Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 231

Search results for: 4fn- <->4fn-1 5d transitions

231 Phase Transitions of Cerium and Neodymium

Authors: M. Khundadze, V. Varazashvili, N. Lejava, R. Jorbenadze


Phase transitions of cerium and neodymium are investigated by using high-temperature scanning calorimeter (HT-1500 Seteram). For cerium two types of transformation are detected: at 350-372 K - hexagonal close packing (hcp) - face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transition, and at 880-960K the face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transformation into body-centered cubic lattice (bcc). For neodymium changing of hexagonal close packing (hcp) into the body-centered cubic lattice (bcc) is detected at 1093-1113K. The thermal characteristics of transitions – enthalpy, entropy, temperature domains – are reported.

Keywords: cerium, calorimetry, enthalpy of phase transitions, neodymium

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230 Exploring Transitions between Communal- and Market-Based Knowledge Sharing

Authors: Benbya Hind, Belbaly Nassim


Markets and communities are often cast as alternative forms of knowledge sharing, but an open question is how and why people dynamically transition between them. To study these transitions, we design a technology that allows geographically distributed participants to either buy knowledge (using virtual points) or request it for free. We use a data-driven, inductive approach, studying 550 members in over 5000 interactions, during nine months. Because the technology offered participants choices between market or community forms, we can document both individual and collective transitions that emerge as people cycle between these forms. Our inductive analysis revealed that uncertainties endemic to knowledge sharing were the impetus for these transitions. Communities evoke uncertainties about knowledge sharing’s costs and benefits, which markets resolve by quantifying explicit prices. However, if people manipulate markets, they create uncertainties about the validity of those prices, allowing communities to reemerge to establish certainty via identity-based validation.

Keywords: knowledge sharing, communities, information technology design, transitions, markets

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229 Thermal Effects of Phase Transitions of Cerium and Neodymium

Authors: M. Khundadze, V. Varazashvili, N. Lejava, R. Jorbenadze


Phase transitions of cerium and neodymium are investigated by using high temperature scanning calorimeter (HT-1500 Seteram). For cerium two types of transformation are detected: at 350-372 K - hexagonal close packing (hcp) - face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transition, and in 880-960K the face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transformation into body-centered cubic lattice (bcc). For neodymium changing of hexagonal close packing (hcp) into body-centered cubic lattice (bcc) is detected at 1093-1113K. The thermal characteristics of transitions – enthalpy, entropy, temperature domains – are reported.

Keywords: cerium, calorimetry, neodymium, enthalpy of phase transitions, neodymium

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228 Sol-Gel Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of YPO4: Pr3+ Nanophosphors

Authors: Badis Kahouadji, Lakhdar Guerbous, Lyes Lamiri


For many years, the luminescent materials were investigated principally in the infrared and visible areas, because the ultraviolet (UV) and especially in vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) are technically more difficult to explore, especially absence of applications requiring of materials suitable to short wavelengths.Recent necessary, related to the development of certain technologies, encouraged research in these spectra domains. It is in this context that the 4Fn-4Fn-1 5d transitions of rare earth in insulating materials, lying in the UV and VUV, are the aim of large number of studies. These studies relate in particular to search for new scintillator materials used for spectroscopy and X-ray, ɤ, as well as medical imaging. The 4Fn- 4Fn-15d transitions of the rare earth dependent to the host-matrix, several matrices ions were used to study these transitions, in this work we are suggeting to study on a very specific class of inorganic scintillators that are orthophosphate doped with rare earth ions, this study focused on the Pr3+ concentration on the structural and optical properties of Pr3+ doped YPO4 (yttriumorthophosphate) with powder form prepared by the Sol Gel method.

Keywords: rare earth, scintillator, YPO4:Pr3+ nanophosphors, sol gel, 4Fn-4Fn-15d transitions

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227 Crystal Structures and High-Temperature Phase Transitions of the New Ordered Double Perovskites SrCaCoTeO6 and SrCaNiTeO6

Authors: Asmaa Zaraq


In the present work we report X-ray powder diffraction measurements of SrCaCoTeO6 and SrCaNiTeO6, at different temperatures. The crystal structures at room temperature of both compounds are determined; and results showing the existence of high-temperature phase transitions in them are presented. Both compounds have double perovskite structure with 1:1 ordered arrangement of the B site cations. At room temperature their symmetries are described with the P21/n space group, that correspond to the (a+b-b-) tilt system. The evolution with temperature of the structure of both compounds shows the presence of three phase transitions: a continuous one, at 450 and 500 K, a discontinuous one, at 700 and 775 K, and a continuous one at 900 and 950 K for SrCaCoTeO6 and SrCaNiTeO6, respectively with the following phase-transition sequence: P21/n → I2/m → I4/m → Fm-3m.

