Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2387

Search results for: open dumpsite

2387 Analyses of Extent of Effects of Siting Boreholes Nearby Open Landfill Dumpsite at Obosi Anambra Southeast of Nigeria

Authors: George Obinna Akuaka

Abstract:

Solid waste disposal techniques in Nigeria pose an environmental threat to the environment and to nearby resident. The presence of microbial physical and chemical concentration in boreholes samples nearby dumpsite implies that groundwater is normally contaminated by leachate infiltration from an open landfill dumpsite. In this study, the physicochemical and microbial analyses of water samples from hand dug well in the site and boreholes were carried out around the active landfill and from different distances (50 m to 200 m). leachate samples collected were used to ascertain the effect or extent of contamination on the groundwater quality. A total of 5 leachate samples and 5 samples of groundwater were collected, and all samples were analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters according to the standard methods. These include pH, Electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solid, BOD, OD, Temperature, major cations such as Mg²+ Ca²+, Fe²+ Cu²+, major anions NO³-, Cl-,SO⁴- PO⁴-, Zn, Ar, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Ni are the heavy metals and metalloids. The mean values of the physical and chemical parameters obtained from both sites were compared with the established of the World Health Organization (WHO). The leachate samples were found to be higher in the concentration of the results obtained than that of the boreholes water, and the recorded mean values of heavy metals were above approved standard minimum limits. The results indicated that mercury and copper were not found in all the borehole water samples. Microbial analyses showed that total heterotrophic bacteria mean count ranged from 10.6 X10⁷ cfu/ml to 2.04x10⁷cfu/ml and 9.5 X 10⁷ cfu/ml to 18.9 X 10⁷ cfu/ml in leachate and borehole samples respectively. It also revealed that almost at the bacteria isolated in the leachate were also found in the water samples. This results indicated that heavy pollution in all the samples with most physicochemical parameters and microbes showed traceable pollution, which occurred as a result of leachate infiltration into the ground water.

Keywords: physicochemical, landfill dumpsite, microbial, leachate, groundwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
2386 Soil Degradation Resulting from Migration of Ion Leachate in Gosa Dumpsite, Abuja

Authors: S. Ebisintei, M. A. Olutoye, A. S. Kovo, U. G. Akpan

Abstract:

The effect of soil degradation due to ion leachate migration using dumpsite located at Idu industrial area of Abuja was investigated. It was done to assess the health and environmental pollution consequences caused by heavy metals’ concentration in the soil on inhabitants around the settlement. Soil samples collected from four cardinal points and at the center during the dry and wet season were pretreated, digested and heavy metal concentrations present were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The concentrations of Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Cr, were determined and also for control sample obtained 300 m away from the dumpsite. Water samples were collected from three wells to test for physiochemical properties of pH, COD, BOD, DO, hardness, conductivity, and alkalinity. The result showed a significant difference in concentration of toxic heavy metals in the dumpsite as compared to the control sample. A mathematical model was developed to predict the heavy metal concentrations beyond the sampling point. The results indicate that metal concentrations in both dry and wet season were above the WHO, and SON set standards. The trend, if unrestrained, portends danger to human life, reduces agricultural productivity and sustainability.

Keywords: soil degradation, ion leachate, productivity, environment, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
2385 Heavy Metal Contamination of a Dumpsite Environment as Assessed with Pollution Indices

Authors: Olubunmi S. Shittu, Olufemi J. Ayodele, Augustus O. A. Ilori, Abidemi O. Filani, Adetola T. Afuye

Abstract:

Indiscriminate refuse dumping in and around Ado-Ekiti combined with improper management of few available dumpsites, such as Ilokun dumpsite, posed the threat of heavy metals pollution in the surrounding soils and underground water that needs assessment using pollution indices. Surface soils (0-15 cm) were taken from the centre of Ilokun dumpsite (0 m) and environs at different directions and distances during the dry and wet seasons, as well as a background sample at 1000 m away, adjacent to the dumpsite at Ilokun, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. The concentration of heavy metals used to calculate the pollution indices for the soils were determined using Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer. The soils recorded high concentrations of all the heavy metals above the background concentrations irrespective of the season with highest concentrations at the 0 m except Ni and Fe at 50 m during the dry and wet season, respectively. The heavy metals concentration were in the order of Ni > Mn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd > Fe during the dry season, and Fe > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cd > Mn during the wet season. Using the Contamination Factor (CF), the soils were classified to be moderately contaminated with Cd and Fe to very high contamination with other metals during the dry season and low Cd contamination (0.87), moderate contamination with Fe, Pb, Mn and Ni and very high contamination with Cr and Cu during the wet season. At both seasons, the Pollution Load Index (PLI) indicates the soils to be generally polluted with heavy metals and the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) calculated shown the soils to be in unpolluted to moderately polluted levels. Enrichment Factor (EF) implied the soils to be deficiently enriched with all the heavy metals except Cr (7.90) and Cu (6.42) that were at significantly enrichment levels during the wet season. Modified Degree of Contamination (mCd) recorded, indicated the soils to be of very high to extremely high degree of contamination during the dry season and moderate degree of contamination during the wet season except 0 m with high degree of contamination. The concentration of heavy metals in the soils combined with some of the pollution indices indicated the soils in and around the Ilokun Dumpsite are being polluted with heavy metals from anthropogenic sources constituted by the indiscriminate refuse dumping.

