Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 149

Search results for: Ontology

149 Constructing a Probabilistic Ontology from a DBLP Data

Authors: Emna Hlel, Salma Jamousi, Abdelmajid Ben Hamadou

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Every model for knowledge representation to model real-world applications must be able to cope with the effects of uncertain phenomena. One of main defects of classical ontology is its inability to represent and reason with uncertainty. To remedy this defect, we try to propose a method to construct probabilistic ontology for integrating uncertain information in an ontology modeling a set of basic publications DBLP (Digital Bibliography & Library Project) using a probabilistic model.

Keywords: classical ontology, probabilistic ontology, uncertainty, Bayesian network

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148 Development of Fuzzy Logic Control Ontology for E-Learning

Authors: Muhammad Sollehhuddin A. Jalil, Mohd Ibrahim Shapiai, Rubiyah Yusof

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Nowadays, ontology is common in many areas like artificial intelligence, bioinformatics, e-commerce, education and many more. Ontology is one of the focus areas in the field of Information Retrieval. The purpose of an ontology is to describe a conceptual representation of concepts and their relationships within a particular domain. In other words, ontology provides a common vocabulary for anyone who needs to share information in the domain. There are several ontology domains in various fields including engineering and non-engineering knowledge. However, there are only a few available ontology for engineering knowledge. Fuzzy logic as engineering knowledge is still not available as ontology domain. In general, fuzzy logic requires step-by-step guidelines and instructions of lab experiments. In this study, we presented domain ontology for Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) knowledge. We give Table of Content (ToC) with middle strategy based on the Uschold and King method to develop FLC ontology. The proposed framework is developed using Protégé as the ontology tool. The Protégé’s ontology reasoner, known as the Pellet reasoner is then used to validate the presented framework. The presented framework offers better performance based on consistency and classification parameter index. In general, this ontology can provide a platform to anyone who needs to understand FLC knowledge.

Keywords: engineering knowledge, fuzzy logic control ontology, ontology development, table of content

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147 Software Architectural Design Ontology

Authors: Muhammad Irfan Marwat, Sadaqat Jan, Syed Zafar Ali Shah

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Software architecture plays a key role in software development but absence of formal description of software architecture causes different impede in software development. To cope with these difficulties, ontology has been used as artifact. This paper proposes ontology for software architectural design based on IEEE model for architecture description and Kruchten 4+1 model for viewpoints classification. For categorization of style and views, ISO/IEC 42010 has been used. Corpus method has been used to evaluate ontology. The main aim of the proposed ontology is to classify and locate software architectural design information.

Keywords: semantic-based software architecture, software architecture, ontology, software engineering

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146 A Study of Various Ontology Learning Systems from Text and a Look into Future

Authors: Fatima Al-Aswadi, Chan Yong

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With the large volume of unstructured data that increases day by day on the web, the motivation of representing the knowledge in this data in the machine processable form is increased. Ontology is one of the major cornerstones of representing the information in a more meaningful way on the semantic Web. The goal of Ontology learning from text is to elicit and represent domain knowledge in the machine readable form. This paper aims to give a follow-up review on the ontology learning systems from text and some of their defects. Furthermore, it discusses how far the ontology learning process will enhance in the future.

Keywords: concept discovery, deep learning, ontology learning, semantic relation, semantic web

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145 Development of the Ontology of Engineering Design Complexity

Authors: Victor E. Lopez, L. Dale Thomas

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As engineered systems become more complex, the difficulty associated with predicting, developing, and operating engineered systems also increases, resulting in increased costs, failure rates, and unexpected consequences. Successfully managing the complexity of the system should reduce these negative consequences. The study of complexity in the context of engineering development has suffered due to the ambiguity of the nature of complexity, what makes a system complex and how complexity translates to real world engineering attributes and consequences. This paper argues that the use of an ontology of engineering design complexity would i) improve the clarity of the research being performed by allowing researchers to use a common conceptualization of complexity, with more precise terminology, and ii) elucidate the connections between certain types of complexity and their consequences for system development. The ontology comprises concepts of complexity found in the literature and the different relations that exists between them. The ontology maps different complexity concepts such as structural complexity, creation complexity, and information entropy, and then relates the to system aspects such as interfaces, development effort, and modularity. The ontology is represented using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). This paper presents the current status of the ontology of engineering design complexity, the main challenges encountered, and the future plans for the ontology.