Keywords: double perovskites, caracterisation DRX, transition de phase

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226 Structural and Optical Properties of Ce3+ Doped YPO4: Nanophosphors Synthesis by Sol Gel Method

Authors: B. Kahouadji, L. Guerbous, L. Lamiri, A. Mendoud


Recently, nanomaterials are developed in the form of nano-films, nano-crystals and nano-pores. Lanthanide phosphates as a material find extensive application as laser, ceramic, sensor, phosphor, and also in optoelectronics, medical and biological labels, solar cells and light sources. Among the different kinds of rare-earth orthophosphates, yttrium orthophosphate has been shown to be an efficient host lattice for rare earth activator ions, which have become a research focus because of their important role in the field of light display systems, lasers, and optoelectronic devices. It is in this context that the 4fn- « 4fn-1 5d transitions of rare earth in insulating materials, lying in the UV and VUV, are the aim of large number of studies .Though there has been a few reports on Eu3+, Nd3+, Pr3+,Er3+, Ce3+, Tm3+ doped YPO4. The 4fn- « 4fn-1 5d transitions of the rare earth dependent to the host-matrix, several matrices ions were used to study these transitions, in this work we are suggesting to study on a very specific class of inorganic material that are orthophosphate doped with rare earth ions. This study focused on the effect of Ce3+ concentration on the structural and optical properties of Ce3+ doped YPO4 yttrium orthophosphate with powder form prepared by the Sol Gel method.

Keywords: YPO4, Ce3+, 4fn- <->4fn-1 5d transitions, scintillator

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225 Family Caregiver Transitions and Health in Old Age: A Longitudinal Perspective

Authors: Cecilia Fagerstrom, Solve Elmstahl, Lena S. Wranker


The conditions of increased morbidity in an aging population cause the need for family care to become more common at an advanced age. The role of family caregivers may well last for a long time but may also change over time, from being caregivers to being non-caregivers or vice versa. Although demands associated with family caring change as individuals enter into, engage with, and exit from this role, the evidence regarding the impact of family caregiving transitions on the health of older carers is still limited. This study comprised individuals (n=2294, 60+years) from the southern part of Sweden included in the project Swedish National study of Aging and Care. Caregiving transitions are discussed in the categories: enter, exit, and continuing during a six-year period. Individuals who exited caregiving during the time were older than those who continued or entered into the role of caregiving. At the six-year follow-up, caregivers who were continuing or had exited caregiving were more often worried about their own health compared to baseline. Resembling findings were not found in those who entered caregiving. Family caregiving transitions of exiting, entering or continuing had no effect on the individuals’ functional, physical and mental health expect for participants who entered in caregiving. For them, entering the role of family caregiving was associated with an improvement in physical health during the six years follow up period. Conclusion: Although the health impact of different caregiving transitions in late life does not differ, individual conditions and health at baseline are important parameters to take into consideration to improve long-term health in family caregivers.

Keywords: family caregiving, health, old age, transition

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224 Yang-Lee Edge Singularity of the Infinite-Range Ising Model

Authors: Seung-Yeon Kim


The Ising model, consisting magnetic spins, is the simplest system showing phase transitions and critical phenomena at finite temperatures. The Ising model has played a central role in our understanding of phase transitions and critical phenomena. Also, the Ising model explains the gas-liquid phase transitions accurately. However, the Ising model in a nonzero magnetic field has been one of the most intriguing and outstanding unsolved problems. We study analytically the partition function zeros in the complex magnetic-field plane and the Yang-Lee edge singularity of the infinite-range Ising model in an external magnetic field. In addition, we compare the Yang-Lee edge singularity of the infinite-range Ising model with that of the square-lattice Ising model in an external magnetic field.

Keywords: Ising ferromagnet, magnetic field, partition function zeros, Yang-Lee edge singularity

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223 Structural Properties of CuCl, CuBr, and CuI Compounds under Hydrostatic Pressure

Authors: S. Louhibi-Fasla, H. Rekab Djabri, H. Achour


The aim of this work is to investigate the structural phase-transitions and electronic properties of copper halides. Our calculations were performed within the PLW extension to the first principle FPLMTO method, which enables an accurate treatment of all kinds of structures including the open ones. Results are given for lattice parameters, bulk modulus and its first derivatives in five different surface phases, and are compared with the available theoretical and experimental data. In the zinc-blende (B3) and PbO (B10) phases, the fundamental gap remains direct with both the top of VB and the bottom of CB located at Γ.

