Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Aoyi Ochieng

5 Solar Photocatalysis of Methyl Orange Using Multi-Ion Doped TiO2 Catalysts

Authors: Victor R. Thulari, John Akach, Haleden Chiririwa, Aoyi Ochieng

Abstract:

Solar-light activated titanium dioxide photocatalysts were prepared by hydrolysis of titanium (IV) isopropoxide with thiourea, followed by calcinations at 450 °C. The experiments demonstrated that methyl orange in aqueous solutions were successfully degraded under solar light using doped TiO2. The photocatalytic oxidation of a mono azo methyl-orange dye has been investigated in multi ion doped TiO2 and solar light. Solutions were irradiated by solar-light until high removal was achieved. It was found that there was no degradation of methyl orange in the dark and in the absence of TiO2. Varieties of laboratory prepared TiO2 catalysts both un-doped and doped using titanium (IV) isopropoxide and thiourea as a dopant were tested in order to compare their photoreactivity. As a result, it was found that the efficiency of the process strongly depends on the working conditions. The highest degradation rate of methyl orange was obtained at optimum dosage using commercially produced TiO2. Our work focused on laboratory synthesized catalyst and the maximum methyl orange removal was achieved at 81% with catalyst loading of 0.04 g/L, initial pH of 3 and methyl orange concentration of 0.005 g/L using multi-ion doped catalyst. The kinetics of photocatalytic methyl orange dye stuff degradation was found to follow a pseudo-first-order rate law. The presence of the multi-ion dopant (thiourea) enhanced the photoefficiency of the titanium dioxide catalyst.

Keywords: degradation, kinetics, methyl orange, photocatalysis

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4 Reimagining the Potential of Street Lighting Infrastructure in Nairobi City

Authors: Clifford Otieno Ochieng, Nsenda Lukumwena

Abstract:

Cities worldwide and most notably those in the global south, including Nairobi City are experiencing accelerated population growth and urban sprawl, accompanied with multiple socioeconomic challenges’ which in turn increase the pressure on already limited infrastructure such as public lighting and on limited financial resources. Based on this premise, through reimaging the value of street lighting infrastructure, the study attempts to highlight the affordance and affordability of streetlights and suggests them as a tool to optimally address limited financial resources that characterize cities in the global south. As a methodology, the paper reviews and analyzes literature available online including Nairobi city budgets; reports from Kenya Power, World Health Organization and United Nations; and articles on enterprise level Internet of Things (IoT) solutions. In conclusion, this study illustrates that streetlights can go well beyond their traditional roles of illuminating cities at night. They can be as suggested in this paper charging stations, communication network terminals and disease prevention nodes.

Keywords: affordance, Nairobi, developing economies, IoT, smart street lights, smart cities

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3 Rural Community Knowledge, Attitude and Perceptions of Consuming Dried Vegetables in Central Region of Tanzania

Authors: Radegunda Kessy, Justus Ochieng, Victor Afari-Sefa, Takemore Chagomoka, Ngoni Nenguwo

Abstract:

Vegetables are excellent sources of dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals which constitute an indispensable constituent of diets, but in Tanzania and other Sub-Saharan African countries, they are not readily available all year round due to seasonal variations in the production cycle. Drying of vegetables is one of the traditional methods for food preservation known to man. The Dodoma and Singida regions of Tanzania are characterized by semi-arid agro-climate, thereby experiencing short seasonal supply of fresh vegetables followed by long drought in which dried vegetables become an alternative to meet high household demands. A primary survey of 244 of rural consumers was carried out to understand how knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of rural consumers affect consumption of dried vegetables. The sample respondents were all found to be aware of open sun drying of vegetables while less than 50% of them were aware of solar-dried vegetables. Consumers were highly concerned with the hygiene, nutritional values, taste, drying method, freshness, color of dried vegetables, timely availability and easiness of cooking as important factors they consider before they purchase dried vegetables. Logit model results show that gender, income, years of consuming dried vegetables, awareness of the importance of solar dried vegetables vis-à-vis sun-dried alternatives and employment status influenced rural consumer’s decision to purchase dried vegetables. Preference on dried vegetables differs across the regions which are also important considerations for any future planned interventions. The findings imply that development partners and policymakers need to design better social marketing and promotion techniques for the enhanced adoption of solar drying technology, which will greatly improve the quality and utilization of dried vegetables by target households.

