Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: granule

24 Removal of Brilliant Green in Environmental Samples by Poly Ethylene Terephthalate Granule

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Nika Shakerin, Farahnaz Zolriasatain, Elham Moniri


In this research, poly-ethylene terephthalate granule was prepared from Tak Corporation. The granule was characterized by fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Then the effects of various parameters on brilliant green sorption such as pH, contact time were studied. The optimum pH value for sorption of brilliant green was 6. The sorption capacity of the granule for brilliant green was 4.6 mg g−1. The profile of brilliant green uptake on this sorbent reflects a good accessibility of the chelating sites in the poly-ethylene terephthalate granule. The developed method was utilized for the determination of brilliant green in environmental water samples by UV/Vis spectrophotometry with satisfactory results.

Keywords: poly-ethylene terephthalate granule, brilliant green, environmental sample, removal

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23 Granule Morphology of Zirconia Powder with Solid Content on Two-Fluid Spray Drying

Authors: Hyeongdo Jeong, Jong Kook Lee


Granule morphology and microstructure were affected by slurry viscosity, chemical composition, particle size and spray drying process. In this study, we investigated granule morphology of zirconia powder with solid content on two-fluid spray drying. Zirconia granules after spray drying show sphere-like shapes with a diameter of 40-70 μm at low solid contents (30 or 40 wt%) and specific surface area of 5.1-5.6 m²/g. But a donut-like shape with a few cracks were observed on zirconia granules prepared from the slurry of high solid content (50 wt %), green compacts after cold isostatic pressing under the pressure of 200 MPa have the density of 2.1-2.2 g/cm³ and homogeneous fracture surface by complete destruction of granules. After the sintering at 1500 °C for 2 h, all specimens have relative density of 96.2-98.3 %. With increasing a solid content from 30 to 50 wt%, grain size increased from 0.3 to 0.6 μm, but relative density was inversely decreased from 98.3 to 96.2 %.

Keywords: zirconia, solid content, granulation, spray drying

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22 Characterization and Quantification of Relatives Amounts of Phosphorylated Glucosyl Residues in C6 and C3 Position in Banana Starch Granules by 31P-NMR

Authors: Renata Shitakubo, Hanyu Yangcheng, Jay-lin Jane, Fernanda Peroni Okita, Beatriz Cordenunsi


In the degradation transitory starch model, the enzymatic activity of glucan/water dikinase (GWD) and phosphoglucan/water dikinase (PWD) are essential for the granule degradation. GWD and PWD phosphorylate glucose molecules in the positions C6 and C3, respectively, in the amylopectin chains. This action is essential to allow that β-amylase degrade starch granules without previous action of α-amylase. During banana starch degradation, as part of banana ripening, both α- and β-amylases activities and proteins were already detected and, it is also known that there is a GWD and PWD protein bounded to the starch granule. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify both Gluc-6P and Gluc-3P in order to estimate the importance of the GWD-PWD-β-amylase pathway in banana starch degradation. Starch granules were isolated as described by Peroni-Okita et al (Carbohydrate Polymers, 81:291-299, 2010), from banana fruit at different stages of ripening, green (20.7%), intermediate (18.2%) and ripe (6.2%). Total phosphorus content was determinate following the Smith and Caruso method (1964). Gluc-6P and Gluc-3P quantifications were performed as described by Lim et al (Cereal Chemistry, 71(5):488-493, 1994). Total phosphorous content in green banana starch is found as 0.009%, intermediary banana starch 0.006% and ripe banana starch 0.004%, both by the colorimetric method and 31P-NMR. The NMR analysis showed the phosphorus content in C6 and C3. The results by NMR indicate that the amylopectin is phosphorylate by GWD and PWD before the bananas become ripen. Since both the total content of phosphorus and phosphorylated glucose molecules at positions C3 and C6 decrease with the starch degradation, it can be concluded that this phosphorylation occurs only in the surface of the starch granule and before the fruit be harvested.

Keywords: starch, GWD, PWD, 31P-NMR

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21 Microscale observations of a gas cell wall rupture in bread dough during baking and confrontation to 2/3D Finite Element simulations of stress concentration

Authors: Kossigan Bernard Dedey, David Grenier, Tiphaine Lucas


Bread dough is often described as a dispersion of gas cells in a continuous gluten/starch matrix. The final bread crumb structure is strongly related to gas cell walls (GCWs) rupture during baking. At the end of proofing and during baking, part of the thinnest GCWs between expanding gas cells is reduced to a gluten film of about the size of a starch granule. When such size is reached gluten and starch granules must be considered as interacting phases in order to account for heterogeneities and appropriately describe GCW rupture. Among experimental investigations carried out to assess GCW rupture, no experimental work was performed to observe the GCW rupture in the baking conditions at GCW scale. In addition, attempts to numerically understand GCW rupture are usually not performed at the GCW scale and often considered GCWs as continuous. The most relevant paper that accounted for heterogeneities dealt with the gluten/starch interactions and their impact on the mechanical behavior of dough film. However, stress concentration in GCW was not discussed. In this study, both experimental and numerical approaches were used to better understand GCW rupture in bread dough during baking. Experimentally, a macro-scope placed in front of a two-chamber device was used to observe the rupture of a real GCW of 200 micrometers in thickness. Special attention was paid in order to mimic baking conditions as far as possible (temperature, gas pressure and moisture). Various differences in pressure between both sides of GCW were applied and different modes of fracture initiation and propagation in GCWs were observed. Numerically, the impact of gluten/starch interactions (cohesion or non-cohesion) and rheological moduli ratio on the mechanical behavior of GCW under unidirectional extension was assessed in 2D/3D. A non-linear viscoelastic and hyperelastic approach was performed to match the finite strain involved in GCW during baking. Stress concentration within GCW was identified. Simulated stresses concentration was discussed at the light of GCW failure observed in the device. The gluten/starch granule interactions and rheological modulus ratio were found to have a great effect on the amount of stress possibly reached in the GCW.