Keywords: design complexity, ontology, design effort, complexity ontology

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144 A Description Logics Based Approach for Building Multi-Viewpoints Ontologies

Authors: M. Hemam, M. Djezzar, T. Djouad

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We are interested in the problem of building an ontology in a heterogeneous organization, by taking into account different viewpoints and different terminologies of communities in the organization. Such ontology, that we call multi-viewpoint ontology, confers to the same universe of discourse, several partial descriptions, where each one is relative to a particular viewpoint. In addition, these partial descriptions share at global level, ontological elements constituent a consensus between the various viewpoints. In order to provide response elements to this problem we define a multi-viewpoints knowledge model based on viewpoint and ontology notions. The multi-viewpoints knowledge model is used to formalize the multi-viewpoints ontology in description logics language.

Keywords: description logic, knowledge engineering, ontology, viewpoint

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143 Ontology-Based Representation of Islamic Rules to Perform Salah

Authors: Hamza Zafar, Quratulain Rajput

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Salah (نماز ) is one of five pillars of Islam and obligatory for every Muslims. However, due to the lack of Islamic knowledge it might be very difficult for a layperson to perform it correctly. This paper presents an ontology based representation of Islamic rules to perform Salah. The Salah ontology has been built under the guidance of domain expert in light of Quran and Hadith. The ontology consists of basic concepts as well as relationship among concepts and constraints on them. The basic concepts include cleanness, body cover, Salah timing and steps to perform Salah. The SWRL rule language has been used to represent rule to determine whether the Salah performed correctly or it should be repeated. Finally, we evaluate the use of the Salat ontology through user’s example queries using SPARQL queries.

Keywords: prayer, salah, ontology, SPARQL queries, reasoning

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142 An Ontology for Semantic Enrichment of RFID Systems

Authors: Haitham S. Hamza, Mohamed Maher, Shourok Alaa, Aya Khattab, Hadeal Ismail, Kamilia Hosny

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Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has become a key technology in the margining concept of Internet of Things (IoT). Naturally, business applications would require the deployment of various RFID systems that are developed by different vendors and use various data formats. This heterogeneity poses a real challenge in developing large-scale IoT systems with RFID as integration is becoming very complex and challenging. Semantic integration is a key approach to deal with this challenge. To do so, ontology for RFID systems need to be developed in order to annotated semantically RFID systems, and hence, facilitate their integration. Accordingly, in this paper, we propose ontology for RFID systems. The proposed ontology can be used to semantically enrich RFID systems, and hence, improve their usage and reasoning. The usage of the proposed ontology is explained through a simple scenario in the health care domain.

Keywords: RFID, semantic technology, ontology, sparql query language, heterogeneity

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141 Consolidating Service Engineering Ontologies Building Service Ontology from SOA Modeling Language (SoaML)

Authors: Purnomo Yustianto, Robin Doss, Suhardi, Novianto Budi Kurniawan

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As a term for characterizing a process of devising a service system, the term ‘service engineering’ is still regarded as an ‘open’ research challenge due to unspecified details and conflicting perspectives. This paper presents consolidated service engineering ontologies in collecting, specifying and defining relationship between components pertinent within the context of service engineering. The ontologies are built by way of literature surveys from the collected conceptual works by collating various concepts into an integrated ontology. Two ontologies are produced: general service ontology and software service ontology. The software-service ontology is drawn from the informatics domain, while the generalized ontology of a service system is built from both a business management and the information system perspective. The produced ontologies are verified by exercising conceptual operationalizations of the ontologies in adopting several service orientation features and service system patterns. The proposed ontologies are demonstrated to be sufficient to serve as a basis for a service engineering framework.

Keywords: engineering, ontology, service, SoaML

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140 Ontology-Driven Generation of Radiation Protection Procedures

Authors: Chamseddine Barki, Salam Labidi, Hanen Boussi Rahmouni

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In this article, we present the principle and suitable methodology for the design of a medical ontology that highlights the radiological and dosimetric knowledge, applied in diagnostic radiology and radiation-therapy. Our ontology, which we named «Onto.Rap», is the subject of radiation protection in medical and radiology centers by providing a standardized regulatory oversight. Thanks to its added values of knowledge-sharing, reuse and the ease of maintenance, this ontology tends to solve many problems. Of which we name the confusion between radiological procedures a practitioner might face while performing a patient radiological exam. Adding to it, the difficulties they might have in interpreting applicable patient radioprotection standards. Here, the ontology, thanks to its concepts simplification and expressiveness capabilities, can ensure an efficient classification of radiological procedures. It also provides an explicit representation of the relations between the different components of the studied concept. In fact, an ontology based-radioprotection expert system, when used in radiological center, could implement systematic radioprotection best practices during patient exam and a regulatory compliance service auditing afterwards.