Keywords: FPLMTO, structural properties, Copper halides, phase transitions, ground state phase

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222 Agrarian Transitions and Rural Social Relations in Jharkhand, India

Authors: Avinash


Rural Jharkhand has attracted lesser attention in the field of agrarian studies in India, despite more than eighty percent of its rural population being directly dependent on agriculture as their primary source of livelihood. The limited studies on agrarian issues in Jharkhand have focused predominantly on the subsistence nature of agriculture and low crop productivity. There has also not been much research on agrarian social relations between ‘tribe’ and ‘non-tribe’ communities in the region. This paper is an attempt to understand changing agrarian social relations between tribal and non-tribal communities relating them to different kinds of agrarian transitions taking place in two districts of Jharkhand - Palamu and Khunti. In the Palamu region, agrarian relations are dominated by the presence and significant population size of Hindu high caste land owners, whereas in the Khunti region, agrarian relations are characterized by the population size and dominance of tribes and lower caste land owner cum cultivators. The agrarian relations between ‘upper castes’ and ‘tribes’ in these regions are primarily related to agricultural daily wage labour. However, the agrarian social relations between Dalits and tribal people take the form of ‘communal system of labour exchange’ and ‘household-based labour’. In addition, the ethnographic study of the region depicts steady agrarian transitions (especially shift from indigenous to ‘High Yielding Variety’ (HYV) paddy seeds and growing vegetable cultivation) where ‘Non-Governmental Organizations’ (NGOs) and agricultural input manufacturers and suppliers are playing a critical role in agrarian transitions as intermediaries. While agricultural productivity still remains low, both the regions are witnessing slow but gradual agrarian transitions. Rural-urban linkages in the form of seasonal labour migration are creating capital and technical inflows that are transforming agricultural activities. This study describes and interprets the above changes through the lens of ‘regional rurality’.

Keywords: agrarian transitions, rural Jharkhand, regional rurality, tribe and non-tribe

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221 Magnetic Structure and Transitions in 45% Mn Substituted HoFeO₃: A Neutron Diffraction Study

Authors: Karthika Chandran, Pulkit Prakash, Amitabh Das, Santhosh P. N.


Rare earth orthoferrites (RFeO₃) exhibit interesting and useful magnetic properties like multiferroicity, magnetodielectric coupling, spin reorientation (SR) and exchange bias. B site doped RFeO₃ are attracting attention due to the complex and tuneable magnetic transitions. In this work, 45% Mn-doped HoFeO₃ polycrystalline sample (HoFe₀.₅₅Mn₀.₄₅O₃) was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. The magnetic structure and transitions were studied by magnetization measurements and neutron powder diffraction methods. The neutron diffraction patterns were taken at 13 different temperatures from 7°K to 300°K (7°K and 25°K to 300°K in 25°K intervals). The Rietveld refinement was carried out by using a FULLPROF suite. The magnetic space groups and the irreducible representations were obtained by SARAh module. The room temperature neutron diffraction refinement results indicate that the sample crystallizes in an orthorhombic perovskite structure with Pnma space group with lattice parameters a = 5.6626(3) Ǻ, b = 7.5241(3) Ǻ and c = 5.2704(2) Ǻ. The temperature dependent magnetization (M-T) studies indicate the presence of two magnetic transitions in the system ( TN Fe/Mn~330°K and TSR Fe/Mn ~290°K). The inverse susceptibility vs. temperature curve shows a linear behavior above 330°K. The Curie-Weiss fit in this region gives negative Curie constant (-34.9°K) indicating the antiferromagnetic nature of the transition. The neutron diffraction refinement results indicate the presence of mixed magnetic phases Γ₄(AₓFᵧG

Keywords: neutron powder diffraction, rare earth orthoferrites, Rietveld analysis, spin reorientation

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220 Dripping Modes of Newtonian Liquids: The Effect of Nozzle Inclination

Authors: Amaraja Taur, Pankaj Doshi, Hak Koon Yeoh


The dripping modes for a Newtonian liquid of viscosity µ emanating from an inclined nozzle at flow rate Q is investigated experimentally. As the liquid flow rate Q increases, starting with period-1 with satellite drops, the system transitions to period-1 dripping without satellite, then to limit cycle before showing chaotic responses. Phase diagrams shows the changes in the transitions between the different dripping modes for different nozzle inclination angle θ is constructed in the dimensionless (Q, µ) space.

Keywords: dripping, inclined nozzle, phase diagram, satellite

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219 Phase Diagram Including a Negative Pressure Region for a Thermotropic Liquid Crystal in a Metal Berthelot Tube

Authors: K. Hiro, T. Wada


Thermodynamic properties of liquids under negative pressures are interesting and important in fields of scienceand technology. Here, phase transitions of a thermotropic liquid crystal are investigatedin a range from positive to negative pressures with a metal Berthelot tube using a commercial pressure transducer.Two co-existinglines, namely crystal (Kr) – nematic (N), and isotropic liquid (I) - nematic (N) lines, weredrawn in a pressure - temperature plane. The I-N line was drawn to ca. -5 (MPa).

