Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Malina Raileanu

10 TiO2 Solar Light Photocatalysis a Promising Treatment Method of Wastewater with Trinitrotoluene Content

Authors: Ines Nitoi, Petruta Oancea, Lucian Constantin, Laurentiu Dinu, Maria Crisan, Malina Raileanu, Ionut Cristea


2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is the most common pollutant identified in wastewater generated from munitions plants where this explosive is synthesized or handled (munitions load, assembly and pack operations). Due to their toxic and suspected carcinogenic characteristics, nitroaromatic compounds like TNT are included on the list of prioritary pollutants and strictly regulated in EU countries. Since their presence in water bodies is risky for human health and aquatic life, development of powerful, modern treatment methods like photocatalysis are needed in order to assures environmental pollution mitigation. The photocatalytic degradation of TNT was carried out at pH=7.8, in aqueous TiO2 based catalyst suspension, under sunlight irradiation. The enhanced photo activity of catalyst in visible domain was assured by 0.5% Fe doping. TNT degradation experiments were performed using a tubular collector type solar photoreactor (26 UV permeable silica glass tubes series connected), plug in a total recycle loops. The influence of substrate concentration and catalyst dose on the pollutant degradation and mineralization by-products (NO2-, NO3-, NH4+) formation efficiencies was studied. In order to compare the experimental results obtained in various working conditions, the pollutant and mineralization by-products measured concentrations have been considered as functions of irradiation time and cumulative photonic energy Qhν incident on the reactor surface (kJ/L). In the tested experimental conditions, at tens mg/L pollutant concentration, increase of 0,5%-TiO2 dose up to 200mg/L leads to the enhancement of CB degradation efficiency. Since, doubling of TNT content has a negative effect on pollutant degradation efficiency, in similar experimental condition, prolonged irradiation time from 360 to 480 min was necessary in order to assures the compliance of treated effluent with limits imposed by EU legislation (TNT ≤ 10µg/L).

Keywords: wastewater treatment, TNT, photocatalysis, environmental engineering

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9 Isolation and Characterization White Spot Syndrome Protein Envelope Protein 19 from Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

Authors: Andi Aliah Hidayani, Asmi Citra Malina A. R. Tassakka, Andi Parenrengi


Vanname Shrimp is one of the high yielding varieties that are more resistant to virus attacks. However, now this shrimp more death due to virus attack such as white spot disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Various efforts have done to prevent the disease, like immunostimulatory, probiotics, and vaccine. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope protein VP19 gene is important because of its involvement in the system infection of shrimp. This study aimed to isolate and characterize an envelope protein VP19 – encoding gene of WSSV using WSSV infected Vanname Shrimp sample from some areas in South Sulawesi (Pangkep, Barru and Pinrang). The genomic of DNA were isolated from shrimp muscle using DTAB-CTAB method. Isolation of gene encoding envelope protein VP19 WSSV ws successfully performed with the results of the length of DNA fragment was 387 bp. The results of homology analysis using BLASTn homology suggested that these isolates genes from Barru, Pangkep and Pinrang have closest relationship with isolates from Mexican.

Keywords: vanname, shrimp, WSSV, viral protein 19

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8 Genetic Diversity of Tiger Groupers (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) Challenged with Vibrio Parahaemolyticus and Exposed to Extreme Low Salinities