Keywords: dried vegetables, postharvest management, sun drying, solar drying

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2 Prayer Therapy in a Case of Acute Myeloid Leukemia: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

Authors: Rubai M. Ochieng

Abstract:

Cancer, which accounts for 7 percent of deaths per year in Kenya, is the third highest cause of death after infectious and cardiovascular diseases. Awareness Campaigns have tended to focus on leading cancers including breast and cervical for women as well as prostrate and Esophageal for men. Consequently, less common cancers such as Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) are rarely properly understood by the general population and a section of the medical fraternity. Diagnoses of AML in patients who may not have heard about it sometimes results in shock, denial and confusion not just to the diagnosed, but also to their family and friends. The diagnosed and caregivers are bound to receive a lot of contradicting information about prognosis, care and treatment of AML. This information, which often comes from diverse sources including doctors, friends, internet and social media platforms, causes further confusion and panic. The situation is handled differently by different people. Religious people sometimes resort to prayer. This paper, written from the perspective of a care giver, is based on data collected from a case of Acute Myeloid Leukemia diagnosed in a 32 year old male who lost his life within six weeks of diagnosis. The sample constitutes of 16 people who participated in prayers. Out of this total, 5 were males including the diagnosed and 11 were females. All the 16 were Christians of protestant orientation including Anglicans, Quakers and Church of God members. Data was collected by the researcher herself through participant of observation. Findings discuss how the 16 participants prayed individually at different times, together in an overnight prayer meeting and every morning through a group social media platform. They shared songs and words of encouragement from the bible. The group prayed for healing, peace and strength to the diagnosed and family, financial breakthrough and doctors’ work and decisions, among other challenges that came with the situation. The paper reveals the immense benefits of prayer to the diagnosed and his close relatives and friends. They include acceptance of the condition and a positive attitude in handling the challenges that arose from the disease and treatment processes. The challenges arising from the prayer approach of handling the situation are also discussed. The paper concludes that prayer as therapy goes a long way in cancer management.

Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia, Kenya, participant observation, prayer

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1 A Risk-Based Comprehensive Framework for the Assessment of the Security of Multi-Modal Transport Systems

Authors: Mireille Elhajj, Washington Ochieng, Deeph Chana

Abstract:

The challenges of the rapid growth in the demand for transport has traditionally been seen within the context of the problems of congestion, air quality, climate change, safety, and affordability. However, there are increasing threats including those related to crime such as cyber-attacks that threaten the security of the transport of people and goods. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper presents for the first time, a comprehensive framework for the assessment of the current and future security issues of multi-modal transport systems. The approach or method proposed is based on a structured framework starting with a detailed specification of the transport asset map (transport system architecture), followed by the identification of vulnerabilities. The asset map and vulnerabilities are used to identify the various approaches for exploitation of the vulnerabilities, leading to the creation of a set of threat scenarios. The threat scenarios are then transformed into risks and their categories, and include insights for their mitigation. The consideration of the mitigation space is holistic and includes the formulation of appropriate policies and tactics and/or technical interventions. The quality of the framework is ensured through a structured and logical process that identifies the stakeholders, reviews the relevant documents including policies and identifies gaps, incorporates targeted surveys to augment the reviews, and uses subject matter experts for validation. The approach to categorising security risks is an extension of the current methods that are typically employed. Specifically, the partitioning of risks into either physical or cyber categories is too limited for developing mitigation policies and tactics/interventions for transport systems where an interplay between physical and cyber processes is very often the norm. This interplay is rapidly taking on increasing significance for security as the emergence of cyber-physical technologies, are shaping the future of all transport modes. Examples include: Connected Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) in road transport; the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) in rail transport; Automatic Identification System (AIS) in maritime transport; advanced Communications, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) technologies in air transport; and the Internet of Things (IoT). The framework adopts a risk categorisation scheme that considers risks as falling within the following threat→impact relationships: Physical→Physical, Cyber→Cyber, Cyber→Physical, and Physical→Cyber). Thus the framework enables a more complete risk picture to be developed for today’s transport systems and, more importantly, is readily extendable to account for emerging trends in the sector that will define future transport systems. The framework facilitates the audit and retro-fitting of mitigations in current transport operations and the analysis of security management options for the next generation of Transport enabling strategic aspirations such as systems with security-by-design and co-design of safety and security to be achieved. An initial application of the framework to transport systems has shown that intra-modal consideration of security measures is sub-optimal and that a holistic and multi-modal approach that also addresses the intersections/transition points of such networks is required as their vulnerability is high. This is in-line with traveler-centric transport service provision, widely accepted as the future of mobility services. In summary, a risk-based framework is proposed for use by the stakeholders to comprehensively and holistically assess the security of transport systems. It requires a detailed understanding of the transport architecture to enable a detailed vulnerabilities analysis to be undertaken, creates threat scenarios and transforms them into risks which form the basis for the formulation of interventions.

Keywords: mitigations, risk, transport, security, vulnerabilities

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