Keywords: Berthelot method, liquid crystal, negative pressure, phase transitions

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218 Analytic Solutions of Solitary Waves in Three-Level Unbalanced Dense Media

Authors: Sofiane Grira, Hichem Eleuch


We explore the analytical soliton-pair solutions for unbalanced coupling between the two coherent lights and the atomic transitions in a dissipative three-level system in lambda configuration. The two allowed atomic transitions are interacting resonantly with two laser fields. For unbalanced coupling, it is possible to derive an explicit solution for non-linear differential equations describing the soliton-pair propagation in this three-level system with the same velocity. We suppose that the spontaneous emission rates from the excited state to both ground states are the same. In this work, we focus on such case where we consider the coupling between the transitions and the optical fields are unbalanced. The existence conditions for the soliton-pair propagations are determined. We will show that there are four possible configurations of the soliton-pair pulses. Two of them can be interpreted as a couple of solitons with same directions of polarization and the other two as soliton-pair with opposite directions of polarization. Due to the fact that solitons have stable shapes while propagating in the considered media, they are insensitive to noise and dispersion. Our results have potential applications in data transfer with the soliton-pair pulses, where a dissipative three-level medium could be a realistic model for the optical communication media.

Keywords: non-linear differential equations, solitons, wave propagations, optical fiber

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217 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Supercooled Water in Nanoporous Confinement and Biological Systems

Authors: Viktor Soprunyuk, Wilfried Schranz, Patrick Huber


In the present work, we show that Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) with a measurement frequency range f= 0.2 - 100 Hz is a rather powerful technique for the study of phase transitions (freezing and melting) and glass transitions of water in geometrical confinement. Inserting water into nanoporous host matrices, like e.g. Gelsil (size of pores 2.6 nm and 5 nm) or Vycor (size of pores 10 nm) allows one to study size effects occurring at the nanoscale conveniently in macroscopic bulk samples. One obtains valuable insight concerning confinement induced changes of the dynamics by measuring the temperature and frequency dependencies of the complex Young's modulus Y* for various pore sizes. Solid-liquid transitions or glass-liquid transitions show up in a softening or the real part Y' of the complex Young's modulus, yet with completely different frequency dependencies. Analysing the frequency dependent imaginary part of the Young´s modulus in the glass transition regions for different pore sizes we find a clear-cut 1/d-dependence of the calculated glass transition temperatures which extrapolates to Tg(1/d=0)=136 K, in agreement with the traditional value of water. The results indicate that the main role of the pore diameter is the relative amount of water molecules that are near an interface within a length scale of the order of the dynamic correlation length x. Thus we argue that the observed strong pore size dependence of Tg is an interfacial effect, rather than a finite size effect. We obtained similar signatures of Y* near glass transitions in different biological objects (fruits, vegetables, and bread). The values of the activation energies for these biological materials in the region of glass transition are quite similar to the values of the activation energies of supercooled water in the nanoporous confinement in this region. The present work was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF, project Nr. P 28672 – N36).

Keywords: biological systems, liquids, glasses, amorphous systems, nanoporous materials, phase transition

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216 The Spectral Power Amplification on the Regular Lattices

Authors: Kotbi Lakhdar, Hachi Mostefa


We show that a simple transformation between the regular lattices (the square, the triangular, and the honeycomb) belonging to the same dimensionality can explain in a natural way the universality of the critical exponents found in phase transitions and critical phenomena. It suffices that the Hamiltonian and the lattice present similar writing forms. In addition, it appears that if a property can be calculated for a given lattice then it can be extrapolated simply to any other lattice belonging to the same dimensionality. In this study, we have restricted ourselves on the spectral power amplification (SPA), we note that the SPA does not have an effect on the critical exponents but does have an effect by the criticality temperature of the lattice; the generalisation to other lattice could be shown according to the containment principle.

Keywords: ising model, phase transitions, critical temperature, critical exponent, spectral power amplification

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215 Rashba Spin Orbit Interaction Effect on Multiphoton Optical Transitions in a Quantum Dot for Bioimaging

Authors: Pradip Kumar Jha, Manoj Kumar


We demonstrate in this work the effect of Rashba spin orbit interaction on multiphoton optical transitions of a quantum dot in the presence of THz laser field and external static magnetic field. This combination is solved by accurate non-perturbative Floquet theory. Investigations are made for the optical response of intraband transition between the various states of the conduction band with spin flipping. Enhancement and power broadening observed for excited states probabilities with increase of external fields are directly linked to the emission spectra of QD and will be useful for making future bioimaging devices.