Keywords: contamination factor, enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, modified degree of contamination, pollution load index

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2384 Characterization of Emissions from the open burning of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) under Tropical Environment

Authors: Anju Elizbath Peter, S. M. Shiva Nagendra, Indumathi M.Nambi

Abstract:

The deliberate fires initiated by dump managers and human scavengers to reduce the volume of waste and recovery of valuable metals/materials are common at municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal sites in developed country. A large amount of toxic gases released due to this act is responsible for the deterioration of regional and local air quality, which causes visibility impairment and acute respiratory diseases. The present study was aimed at the characterization of MSW and emission characteristics of burning of MSW in the laboratory. MSW samples were collected directly from the one of the open dumpsite located in Chennai city. Solid waste sampling and laboratory analysis were carried out according to American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Results indicated the values of moisture content, volatile solids (VS) and calorific values of solid waste samples were 16.67%,8%,9.17MJ/kg, respectively. The elemental composition showed that the municipal solid waste contains 25.84% of carbon, 3.69% of hydrogen, 1.57% of nitrogen and 0.26% of sulphur. The calorific value of MSW was found to be 9.17 MJ/Kg which is sufficient to facilitate self-combustion of waste. The characterization of emissions from the burning of 1 kg of MSW in the test chamber showed a total of 90 mg/kg of PM10 and 243 mg/kg of PM2.5. The current research study results will be useful for municipal authorities to formulate guideline and policy structure regarding the MSW management to reduce the impact of air emissions at an open dump site.

Keywords: characterization, MSW, open burning, PM10, PM2.5

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2383 Surface Water Pollution by Open Refuse Dumpsite in North Central of Nigeria

Authors: Abimbola Motunrayo Folami, Ibironke Titilayo Enitan, Feroz Mohomed Swalaha

Abstract:

Water is a vital resource that is important in ensuring the growth and development of any country. To sustain the basic human needs and the demands for agriculture, industry, conservational and ecosystem, enough quality and quantity water is needed. Contamination of water resources is now a global and public health concern. Hence, this study assessed the water quality of Ndawuse River by measuring the physicochemical parameters and heavy metals concentrations of the river using standard methods. In total, 16 surface water samples were obtained from five locations along the river, from upstream to downstream as well as samples from the dumpsite. The results obtained were compared with the standard limits set by both the World Health Organization and the Federal Environmental Protection Agency for domestic purposes. The results of the measured parameters indicated that biological oxygen demand (85.88 mg/L), turbidity (44.51 NTU), Iron (0.014 - 3.511 mg /L) and chromium (0.078 - 0.14 mg /L) were all above the standard limits. The results further showed that the quality of surface water is being significantly affected by human activities around the Ndawuse River which could pose an adverse health risk to several communities that rely on this river as their primary source of water. Therefore, there is a need for strict enforcement of environmental laws to protect the aquatic ecosystem and to avoid long term cumulative exposure risk that heavy metals may pose on human health.

Keywords: Abuja, contaminants, heavy metals, Ndawuse River, Nigeria, surface water

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
2382 Technology Planning with Internal and External Resource for Open Innovation

Authors: Jeonghwan Jeon

Abstract:

Technology planning with both internal capacity and external resource is necessary for successful open innovation. Until now, many types of research have been conducted for this issue. However, technology planning for open innovation at the national level has not been researched sufficiently. This study proposes Open roadmap for open innovation at the national level. The proposed open roadmap can manage the inflow & outflow open innovation systematically. Six types of open roadmap are classified with respect to the innovation direction and characteristics. The proposed open roadmap is applied to the open innovation cases of the Roman period. The proposed open roadmap is expected to be helpful tool for technology policy planning at the national level.

