the rates of cooking loss. The study confirms some previous results that the markers CAPN1 C7198A and G9950A were not significantly associated with the variation in meat tenderness in chickens. Therefore, further study is needed to confirm the functional molecular mechanism of these SNPs and evaluate their associations in different chicken populations.

Keywords: CAPNl, chicken, meat tenderness, meat quality, SNPs

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2 Legal Provisions on Child Pornography in Bangladesh: A Comparative Study on South Asian Landscape

Authors: Monira Nazmi Jahan, Nusrat Jahan Nishat

Abstract:

'Child Pornography' is a sex crime that portrays illegal images and videos of a minor over the Internet and now has become a social concern with the increase of commission of this crime. The major objective of this paper is to identify and examine the laws relating to child pornography in Bangladesh and to compare this with other South Asian countries. In Bangladesh to prosecute under child pornography, provisions have been made in ‘Digital Security Act, 2018’ where it has been defined as involving child in areas of child sexuality or in sexuality and whoever commits the crime will be punished for 10 years imprisonment or 10 lac taka fine. In India, the crime is dealt with ‘The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012’ (POSCO) where the offenders for commission of this crime has been divided separately and has provision for punishments starting from three years to rigorous life imprisonment and shall also be liable to fine. In the Maldives, there is ‘Special Provisions Act to Deal with Child Sex Abuse Offenders, Act number 12/2009’. In this act it has been provided that a person is guilty of such an act if intentionally runs child prostitution, involves child in the creation of pornography or displays child’s sexual organ in pornography then shall be punished between 20 to 25 years of imprisonment. Nepal prosecutes this crime through ‘Act Relating to Children, 2018’ and the conviction of using child in prostitution or sexual services is imprisonment up to fifteen years and fine up to one hundred fifty thousand rupees. In Pakistan, child pornography is prosecuted with ‘Pakistan Penal Code Child Abuse Amendment Act, 2016’. This provides that one is guilty of this offence if he involves child with or without consent in such activities. It provides punishment for two to seven years of imprisonment or fine from two hundred thousand to seven hundred thousand rupees. In Bhutan child pornography is not explicitly addressed under the municipal laws. The Penal Code of Bhutan penalizes all kinds of pornography including child pornography under the provisions of computer pornography and the offence shall be a misdemeanor. Child Pornography is also prohibited under the ‘Child Care and Protection Act’. In Sri Lanka, ‘The Penal Code’ de facto criminalizes child prohibition and has a penalty of two to ten years and may also be liable to fine. The most shocking scenario exists in Afghanistan. There is no specific law for the protection of children from pornography, whereas this serious crime is present there. This paper will be conducted through a qualitative research method that is, the primary sources will be laws, and secondary sources will be journal articles and newspapers. The conclusion that can be drawn is except Afghanistan all other South Asian countries have laws for controlling this crime but still have loopholes. India has the most amended provisions. Nepal has no provision for fine, and Bhutan does not mention any specific punishment. Bangladesh compared to these countries, has a good piece of law; however, it also has space to broaden the laws for controlling child pornography.

Keywords: child abuse, child pornography, life imprisonment, penal code, South Asian countries

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1 Examining Child Rape Provisions of Bangladesh in Comparison with Other South Asian Countries

Authors: Monira Nazmi Jahan

Abstract:

Child rape or child abuse is a serious and fearsome crime against children, which is an epidemic almost in every state of today’s world. However, in the case of Bangladesh, the scenario is terrifying. The objective of this paper is to examine the laws relating to child rape in Bangladesh as according to a renowned Daily Newspaper 'Prothom Alo', nearly 346 children are being raped since January 2019. This paper discusses and draws the difference of child rape provisions of Bangladesh with other South-Asian countries, comprises of India, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, and Afghanistan. In Bangladesh, girls below 18 years are considered to be a child. ‘The Penal Code, 1860’ and a special law ‘Nari O Shishu Nirjatan Daman Ain, 2012’ provides that any person committing child rape will be punished with rigorous life imprisonment and fine. This piece of law also gives provisions for punishment in case of child’s death after the commission of rape and gang rape, and the punishment is the death penalty. In India there is ‘The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012’ (POSCO) which has separate provisions for sexual assault, penetrative sexual assault and aggravated penetrative sexual assault by different categories of person such as relatives, institutional officers and trustees and also for mentally and physically challenged child victims and provides punishment up to death penalty. In Pakistan, there is ‘Pakistan Penal Code Amended Act, 2016’ which has only two provisions for child rape. In case offence committed by one person, the punishment is 10 to 25 years of imprisonment and fine. In case of offence committed by two or more persons, each shall be liable to death or imprisonment for life. Unfortunately, Afghanistan has no laws for the protection of rape victims of women let alone children, whereas there are a lot of child rape cases, including both girls and boys who are used for sexual slavery. The Maldives has a special law named ‘Special Provisions Act to Deal with Child Sex Abuse Offenders.’ This has categorized the offenders like POSCO and has provided punishments accordingly. The punishments are: punishments range from 1 to 25 years accordingly, whereas Bangladesh has lesser provisions, but the gravity and duration of punishments are much higher. The Penal Code of Sri Lanka imposes a minimum sentence of 10 years for those convicted of raping a child under 18 years. In Bhutan, child rape provision is made according to the age of a child. ‘The Penal Code of Bhutan, 2004’, mentions provisions for the rape of a child in case of child rape below and above 12 years, gang rape of a child below and above 12 years and has graded the punishments as first, second and third degree. Though Bangladesh has better provisions for punishments, the ages are not categorized in the laws. In Nepal there is ‘Act relating to Children, 2018’ provisions are made for offenders who use or cause or engage child sexual exploitation, and the punishment is same for rape offenders according to prevailing laws in Nepal. No separate punishments for child offenders are made. The ultimate conclusion that can be drawn is Bangladesh has better punishments than all other South-Asian countries and same punishment as India however, Bangladesh can make or amend the laws and categorize offenders as like POSCO of India, Special provisions of Maldives and Bhutan.

Keywords: child rape, death penalty, sexual slavery, South Asia

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