Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3263

Search results for: rock mass

3263 An Approach for Determination of Shotcrete Thickness in Underground Structures

Authors: Mohammad Mohammadi, Mojtaba Askari, Mohammad Farouq Hossaini


An intrinsic property of rock mass known as rock bolt supporting factor (RSF) or rock bolting capability of rock mass was developed and used for explanation of the mechanism of rock bolting practice. Based on the theory of RSF, numeral values can be assigned to each given rock mass to show the capability of that rock mass to be reinforced by rock bolting. For determination of shotcrete thickness, both safety and cost must be taken into account. The present paper introduces a scientific approach for determination of the necessary shotcrete thickness in underground structures for support purposes using the concept of rock bolt supporting factor (RSF). The proposed approach makes the outcome of shotcrete design one step more accurate than before. The actual dataset of 500 meters of Alborz Tunnel length is used as an example of the application of the approach.

Keywords: rock bolt supporting factor (RSF), shotcrete design, underground excavation, Alborz Tunnel

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3262 Description of Geotechnical Properties of Jabal Omar

Authors: Ibrahim Abdel Gadir Malik, Dafalla Siddig Dafalla, Osama Abdelgadir El-Bushra


Geological and engineering characteristics of intact rock and the discontinuity surfaces was used to describe and classify rock mass into zones based on mechanical and physical properties. Many conditions terms that affect the rock mas; such as Rock strength, Rock Quality Designation (RQD) value, joint spacing, and condition of joint, water condition with block size, joint roughness, separation, joint hardness, friction angle and weathering were used to classify the rock mass into: Good quality (class II) (RMR values range between 75% and 56%), Good to fair quality (class II to III) (RMR values range between 70% and 55%), Fair quality (class III) (RMR values range between 60% and 50%) and Fair to poor quality (Class III to IV) (RMR values, range between (50% and 35%).

Keywords: rock strength, RQD, joints, weathering

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3261 Modeling of the Effect of Explosives, Geological and Geotechnical Parameters on the Stability of Rock Masses Case of Marrakech: Agadir Highway, Morocco

Authors: Taoufik Benchelha, Toufik Remmal, Rachid El Hamdouni, Hamou Mansouri, Houssein Ejjaouani, Halima Jounaid, Said Benchelha


During the earthworks for the construction of Marrakech-Agadir highway in southern Morocco, which crosses mountainous areas of the High Western Atlas, the main problem faced is the stability of the slopes. Indeed, the use of explosives as a means of excavation associated with the geological structure of the terrain encountered can trigger major ruptures and cause damage which depends on the intrinsic characteristics of the rock mass. The study consists of a geological and geotechnical analysis of several unstable zones located along the route, mobilizing millions of cubic meters of rock, with deduction of the parameters influencing slope stability. From this analysis, a predictive model for rock mass stability is carried out, based on a statistic method of logistic regression, in order to predict the geomechanical behavior of the rock slopes constrained by earthworks.

Keywords: explosive, logistic regression, rock mass, slope stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
3260 Q Slope Rock Mass Classification and Slope Stability Assessment Methodology Application in Steep Interbedded Sedimentary Rock Slopes for a Motorway Constructed North of Auckland, New Zealand