Keywords: technology planning, open innovation, internal resource, external resource, technology management

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
2381 Bacteriological and Mineral Analyses of Leachate Samples from Erifun Dumpsite, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Authors: Adebowale T. Odeyemi, Oluwafemi A. Ajenifuja

Abstract:

The leachate samples collected from Erifun dumpsite along Federal Polythenic road, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, were subjected to bacteriological and mineral analyses. The bacteriological estimation and isolation were done using serial dilution and pour plating techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done using agar disc diffusion technique. Atomic Absorption Spectophotometry method was used to analyze the heavy metal contents in the leachate samples. The bacterial and coliform counts ranged from 4.2 × 105 CFU/ml to 2.97 × 106 CFU/ml and 5.0 × 104 CFU/ml to 2.45 x 106 CFU/ml, respectively. The isolated bacteria and percentage of occurrence include Bacillus cereus (22%), Enterobacter aerogenes (18%), Staphylococcus aureus (16%), Proteus vulgaris (14%), Escherichia coli (14%), Bacillus licheniformis (12%) and Klebsiella aerogenes (4%). The mineral value ranged as follow; iron (21.30mg/L - 25.60mg/L), zinc (1.80mg/L - 5.60mg/L), copper (1.00mg/L - 2.60mg/L), chromium (0.50mg/L - 1.30mg/L), candium (0.20mg/L - 1.30mg/L), nickel (0.20mg/L - 0.80mg/L), lead (0.05mg/L-0.30mg/L), cobalt (0.03mg/L - 0.30mg/L) and in all samples manganese was not detected. The entire organisms isolated exhibited a high level of resistance to most of the antibiotics used. There is an urgent need for awareness to be created about the present situation of the leachate in Erifun, on the need for treatment of the nearby stream and other water sources before they can be used for drinking and other domestic use. In conclusion, a good method of waste disposal is required in those communities to prevent leachate formation, percolation, and runoff into water bodies during the raining season.

Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility, dumpsite, bacteriological analysis, heavy metal

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
2380 A Case Study of Open Source Development Practices within a Large Company Setting

Authors: Alma Orucevic-Alagic, Martin Höst

Abstract:

Open source communities have demonstrated that complex and enterprise grade software can be produced, supported, and maintained by self-organizing groups of developers using primarily electronic form of communication. Due to the inherent nature of open source development, a specific set of open source software development practices has evolved. While there is an ongoing research on the topic of applicability of open source development practices within a company setting, still little is known about their benefits and challenges. The objective of this research is to understand if and to what degree open source development practices observed within a mature open source community are aligned with development practices within a large software and hardware company setting. For the purpose of this case study a set of open source development practices that are present in a mature open source community has been identified. Then, development practices of a large, international, hardware and software company based in Sweden were assessed and compared to the identified open source community practices. It is shown that there are many similarities between a mature open source community and a large company setting in regard to software development practices. We also identify practices that exist in open source communities and that are not standard within a company setting, but whose implementation can result in an improved software development efficiency within the company setting.

Keywords: development practices, open source software, innersource, closed open source

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
2379 Landfill Leachate Wastewater Treatment by Fenton Process

Authors: Rewadee Anuwattana, Pattamaphorn Phuangngamphan, Narumon Soparatana, Supinya Sutthima, Worapong Pattayawan, Saroj Klangkongsub, Songkiat Roddang, Pluek Wongpanich

Abstract:

The leachate wastewater is high contaminant water; hence it needs to be treated. The objective of this research was to determine the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentration, Phosphate (PO₄³⁻), Ammonia (NH₃) and color in leachate wastewater in the landfill area. The experiments were carried out in the optimum condition by pH, the Fenton reagent dosage (concentration of dosing Fe²⁺ and H₂O₂). The optimum pH is 3, the optimum [Fe²⁺]/[COD] and [H₂O₂]/[COD₀] = 0.03 and 0.03, respectively. The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD₅)/Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) ratio can be adjusted to 1 for landfill leachate wastewater (BOD₅/COD = 0.11). From the results, the Fenton process shall be investigated further to achieve the removal of phosphates in addition to COD and color.