Keywords: bioimaging, multiphoton processes, spin orbit interaction, quantum dot

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214 Superconducting Properties of Fe Doped in Cu-Site of Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3-xFexOy

Authors: M. A. Suazlina, H. Azhan, S. A. Syamsyir, S. Y. S. Yusainee


Fe2O3 was doped to Bi-2223 superconductor prepared in bulk form using high purity oxide powders via solid state reaction technique with intermediate grinding. A stiochiometric of x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10 Fe are systematically added to the well balanced Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3-xFexOy in order to trace the effect of Fe doping to the system. Microstructure, resistive transitions, phase volume, and cell parameters were hence investigated. Substitution of Fe is found to slowly decrease the Bi-2223 phase volume and the resistive transitions for x=0.00 – 0.10 samples whereas accelerated formation of the Bi-2212 phase is detected for further substitutions. Changes in superconducting properties of Fe-doping Bi-2223 system were discussed and the findings were further compared with available literature.

Keywords: BSCCO, critical temperature, critical current density, XRD, flux pinning

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213 Green, Yellow, Orange and Red Emission of Sm3+ Doped Borotellurite Glass under the 480nm Excitation Wavelength

Authors: M. R. S. Nasuha, K. Azman, H. Azhan, S. A. Senawi, A . Mardhiah


Sm3+ doped borotellurite glasses of the system (70-x) TeO2-20B2O3-10ZnO-xSm2O3 (where x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mol%) have been prepared using melt-quenching method. Their physical properties such as density, molar volume and oxygen packing density as well as the optical measurements by mean of their absorption and emission characteristic have been carried out at room temperature using UV/VIS and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. The result of physical properties is found to vary with respect to Sm3+ ions content. Meanwhile, three strong absorption peaks are observed and are well resolved in the ultraviolet and visible regions due to transitions between the ground state and various excited state of Sm3+ ions. Thus, the photoluminescence spectra exhibit four emission bands from the initial state, which correspond to the 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2, 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H11/2 fluorescence transitions at 562 nm, 599 nm, 645 nm, and 706 nm, respectively.

Keywords: absorption, borotellurite, emission, optical, physical

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212 Theoretical Study of Electronic Structure of Erbium (Er), Fermium (Fm), and Nobelium (No)

Authors: Saleh O. Allehabi, V. A. Dzubaa, V. V. Flambaum, Jiguang Li, A. V. Afanasjev, S. E. Agbemava


Recently developed versions of the configuration method for open shells, configuration interaction with perturbation theory (CIPT), and configuration interaction with many-body perturbation theory (CI+MBPT) techniques are used to study the electronic structure of Er, Fm, and No atoms. Excitation energies of odd states connected to the even ground state by electric dipole transitions, the corresponding transition rates, isotope shift, hyperfine structure, ionization potentials, and static scalar polarizabilities are calculated. The way of extracting parameters of nuclear charge distribution beyond nuclear root mean square (RMS) radius, e.g., a parameter of quadrupole deformation β, is demonstrated. In nuclei with spin > 1/2, parameter β is extracted from the quadrupole hyperfine structure. With zero nuclear spin or spin 1/2, it is impossible since quadrupole zero, so a different method was developed. The measurements of at least two atomic transitions are needed to disentangle the contributions of the changes in deformation and nuclear RMS radius into field isotopic shift. This is important for testing nuclear theory and for searching for the hypothetical island of stability. Fm and No are heavy elements approaching the superheavy region, for which the experimental data are very poor, only seven lines for the Fm element and one line for the No element. Since Er and Fm have similar electronic structures, calculations for Er serve as a guide to the accuracy of the calculations. Twenty-eight new levels of Fm atom are reported.

Keywords: atomic spectra, electronic transitions, isotope effect, electron correlation calculations for atoms

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211 Governance of Energy Transitions in Developing States

Authors: Robert Lindner


In recent years a multitude of international efforts, including the United Nations’ aspirational 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, provided a new momentum to facilitate energy access and rural electrification projects to combat energy poverty in developing states in Asia. Rural electrification projects promise to facilitate other sustainable development aims, such as the empowerment of local communities through the creation of economic opportunities or increased disaster resilience. This study applies a multi-governance research framework to study the cases of the ongoing energy system transition in Myanmar and Cambodia. It explores what impact the international aid community, especially multilateral development banks and international development agencies, has on the governance of the transitions and how diverging aid donor interest shape policy making and project planning. The study is based on policy analysis and expert interviews, as well as extensive field research. It critically examines the current development trajectories and the strategies of the stakeholders involved. It concludes that institutional and technological competition between donors, as well as a lack of transparency and inclusion in the project planning and implementation phases, contributes to insufficient coordination in national energy policy making and project implementation at the local level. The study further discusses possible alternative approaches that might help to promote the spread of sustainable energy technologies.