Keywords: dough, experimental, numerical, rupture

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20 Effect of Modification on the Properties of Blighia sapida (Ackee) Seed Starch

Authors: Olufunmilola A. Abiodun, Adegbola O. Dauda, Ayobami Ojo, Samson A. Oyeyinka


Blighia sapida (Ackee) seed is a neglected and under-utilised crop. The fruit is cultivated for the aril which is used as meat substitute in soup while the seed is discarded. The seed is toxic due to the presence of hypoglycin which causes vomiting and death. The seed is shining black and bigger than the legume seeds. The seed contains high starch content which could serve as a cheap source of starch hereby reducing wastage of the crop during its season. Native starch had limitation in their use; therefore, modification of starch had been reported to improve the functional properties of starches. Therefore, this work determined the effect of modification on the properties of Blighia sapida seed starch. Blighia sapida seed was dehulled manually, milled and the starch extracted using standard method. The starch was subjected to modification using four methods (acid, alkaline, oxidized and acetylated methods). The morphological structure, form factor, granule size, amylose, swelling power, hypoglycin and pasting properties of the starches were determined. The structure of Blighia sapida using light microscope showed that the seed starch demonstrated an oval, round, elliptical, dome-shaped and also irregular shape. The form factors of the starch ranged from 0.32-0.64. Blighia sapida seed starches were smaller in granule sizes ranging from 2-6 µm. Acid modified starch had the highest amylose content (24.83%) and was significantly different ( < 0.05) from other starches. Blighia sapida seed starches showed a progressive increase in swelling power as temperature increased in native, acidified, alkalized, oxidized and acetylated starches but reduced with increasing temperature in pregelatinized starch. Hypoglycin A ranged from 3.89 to 5.74 mg/100 g with pregelatinized starch having the lowest value and alkalized starch having the highest value. Hypoglycin B ranged from 7.17 to 8.47 mg/100 g. Alkali-treated starch had higher peak viscosity (3973 cP) which was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from the native starch. Alkali-treated starch also was significantly different (p > 0.05) from other starches in holding strength value while acetylated starch had higher breakdown viscosity (1161.50 cP). Native starch was significantly different (p > 0.05) from other starches in final and setback viscosities. Properties of Blighia sapida modified starches showed that it could be used as a source of starch in food and other non-food industries and the toxic compound found in the starch was very low when compared to lethal dosage.

Keywords: Blighia sapida seed, modification, starch, hypoglycin

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19 Improved Food Security and Alleviation of Cyanide Intoxication through Commercialization and Utilization of Cassava Starch by Tanzania Industries

Authors: Mariam Mtunguja, Henry Laswai, Yasinta Muzanilla, Joseph Ndunguru


Starchy tuberous roots of cassava provide food for people but also find application in various industries. Recently there has been the focus of concentrated research efforts to fully exploit its potential as a sustainable multipurpose crop. High starch yield is the important trait for commercial cassava production for the starch industries. Furthermore, cyanide present in cassava root poses a health challenge in the use of cassava for food. Farming communities where cassava is a staple food, prefer bitter (high cyanogenic) varieties as protection from predators and thieves. As a result, food insecure farmers prefer growing bitter cassava. This has led to cyanide intoxication to this farming communities. Cassava farmers can benefit from marketing cassava to starch producers thereby improving their income and food security. This will decrease dependency on cassava as staple food as a result of increased income and be able to afford other food sources. To achieve this, adequate information is required on the right cassava cultivars and appropriate harvesting period so as to maximize cassava production and profitability. This study aimed at identifying suitable cassava cultivars and optimum time of harvest to maximize starch production. Six commonly grown cultivars were identified and planted in a complete random block design and further analysis was done to assess variation in physicochemical characteristics, starch yield and cyanogenic potentials across three environments. The analysis showed that there is a difference in physicochemical characteristics between landraces (p ≤ 0.05), and can be targeted to different industrial applications. Among landraces, dry matter (30-39%), amylose (11-19%), starch (74-80%) and reducing sugars content (1-3%) varied when expressed on a dry weight basis (p ≤ 0.05); however, only one of the six genotypes differed in crystallinity and mean starch granule particle size, while glucan chain distribution and granule morphology were the same. In contrast, the starch functionality features measured: swelling power, solubility, syneresis, and digestibility differed (p ≤ 0.05). This was supported by Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), which highlighted the divergence among the cassavas based on starch functionality, permitting suggestions for the targeted uses of these starches in diverse industries. The study also illustrated genotypic difference in starch yield and cyanogenic potential. Among landraces, Kiroba showed potential for maximum starch yield (12.8 t ha-1) followed by Msenene (12.3 t ha-1) and third was Kilusungu (10.2 t ha-1). The cyanide content of cassava landraces was between 15 and 800 ppm across all trial sites. GGE biplot analysis further confirmed that Kiroba was a superior cultivar in terms of starch yield. Kilusungu had the highest cyanide content and average starch yield, therefore it can also be suitable for use in starch production.

Keywords: cyanogen, cassava starch, food security, starch yield

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18 Development of 420 mm Diameter Silicon Crystal Growth Using Continuous Czochralski Process

Authors: Ilsun Pang, Kwanghun Kim, Sungsun Baik


Large diameter Si wafer is used as semiconductor substrate. Large diameter Si crystal ingot should be needed in order to increase wafer size. To make convection of large silicon melt stable, magnetic field is normally applied, but magnetic field is expensive and it is not proper to stabilize the large Si melt. To solve the problem, we propose a continuous Czochralski process which can be applied to small melt without magnetic field. We used granule poly, which has size distribution of 1~3 mm and is easily supplied in double crucible during silicon ingot growth. As the result, we produced 420 mm diameter ingot. In this paper, we describe an experimental study on crystal growth of large diameter silicon by Continuous Czochralski process.