Authors: Hidayah Triana, Mahir S. Gani, Asmi Citra Malina, Hamka


This study was conducted to determine genetic diversity of tiger groupers that are resistant to V. parahaemolyticus and tolerant to low extreme salinities. This research is useful to obtain superior broodstock of fish. Tiger grouper used were 6 to 8 cm obtained from Brackish Water Aquaculture Research Center Gondol (Bali). This study consists of four stages: preliminary stage was adaptation of fish exposed to several concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus (103, 104, 105, 106, and 107 CFU / ml); second stage was test of Lethal Concentration (LC50) of bacteria to fish; third stage was salinity tolerance test (low salinity 12, 14 and 16 ppt) and fourth stage was analysis of DNA profiles. For DNA profiles analysis, genomic DNA of fish were extracted for PCR using primers YNZ-22 and UBC-122 and visualized by electrophoresis method. The results showed that Lethal concentration of bacteria (LC50) to fish was 1,56x106 CFU/ml. Furthermore, survival rate of groupers exposed with low salinities (12, 14, 16 ppt) survival rates were found to be 54,17 %, 66,67 % and 79,16 % respectively. Average of DNA fragment (5 fragments) generated from primer UBC-122 in the group of fish resistant to V.parahaemolyticus and tolerant to low salinities was similar to group of susceptible to low salinities. Primer YNZ-22 generated more diverse of DNA fragments (8,0 and 5,8 fragments) both in the group of fish tolerant and susceptible to low salinities compared to primer UBC-122 (5,0 fragments). Size of DNA 1.5 kb resulted from primer YNZ-22. Primer YNZ-22 generated 4 (50 %) and 3 (42,8 %) polymorfic fragments in the group of fish tolerant and susceptible to low salinities, respectively. Four (4) monomorfic fragments were found both in the group of fish tolerant and susceptible to low salinities. Primer UBC-122 generated 6 (85,7 %) and 9 (90,0 %) polymorfic fragments in the fish tolerant and susceptible to low salinities, respectively.

Keywords: genetic diversity, epinephelus fuscoguttatus, V. parahaemolyticus, PCR-RAPD, low extreme salinity

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7 Relationship between Structure of Some Nitroaromatic Pollutants and Their Degradation Kinetic Parameters in UV-VIS/TIO2 System

Authors: I. Nitoi, P. Oancea, M. Raileanu, M. Crisan, L. Constantin, I. Cristea


Hazardous organic compounds like nitroaromatics are frequently found in chemical and petroleum industries discharged effluents. Due to their bio-refractory character and high chemical stability cannot be efficiently removed by classical biological or physical-chemical treatment processes. In the past decades, semiconductor photocatalysis has been frequently applied for the advanced degradation of toxic pollutants. Among various semiconductors titania was a widely studied photocatalyst, due to its chemical inertness, low cost, photostability and nontoxicity. In order to improve optical absorption and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 many attempts have been made, one feasible approach consists of doping oxide semiconductor with metal. The degradation of dinitrobenzene (DNB) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) from aqueous solution under UVA-VIS irradiation using heavy metal (0.5% Fe, 1%Co, 1%Ni ) doped titania was investigated. The photodegradation experiments were carried out using a Heraeus laboratory scale UV-VIS reactor equipped with a medium-pressure mercury lamp which emits in the range: 320-500 nm. Solutions with (0.34-3.14) x 10-4 M pollutant content were photo-oxidized in the following working conditions: pH = 5-9; photocatalyst dose = 200 mg/L; irradiation time = 30 – 240 minutes. Prior to irradiation, the photocatalyst powder was added to the samples, and solutions were bubbled with air (50 L/hour), in the dark, for 30 min. Dopant type, pH, structure and initial pollutant concentration influence on the degradation efficiency were evaluated in order to set up the optimal working conditions which assure substrate advanced degradation. The kinetics of nitroaromatics degradation and organic nitrogen mineralization was assessed and pseudo-first order rate constants were calculated. Fe doped photocatalyst with lowest metal content (0.5 wt.%) showed a considerable better behaviour in respect to pollutant degradation than Co and Ni (1wt.%) doped titania catalysts. For the same working conditions, degradation efficiency was higher for DNT than DNB in accordance with their calculated adsobance constants (Kad), taking into account that degradation process occurs on catalyst surface following a Langmuir-Hinshalwood model. The presence of methyl group in the structure of DNT allows its degradation by oxidative and reductive pathways, while DNB is converted only by reductive route, which also explain the highest DNT degradation efficiency. For highest pollutant concentration tested (3 x 10-4 M), optimum working conditions (0.5 wt.% Fe doped –TiO2 loading of 200 mg/L, pH=7 and 240 min. irradiation time) assures advanced nitroaromatics degradation (ηDNB=89%, ηDNT=94%) and organic nitrogen mineralization (ηDNB=44%, ηDNT=47%).