Keywords: energy governance, developing countries, multi-level governance, energy transitions

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210 Analyzing the Factors That Influence Students' Professional Identity Using Hierarchical Regression Analysis to Ease Higher Education Transition

Authors: Alba Barbara-i-Molinero, Rosalia Cascon Pereira, Ana Beatriz Hernandez Lara


Our general motivation in undertaking this study is to propose alternative measures to lighten students experienced tensions during the transitions from high school to higher education based on the concept of professional identity strength. In order to do so, we measured the influence that three different factors external motivational conditionals, educational experience conditionals and personal motivation conditionals exerted over students’ professional identity strength and proposed the measures considering the obtained results. By using hierarchical regression analysis we addressed this issue, across disciplines and bachelor degrees, allowing us to gain also deeper insight into first-year university students PID. Our findings suggest that students’ from the different disciplines are influenced by personal motivational conditionals; while students from sciences are also influenced by external motivational conditionals. Based on the obtained results we propose three different alternative educational and recruitment strategies which aim to increase students’ professional identity strength and reduce the tensions generated during high school-university transitions. From this study theoretical contributions regarding the differences in the influence of these factors on students from different bachelor degrees arise; and practical implications for universities, derived from the proposed strategies.

Keywords: professional identity, transitions, higher education, strategies

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209 Land-Use Transitions and Its Implications on Food Production Systems in Rural Landscape of Southwestern Ghana

Authors: Evelyn Asante Yeboah, Kwabena O. Asubonteng, Justice Camillus Mensah, Christine Furst


Smallholder-dominated mosaic landscapes in rural Africa are relevant for food production, biodiversity conservation, and climate regulation. Land-use transitions threaten the multifunctionality of such landscapes, especially the production capacity of arable lands resulting in food security challenges. Using land-cover maps derived from maximum likelihood classification of Landsat satellite images for the years 2002, 2015, and 2020, post-classification change detection, landscape metrics, and key informant interviews, the study assessed the implications of rubber plantation expansion and oil business development on the food production capacity of Ahanta West District, Ghana. The analysis reveals that settlement and rubber areas expanded by 5.82% and 10.33% of the landscape area, respectively, between 2002 and 2020. This increase translates into over twice their initial sizes (144% in settlement change and 101% in rubber change). Rubber plantation spread dominates the north and southwestern areas, whereas settlement is widespread in the eastern parts of the landscape. Rubber and settlement expanded at the expense of cropland, palm, and shrublands. Land-use transitions between cropland, palm, and shrubland were targeting each other, but the net loss in shrubland was higher (-17.27%). Isolation, subdivision, connectedness, and patch adjacency indices showed patch consolidation in the landscape configuration from 2002 to 2015 and patch fragmentation from 2015 to 2020. The study also found patches with consistent increasing connectivity in settlement areas indicating the influence of oil discovery developments and fragmentation tendencies in rubber, shrubland, cropland, and palm, indicating springing up of smaller rubber farms, the disappearance of shrubland, and splitting up of cropland and palm areas respectively. The results revealed a trend in land-use transitions in favor of smallholder rubber plantation expansion and oil discovery developments, which suggest serious implications on food production systems and poses a risk for food security and landscape multifunctional characteristics. To ensure sustainability in land uses, this paper recommends the enforcement of legislative instruments governing spatial planning and land use in Ghana as embedded in the 2016 land-use and spatial planning act.

Keywords: food production systems, food security, Ghana’s west coast, land-use transitions, multifunctional rural landscapes

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208 Performing Arts and Performance Art: Interspaces and Flexible Transitions

Authors: Helmi Vent


This four-year artistic research project has set the goal of exploring the adaptable transitions within the realms between the two genres. This paper will single out one research question from the entire project for its focus, namely on how and under what circumstances such transitions between a reinterpretation and a new creation can take place during the performative process. The film documentation that accompany the project were produced at the Mozarteum University in Salzburg, Austria, as well as on diverse everyday stages at various locations. The model institution that hosted the project is the LIA – Lab Inter Arts, under the direction of Helmi Vent. LIA combines artistic research with performative applications. The project participants are students from various artistic fields of study. The film documentation forms a central platform for the entire project. They function as audiovisual records of performative performative origins and development processes, while serving as the basis for analysis and evaluation, including the self-evaluation of the recorded material and they also serve as illustrative and discussion material in relation to the topic of this paper. Regarding the “interspaces” and variable 'transitions': The performing arts in the western cultures generally orient themselves toward existing original compositions – most often in the interconnected fields of music, dance and theater – with the goal of reinterpreting and rehearsing a pre-existing score, choreographed work, libretto or script and presenting that respective piece to an audience. The essential tool in this reinterpretation process is generally the artistic ‘language’ performers learn over the course of their main studies. Thus, speaking is combined with singing, playing an instrument is combined with dancing, or with pictorial or sculpturally formed works, in addition to many other variations. If the Performing Arts would rid themselves of their designations from time to time and initially follow the emerging, diffusely gliding transitions into the unknown, the artistic language the performer has learned then becomes a creative resource. The illustrative film excerpts depicting the realms between Performing Arts and Performance Art present insights into the ways the project participants embrace unknown and explorative processes, thus allowing the genesis of new performative designs or concepts to be invented between the participants’ acquired cultural and artistic skills and their own creations – according to their own ideas and issues, sometimes with their direct involvement, fragmentary, provisional, left as a rough draft or fully composed. All in all, it is an evolutionary process and its key parameters cannot be distilled down to their essence. Rather, they stem from a subtle inner perception, from deep-seated emotions, imaginations, and non-discursive decisions, which ultimately result in an artistic statement rising to the visible and audible surface. Within these realms between performing arts and performance art and their extremely flexible transitions, exceptional opportunities can be found to grasp and realise art itself as a research process.