Keywords: Czochralski, ingot, silicon crystal, wafer

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17 Aspects Concerning the Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregates

Authors: Ion Robu, Claudiu Mazilu, Radu Deju


Natural aggregates (gravel and crushed) are essential non-renewable resources which are used for infrastructure works and civil engineering. In European Union member states from Southeast Europe, it is estimated that the construction industry will grow by 4.2% thereafter complicating aggregate supply management. In addition, a significant additional problem that can be associated to the aggregates industry is wasting potential resources through waste dumping of inert waste, especially waste from construction and demolition activities. In 2012, in Romania, less than 10% of construction and demolition waste (including concrete) are valorized, while the European Union requires that by 2020 this proportion should be at least 70% (Directive 2008/98/EC on waste, transposed into Romanian legislation by Law 211/2011). Depending on the efficiency of waste processing and the quality of recycled aggregate concrete (RCA) obtained, poor quality aggregate can be used as foundation material for roads and at the high quality for new concrete on construction. To obtain good quality concrete using recycled aggregate is necessary to meet the minimum requirements defined by the rules for the manufacture of concrete with natural aggregate. Properties of recycled aggregate (density, granulosity, granule shape, water absorption, weight loss to Los Angeles test, attached mortar content etc.) are the basis for concrete quality; also establishing appropriate proportions between components and the concrete production methods are extremely important for its quality. This paper presents a study on the use of recycled aggregates, from a concrete of specified class, to acquire new cement concrete with different percentages of recycled aggregates. To achieve recycled aggregates several batches of concrete class C16/20, C25/30 and C35/45 were made, the compositions calculation being made according NE012/2007 CP012/2007. Tests for producing recycled aggregate was carried out using concrete samples of the established three classes after 28 days of storage under the above conditions. Cubes with 150mm side were crushed in a first stage with a jaw crusher Liebherr type set at 50 mm nominally. The resulting material was separated by sieving on granulometric sorts and 10-50 sort was used for preliminary tests of crushing in the second stage with a jaw crusher BB 200 Retsch model, respectively a hammer crusher Buffalo Shuttle WA-12-H model. It was highlighted the influence of the type of crusher used to obtain recycled aggregates on granulometry and granule shape and the influence of the attached mortar on the density, water absorption, behavior to the Los Angeles test etc. The proportion of attached mortar was determined and correlated with provenance concrete class of the recycled aggregates and their granulometric sort. The aim to characterize the recycled aggregates is their valorification in new concrete used in construction. In this regard have been made a series of concrete in which the recycled aggregate content was varied from 0 to 100%. The new concrete were characterized by point of view of the change in the density and compressive strength with the proportion of recycled aggregates. It has been shown that an increase in recycled aggregate content not necessarily mean a reduction in compressive strength, quality of the aggregate having a decisive role.

Keywords: recycled concrete aggregate, characteristics, recycled aggregate concrete, properties

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16 Characterization of Edible Film from Uwi Starch (Dioscorea alata L.)

Authors: Miksusanti, Herlina, Wiwin


The research about modification uwi starch (Dioscorea alata L) by using propylene oxide has been done. Concentration of propylene oxide were 6%(v/w), 8%(v/w), and 10%(v/w). The amilograf parameters after modification were characteristic breakdown viscosity 43 BU and setback viscosity 975 BU. The modification starch have edible properties according to FDA (Food and Drug Administration) which have degree of modification < 7%, degree of substitution < 0,1 and propylene oxide concentration < 10%(v/w). The best propylene oxide in making of edible film was 8 %( v/w). The starch control can be made into edible film with thickness 0,136 mm, tensile strength 20,4605 MPa and elongation 22%. Modification starch of uwi can be made into edible film with thickness 0,146 mm, tensile strength 25, 3521 Mpa, elongation 30% and water vapor transmission 7, 2651 g/m2/24 hours. FTIR characterization of uwi starch showed the occurrence of hydroxypropylation. The peak spectrum at 2900 cm-1 showed bonding of C-H from methyl group, which is characteristic for modification starch with hydroxypropyl. Characterization with scanning electron microscopy showed that modification of uwi starch has turned the granule of starch to be fully swallon.

Keywords: uwi starch, edible film, propylen oxide, modification

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15 Species Profiling of White Grub Beetles and Evaluation of Pre and Post Sown Application of Insecticides against White Grub Infesting Soybean

Authors: Ajay Kumar Pandey, Mayank Kumar


White grub (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a major destructive pest in western Himalayan region of Uttarakhand. Beetles feed on apple, apricot, plum, walnut etc. during night while, second and third instar grubs feed on live roots of cultivated as well as non-cultivated crops. Collection and identification of scarab beetles through light trap was carried out at Crop Research Centre, Govind Ballab Pant University Pantnagar, Udham Singh Nagar (Uttarakhand) during 2018. Field trials were also conducted in 2018 to evaluate pre and post sown application of different insecticides against the white grub infesting soybean. The insecticides like Carbofuran 3 Granule (G) (750 g a.i./ha), Clothianidin 50 Water Dispersal Granule (WG) (120 g a.i./ha), Fipronil 0.3 G (50 g a.i./ha), Thiamethoxam 25 WG (80 g a.i./ha), Imidacloprid 70 WG (300 g a.i./ha), Chlorantraniliprole 0.4% G(100 g a.i./ha) and mixture of Fipronil 40% and Imidacloprid 40% WG (300 g a.i./ha) were applied at the time of sowing in pre sown experiment while same dosage of insecticides were applied in standing soybean crop during (first fortnight of July). Commutative plant mortality data were recorded after 20, 40, 60 days intervals and compared with untreated control. Total 23 species of white grub beetles recorded on the light trap and Holotrichia serrata Fabricious (Coleoptera: Melolonthinae) was found to be predominant species by recording 20.6% relative abundance out of the total light trap catch (i.e. 1316 beetles) followed by Phyllognathus sp. (14.6% relative abundance). H. rosettae and Heteronychus lioderus occupied third and fourth rank with 11.85% and 9.65% relative abundance, respectively. The emergence of beetles of predominant species started from 15th March, 2018. In April, average light trap catch was 382 white grub beetles, however, peak emergence of most of the white grub species was observed from June to July, 2018 i.e. 336 beetles in June followed by 303 beetles in the July. On the basis of the emergence pattern of white grub beetles, it may be concluded that the Peak Emergence Period (PEP) for the beetles of H. serrata was second fortnight of April for the total period of 15 days. In May, June and July relatively low population of H. serrata was observed. A decreasing trend in light trap catch was observed and went on till September during the study. No single beetle of H. serrata was observed on light trap from September onwards. The cumulative plant mortality data in both the experiments revealed that all the insecticidal treatments were significantly superior in protection-wise (6.49-16.82% cumulative plant mortality) over untreated control where highest plant mortality was 17.28 to 39.65% during study. The mixture of Fipronil 40% and Imidacloprid 40% WG applied at the rate of 300 g a.i. per ha proved to be most effective having lowest plant mortality i.e. 9.29 and 10.94% in pre and post sown crop, followed by Clothianidin 50 WG (120 g a.i. per ha) where the plant mortality was 10.57 and 11.93% in pre and post sown treatments, respectively. Both treatments were found significantly at par among each other. Production-wise, all the insecticidal treatments were found statistically superior (15.00-24.66 q per ha grain yields) over untreated control where the grain yield was 8.25 & 9.13 q per ha. Treatment Fipronil 40% + Imidacloprid 40% WG applied at the rate of 300 g a.i. per ha proved to be most effective and significantly superior over Imidacloprid 70WG applied at the rate of 300 g a.i. per ha.