Keywords: landfill leachate treatment, open dumpsite, Fenton process, wastewater treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
2378 Impact of Schools' Open and Semi-Open Spaces on Student's Studying Behavior

Authors: Chaithanya Pothuganti

Abstract:

Open and semi-open spaces in educational buildings like corridors, mid landings, seating spaces, lobby, courtyards are traditionally have been the places of social communion and interaction which helps in promoting the knowledge, performance, activeness, and motivation in students. Factors like availability of land, commercialization, of educational facilities, especially in e-techno and smart schools, led to closed classrooms to accommodate students thereby lack quality open and semi-open spaces. This insufficient attention towards open space design which is a means of informal learning misses an opportunity to encourage the student’s skill development, behavior and learning skills. The core objective of this paper is to find the level of impact on student learning behavior and to identify the suitable proportions and configuration of spaces that shape the schools. In order to achieve this, different types of open spaces in schools and their impact on student’s performance in various existing models are analysed using case studies to draw some design principles. The study is limited to indoor open spaces like corridors, break out spaces and courtyards. The expected outcome of the paper is to suggest better design considerations for the development of semi-open and open spaces which functions as an element for informal learnings. Its focus is to provide further thinking on designing and development of open spaces in educational buildings.

Keywords: configuration of spaces and proportions, informal learning, open spaces, schools, student’s behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
2377 Open Minds but Closed Access: Why Are There so Few Gold Open Access LIS Journals And Why Are so Many Librarians Unwilling to Unlock Their Scholarship?

Authors: Sarah Baker, Jayati Chaudhuri

Abstract:

Librarians have embraced the open access movement in all disciplines but their own. They are strong advocates on college campuses and curate institutional repositories, yet there are surprisingly few open access LIS journals. Presenters evaluated the open access availability of library and information science literature. After analyzing the top 100 library science journals (the top 50 journals from Scimago and JCR) and finding very few gold open access journals, they then investigated the availability of open access articles from the top 10 closed access journals. Presenters would like to generate a conversation on what type of proactive approach librarians can take to increase open access to literature within our discipline. Librarians like their colleagues in other disciplines are not motivated to submit their articles to their institutional repositories. Presenters have found a similar reluctance from their fellow colleagues regarding open access initiatives on campus. Presenters will describe Open Access Week activities as part of a campus-wide initiative and share some faculty comments, concerns, and misconceptions that came up as a part of this dialog. Presenters will discuss their personal experiences providing access to faculty publications through the California State University Los Angeles institutional repository.

Keywords: faculty scholarship, institutional repositories, library and information science journals, open access

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2376 Open educational Resources' Metadata: Towards the First Star to Quality of Open Educational Resources

Authors: Audrey Romero-Pelaez, Juan Carlos Morocho-Yunga

Abstract:

The increasing amount of open educational resources (OER) published on the web for consumption in teaching and learning environments also generates a growing need to ensure the quality of these resources. The low level of OER discovery is one of the most significant drawbacks when faced with its reuse, and as a consequence, high-quality educational resources can go unnoticed. Metadata enables the discovery of resources on the web. The purpose of this study is to lay the foundations for open educational resources to achieve their first quality star within the Quality4OER Framework. In this study, we evaluate the quality of OER metadata and establish the main guidelines on metadata quality in this context.

Keywords: open educational resources, OER quality, quality metadata

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
2375 Requirement Engineering Within Open Source Software Development: A Case Study

Authors: Kars Beek, Remco Groeneveld, Sjaak Brinkkemper

Abstract:

Although there is much literature available on requirement documentation in traditional software development, few studies have been conducted about this topic in open source software development. While open-source software development is becoming more important, the software development processes are often not as structured as corporate software development processes. Papers show that communities, creating open-source software, often lack structure and documentation. However, most recent studies about this topic are often ten or more years old. Therefore, this research has been conducted to determine if the lack of structure and documentation in requirement engineering is currently still the situation in these communities. Three open-source products have been chosen as subjects for conducting this research. The data for this research was gathered based on interviews, observations, and analyses of feature proposals and issue tracking tools. In this paper, we present a comparison and an analysis of the different methods used for requirements documentation to understand the current practices of requirements documentation in open source software development.