Keywords: hazardous organic compounds, irradiation, nitroaromatics, photocatalysis

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6 Thermal Method Production of the Hydroxyapatite from Bone By-Products from Meat Industry

Authors: Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec, Dagmara Malina, Klaudia Pluta, Wioletta Florkiewicz, Bozena Tyliszczak


Introduction: Request for compound of phosphorus grows continuously, thus, it is searched for alternative sources of this element. One of these sources could be by-products from meat industry which contain prominent quantity of phosphorus compounds. Hydroxyapatite, which is natural component of animal and human bones, is leading material applied in bone surgery and also in stomatology. This is material, which is biocompatible, bioactive and osteoinductive. Methodology: Hydroxyapatite preparation: As a raw material was applied deproteinized and defatted bone pulp called bone sludge, which was formed as waste in deproteinization process of bones, in which a protein hydrolysate was the main product. Hydroxyapatite was received in calcining process in chamber kiln with electric heating in air atmosphere in two stages. In the first stage, material was calcining in temperature 600°C within 3 hours. In the next stage unified material was calcining in three different temperatures (750°C, 850°C and 950°C) keeping material in maximum temperature within 3.0 hours. Bone sludge: Bone sludge was formed as waste in deproteinization process of bones, in which a protein hydrolysate was the main product. Pork bones coming from the partition of meat were used as a raw material for the production of the protein hydrolysate. After disintegration, a mixture of bone pulp and water with a small amount of lactic acid was boiled at temperature 130-135°C and under pressure4 bar. After 3-3.5 hours boiled-out bones were separated on a sieve, and the solution of protein-fat hydrolysate got into a decanter, where bone sludge was separated from it. Results of the study: The phase composition was analyzed by roentgenographic method. Hydroxyapatite was the only crystalline phase observed in all the calcining products. XRD investigation was shown that crystallization degree of hydroxyapatite was increased with calcining temperature. Conclusion: The researches were shown that phosphorus content is around 12%, whereas, calcium content amounts to 28% on average. The conducted researches on bone-waste calcining at the temperatures of 750-950°C confirmed that thermal utilization of deproteinized bone-waste was possible. X-ray investigations were confirmed that hydroxyapatite is the main component of calcining products, and also XRD investigation was shown that crystallization degree of hydroxyapatite was increased with calcining temperature. Contents of calcium and phosphorus were distinctly increased with calcining temperature, whereas contents of phosphorus soluble in acids were decreased. It could be connected with higher crystallization degree of material received in higher temperatures and its stable structure. Acknowledgements: “The authors would like to thank the The National Centre for Research and Development (Grant no: LIDER//037/481/L-5/13/NCBR/2014) for providing financial support to this project”.

Keywords: bone by-products, bone sludge, calcination, hydroxyapatite

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5 Stability Study of Hydrogel Based on Sodium Alginate/Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) with Aloe Vera Extract for Wound Dressing Application