Keywords: bio efficacy, insecticide, soybean, white grub

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14 Physicochemical Characteristics of Rice Starch Chainat 1 Variety by Physical Modification

Authors: Orose Rugchati, Sarawut Wattanawongpitak


The Chainat 1 variety (CN1) of rice, which generally has high amylose starch, is distributed in the lower part of Northern Thailand. CN1 rice starch can be used in both food and non-food products. In this research, the CN1 rice starch from the wet-milling process was prepared by Pre-Gelatinization (Heat-Moisture Treatments, HMT) under different conditions: percentage of moisture contents (20% and 30%) and duration time in minutes (0, 30, 60, and 90) at a specific temperature 110°C. The physicochemical characteristics of CN1 rice starch modification, such as amylose content, viscosity, swelling, and solubility property, were evaluated and compared with native CN1 rice starch. The results showed that modification CN1 rice starch tends to have some characteristics better than native starch. The appearance color and starch granule of modified CN1 by HMT have more effective characteristics than native starch when increased duration time. The duration time and moisture content are significant factors to the CN1 starch characteristic by HMT. Moreover, physical modification of CN1 starch by HMT can be described as a modified rice starch providing in many applications and the advantage of biodegradability development.

Keywords: physicochemical characteristics, physical modification, pre-gelatinization, Heat-Moisture Treatments, rice starch, Chainat 1 variety (CN1)

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13 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Physicochemical Properties of Starches Extracted from Newly Released Rice Varieties Grown in North Temperate Regions of India

Authors: Bilal Ahmad Ashwar, Asima Shah, S. A. Rather, Asir Gani, S.M. Wani, I.D. Wani, F. A. Masoodi, Adil Gani


Starches isolated from two newly released rice varieties (K-322 & K-448) were subject to irradiation at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy doses. Comparative study between native (not irradiated) and irradiated starch samples was carried out to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties due to gamma irradiation. Significant decrease was found in apparent amylose content, pH, swelling power, syneresis, and pasting properties, whereas carboxyl content, water absorption capacity, transmittance and solubility were found to increase with the increase in irradiation dose. Granule morphology of native and irradiated starches under scanning electron microscope revealed that granules were polygonal or irregular in shape. The starch granules were somewhat deformed by gamma irradiation. X-ray diffraction pattern showed A type of pattern in native as well as irradiated starches.

Keywords: rice starch, gamma irradiation, morphological properties, pasting properties, physicochemical properties.

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12 Comparative Study of Impact Strength and Fracture Morphological of Nano-CaCO3 and Nanoclay Reinforced HDPE Nanocomposites

Authors: Harun Sepet, Necmettin Tarakcioglu


The present study investigated the impact strength and fracture mechanism of nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE nanocomposites by using Charpy impact test. The nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE granules were prepared by the melt blending method using a compounder system, which consists of industrial banbury mixer, single screw extruder and granule cutting in industrial-scale. The nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE granules were molded using an injection-molding machine as plates, and then impact samples were cut by using punching die from the nanocomposite plates. As a result of impact experiments, nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE nanocomposites were determined to have lower impact energy level than neat HDPE. Also, the impact strength of HDPE further decreased by addition nanoclay compared to nano-CaCO3. The occurred fracture areas with the impact were detected by SEM examination. It is understood that fracture surface morphology changes when nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay ratio increases. The fracture surface changes were examined to determine the fracture mechanism of nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE nanocomposites.

Keywords: charpy, HDPE, industrial scale nano-CaCO3, nanoclay, nanocomposite

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11 238U, 40K, 226Ra, 222Rn and Trace Metals in Chemical Fertilizers in Saudi Arabia Markets

Authors: Fatimh Alshahri, Muna Alqahtani


The specific activities of 238U, 226Ra, 40K and 222Rn in chemical fertilizers were measured using gamma ray spectrometer and Cr-39 detector. In this study 21 chemical fertilizers were collected from Eastern Saudi Arabia markets. The specific activities of 238U ranged from 23 ± 0.5 to 3900 ± 195 Bq kgˉ¹, 226Ra ranged from 5.6 ± 2.8 to 392 ± 18 Bq kgˉ¹ and 40K ranged from 18.4 ± 3 to 16476 ± 820 Bq kgˉ¹. The radon concentrations and the radon exhalation rates were found to vary from 3.2 ± 1.2 to 1531.6 ± 160 Bq mˉ³ and from 1.6 to 773.7 mBq mˉ² hˉ¹, respectively. Radium equivalent activities (Raeq) were calculated for the analyzed samples to assess the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these chemical fertilizers in the agriculture soil. The Raeq for Six local samples (NPK and SSP) and one imported sample (SOP) were greater than the acceptable value 370 Bq kgˉ¹. The total air absorbed doses rates in air 1 m above the ground (D) were calculated for all samples. All samples, except one imported granule sample (DAP), were higher than the estimated average global terrestrial radiation of 55 nGy hˉ¹. The highest annual effective dose was in TSP fertilizers (2.1 mSvyˉ¹). The results show that the local TSP, imported SOP and local NPK (sample 13) fertilizers were unacceptable for use as fertilizers in agricultural soil. Furthermore, the toxic elements and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Hg and As) were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The concentrations of chromium in chemical fertilizers were higher than the global values.