Keywords: knowledge, ontology, radiation protection, radiology

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139 On Supporting a Meta-Design Approach in Socio-Technical Ontology Engineering

Authors: Mesnan Silalahi, Dana Indra Sensuse, Indra Budi

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Many research have revealed the fact of the complexity of ontology building process that there is a need to have a new approach which addresses the socio-technical aspects in the collaboration to reach a consensus. Meta-design approach is considered applicable as a method in the methodological model in a socio-technical ontology engineering. Principles in the meta-design framework is applied in the construction phases on the ontology. A portal is developed to support the meta-design principles requirements. To validate the methodological model semantic web applications were developed and integrated in the portal and also used as a way to show the usefulness of the ontology. The knowledge based system will be filled with data of Indonesian medicinal plants. By showing the usefulness of the developed ontology in a web semantic application, we motivate all stakeholders to participate in the development of knowledge based system of medicinal plants in Indonesia.

Keywords: socio-technical, metadesign, ontology engineering methodology, semantic web application

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138 Facility Data Model as Integration and Interoperability Platform

Authors: Nikola Tomasevic, Marko Batic, Sanja Vranes

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Emerging Semantic Web technologies can be seen as the next step in evolution of the intelligent facility management systems. Particularly, this considers increased usage of open source and/or standardized concepts for data classification and semantic interpretation. To deliver such facility management systems, providing the comprehensive integration and interoperability platform in from of the facility data model is a prerequisite. In this paper, one of the possible modelling approaches to provide such integrative facility data model which was based on the ontology modelling concept was presented. Complete ontology development process, starting from the input data acquisition, ontology concepts definition and finally ontology concepts population, was described. At the beginning, the core facility ontology was developed representing the generic facility infrastructure comprised of the common facility concepts relevant from the facility management perspective. To develop the data model of a specific facility infrastructure, first extension and then population of the core facility ontology was performed. For the development of the full-blown facility data models, Malpensa and Fiumicino airports in Italy, two major European air-traffic hubs, were chosen as a test-bed platform. Furthermore, the way how these ontology models supported the integration and interoperability of the overall airport energy management system was analyzed as well.

Keywords: airport ontology, energy management, facility data model, ontology modeling

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137 Ontology-Based Approach for Temporal Semantic Modeling of Social Networks

Authors: Souâad Boudebza, Omar Nouali, Faiçal Azouaou

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Social networks have recently gained a growing interest on the web. Traditional formalisms for representing social networks are static and suffer from the lack of semantics. In this paper, we will show how semantic web technologies can be used to model social data. The SemTemp ontology aligns and extends existing ontologies such as FOAF, SIOC, SKOS and OWL-Time to provide a temporal and semantically rich description of social data. We also present a modeling scenario to illustrate how our ontology can be used to model social networks.

Keywords: ontology, semantic web, social network, temporal modeling

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136 An Ontology for Investment in Chinese Steel Company

Authors: Liming Chen, Baoxin Xu, Zhaoyun Ding, Bin Liu, Xianqiang Zhu

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In the era of big data, public investors are faced with more complicated information related to investment decisions than ever before. To survive in the fierce competition, it has become increasingly urgent for investors to combine multi-source knowledge and evaluate the companies’ true value efficiently. For this, a rule-based ontology reasoning method is proposed to support steel companies’ value assessment. Considering the delay in financial disclosure and based on cost-benefit analysis, this paper introduces the supply chain enterprises financial analysis and constructs the ontology model used to value the value of steel company. In addition, domain knowledge is formally expressed with the help of Web Ontology Language (OWL) language and SWRL (Semantic Web Rule Language) rules. Finally, a case study on a steel company in China proved the effectiveness of the method we proposed.