Keywords: case study, open source software, open source software development, requirement elicitation, requirement engineering

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2374 Towards A Framework for Using Open Data for Accountability: A Case Study of A Program to Reduce Corruption

Authors: Darusalam, Jorish Hulstijn, Marijn Janssen

Abstract:

Media has revealed a variety of corruption cases in the regional and local governments all over the world. Many governments pursued many anti-corruption reforms and have created a system of checks and balances. Three types of corruption are faced by citizens; administrative corruption, collusion and extortion. Accountability is one of the benchmarks for building transparent government. The public sector is required to report the results of the programs that have been implemented so that the citizen can judge whether the institution has been working such as economical, efficient and effective. Open Data is offering solutions for the implementation of good governance in organizations who want to be more transparent. In addition, Open Data can create transparency and accountability to the community. The objective of this paper is to build a framework of open data for accountability to combating corruption. This paper will investigate the relationship between open data, and accountability as part of anti-corruption initiatives. This research will investigate the impact of open data implementation on public organization.

Keywords: open data, accountability, anti-corruption, framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
2373 Open Innovation Strategy (OIS) Paradigm and an OIS Capabilities Model

Authors: Anastasis D. Petrou

Abstract:

Innovation and strategy discussions do highlight open innovation as a new paradigm in business. Yet, a number of stumbling blocks in the form of closed innovation principles weaved into the fabric of a traditional business model stand in the way of the new paradigm’s momentum to increase value in various business contexts. The paper argues that businesses considering an engagement with the open innovation paradigm would need to take steps to improve their multiplicative, absorptive and relational capabilities, respectively. The needed improvements would amount to a business model evolutionary transformation and eventually bring about a paradigm overhaul in business. The transformation is worth staging over time to ensure that open innovation is developed across interconnected and partnered areas of strategic importance. This article develops an open innovation strategy (OIS) capabilities model, and employs examples from different industries to briefly discuss OIS’s potential to augment business value in a number of suggested areas for future research.

Keywords: close innovation, open innovation paradigm, open innovation strategy (OIS) paradigm, OIS capabilities model, multiplicative capability, absorptive capability, relational capability

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
2372 Studies on Pesticide Usage Pattern and Farmers Knowledge on Pesticide Usage and Technologies in Open Field and Poly House Conditions

Authors: B. Raghu, Shashi Vemuri, Ch. Sreenivasa Rao

Abstract:

The survey on pesticide use pattern was carried out by interviewing farmers growing chill in open fields and poly houses based on the questionnaire prepared to assess their knowledge and practices on crop cultivation, general awareness on pesticide recommendations and use. Education levels of poly house farmers are high compared to open field farmers, where 57.14% poly house farmers are high school educated, whereas 35% open field farmers are illiterates. Majority farmers use nursery of 35 days and grow in <0.5 acre poly house in summer and rabi and < 1 acre in open field during kharif. Awareness on pesticide related issues is varying among poly house and open field farmers with some commonality, where 28.57% poly house farmers know about recommended pesticides while only 10% open field farmers are aware of this issue. However, in general, all farmers contact pesticide dealer for recommendations, poly house farmers prefer to contact scientists (35.71%) and open field farmers prefer to contact agricultural officers (33.33). Most farmers are unaware about pesticide classification and toxicity symbols on packing. Farmers are aware about endosulfan ban, but only 21.42% poly house and 11.66% open field farmers know about ban of monocrotofos on vegetables. Very few farmers know about pesticide residues and related issues, but know washing helps to reduce contamination.

Keywords: open field, pesticide usage, polyhouses, residues survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
2371 The Impact of Public Open Space System on Housing Price in Chicago

Authors: Si Chen, Le Zhang, Xian He

Abstract:

The research explored the influences of public open space system on housing price through hedonic models, in order to support better open space plans and economic policies. We have three initial hypotheses: 1) public open space system has an overall positive influence on surrounding housing prices. 2) Different public open space types have different levels of influence on motivating surrounding housing prices. 3) Walking and driving accessibilities from property to public open spaces have different statistical relation with housing prices. Cook County, Illinois, was chosen to be a study area since data availability, sufficient open space types, and long-term open space preservation strategies. We considered the housing attributes, driving and walking accessibility scores from houses to nearby public open spaces, and driving accessibility scores to hospitals as influential features and used real housing sales price in 2010 as a dependent variable in the built hedonic model. Through ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis, General Moran’s I analysis and geographically weighted regression analysis, we observed the statistical relations between public open spaces and housing sale prices in the three built hedonic models and confirmed all three hypotheses.