Authors: Klaudia Pluta, Katarzyna Bialik-Wąs, Dagmara Malina, Mateusz Barczewski


Hydrogel networks, due to their unique properties, are highly attractive materials for wound dressing. The three-dimensional structure of hydrogels provides tissues with optimal moisture, which supports the wound healing process. Moreover, a characteristic feature of hydrogels is their absorption properties which allow for the absorption of wound exudates. For the fabrication of biomedical hydrogels, a combination of natural polymers ensuring biocompatibility and synthetic ones that provide adequate mechanical strength are often used. Sodium alginate (SA) is one of the polymers widely used in wound dressing materials because it exhibits excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, due to poor strength properties, often alginate-based hydrogel materials are enhanced by the addition of another polymer such as poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). This paper is concentrated on the preparation methods of sodium alginate/polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel system incorporating Aloe vera extract and glycerin for wound healing material with particular focus on the role of their composition on structure, thermal properties, and stability. Briefly, the hydrogel preparation is based on the chemical cross-linking method using poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA, Mn = 700 g/mol) as a crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate as an initiator. In vitro degradation tests of SA/PVA/AV hydrogels were carried out in Phosphate-Buffered Saline (pH – 7.4) as well as in distilled water. Hydrogel samples were firstly cut into half-gram pieces (in triplicate) and immersed in immersion fluid. Then, all specimens were incubated at 37°C and then the pH and conductivity values were measurements at time intervals. The post-incubation fluids were analyzed using SEC/GPC to check the content of oligomers. The separation was carried out at 35°C on a poly(hydroxy methacrylate) column (dimensions 300 x 8 mm). 0.1M NaCl solution, whose flow rate was 0.65 ml/min, was used as the mobile phase. Three injections with a volume of 50 µl were made for each sample. The thermogravimetric data of the prepared hydrogels were collected using a Netzsch TG 209 F1 Libra apparatus. The samples with masses of about 10 mg were weighed separately in Al2O3 crucibles and then were heated from 30°C to 900°C with a scanning rate of 10 °C∙min−1 under a nitrogen atmosphere. Based on the conducted research, a fast and simple method was developed to produce potential wound dressing material containing sodium alginate, poly(vinyl alcohol) and Aloe vera extract. As a result, transparent and flexible SA/PVA/AV hydrogels were obtained. The degradation experiments indicated that most of the samples immersed in PBS as well as in distilled water were not degraded throughout the whole incubation time.

Keywords: hydrogels, wound dressings, sodium alginate, poly(vinyl alcohol)

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4 Characteristics of Bio-hybrid Hydrogel Materials with Prolonged Release of the Model Active Substance as Potential Wound Dressings

Authors: Katarzyna Bialik-Wąs, Klaudia Pluta, Dagmara Malina, Małgorzata Miastkowska


In recent years, biocompatible hydrogels have been used more and more in medical applications, especially as modern dressings and drug delivery systems. The main goal of this research was the characteristics of bio-hybrid hydrogel materials incorporated with the nanocarrier-drug system, which enable the release in a gradual and prolonged manner, up to 7 days. Therefore, the use of such a combination will provide protection against mechanical damage and adequate hydration. The proposed bio-hybrid hydrogels are characterized by: transparency, biocompatibility, good mechanical strength, and the dual release system, which allows for gradual delivery of the active substance, even up to 7 days. Bio-hybrid hydrogels based on sodium alginate (SA), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), glycerine, and Aloe vera solution (AV) were obtained through the chemical crosslinking method using poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate as a crosslinking agent. Additionally, a nanocarrier-drug system was incorporated into SA/PVA/AV hydrogel matrix. Here, studies were focused on the release profiles of active substances from bio-hybrid hydrogels using the USP4 method (DZF II Flow-Through System, Erweka GmbH, Langen, Germany). The equipment incorporated seven in-line flow-through diffusion cells. The membrane was placed over support with an orifice of 1,5 cm in diameter (diffusional area, 1.766 cm²). All the cells were placed in a cell warmer connected with the Erweka heater DH 2000i and the Erweka piston pump HKP 720. The piston pump transports the receptor fluid via seven channels to the flow-through cells and automatically adapts the setting of the flow rate. All volumes were measured by gravimetric methods by filling the chambers with Milli-Q water and assuming a density of 1 g/ml. All the determinations were made in triplicate for each cell. The release study of the model active substance was carried out using a regenerated cellulose membrane Spectra/Por®Dialysis Membrane MWCO 6-8,000 Carl Roth® Company. These tests were conducted in buffer solutions – PBS at pH 7.4. A flow rate of receptor fluid of about 4 ml /1 min was selected. The experiments were carried out for 7 days at a temperature of 37°C. The released concentration of the model drug in the receptor solution was analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy (Perkin Elmer Company). Additionally, the following properties of the modified materials were studied: physicochemical, structural (FT-IR analysis), morphological (SEM analysis). Finally, the cytotoxicity tests using in vitro method were conducted. The obtained results exhibited that the dual release system allows for the gradual and prolonged delivery of the active substances, even up to 7 days.