Keywords: financial ontology, steel company, supply chain, ontology reasoning

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135 An Integrated Visualization Tool for Heat Map and Gene Ontology Graph

Authors: Somyung Oh, Jeonghyeon Ha, Kyungwon Lee, Sejong Oh

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Microarray is a general scheme to find differentially expressed genes for target concept. The output is expressed by heat map, and biologists analyze related terms of gene ontology to find some characteristics of differentially expressed genes. In this paper, we propose integrated visualization tool for heat map and gene ontology graph. Previous two methods are used by static manner and separated way. Proposed visualization tool integrates them and users can interactively manage it. Users may easily find and confirm related terms of gene ontology for given differentially expressed genes. Proposed tool also visualize connections between genes on heat map and gene ontology graph. We expect biologists to find new meaningful topics by proposed tool.

Keywords: heat map, gene ontology, microarray, differentially expressed gene

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134 An Ontology Model for Systems Engineering Derived from ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288: 2015: Systems and Software Engineering - System Life Cycle Processes

Authors: Lan Yang, Kathryn Cormican, Ming Yu

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ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288: 2015, Systems and Software Engineering - System Life Cycle Processes is an international standard that provides generic top-level process descriptions to support systems engineering (SE). However, the processes defined in the standard needs improvement to lift integrity and consistency. The goal of this research is to explore the way by building an ontology model for the SE standard to manage the knowledge of SE. The ontology model gives a whole picture of the SE knowledge domain by building connections between SE concepts. Moreover, it creates a hierarchical classification of the concepts to fulfil different requirements of displaying and analysing SE knowledge.

Keywords: knowledge management, model-based systems engineering, ontology modelling, systems engineering ontology

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133 Annotation Ontology for Semantic Web Development

Authors: Hadeel Al Obaidy, Amani Al Heela

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The main purpose of this paper is to examine the concept of semantic web and the role that ontology and semantic annotation plays in the development of semantic web services. The paper focuses on semantic web infrastructure illustrating how ontology and annotation work to provide the learning capabilities for building content semantically. To improve productivity and quality of software, the paper applies approaches, notations and techniques offered by software engineering. It proposes a conceptual model to develop semantic web services for the infrastructure of web information retrieval system of digital libraries. The developed system uses ontology and annotation to build a knowledge based system to define and link the meaning of a web content to retrieve information for users’ queries. The results are more relevant through keywords and ontology rule expansion that will be more accurate to satisfy the requested information. The level of results accuracy would be enhanced since the query semantically analyzed work with the conceptual architecture of the proposed system.

Keywords: semantic web services, software engineering, semantic library, knowledge representation, ontology

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132 The Use of Ontology Framework for Automation Digital Forensics Investigation

Authors: Ahmad Luthfi

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One of the main goals of a computer forensic analyst is to determine the cause and effect of the acquisition of a digital evidence in order to obtain relevant information on the case is being handled. In order to get fast and accurate results, this paper will discuss the approach known as ontology framework. This model uses a structured hierarchy of layers that create connectivity between the variant and searching investigation of activity that a computer forensic analysis activities can be carried out automatically. There are two main layers are used, namely analysis tools and operating system. By using the concept of ontology, the second layer is automatically designed to help investigator to perform the acquisition of digital evidence. The methodology of automation approach of this research is by utilizing forward chaining where the system will perform a search against investigative steps and atomically structured in accordance with the rules of the ontology.

Keywords: ontology, framework, automation, forensics

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131 Ontology as Knowledge Capture Tool in Organizations: A Literature Review

Authors: Maria Margaretha, Dana Indra Sensuse, Lukman

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Knowledge capture is a step in knowledge life cycle to get knowledge in the organization. Tacit and explicit knowledge are needed to organize in a path, so the organization will be easy to choose which knowledge will be use. There are many challenges to capture knowledge in the organization, such as researcher must know which knowledge has been validated by an expert, how to get tacit knowledge from experts and make it explicit knowledge, and so on. Besides that, the technology will be a reliable tool to help the researcher to capture knowledge. Some paper wrote how ontology in knowledge management can be used for proposed framework to capture and reuse knowledge. Organization has to manage their knowledge, process capture and share will decide their position in the business area. This paper will describe further from literature review about the tool of ontology that will help the organization to capture its knowledge.