Keywords: hedonic model, public open space, housing sale price, regression analysis, accessibility score

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2370 Rigorous Literature Review: Open Science Policy

Authors: E. T. Svahn

Abstract:

This article documents how open science policy is perceived in the scientific literature globally throughout the history. It also presents what policy needs are persistent to enable safe and effective dissemination of scientific knowledge. This information may be of interest to open science and science policy makers globally, especially in the view of recent adoption of supranational open science policies such as Plan S. Evaluation of open science policy landscape is in pressing need of assessment regarding its impact on the research community and society at wide as no previous literature review has been conducted on the topic. This study is a rigorous literature review based on constructivist grounded theory method on the full body of scientific open science policy publications. Selection of these articles has been conducted in 2019 and 2020 in major global knowledge databases. Through the analysis of these articles, two key themes emerged that are seen to shape the relationship between science and society. 1st is that of the policy enabling open science in a safe and effective way, and 2nd is that of the outcome of the science policy may have on the research community and the wider society. These findings accentuate that open science policies can have a major impact on not only research process and availability of knowledge but also on society itself. As an outcome of this study, a theoretical framework is constructed, and the need for further study on open science policy itself on a higher level becomes apparent.

Keywords: constructivist grounded theory, open science policy, rigorous literature review, science policy

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2369 Study of the Landslide and Stability of Open Pit Quarry: Case of Open Pite Quarry of Chouf Amar M'sila, Algeria

Authors: Saadoun Abd Errazak, Hafssaoui Abdallah, Fredj Mohamed

Abstract:

Mining operations open induce risks of instability that can cause landslides and collapse at the bleachers slope. These risks may occur both during and after the operation phase. The magnitude of these risks depends on the mechanical and physical characteristics of the rock mass, the geometrical dimensions of ore bodies, their spatial arrangement, and the state of the operated area. If security and technology measures are not taken into account for this purpose, the environment will be affected. The main objective of this work is to assess these risks by analytical and numerical methods. The study is based on the geological, hydrogeological and geotechnical rock mass of the open pit quarry of Chouf Amar M'sila. The results obtained have allowed us to obtain an acceptable factor of safety and stability study of the open pit.

Keywords: stability, land sliding, numerical modeling, safety factor, open-pit quarry

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
2368 Translating Ex-landfill Development Needs and Adequacy of Open Space Provision in Malaysian Urban Development

Authors: S. Mazifah, A. Azahan, A. Kadir

Abstract:

This paper aims to examine the relationship between the needs of ex-landfill redevelopment and the adequacy of open space provision in the context of sustainable urban development planning in Malaysia as seen from the perspective of the National Urban Policy. With a specific focus on the Action Plan DPN6 and DPN9, ex-landfill redevelopment needs and provision of open space are detailed to identify their potential and constraints in the development of sustainable cities. As a result, this paper found a link between the needs of urban ex-landfill redevelopment and approach to provide adequate urban open space. Through the proposal of the development of public park at urban ex-landfill sites, the needs of ex-landfill redevelopment and the adequacy of urban open space provision is being 'united' and translated as an approach to create a sustainable urban development in Malaysia.

Keywords: ex-landfill redevelopment, open spaces, National Urban Policy, sustainable urban development

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2367 Combined Influence of Charge Carrier Density and Temperature on Open-Circuit Voltage in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Douglas Yeboah, Monishka Narayan, Jai Singh

Abstract:

One of the key parameters in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) is the open-circuit voltage, however, it is still not well understood. In order to examine the performance of OSCs, it is necessary to understand the losses associated with the open-circuit voltage and how best it can be improved. Here, an analytical expression for the open-circuit voltage of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) OSCs is derived from the charge carrier densities without considering the drift-diffusion current. The open-circuit voltage thus obtained is dependent on the donor-acceptor band gap, the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the hole quasi-Fermi level of the donor material, temperature, the carrier density (electrons), the generation rate of free charge carriers and the bimolecular recombination coefficient. It is found that open-circuit voltage increases when the carrier density increases and when the temperature decreases. The calculated results are discussed in view of experimental results and agree with them reasonably well. Overall, this work proposes an alternative pathway for improving the open-circuit voltage in BHJ OSCs.