Keywords: chemical fertilizers, 238U, 222Rn, trace metals, Saudi Arabia

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10 Phosphate Sludge Ceramics: Effects of Firing Cycle Parameters on Technological Properties and Ceramic Suitability

Authors: Mohamed Loutou, Mohamed Hajjaji, Mohamed Ait Babram, Mohammed Mansori, Rachid Hakkou, Claude Favotto


More than 26,4 million tons of phosphates are produced by the phosphates industries in Morocco (2010), generating huge amounts of sludge by flocculation during the ore beneficiation. They way are stored at the end of the process in open air ponds. Its accumulation and storage may have an impact on several scales such as ground water and human being. For this purpose, an efficient way to use it the field of the ceramic is proposed. The as received sludge and a clay-rich sediment have been studied in terms of chemical, mineralogical and micro-structural side using various analytical methods. Several formulations have been performed by mixing the sludge with the binder shaped in the form of granules. After being dried at 105 °C, the samples were heated in the range of 900-1200 °C. As well as the ceramic properties (firing shrinkage, water absorption, total porosity and compressive strength) the micro structure has been investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The relations between properties and the operating factors were formulated using the design of experiments (DOE). Gehlenite was the only phase neo-formed in the sintering samples. SEM micrographs revealed the presence of nano metric stains. Based on RSM results, all factors had positive effects on Firing shrinkage, compressive strength and total porosity. However, they manifested opposite effects on density and water absorption.

Keywords: phosphate sludge, clay, ceramic properties, granule

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9 Evaluation of Properties of Alkali Activated Slag Concrete Blended with Polypropylene Shredding and Admixture

Authors: Jagannath Prasad Tegar, Zeeshan Ahmad


The Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is a major constituent of concrete, which is being used extensively since last half century. The production of cement is impacting not only environment alone, but depleting natural materials. During the past 3 decades, the scholars have carried out studies and researches to explore the supplementary cementatious materials such as Ground granulated Blast furnace slag (GGBFS), silica fumes (SF), metakaolin or fly ash (FA). This has contributed towards improved cementatious materials which are being used in construction, but not the way it is supposed to be. The alkali activated slag concrete is another innovation which has constituents of cementatious materials like Ground Granuled Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS), Fly Ash (FA), Silica Fumes (SF) or Metakaolin. Alkaline activators like Sodium Silicate (Na₂SiO₃) and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) is utilized. In view of evaluating properties of alkali activated slag concrete blended with polypropylene shredding and accelerator, research study is being carried out. This research study is proposed to evaluate the effect of polypropylene shredding and accelerating admixture on mechanical properties of alkali-activated slag concrete. The mechanical properties include the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and workability. The outcomes of this research are matched with the hypothesis and it is found that 27% of cement can be replaced with the ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and for split tensile strength 20% replacement is achieved. Overall it is found that 20% of cement can be replaced with ground granulated blast furnace slag. The tests conducted in the laboratory for evaluating properties such as compressive strength test, split tensile strength test, and slump cone test. On the aspect of cost, it is substantially benefitted.

Keywords: ordinary Portland cement, activated slag concrete, ground granule blast furnace slag, fly ash, silica fumes

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8 Expression of ULK-1 mRNA in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Ali Bayram, Remzi Yiğiter


Objective: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. At present, diagnosis of AD is rather late in the disease. Therefore, we attempted to find peripheral biomarkers for the early diagnosis of AD. Herein, we conducted a study to investigate the unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase-1 (ULK1) mRNA expression levels in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Method: To determine whether ULK1 gene expression are altered in AD patients, we measured their gene expression in human peripheral blood cell in 50 patients with AD and 50 age and gender matched healthy controls by quantitative real-time PCR technique. Results: We found that both ULK1 gene expression in peripheral blood cell were significantly decreased in patients with AD as compared with controls (p <0.05). Lower levels of ULK1 gene expression were significantly associated with the increased risk for AD. Conclusions: Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in autophagy in response to starvation. Acts upstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase PIK3C3 to regulate the formation of autophagophores, the precursors of autophagosomes. Part of regulatory feedback loops in autophagy: acts both as a downstream effector and negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) via interaction with RPTOR. Activated via phosphorylation by AMPK and also acts as a regulator of AMPK by mediating phosphorylation of AMPK subunits PRKAA1, PRKAB2, and PRKAG1, leading to negatively regulate AMPK activity. May phosphorylate ATG13/KIAA0652 and RPTOR; however such data need additional evidences. Plays a role early in neuronal differentiation and is required for granule cell axon formation. Alzheimer is the most common neurodegenerative disease. Our results provide useful information that the ULK1 gene expression is decreased in the neurodegeneration and AD patients with, indicating their possible systemic involvement in AD.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s sisease, ULK1, mRNA expression, RT-PCR

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7 Cellular Components of the Hemal Node of Egyptian Cattle