Keywords: art as research method, Lab Inter Arts ( LIA ), performing arts, performance art

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207 Strong Down-Conversion Emission of Sm3+ Doped Borotellurite Glass under the 480nm Excitation Wavelength

Authors: M. R. S. Nasuha, K. Azman, H. Azhan, S. A. Senawi, A. Mardhiah


Studies on Samarium doped glasses possess lot of interest due to their potential applications for high-density optical memory, optical communication device, the design of laser and color display etc. Sm3+ doped borotellurite glasses of the system (70-x) TeO2-20B2O3-10ZnO-xSm2O3 (where x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol%) have been prepared using melt-quenching method. Their physical properties such as density, molar volume and oxygen packing density as well as the optical measurements by mean of their absorption and emission characteristic have been carried out at room temperature using UV/VIS and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. The results of physical properties are found to vary with respect to Sm3+ ions content. Meanwhile, three strong absorption peaks are observed and are well resolved in the ultra violet and visible regions due to transitions between the ground state and various excited state of Sm3+ ions. Thus, the photoluminescence spectra exhibit four emission bands from the initial state, which correspond to the 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2, 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H11/2 fluorescence transitions at 562 nm, 599 nm, 645 nm and 706 nm respectively.

Keywords: absorption, borotellurite, down-conversion, emission

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206 Structure Clustering for Milestoning Applications of Complex Conformational Transitions

Authors: Amani Tahat, Serdal Kirmizialtin


Trajectory fragment methods such as Markov State Models (MSM), Milestoning (MS) and Transition Path sampling are the prime choice of extending the timescale of all atom Molecular Dynamics simulations. In these approaches, a set of structures that covers the accessible phase space has to be chosen a priori using cluster analysis. Structural clustering serves to partition the conformational state into natural subgroups based on their similarity, an essential statistical methodology that is used for analyzing numerous sets of empirical data produced by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. Local transition kernel among these clusters later used to connect the metastable states using a Markovian kinetic model in MSM and a non-Markovian model in MS. The choice of clustering approach in constructing such kernel is crucial since the high dimensionality of the biomolecular structures might easily confuse the identification of clusters when using the traditional hierarchical clustering methodology. Of particular interest, in the case of MS where the milestones are very close to each other, accurate determination of the milestone identity of the trajectory becomes a challenging issue. Throughout this work we present two cluster analysis methods applied to the cis–trans isomerism of dinucleotide AA. The choice of nucleic acids to commonly used proteins to study the cluster analysis is two fold: i) the energy landscape is rugged; hence transitions are more complex, enabling a more realistic model to study conformational transitions, ii) Nucleic acids conformational space is high dimensional. A diverse set of internal coordinates is necessary to describe the metastable states in nucleic acids, posing a challenge in studying the conformational transitions. Herein, we need improved clustering methods that accurately identify the AA structure in its metastable states in a robust way for a wide range of confused data conditions. The single linkage approach of the hierarchical clustering available in GROMACS MD-package is the first clustering methodology applied to our data. Self Organizing Map (SOM) neural network, that also known as a Kohonen network, is the second data clustering methodology. The performance comparison of the neural network as well as hierarchical clustering method is studied by means of computing the mean first passage times for the cis-trans conformational rates. Our hope is that this study provides insight into the complexities and need in determining the appropriate clustering algorithm for kinetic analysis. Our results can improve the effectiveness of decisions based on clustering confused empirical data in studying conformational transitions in biomolecules.