Keywords: knowledge capture, ontology, technology, organization

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130 Ontology for Cross-Site-Scripting (XSS) Attack in Cybersecurity

Authors: Jean Rosemond Dora, Karol Nemoga

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In this work, we tackle a frequent problem that frequently occurs in the cybersecurity field which is the exploitation of websites by XSS attacks, which are nowadays considered a complicated attack. These types of attacks aim to execute malicious scripts in a web browser of the client by including code in a legitimate web page. A serious matter is when a website accepts the “user-input” option. Attackers can exploit the web application (if vulnerable), and then steal sensitive data (session cookies, passwords, credit cards, etc.) from the server and/or from the client. However, the difficulty of the exploitation varies from website to website. Our focus is on the usage of ontology in cybersecurity against XSS attacks, on the importance of the ontology, and its core meaning for cybersecurity. We explain how a vulnerable website can be exploited, and how different JavaScript payloads can be used to detect vulnerabilities. We also enumerate some tools to use for an efficient analysis. We present detailed reasoning on what can be done to improve the security of a website in order to resist attacks, and we provide supportive examples. Then, we apply an ontology model against XSS attacks to strengthen the protection of a web application. However, we note that the existence of ontology does not improve the security itself, but it has to be properly used and should require a maximum of security layers to be taken into account.

Keywords: cybersecurity, web application vulnerabilities, cyber threats, ontology model

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129 Pushing the Boundary of Parallel Tractability for Ontology Materialization via Boolean Circuits

Authors: Zhangquan Zhou, Guilin Qi

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Materialization is an important reasoning service for applications built on the Web Ontology Language (OWL). To make materialization efficient in practice, current research focuses on deciding tractability of an ontology language and designing parallel reasoning algorithms. However, some well-known large-scale ontologies, such as YAGO, have been shown to have good performance for parallel reasoning, but they are expressed in ontology languages that are not parallelly tractable, i.e., the reasoning is inherently sequential in the worst case. This motivates us to study the problem of parallel tractability of ontology materialization from a theoretical perspective. That is we aim to identify the ontologies for which materialization is parallelly tractable, i.e., in the NC complexity. Since the NC complexity is defined based on Boolean circuit that is widely used to investigate parallel computing problems, we first transform the problem of materialization to evaluation of Boolean circuits, and then study the problem of parallel tractability based on circuits. In this work, we focus on datalog rewritable ontology languages. We use Boolean circuits to identify two classes of datalog rewritable ontologies (called parallelly tractable classes) such that materialization over them is parallelly tractable. We further investigate the parallel tractability of materialization of a datalog rewritable OWL fragment DHL (Description Horn Logic). Based on the above results, we analyze real-world datasets and show that many ontologies expressed in DHL belong to the parallelly tractable classes.

Keywords: ontology materialization, parallel reasoning, datalog, Boolean circuit

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128 Ontology-Navigated Tutoring System for Flipped-Mastery Model

Authors: Masao Okabe

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Nowadays, in Japan, variety of students get into a university and one of the main roles of introductory courses for freshmen is to make such students well prepared for subsequent intermediate courses. For that purpose, the flipped-mastery model is not enough because videos usually used in a flipped classroom is not adaptive and does not fit all freshmen with different academic performances. This paper proposes an ontology-navigated tutoring system called EduGraph. Using EduGraph, students can prepare for and review a class, in a more flexibly personalizable way than by videos. Structuralizing learning materials by its ontology, EduGraph also helps students integrate what they learn as knowledge, and makes learning materials sharable. EduGraph was used for an introductory course for freshmen. This application suggests that EduGraph is effective.

Keywords: adaptive e-learning, flipped classroom, mastery learning, ontology

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127 A Validation Technique for Integrated Ontologies

Authors: Neli P. Zlatareva

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Ontology validation is an important part of web applications’ development, where knowledge integration and ontological reasoning play a fundamental role. It aims to ensure the consistency and correctness of ontological knowledge and to guarantee that ontological reasoning is carried out in a meaningful way. Existing approaches to ontology validation address more or less specific validation issues, but the overall process of validating web ontologies has not been formally established yet. As the size and the number of web ontologies continue to grow, the necessity to validate and ensure their consistency and interoperability is becoming increasingly important. This paper presents a validation technique intended to test the consistency of independent ontologies utilized by a common application.