Authors: Amira E. Derbalah, Doaa M. Zaghloul


10 clinically healthy hemal nodes were collected from male bulls aged 2-3 years. Light microscopy revealed a capsule of connective tissue consisted mainly of collagen fiber surrounding hemal node, numerous erythrocytes were found in wide subcapsular sinus under the capsule. The parenchyma of the hemal node was divided into cortex and medulla. Diffused lymphocytes, and lymphoid follicles, having germinal centers were the main components of the cortex, while in the medulla there was wide medullary sinus, diffused lymphocytes and few lymphoid nodules. The area occupied with lymph nodules was larger than that occupied with non-nodular structure of lymphoid cords and blood sinusoids. Electron microscopy revealed the cellular components of hemal node including elements of circulating erythrocytes intermingled with lymphocytes, plasma cells, mast cells, reticular cells, macrophages, megakaryocytes and endothelial cells lining the blood sinuses. The lymphocytes were somewhat triangular in shape with cytoplasmic processes extending between adjacent erythrocytes. Nuclei were triangular to oval in shape, lightly stained with clear nuclear membrane indentation and clear nucleoli. The reticular cells were elongated in shape with cytoplasmic processes extending between adjacent lymphocytes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and few lysosomes were seen in their cytoplasm. Nucleus was elongated in shape with less condensed chromatin. Plasma cells were oval to irregular in shape with numerous dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing electron lucent material occupying the whole cytoplasm and few mitochondria were found. Nuclei were centrally located and oval in shape with heterochromatin emarginated and often clumped near the nuclear membrane. Occasionally megakaryocytes and mast cells were seen among lymphocytes. Megakaryocytes had multilobulated nucleus and free ribosomes often appearing as small aggregates in their cytoplasm, while mast cell had their characteristic electron dense granule in the cytoplasm, few electron lucent granules were found also, we conclude that, the main function of the hemal node of cattle is proliferation of lymphocytes. No role for plasma cell in erythrophagocytosis could be suggested.

Keywords: cattle, electron microscopy, hemal node, histology, immune system

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6 Nanocellulose Reinforced Biocomposites Based on Wheat Plasticized Starch for Food Packaging

Authors: Belen Montero, Carmen Ramirez, Maite Rico, Rebeca Bouza, Irene Derungs


Starch is a promising polymer for producing biocomposite materials because it is renewable, completely biodegradable and easily available at a low cost. Thermoplastic starches (TPS) can be obtained after the disruption and plasticization of native starch with a plasticizer. In this work, the solvent casting method was used to obtain TPS films from wheat starch plasticized with glycerol and reinforced with nanocellulose (CNC). X-ray diffraction analysis was used to follow the evolution of the crystallinity. The native wheat starch granules have shown a profile corresponding to A-type crystal structures typical for cereal starches. When TPS films are analyzed a high amorphous halo centered on 19º is obtained, indicating the plasticization process is completed. SEM imaging was made in order to analyse the morphology. The image from the raw wheat starch granules shows a bimodal granule size distribution with some granules in large round disk-shape forms (A-type) and the others as smaller spherical particles (B-type). The image from the neat TPS surface shows a continuous surface. No starch aggregates or swollen granules can be seen so, the plasticization process is complete. In the surfaces of reinforced TPS films aggregates are seen as the CNC concentration in the matrix increases. The CNC influence on the mechanical properties of TPS films has been studied by dynamic mechanical analysis. A direct relation exists between the storage modulus values, E’, and the CNC content in reinforced TPS films: higher is the content of nanocellulose in the composite, higher is the value of E’. This reinforcement effect can be explained by the appearance of a strong and crystalline nanoparticle-TPS interphase. Thermal stability of films was analysed by TGA. It has not observed any influence on the behaviour related to the thermal degradation of films with the incorporation of the CNC. Finally, the resistance to the water absorption films was analysed following the standard UNE-EN ISO 1998:483. The percentage of water absorbed by the samples at each time was calculated. The addition of 5 wt % of CNC to the TPS matrix leads to a significant improvement in the moisture resistance of the starch based material decreasing their diffusivity. It has been associated to the formation of a nanocrystal network that prevents swelling of the starch and therefore water absorption and to the high crystallinity of cellulose compared to starch. As a conclusion, the wheat film reinforced with 5 wt % of cellulose nanocrystals seems to be a good alternative for short-life applications into the packaging industry, because of its greatest rigidity, thermal stability and moisture sorption resistance.

Keywords: biocomposites, nanocellulose, starch, wheat

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5 Comparison between Conventional Bacterial and Algal-Bacterial Aerobic Granular Sludge Systems in the Treatment of Saline Wastewater

Authors: Philip Semaha, Zhongfang Lei, Ziwen Zhao, Sen Liu, Zhenya Zhang, Kazuya Shimizu


The increasing generation of saline wastewater through various industrial activities is becoming a global concern for activated sludge (AS) based biological treatment which is widely applied in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). As for the AS process, an increase in wastewater salinity has negative impact on its overall performance. The advent of conventional aerobic granular sludge (AGS) or bacterial AGS biotechnology has gained much attention because of its superior performance. The development of algal-bacterial AGS could enhance better nutrients removal, potentially reduce aeration cost through symbiotic algae-bacterial activity, and thus, can also reduce overall treatment cost. Nonetheless, the potential of salt stress to decrease biomass growth, microbial activity and nutrient removal exist. Up to the present, little information is available on saline wastewater treatment by algal-bacterial AGS. To the authors’ best knowledge, a comparison of the two AGS systems has not been done to evaluate nutrients removal capacity in the context of salinity increase. This study sought to figure out the impact of salinity on the algal-bacterial AGS system in comparison to bacterial AGS one, contributing to the application of AGS technology in the real world of saline wastewater treatment. In this study, the salt concentrations tested were 0 g/L, 1 g/L, 5 g/L, 10 g/L and 15 g/L of NaCl with 24-hr artificial illuminance of approximately 97.2 µmol m¯²s¯¹, and mature bacterial and algal-bacterial AGS were used for the operation of two identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with a working volume of 0.9 L each, respectively. The results showed that salinity increase caused no apparent change in the color of bacterial AGS; while for algal-bacterial AGS, its color was progressively changed from green to dark green. A consequent increase in granule diameter and fluffiness was observed in the bacterial AGS reactor with the increase of salinity in comparison to a decrease in algal-bacterial AGS diameter. However, nitrite accumulation peaked from 1.0 mg/L and 0.4 mg/L at 1 g/L NaCl in the bacterial and algal-bacterial AGS systems, respectively to 9.8 mg/L in both systems when NaCl concentration varied from 5 g/L to 15 g/L. Almost no ammonia nitrogen was detected in the effluent except at 10 g/L NaCl concentration, where it averaged 4.2 mg/L and 2.4 mg/L, respectively, in the bacterial and algal-bacterial AGS systems. Nutrients removal in the algal-bacterial system was relatively higher than the bacterial AGS in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus removals. Nonetheless, the nutrient removal rate was almost 50% or lower. Results show that algal-bacterial AGS is more adaptable to salinity increase and could be more suitable for saline wastewater treatment. Optimization of operation conditions for algal-bacterial AGS system would be important to ensure its stably high efficiency in practice.