Keywords: milestoning, self organizing map, single linkage, structure clustering

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205 Photoluminescence Properties of Lu1.98Er0.02Ti2O7 Pyrochlore (A2B2O7) Phosphor

Authors: Esra Öztürk, Erkul Karacaoglu


Pyrochlores, having compounds of the general formula, A2B2O7 (A and B are metals/rare earths) are important class of materials thanks to having technological applications like in luminescence, ionic conductivity, nuclear waste immobilization etc. The rare earths included pyrochlore compounds have also potential photoluminescence characteristics. In this context, Er3+-activated Lu2Ti2O7 pyrochlore was chosen and synthesized through a high-temperature solid-state reaction route that was sintered under the open atmosphere in this study. The optimal reaction conditions to obtain expected single phase system, the thermal analysis (DTA/TG) were carried out. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to determine phase properties of the sample. The photoluminescence (PL) results were done to obtain excitation, emission and decay time properties by a PL spectrometer under room temperature. According to the PL, there are excitation bands at 352 nm, 388 nm, 423 nm and 453 nm that are due to 4I15/2 → 2G7/2, 4I15/2 → 4G11/2 and 4I15/2 → 4F5/2 transitions of Er3+ ions, respectively. The emission bands are placed at 582 nm, 677 nm and 762 nm that are associated with 2H11/2, 4S3/2 → 4I15/2, 4F9/2 → 4I15/2, 4I9/2 → 4I15/2 transitions of Er3+ ions, respectively.

Keywords: Er3+, Lu2Ti2O7, photoluminescence, pyrochlore, rare-earths

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204 Characterization of a LiFeOP₄ Battery Cell with Mechanical Responses

Authors: Ki-Yong Oh, Eunji Kwak, Due Su Son, Siheon Jung


A pouch type of 10 Ah LiFePO₄ battery cell is characterized with two mechanical responses: swelling and bulk force. Both responses vary upon the state of charge significantly, whereas voltage shows flat responses, suggesting that mechanical responses can become a sensitive gauge to characterize microstructure transformation of a battery cell. The derivative of swelling s with respect to capacity Q, (ds/dQ) and the derivative of force F with respect to capacity Q, (dF/dQ) more clearly identify phase transitions of cathode and anode electrodes in the overall charge process than the derivative of voltage V with respect to capacity Q, (dV/dQ). Especially, the force versus swelling curves over the state of charge clearly elucidates three different stiffness over the state of charge oriented from phase transitions: the α-phase, the β-phase, and the metastable solid-solution phase. The observation from mechanical responses suggests that macro-scale mechanical responses of a battery cell are directly correlated to microscopic transformation of a battery cell.

Keywords: force response, LiFePO₄ battery, strain response, stress response, swelling response

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203 Double Magnetic Phase Transition in the Intermetallic Compound Gd₂AgSi₃

Authors: Redrisse Djoumessi Fobasso, Baidyanath Sahu, Andre M. Strydom


The R₂TX₃ (R = rare-earth, T = transition, and X = s and p block element) series of compounds are interesting owing to their fascinating structural and magnetic properties. In this present work, we have studied the magnetic and physical properties of the new Gd₂AgSi₃ polycrystalline compound. The sample was synthesized by the arc-melting method and confirmed to crystallize in the tetragonal α-ThSi₂-type crystal structure with space group I4/amd. Dc– and ac–magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, electrical resistivity, and magnetoresistance measurements were performed on the new compound. The structure provides a unique position in the unit cell for the magnetic trivalent Gd ion. Two magnetic phase transitions were consistently found in dc- and ac-magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity at temperatures Tₙ₁ = 11 K and Tₙ₂ = 20 K, which is an indication of the complex magnetic behavior in this compound. The compound is found to be metamagnetic over a range of temperatures below and above Tₙ₁. From field-dependent electrical resistivity, it is confirmed that the compound shows unusual negative magnetoresistance in the antiferromagnetically ordered region. These results contribute to a better understanding of this class of materials.

Keywords: complex magnetic behavior, metamagnetic, negative magnetoresistance, two magnetic phase transitions

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202 Indigenous Healers and Indigenous Trauma: Healing at the Intersections of Colonial, Intergenerational, and Individual Trauma for Indigenous Peoples in Canada

Authors: Suzanne L. Stewart, Mikaela D. Gabriel


Background: Indigenous People face multiple barriers to successful life transitions, including housing, employment, education, and health. Current statistical trends paint devastating life transitions for Indigenous Peoples, but colonization and its intergenerational impacts are typically lacking as the crucial context in which these trends occur. This presentation will illustrate the massive impact of colonization on Indigenous Peoples; its intergenerational transmission, and how it impacts Indigenous clients seeking mental health treatment today. Methods: A qualitative, narrative inquiry methodology was used to honour Indigenous storytelling and knowledge transmission. Indigenous Elders, outreach workers, and homeless clients were interviewed and narratively analyzed for in-depth trends and themes. Impact: This research provides a wealth of in-depth information as to the life transition needs of Indigenous clients, identify the systemic impacts of colonization to the health and wellbeing of Indigenous People, and strategies for mental health treatment.

Keywords: indigenous trauma, indigenous peoples of canada, intergenerational trauma, colonial trauma and treatment

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