Keywords: knowledge engineering, ontological reasoning, ontology validation, semantic web

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126 A Temporal QoS Ontology For ERTMS/ETCS

Authors: Marc Sango, Olimpia Hoinaru, Christophe Gransart, Laurence Duchien

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Ontologies offer a means for representing and sharing information in many domains, particularly in complex domains. For example, it can be used for representing and sharing information of System Requirement Specification (SRS) of complex systems like the SRS of ERTMS/ETCS written in natural language. Since this system is a real-time and critical system, generic ontologies, such as OWL and generic ERTMS ontologies provide minimal support for modeling temporal information omnipresent in these SRS documents. To support the modeling of temporal information, one of the challenges is to enable representation of dynamic features evolving in time within a generic ontology with a minimal redesign of it. The separation of temporal information from other information can help to predict system runtime operation and to properly design and implement them. In addition, it is helpful to provide a reasoning and querying techniques to reason and query temporal information represented in the ontology in order to detect potential temporal inconsistencies. Indeed, a user operation, such as adding a new constraint on existing planning constraints can cause temporal inconsistencies, which can lead to system failures. To address this challenge, we propose a lightweight 3-layer temporal Quality of Service (QoS) ontology for representing, reasoning and querying over temporal and non-temporal information in a complex domain ontology. Representing QoS entities in separated layers can clarify the distinction between the non QoS entities and the QoS entities in an ontology. The upper generic layer of the proposed ontology provides an intuitive knowledge of domain components, specially ERTMS/ETCS components. The separation of the intermediate QoS layer from the lower QoS layer allows us to focus on specific QoS Characteristics, such as temporal or integrity characteristics. In this paper, we focus on temporal information that can be used to predict system runtime operation. To evaluate our approach, an example of the proposed domain ontology for handover operation, as well as a reasoning rule over temporal relations in this domain-specific ontology, are given.

Keywords: system requirement specification, ERTMS/ETCS, temporal ontologies, domain ontologies

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125 Combining Instance-Based and Reasoning-Based Approaches for Ontology Matching

Authors: Abderrahmane Khiat, Moussa Benaissa

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Due to the increasing number of sources of information available on the web and their distribution and heterogeneity, ontology alignment became a very important and inevitable problem to ensure semantic interoperability. Instance-based ontology alignment is based on the comparison of the extensions of concepts; and represents a very promising technique to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. In practice, two situations may arise: ontologies that share many common instances and ontologies that share few or do not share common instances. In this paper, we describe an approach to manage the latter case. This approach exploits the reasoning on ontologies in order to create a corpus of common instances. We show that it is theoretically powerful because it is based on description logics and very useful in practice. We present the experimental results obtained by running our approach on ontologies of OAEI 2012 benchmark test. The results show the performance of our approach.

Keywords: description logic inference, instance-based ontology alignment, semantic interoperability, semantic web

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124 Measuring the Resilience of e-Governments Using an Ontology

Authors: Onyekachi Onwudike, Russell Lock, Iain Phillips

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The variability that exists across governments, her departments and the provisioning of services has been areas of concern in the E-Government domain. There is a need for reuse and integration across government departments which are accompanied by varying degrees of risks and threats. There is also the need for assessment, prevention, preparation, response and recovery when dealing with these risks or threats. The ability of a government to cope with the emerging changes that occur within it is known as resilience. In order to forge ahead with concerted efforts to manage reuse and integration induced risks or threats to governments, the ambiguities contained within resilience must be addressed. Enhancing resilience in the E-Government domain is synonymous with reducing risks governments face with provisioning of services as well as reuse of components across departments. Therefore, it can be said that resilience is responsible for the reduction in government’s vulnerability to changes. In this paper, we present the use of the ontology to measure the resilience of governments. This ontology is made up of a well-defined construct for the taxonomy of resilience. A specific class known as ‘Resilience Requirements’ is added to the ontology. This class embraces the concept of resilience into the E-Government domain ontology. Considering that the E-Government domain is a highly complex one made up of different departments offering different services, the reliability and resilience of the E-Government domain have become more complex and critical to understand. We present questions that can help a government access how prepared they are in the face of risks and what steps can be taken to recover from them. These questions can be asked with the use of queries. The ontology focuses on developing a case study section that is used to explore ways in which government departments can become resilient to the different kinds of risks and threats they may face. A collection of resilience tools and resources have been developed in our ontology to encourage governments to take steps to prepare for emergencies and risks that a government may face with the integration of departments and reuse of components across government departments. To achieve this, the ontology has been extended by rules. We present two tools for understanding resilience in the E-Government domain as a risk analysis target and the output of these tools when applied to resilience in the E-Government domain. We introduce the classification of resilience using the defined taxonomy and modelling of existent relationships based on the defined taxonomy. The ontology is constructed on formal theory and it provides a semantic reference framework for the concept of resilience. Key terms which fall under the purview of resilience with respect to E-Governments are defined. Terms are made explicit and the relationships that exist between risks and resilience are made explicit. The overall aim of the ontology is to use it within standards that would be followed by all governments for government-based resilience measures.