Keywords: algal-bacterial aerobic granular sludge, bacterial aerobic granular sludge, Nutrients removal, saline wastewater, sequencing batch reactor

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4 Sorghum Polyphenols Encapsulated by Spray Drying, Using Modified Starches as Wall Materials

Authors: Adriana Garcia G., Alberto A. Escobar P., Amira D. Calvo L., Gabriel Lizama U., Alejandro Zepeda P., Fernando Martínez B., Susana Rincón A.


Different studies have recently been focused on the use of antioxidants such as polyphenols because of to its anticarcinogenic capacity. However, these compounds are highly sensible to environmental factors such as light and heat, so lose its long-term stability, besides possess an astringent and bitter taste. Nevertheless, the polyphenols can be protected by microcapsule formulation. In this sense, a rich source of polyphenols is sorghum, besides presenting a high starch content. Due to the above, the aim of this work was to obtain modified starches from sorghum by extrusion to encapsulate polyphenols the sorghum by spray drying. Polyphenols were extracted by ethanol solution from sorghum (Pajarero/red) and determined by the method of Folin-Ciocalteu, obtaining GAE at 30 mg/g. Moreover, was extracted starch of sorghum (Sinaloense/white) through wet milling (yield 32 %). The hydrolyzed starch was modified with three treatments: acetic anhydride (2.5g/100g), sodium tripolyphosphate (4g/100g), and sodium tripolyphosphate/ acetic anhydride (2g/1.25g by each 100 g) by extrusion. Processing conditions of extrusion were as follows: barrel temperatures were of 60, 130 and 170 °C at the feeding, transition, and high-pressure extrusion zones, respectively. Analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), showed bands exhibited of acetyl groups (1735 cm-1) and phosphates (1170 cm-1, 910 cm-1 and 525 cm-1), indicating the respective modification of starch. Besides, all modified starches not developed viscosity, which is a characteristic required for use in the encapsulation of polyphenols using the spray drying technique. As result of the modification starch, was obtained a water solubility index (WSI) from 33.8 to 44.8 %, and crystallinity from 8 to 11 %, indicating the destruction of the starch granule. Afterwards, microencapsulation of polyphenols was developed by spray drying, with a blend of 10 g of modified starch, 60 ml polyphenol extract and 30 ml of distilled water. Drying conditions were as follows: inlet air temperature 150 °C ± 1, outlet air temperature 80°C ± 5. As result of the microencapsulation: were obtained yields of 56.8 to 77.4 % and an efficiency of encapsulation from 84.6 to 91.4 %. The FTIR analysis showed evidence of microcapsules loaded with polyphenols in bands 1042 cm-1, 1038 cm-1 and 1148 cm-1. Analysis Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed transition temperatures from 144.1 to 173.9 °C. For the order hand, analysis of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), were observed rounded surfaces with concavities, typical feature of microcapsules produced by spray drying, how result of rapid evaporation of water. Finally, the modified starches were obtained by extrusion with good characteristics for use as cover materials by spray drying, where the phosphorylated starch was the best treatment in this work, according to the encapsulation yield, efficiency, and transition temperature.

Keywords: encapsulation, extrusion, modified starch, polyphenols, spray drying

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3 Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solution by Polymer Enhanced Ultrafiltration Using Unmodified Starch as Biopolymer

Authors: Nurul Huda Baharuddin, Nik Meriam Nik Sulaiman, Mohammed Kheireddine Aroua


The effects of pH, polymer concentration, and metal ions feed concentration for four selected heavy metals Zn (II), Pb (II), Cr (III) and Cr (VI) were tested by using Polymer Enhanced Ultrafiltration (PEUF). An alternative biopolymer namely unmodified starch is proposed as a binding reagent in consequences, as compared to commonly used water-soluble polymers namely polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) in the removal of selected four heavy metal ions. The speciation species profiles of four selected complexes ions namely Zn (II), Pb (II), Cr (III) and Cr (VI) and the present of hydroxides ions (OH-) in variously charged ions were investigated by available software at certain pH range. In corresponds to identify the potential of complexation behavior between metal ion-polymers, potentiometric titration studies were obtained at first before carried out experimental works. Experimental works were done using ultrafiltration systems obtained by laboratory ultrafiltration bench scale equipped with 10 kDa polysulfone hollow fiber membrane. Throughout the laboratory works, the rejection coefficient and permeate flux were found to be significantly affected by the main operating parameter, namely the effects of pH, polymer composition and metal ions concentrations. The interaction of complexation between two binding polymers namely unmodified starch and PEG were occurred due to physical attraction of metal ions to the polymer on the molecular surface with high possibility of chemical occurrence. However, these selected metal ions are mainly complexes by polymer functional groups whenever there is interaction with PEI polymer. For study of single metal ions solutions, Zn (II) ions' rejections approaching over 90% were obtained at pH 7 for each tested polymer. This behavior was similar to Pb (II), Cr (III) and Cr (VI); where the rejections were obtained at lower acidic pH and increased at neutral pH of 7. Different behavior was found by Cr (VI) ions where a high rejection was only achieved at acidic pH region with PEI. Polymer concentration and metal ions concentration are found to have a significant effect on rejections. For mixed metal ion solutions, the behavior of metal ion rejections was similar to single metal ion solutions for investigation on the effects of pH. Rejection values were high at pH 7 for Zn (II) pH 7 for Zn (II) and Cr (III) ions, corresponding to higher rejections with unmodified starch. Pb (II) ions obtained high rejections when tested with PEG whenever carried out in mixed metal ion solutions. High Cr (VI) ions' rejection was found with PEI in single and mixed metal ions solutions at neutral pH range. The influence of starch’s granule structure towards the rejections of these four selected metal ions is found to be attracted in a non-ionic manner. No significant effects on permeate flux were obtained when tested at different pH ranges, polymer concentrations and metal ions feed either by single or mixtures metal ions solutions. Canizares Model was employed as the theoretical model to predict permeate flux and metal ions retention on the study of heavy metal ions removal.