Keywords: charge carrier density, open-circuit voltage, organic solar cells, temperature

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2366 Development of Open Source Geospatial Certification Model Based on Geospatial Technology Competency Model

Authors: Tanzeel Ur Rehman Khan, Franz Josef Behr, Phillip Davis

Abstract:

Open source geospatial certifications are needed in geospatial technology education and industry sector. In parallel with proprietary software, free and open source software solutions become important in geospatial technology research and play an important role for the growth of the geospatial industry. ESRI, GISCI (GIS Certification Institute), ASPRS (American Society of Photogrammetry and remote sensing), and Meta spatial are offering certifications on proprietary and open source software. These are portfolio and competency based certifications depending on GIS Body of Knowledge (Bok). The analysis of these certification approaches might lead to the discovery of some gaps in them and will open a new way to develop certifications related to the geospatial open source (OS). This new certification will investigate the different geospatial competencies according to open source tools that help to identify geospatial professionals and strengthen the geospatial academic content. The goal of this research is to introduce a geospatial certification model based on geospatial technology competency model (GTCM).The developed certification will not only incorporate the importance of geospatial education and production of the geospatial competency-based workforce in universities and companies (private or public) as well as describe open source solutions with tools and technology. Job analysis, market analysis, survey analysis of this certification opens a new horizon for business as well.

Keywords: geospatial certification, open source, geospatial technology competency model, geoscience

Procedia PDF Downloads 474
2365 Design of Open Framework Based Smart ESS Profile for PV-ESS and UPS-ESS

Authors: Young-Su Ryu, Won-Gi Jeon, Byoung-Chul Song, Jae-Hong Park, Ki-Won Kwon

Abstract:

In this paper, an open framework based smart energy storage system (ESS) profile for photovoltaic (PV)-ESS and uninterruptible power supply (UPS)-ESS is proposed and designed. An open framework based smart ESS is designed and developed for unifying the different interfaces among manufacturers. The smart ESS operates under the profile which provides the specifications of peripheral devices such as different interfaces and to the open framework. The profile requires well systemicity and expandability for addible peripheral devices. Especially, the smart ESS should provide the expansion with existing systems such as UPS and the linkage with new renewable energy technology such as PV. This paper proposes and designs an open framework based smart ESS profile for PV-ESS and UPS-ESS. The designed profile provides the existing smart ESS and also the expandability of additional peripheral devices on smart ESS such as PV and UPS.

Keywords: energy storage system (ESS), open framework, profile, photovoltaic (PV), uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

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2364 Open and Distance Learning (ODL) Education in Nigeria: Challenge of Academic Quality

Authors: Edu Marcelina, Sule Sheidu A., Nsor Eunice

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As open and distance education is gradually becoming an acceptable means of solving the problem of access in higher education, quality has now become one of the main concerns among institutions and stakeholders of open and distance learning (ODL) and the education sector in general. This study assessed the challenges of academic quality in the open and distance learning (ODL) education in Nigeria using Distance Learning Institute (DLI), University of Lagos and National Open University of Nigeria as a case. In carrying out the study, a descriptive survey research design was employed. A researcher-designed and validated questionnaire was used to elicit responses that translated to the quantitative data for this study. The sample comprised 665 students of the Distance Learning Institute (DLI), and National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), carefully selected through the method of simple random sampling. Data collected from the study were analyzed using Chi-Square (X2) at 0.05 Level of significance. The results of the analysis revealed that; the use of ICT tools is a factor in ensuring quality in the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) operations; the quality of the materials made available to ODL students will determine the quality of education that will be received by the students; and the time scheduled for students for self-study, online lecturing/interaction and face to face study and the quality of education in Open and Distance Learning Institutions has a lot of impact on the quality of education the students receive. Based on the findings, a number of recommendations were made.

Keywords: open and distance learning, quality, ICT, face-to-face interaction

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2363 Evaluation of Japanese Kyoto Park in Terms of User Satisfaction

Authors: Ruhugül Özge Gemici

Abstract:

The need for open space, which is an important problem especially since the 19th century, has become more important in today's conditions. The most important factor in increasing the livability of cities is the open and green areas. Parks are the most important of the urban open and green space elements that provide the most benefit to users. In this context, the user satisfaction of the Japanese Kyoto Park, which is the subject of the research, was evaluated in the light of the questionnaires. With this analysis, the satisfaction level of the user using the park was determined. Suggestions have been developed for the park to be handled and regulated according to the user requests and requirements changing over time.

Keywords: landscape, landscape design, open and green spaces, sculpture

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2362 Customization of Moodle Open Source LMS for Tanzania Secondary Schools’ Use

Authors: Ellen A. Kalinga

Abstract:

Moodle is an open source learning management system that enables creation of a powerful and flexible learning environment. Many organizations, especially learning institutions have customized Moodle open source LMS for their own use. In general open source LMSs are of great interest due to many advantages they offer in terms of cost, usage and freedom to customize to fit a particular context. Tanzania Secondary School e-Learning (TanSSe-L) system is the learning management system for Tanzania secondary schools. TanSSe-L system was developed using a number of methods, one of them being customization of Moodle Open Source LMS. This paper presents few areas on the way Moodle OS LMS was customized to produce a functional TanSSe-L system fitted to the requirements and specifications of Tanzania secondary schools’ context.