Keywords: wound dressings, SA/PVA hydrogels, nanocarrier-drug system, USP4 method

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3 Preparation of Metallic Nanoparticles with the Use of Reagents of Natural Origin

Authors: Anna Drabczyk, Sonia Kudlacik-Kramarczyk, Dagmara Malina, Bozena Tyliszczak, Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec


Nowadays, nano-size materials are very popular group of materials among scientists. What is more, these materials find an application in a wide range of various areas. Therefore constantly increasing demand for nanomaterials including metallic nanoparticles such as silver of gold ones is observed. Therefore, new routes of their preparation are sought. Considering potential application of nanoparticles, it is important to select an adequate methodology of their preparation because it determines their size and shape. Among the most commonly applied methods of preparation of nanoparticles chemical and electrochemical techniques are leading. However, currently growing attention is directed into the biological or biochemical aspects of syntheses of metallic nanoparticles. This is associated with a trend of developing of new routes of preparation of given compounds according to the principles of green chemistry. These principles involve e.g. the reduction of the use of toxic compounds in the synthesis as well as the reduction of the energy demand or minimization of the generated waste. As a result, a growing popularity of the use of such components as natural plant extracts, infusions or essential oils is observed. Such natural substances may be used both as a reducing agent of metal ions and as a stabilizing agent of formed nanoparticles therefore they can replace synthetic compounds previously used for the reduction of metal ions or for the stabilization of obtained nanoparticles suspension. Methods that proceed in the presence of previously mentioned natural compounds are environmentally friendly and proceed without the application of any toxic reagents. Methodology: Presented research involves preparation of silver nanoparticles using selected plant extracts, e.g. artichoke extract. Extracts of natural origin were used as reducing and stabilizing agents at the same time. Furthermore, syntheses were carried out in the presence of additional polymeric stabilizing agent. Next, such features of obtained suspensions of nanoparticles as total antioxidant activity as well as content of phenolic compounds have been characterized. First of the mentioned studies involved the reaction with DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical. The content of phenolic compounds was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu technique. Furthermore, an essential issue was also the determining of the stability of formed suspensions of nanoparticles. Conclusions: In the research it was demonstrated that metallic nanoparticles may be obtained using plant extracts or infusions as stabilizing or reducing agent. The methodology applied, i.e. a type of plant extract used during the synthesis, had an impact on the content of phenolic compounds as well as on the size and polydispersity of obtained nanoparticles. What is more, it is possible to prepare nano-size particles that will be characterized by properties desirable from the viewpoint of their potential application and such an effect may be achieved with the use of non-toxic reagents of natural origin. Furthermore, proposed methodology stays in line with the principles of green chemistry.

Keywords: green chemistry principles, metallic nanoparticles, plant extracts, stabilization of nanoparticles

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2 Polymer Matrices Based on Natural Compounds: Synthesis and Characterization

Authors: Sonia Kudlacik-Kramarczyk, Anna Drabczyk, Dagmara Malina, Bozena Tyliszczak, Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec


Introduction: In the preparation of polymer materials, compounds of natural origin are currently gaining more and more interest. This is particularly noticeable in the case of synthesis of materials considered for biomedical use. Then, selected material has to meet many requirements. It should be characterized by non-toxicity, biodegradability and biocompatibility. Therefore special attention is directed to substances such as polysaccharides, proteins or substances that are the basic building components of proteins, i.e. amino acids. These compounds may be crosslinked with other reagents that leads to the preparation of polymer matrices. Such amino acids as e.g. cysteine or histidine. On the other hand, previously mentioned requirements may be met by polymers obtained as a result of biosynthesis, e.g. polyhydroxybutyrate. This polymer belongs to the group of aliphatic polyesters that is synthesized by microorganisms (selected strain of bacteria) under specific conditions. It is possible to modify matrices based on given polymer with substances of various origin. Such a modification may result in the change of their properties or/and in providing the material with new features desirable in viewpoint of specific application. Described materials are synthesized using UV radiation. Process of photopolymerization is fast, waste-free and enables to obtain final products with favorable properties. Methodology: Polymer matrices have been prepared by means of photopolymerization. First step involved the preparation of solutions of particular reagents and mixing them in the appropriate ratio. Next, crosslinking agent and photoinitiator have been added to the reaction mixture and the whole was poured into the Petri dish and treated with UV radiation. After the synthesis, polymer samples were dried at room temperature and subjected to the numerous analyses aimed at the determining their physicochemical properties. Firstly, sorption properties of obtained polymer matrices have been determined. Next, mechanical properties have been characterized, i.e. tensile strength. The ability to deformation under applied stress of all prepared polymer matrices has been checked. Such a property is important in viewpoint of the application of analyzed materials e.g. as wound dressings. Wound dressings have to be elastic because depending on the location of the wound and its mobility, such a dressing has to adhere properly to the wound. Furthermore, considering the use of the materials for biomedical purposes it is essential to determine its behavior in environments simulating these ones occurring in human body. Therefore incubation studies using selected liquids have also been conducted. Conclusions: As a result of photopolymerization process, polymer matrices based on natural compounds have been prepared. These exhibited favorable mechanical properties and swelling ability. Moreover, biocompatibility in relation to simulated body fluids has been stated. Therefore it can be concluded that analyzed polymer matrices constitute an interesting materials that may be considered for biomedical use and may be subjected to the further more advanced analyses using specific cell lines.