Keywords: polyethyleneimine, polyethylene glycol, polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration, unmodified starch

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2 Characteristics of the Mortars Obtained by Radioactive Recycled Sand

Authors: Claudiu Mazilu, Ion Robu, Radu Deju


At the end of 2011 worldwide there were 124 power reactors shut down, from which: 16 fully decommissioned, 50 power reactors in a decommissioning process, 49 reactors in “safe enclosure mode”, 3 reactors “entombed”, for other 6 reactors it was not yet have specified the decommissioning strategy. The concrete radioactive waste that will be generated from dismantled structures of VVR-S nuclear research reactor from Magurele (e.g.: biological shield of the reactor core and hot cells) represents an estimated amount of about 70 tons. Until now the solid low activity radioactive waste (LLW) was pre-placed in containers and cementation with mortar made from cement and natural fine aggregates, providing a fill ratio of the container of approximately 50 vol. % for concrete. In this paper is presented an innovative technology in which radioactive concrete is crushed and the mortar made from recycled radioactive sand, cement, water and superplasticizer agent is poured in container with radioactive rubble (that is pre-placed in container) for cimentation. Is achieved a radioactive waste package in which the degree of filling of radioactive waste increases substantially. The tests were carried out on non-radioactive material because the radioactive concrete was not available in a good time. Waste concrete with maximum size of 350 mm were crushed in the first stage with a Liebhher type jaw crusher, adjusted to nominal size of 50 mm. Crushed concrete less than 50 mm was sieved in order to obtain useful sort for preplacement, 10 to 50 mm. The rest of the screening > 50 mm obtained from primary crushing of concrete was crushed in the second stage, with different working principles crushers at size < 2.5 mm, in order to produce recycled fine aggregate (sand) for the filler mortar and which fulfills the technical specifications proposed: –jaw crusher, Retsch type, model BB 100; –hammer crusher, Buffalo Shuttle model WA-12-H; presented a series of characteristics of recycled concrete aggregates by predefined class (the granulosity, the granule shape, the absorption of water, behavior to the Los Angeles test, the content of attached mortar etc.), most in comparison with characteristics of natural aggregates. Various mortar recipes were used in order to identify those that meet the proposed specification (flow-rate: 16-50s, no bleeding, min. 30N/mm2 compressive strength of the mortar after 28 days, the proportion of recycled sand used in mortar: min. 900kg/m3) and allow obtaining of the highest fill ratio for mortar. In order to optimize the mortars following compositional factors were varied: aggregate nature, water/cement (W/C) ratio, sand/cement (S/C) ratio, nature and proportion of additive. To confirm the results obtained on a small scale, it made an attempt to fill the mortar in a container that simulates the final storage drums. Was measured the mortar fill ratio (98.9%) compared with the results of laboratory tests and targets set out in the proposed specification. Although fill ratio obtained on the mock-up is lower by 0.8 vol. % compared to that obtained in the laboratory tests (99.7%), the result meets the specification criteria.

Keywords: characteristics, radioactive recycled concrete aggregate, mortars, fill ratio

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1 Expression Profiling of Chlorophyll Biosynthesis Pathways in Chlorophyll B-Lacking Mutants of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Khiem M. Nguyen, Ming C. Yang


Chloroplast pigments are extremely important during photosynthesis since they play essential roles in light absorption and energy transfer. Therefore, understanding the efficiency of chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis could facilitate enhancement in photo-assimilates accumulation, and ultimately, in crop yield. The Chl-deficient mutants have been used extensively to study the Chl biosynthetic pathways and the biogenesis of the photosynthetic apparatus. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most leading food crops, serving as staple food for many parts of the world. To author’s best knowledge, Chl b–lacking rice has been found; however the molecular mechanism of Chl biosynthesis still remains unclear compared to wild-type rice. In this study, the ultrastructure analysis, photosynthetic properties, and transcriptome profile of wild-type rice (Norin No.8, N8) and its Chl b-lacking mutant (Chlorina 1, C1) were examined. The finding concluded that total Chl content and Chl b content in the C1 leaves were strongly reduced compared to N8 leaves, suggesting that reduction in the total Chl content contributes to leaf color variation at the physiological level. Plastid ultrastructure of C1 possessed abnormal thylakoid membranes with loss of starch granule, large number of vesicles, and numerous plastoglobuli. The C1 rice also exhibited thinner stacked grana, which was caused by a reduction in the number of thylakoid membranes per granum. Thus, the different Chl a/b ratio of C1 may reflect the abnormal plastid development and function. Transcriptional analysis identified 23 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 671 transcription factors (TFs) that were involved in Chl metabolism, chloroplast development, cell division, and photosynthesis. The transcriptome profile and DEGs revealed that the gene encoding PsbR (PSII core protein) was down-regulated, therefore suggesting that the lower in light-harvesting complex proteins are responsible for the lower photosynthetic capacity in C1. In addition, expression level of cell division protein (FtsZ) genes were significantly reduced in C1, causing chloroplast division defect. A total of 19 DEGs were identified based on KEGG pathway assignment involving Chl biosynthesis pathway. Among these DEGs, the GluTR gene was down-regulated, whereas the UROD, CPOX, and MgCH genes were up-regulated. Observation through qPCR suggested that later stages of Chl biosynthesis were enhanced in C1, whereas the early stages were inhibited. Plastid structure analysis together with transcriptomic analysis suggested that the Chl a/b ratio was amplified both by the reduction in Chl contents accumulation, owning to abnormal chloroplast development, and by the enhanced conversion of Chl b to Chl a. Moreover, the results indicated the same Chl-cycle pattern in the wild-type and C1 rice, indicating another Chl b degradation pathway. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that normal grana stacking, along with the absence of Chl b and greatly reduced levels of Chl a in C1, provide evidence to support the conclusion that other factors along with LHCII proteins are involved in grana stacking. The findings of this study provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie different Chl a/b ratios in rice.

Keywords: Chl-deficient mutant, grana stacked, photosynthesis, RNA-Seq, transcriptomic analysis

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