Keywords: LMS, Moodle, e-learning, Tanzania, secondary school

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
2361 Experimental Study of Discharge with Sharp-Crested Weirs

Authors: E. Keramaris, V. Kanakoudis

Abstract:

In this study the water flow in an open channel over a sharp-crested weir is investigated experimentally. For this reason a series of laboratory experiments were performed in an open channel with a sharp-crested weir. The maximum head expected over the weir, the total upstream water height and the downstream water height of the impact in the constant bed of the open channel were measured. The discharge was measured using a tank put right after the open channel. In addition, the discharge and the upstream velocity were also calculated using already known equations. The main finding is that the relative error percentage for the majority of the experimental measurements is ± 4%, meaning that the calculation of the discharge with a sharp-crested weir gives very good results compared to the numerical results from known equations.

Keywords: sharp-crested weir, weir height, flow measurement, open channel flow

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2360 Phytoremediation of Lead Polluted Soils with Native Weeds in Nigeria

Authors: Comfort Adeoye, Anthony Eneji

Abstract:

Lead pollution by mining, industrial dumping, and other anthropogenic uses are corroding the environment. Efforts being made to control it include physical, chemical and biological methods. The failure of the aforementioned methods are largely due to the fact that they are cumbersome, expensive, and not eco-friendly. Some plant species can be used for remediation of these pollutants. The objective of this work is to investigate the abilities of two native weed species to remediate two lead-polluted soils: a) Battery dumpsite and, (b) Naturally occurring lead mine. Soil samples were taken from the two sites: a) Kumapayi in Ibadan, a battery dumpsite, (b) Zamfara, a natural lead mine. Screen house experiment in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) replicated three times was carried out at I.I.T.A. Unpolluted soils were collected and polluted with various rates of lead concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5%. These were planted with weed species. Plant growth parameters were monitored for twelve weeks, after which the plants were harvested. Dry weight and plant uptake of the lead were taken. Analysis of data was carried out using, Genstat, Excel and descriptive statistics. Relative concentration of lead (Pb) in the above and below ground parts of Gomphrena celusoides revealed that a higher amount of Pb is taken up in the root compared with the shoots at different levels of Pb pollution. However, lead uptake at 0.5% > 0.2% > 0.1% > Control. In essence, phytoremediation of Gomphrena is highest at soil pollution of 0.5% and its retention is greater in the root than the shoot.In S. pyramidalis, soil retention ranges from 0.1% > 0.5% > 0.2% > control. Uptake is highest at 0.5% > 0.1% > 0.2 in stem. Uptake in leaves is highest at 0.2%, but none in the 0.5% pollution. Therefore, different plant species exhibited different accumulative mode probably due to their physiological and rooting systems. Gomphrena spp. rooting system is tap root,while that of S.pyramidalis is fibrous.

Keywords: grass, lead, phytoremediation, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
2359 On the Inequality between Queue Length and Virtual Waiting Time in Open Queueing Networks under Conditions of Heavy Traffic

Authors: Saulius Minkevicius, Edvinas Greicius

Abstract:

The paper is devoted to the analysis of queueing systems in the context of the network and communications theory. We investigate the inequality in an open queueing network and its applications to the theorems in heavy traffic conditions (fluid approximation, functional limit theorem, and law of the iterated logarithm) for a queue of customers in an open queueing network.

Keywords: fluid approximation, heavy traffic, models of information systems, open queueing network, queue length of customers, queueing theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
2358 Friendly Public Spaces in Iran

Authors: Bibi Somayeh Aliakbari, Niknaz Kachooei, Fatemeh Amiri Najafabadi

Abstract:

According to the results of contemporary urbanism, social living moved into buildings and the quality of urban space has been declining. But still, there are life in open public space and it is one of reason attendance and activities of people in open public spaces.The purpose of this research is finding reason creation friendly public space in urban spaces and also use these in new urban spaces.The research methodology consisted of a qualitative model based on observation and graphical analysis. In this paper case study is public space historical, moderns in urban scales and local scales in Iran.This paper shows that Existence of friendly public space in cities cause is attendance and activities of people in open public spaces that it is reason the revitalization of public open spaces in cities.

Keywords: public space, public open space, friendly public space, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 413