Authors: Azariah Sosa, Carlos Renedo Sanchez


The development of a new motorway north of Auckland (New Zealand) includes steep rock cuts, from 63 up to 85 degrees, in an interbedded sandstone and siltstone rock mass of the geological unit Waitemata Group (Pakiri Formation), which shows sub-horizontal bedding planes, various sub-vertical joint sets, and a diverse weathering profile. In this kind of rock mass -that can be classified as a weak rock- the definition of the stable maximum geometry is not only governed by discontinuities and defects evident in the rock but is important to also consider the global stability of the rock slope, including (in the analysis) the rock mass characterisation, influence of the groundwater, the geological evolution, and the weathering processes. Depending on the weakness of the rock and the processes suffered, the global stability could, in fact, be a more restricting element than the potential instability of individual blocks through discontinuities. This paper discusses those elements that govern the stability of the rock slopes constructed in a rock formation with favourable bedding and distribution of discontinuities (horizontal and vertical) but with a weak behaviour in terms of global rock mass characterisation. In this context, classifications as Q-Slope and slope stability assessment methodology (SSAM) have been demonstrated as important tools which complement the assessment of the global stability together with the analytical tools related to the wedge-type failures and limit equilibrium methods. The paper focuses on the applicability of these two new empirical classifications to evaluate the slope stability in 18 already excavated rock slopes in the Pakiri formation through comparison between the predicted and observed stability issues and by reviewing the outcome of analytical methods (Rocscience slope stability software suite) compared against the expected stability determined from these rock classifications. This exercise will help validate such findings and correlations arising from the two empirical methods in order to adjust the methods to the nature of this specific kind of rock mass and provide a better understanding of the long-term stability of the slopes studied.

Keywords: Pakiri formation, Q-slope, rock slope stability, SSAM, weak rock

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3259 Evolution Mechanism of the Formation of Rock Heap under Seismic Action and Analysis on Engineering Geological Structure

Authors: Jian-Xiu Wan, Yao Yin


In complex terrain and poor geological conditions areas, Railway, highway and other transportation constructions are still strongly developing. However, various geological disasters happened such as landslide, rock heap and so on. According to the results of geological investigation, the form of skirt (trapezoidal), semicircle and triangle rock heaps are mainly due to complex internal force and external force, in a certain extent, which is related to the terrain, the nature of the rock mass, the supply area and the surface shape of rock heap. Combined with the above factors, discrete element numerical simulation of rock mass is established under different terrain conditions based on 3DEC, and accelerated formation process of rock heap under seismic action is simulated. The fragmentation structure supply area is calculated, in which the most dangerous area is located. At the same time, the formation mechanism and development process are studied in different terrain conditions, and the structure of rock heap is judged by section, which can provide a strong theoretical and technical support for the prevention and control of geological disasters.

Keywords: 3DEC, fragmentation structure, rock heap, slope, seismic action

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
3258 Stability of Pump Station Cavern in Chagrin Shale with Time

Authors: Mohammad Moridzadeh, Mohammad Djavid, Barry Doyle


An assessment of the long-term stability of a cavern in Chagrin shale excavated by the sequential excavation method was performed during and after construction. During the excavation of the cavern, deformations of rock mass were measured at the surface of excavation and within the rock mass by surface and deep measurement instruments. Rock deformations were measured during construction which appeared to result from the as-built excavation sequence that had potentially disturbed the rock and its behavior. Also some additional time dependent rock deformations were observed during and post excavation. Several opinions have been expressed to explain this time dependent deformation including stress changes induced by excavation, strain softening (or creep) in the beddings with and without clay and creep of the shaley rock under compressive stresses. In order to analyze and replicate rock behavior observed during excavation, including current and post excavation elastic, plastic, and time dependent deformation, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed. The analysis was also intended to estimate long term deformation of the rock mass around the excavation. Rock mass behavior including time dependent deformation was measured by means of rock surface convergence points, MPBXs, extended creep testing on the long anchors, and load history data from load cells attached to several long anchors. Direct creep testing of Chagrin Shale was performed on core samples from the wall of the Pump Room. Results of these measurements were used to calibrate the FEA of the excavation. These analyses incorporate time dependent constitutive modeling for the rock to evaluate the potential long term movement in the roof, walls, and invert of the cavern. The modeling was performed due to the concerns regarding the unanticipated behavior of the rock mass as well as the forecast of long term deformation and stability of rock around the excavation.

Keywords: Cavern, Chagrin shale, creep, finite element.