Keywords: E-Government, Ontology, Relationships, Resilience, Risks, Threats

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123 Fuzzy Semantic Annotation of Web Resources

Authors: Sahar Maâlej Dammak, Anis Jedidi, Rafik Bouaziz

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With the great mass of pages managed through the world, and especially with the advent of the Web, their manual annotation is impossible. We focus, in this paper, on the semiautomatic annotation of the web pages. We propose an approach and a framework for semantic annotation of web pages entitled “Querying Web”. Our solution is an enhancement of the first result of annotation done by the “Semantic Radar” Plug-in on the web resources, by annotations using an enriched domain ontology. The concepts of the result of Semantic Radar may be connected to several terms of the ontology, but connections may be uncertain. We represent annotations as possibility distributions. We use the hierarchy defined in the ontology to compute degrees of possibilities. We want to achieve an automation of the fuzzy semantic annotation of web resources.

Keywords: fuzzy semantic annotation, semantic web, domain ontologies, querying web

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122 An Intensional Conceptualization Model for Ontology-Based Semantic Integration

Authors: Fateh Adhnouss, Husam El-Asfour, Kenneth McIsaac, AbdulMutalib Wahaishi, Idris El-Feghia

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Conceptualization is an essential component of semantic ontology-based approaches. There have been several approaches that rely on extensional structure and extensional reduction structure in order to construct conceptualization. In this paper, several limitations are highlighted relating to their applicability to the construction of conceptualizations in dynamic and open environments. These limitations arise from a number of strong assumptions that do not apply to such environments. An intensional structure is strongly argued to be a natural and adequate modeling approach. This paper presents a conceptualization structure based on property relations and propositions theory (PRP) to the model ontology that is suitable for open environments. The model extends the First-order Logic (FOL) notation and defines the formal representation that enables the interoperability between software systems and supports semantic integration for software systems in open, dynamic environments.

Keywords: conceptualization, ontology, extensional structure, intensional structure

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121 A Survey of Semantic Integration Approaches in Bioinformatics

Authors: Chaimaa Messaoudi, Rachida Fissoune, Hassan Badir

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Technological advances of computer science and data analysis are helping to provide continuously huge volumes of biological data, which are available on the web. Such advances involve and require powerful techniques for data integration to extract pertinent knowledge and information for a specific question. Biomedical exploration of these big data often requires the use of complex queries across multiple autonomous, heterogeneous and distributed data sources. Semantic integration is an active area of research in several disciplines, such as databases, information-integration, and ontology. We provide a survey of some approaches and techniques for integrating biological data, we focus on those developed in the ontology community.

Keywords: biological ontology, linked data, semantic data integration, semantic web

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120 Design of a Pneumonia Ontology for Diagnosis Decision Support System

Authors: Sabrina Azzi, Michal Iglewski, Véronique Nabelsi

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Diagnosis error problem is frequent and one of the most important safety problems today. One of the main objectives of our work is to propose an ontological representation that takes into account the diagnostic criteria in order to improve the diagnostic. We choose pneumonia disease since it is one of the frequent diseases affected by diagnosis errors and have harmful effects on patients. To achieve our aim, we use a semi-automated method to integrate diverse knowledge sources that include publically available pneumonia disease guidelines from international repositories, biomedical ontologies and electronic health records. We follow the principles of the Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry. The resulting ontology covers symptoms and signs, all the types of pneumonia, antecedents, pathogens, and diagnostic testing. The first evaluation results show that most of the terms are covered by the ontology. This work is still in progress and represents a first and major step toward a development of a diagnosis decision support system for pneumonia.

Keywords: Clinical decision support system, Diagnostic errors, Ontology, Pneumonia

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