Keywords: photopolymerization, polymer matrices, simulated body fluids, swelling properties

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1 Development of Wound Dressing System Based on Hydrogel Matrix Incorporated with pH-Sensitive Nanocarrier-Drug Systems

Authors: Dagmara Malina, Katarzyna Bialik-Wąs, Klaudia Pluta


The growing significance of transdermal systems, in which skin is a route for systemic drug delivery, has generated a considerable amount of data which has resulted in a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of transport across the skin in the context of the controlled and prolonged release of active substances. One of such solutions may be the use of carrier systems based on intelligent polymers with different physicochemical properties. In these systems, active substances, e.g. drugs, can be conjugated (attached), immobilized, or encapsulated in a polymer matrix that is sensitive to specific environmental conditions (e.g. pH or temperature changes). Intelligent polymers can be divided according to their sensitivity to specific environmental stimuli such as temperature, pH, light, electric, magnetic, sound, or electromagnetic fields. Materials & methods—The first stage of the presented research concerned the synthesis of pH-sensitive polymeric carriers by a radical polymerization reaction. Then, the selected active substance (hydrocortisone) was introduced into polymeric carriers. In a further stage, bio-hybrid sodium alginate/poly(vinyl alcohol) – SA/PVA-based hydrogel matrices modified with various carrier-drug systems were prepared with the chemical cross-linking method. The conducted research included the assessment of physicochemical properties of obtained materials i.e. degree of hydrogel swelling and degradation studies as a function of pH in distilled water and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37°C in time. The gel fraction represents the insoluble gel fraction as a result of inter-molecule cross-linking formation was also measured. Additionally, the chemical structure of obtained hydrogels was confirmed using FT-IR spectroscopic technique. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique was used for the analysis of the average particle size of polymer-carriers and carrier-drug systems. The nanocarriers morphology was observed using SEM microscopy. Results & Discussion—The analysis of the encapsulated polymeric carriers showed that it was possible to obtain the time-stable empty pH-sensitive carrier with an average size 479 nm and the encapsulated system containing hydrocortisone with an average 543 nm, which was introduced into hydrogel structure. Bio-hybrid hydrogel matrices are stable materials, and the presence of an additional component: pH-sensitive carrier – hydrocortisone system, does not reduce the degree of cross-linking of the matrix nor its swelling ability. Moreover, the results of swelling tests indicate that systems containing higher concentrations of the drug have a slightly higher sorption capacity in each of the media used. All analyzed materials show stable and statically changing swelling values in simulated body fluids - there is no sudden fluid uptake and no rapid release from the material. The analysis of FT-IR spectra confirms the chemical structure of the obtained bio-hybrid hydrogel matrices. In the case of modifications with a pH-sensitive carrier, a much more intense band can be observed in the 3200-3500 cm⁻¹ range, which most likely originates from the strong hydrogen interactions that occur between individual components.

Keywords: hydrogels, polymer nanocarriers, sodium alginate/poly(vinyl alcohol) matrices, wound dressings.

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