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3257 Geological and Geotechnical Investigation of a Landslide Prone Slope Along Koraput- Rayagada Railway Track Odisha, India: A Case Study

Authors: S. P. Pradhan, Amulya Ratna Roul


A number of landslides are occurring during the rainy season along Rayagada-Koraput Railway track for past three years. The track was constructed about 20 years ago. However, the protection measures are not able to control the recurring slope failures now. It leads to a loss to Indian Railway and its passengers ultimately leading to wastage of time and money. The slopes along Rayagada-Koraput track include both rock and soil slopes. The rock types include mainly Khondalite and Charnockite whereas soil slopes are mainly composed of laterite ranging from less weathered to highly weathered laterite. The field studies were carried out in one of the critical slope. Field study was followed by the kinematic analysis to assess the type of failure. Slake Durability test, Uniaxial Compression test, specific gravity test and triaxial test were done on rock samples to calculate and assess properties such as weathering index, unconfined compressive strength, density, cohesion, and friction angle. Following all the laboratory tests, rock mass rating was calculated. Further, from Kinematic analysis and Rock Mass Ratingbasic, Slope Mass Rating was proposed for each slope. The properties obtained were used to do the slope stability simulations using finite element method based modelling. After all the results, suitable protection measures, to prevent the loss due to slope failure, were suggested using the relation between Slope Mass Rating and protection measures.

Keywords: landslides, slope stability, rock mass rating, slope mass rating, numerical simulation

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3256 Numerical Modeling of Determination of in situ Rock Mass Deformation Modulus Using the Plate Load Test

Authors: A. Khodabakhshi, A. Mortazavi


Accurate determination of rock mass deformation modulus, as an important design parameter, is one of the most controversial issues in most engineering projects. A 3D numerical model of standard plate load test (PLT) using the FLAC3D code was carried to investigate the mechanism governing the test process. Five objectives were the focus of this study. The first goal was to employ 3D modeling in the interpretation of PLT conducted at the Bazoft dam site, Iran. The second objective was to investigate the effect of displacements measuring depth from the loading plates on the calculated moduli. The magnitude of rock mass deformation modulus calculated from PLT depends on anchor depth, and in practice, this may be a cause of error in the selection of realistic deformation modulus for the rock mass. The third goal of the study was to investigate the effect of testing plate diameter on the calculated modulus. Moreover, a comparison of the calculated modulus from ISRM formula, numerical modeling and calculated modulus from the actual PLT carried out at right abutment of the Bazoft dam site was another objective of the study. Finally, the effect of plastic strains on the calculated moduli in each of the loading-unloading cycles for three loading plates was investigated. The geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions on the constructed 3D model were selected based on the in-situ conditions of PLT at Bazoft dam site. A good agreement was achieved between numerical model results and the field tests results.

Keywords: deformation modulus, numerical model, plate loading test, rock mass

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3255 Analysis of Slope in an Excavated Gneiss Rock Using Geological Strength Index (GSI) in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: S. A. Agbalajobi, W. A. Bello


The study carried out analysis on slope stability in an excavated gneiss rock using geological strength index (GSI) in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. A kinematic analysis of planar discontinuity sets in a gneiss deposit was carried out to ascertain the degree of slope stability. Discontinuity orientations in the rock mass were mapped using compass clinometers. The average result of physical and mechanical properties such as specific gravity, unit weight, uniaxial compressive strength, point load index, and Schmidt rebound value are 2.64 g/m3, 25.95 kN/m3, 156 MPa, 6.5 MPa, and 53.12 respectively. Also, a statistical model equation relating the rock strength was developed. The analyses states that the rock face is susceptible to wedge failures having all the geometrical conditions associated with the occurrence of such failures were noticeable. It can be concluded that analyses of discontinuity orientation in relation to cut face direction in rock excavation is essential for mine planning to forestall mine accidents. Assessment of excavated slope methods was evident that one excavation method (blasting and/or use of hydraulic hammer) is applicable for the given rock strength, the ease of excavation decreases as the rock mass quality increases, thus blasting most suitable for such operation.

Keywords: slope stability, wedge failure, geological strength index (GSI), discontinuities and excavated slope

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3254 Delineating Concern Ground in Block Caving – Underground Mine Using Ground Penetrating Radar

Authors: Eric Sitorus, Septian Prahastudhi, Turgod Nainggolan, Erwin Riyanto


Mining by block or panel caving is a mining method that takes advantage of fractures within an ore body, coupled with gravity, to extract material from a predetermined column of ore. The caving column is weakened from beneath through the use of undercutting, after which the ore breaks up and is extracted from below in a continuous cycle. The nature of this method induces cyclical stresses on the pillars of excavations as stress is built up and released over time, which has a detrimental effect on both the installed ground support and the rock mass itself. Ground support capacity, especially on the production where excavation void ratio is highest, is subjected to heavy loading. Strain above threshold of the elongation of support capacity can yield resulting in damage to excavations. Geotechnical engineers must evaluate not only the remnant capacity of ground support systems but also investigate depth of rock mass yield within pillars, backs and floors. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that has the ability to evaluate rock mass damage using electromagnetic waves. This paper illustrates a case study from the Grasberg mining complex where non-invasive information on the depth of damage and condition of the remaining rock mass was required. GPR with 100 MHz antenna resolution was used to obtain images of the subsurface to determine rehabilitation requirements prior to recommencing production activities. The GPR surveys were used to calibrate the reflection coefficient response of varying rock mass conditions to known Rock Quality Designation (RQD) parameters observed at the mine. The calibrated GPR survey allowed site engineers to map subsurface conditions and plan rehabilitation accordingly.

Keywords: block caving, ground penetrating radar, reflectivity, RQD

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3253 Evaluation of Geomechanical and Geometrical Parameters’ Effects on Hydro-Mechanical Estimation of Water Inflow into Underground Excavations

Authors: M. Mazraehli, F. Mehrabani, S. Zare


In general, mechanical and hydraulic processes are not independent of each other in jointed rock masses. Therefore, the study on hydro-mechanical coupling of geomaterials should be a center of attention in rock mechanics. Rocks in their nature contain discontinuities whose presence extremely influences mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of the medium. Assuming this effect, experimental investigations on intact rock cannot help to identify jointed rock mass behavior. Hence, numerical methods are being used for this purpose. In this paper, water inflow into a tunnel under significant water table has been estimated using hydro-mechanical discrete element method (HM-DEM). Besides, effects of geomechanical and geometrical parameters including constitutive model, friction angle, joint spacing, dip of joint sets, and stress factor on the estimated inflow rate have been studied. Results demonstrate that inflow rates are not identical for different constitutive models. Also, inflow rate reduces with increased spacing and stress factor.

Keywords: distinct element method, fluid flow, hydro-mechanical coupling, jointed rock mass, underground excavations

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3252 Rituals in Rock Art: Case Study of Bronze Age Rock Art of Gobustan

Authors: Rahman Abdullayev


Rituals took place during the rock art production or in the rock art sites can be found reflection in contemporary culture. But the form of rituals was conducted in association with rock art production still uncertain. The main purpose of this research is to define the form of ritual activities that took place in the rock art sites, by the example of Bronze Age rock art of Gobustan. For ritual activity location of the rocks which were selected for making petroglyphs has important significance. Thus, not all the rocks which were suitable for rock art were used for this purpose. If in Upper Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic periods Gobustan inhabitants executed petroglyphs on the wall of rock shelters, but in Bronze Age they made it on rocks which are in front of the large, open spaces. A recent study of the location of Bronze Age rock art of Gobustan and involving ethnographic information to the interpretation of drawings allows defining the form of rituals which took place in Gobustan at Bronze Age.

Keywords: Bronze Age, Gobustan, ritual, rock art

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3251 Development of a Geomechanical Risk Assessment Model for Underground Openings

Authors: Ali Mortazavi


The main objective of this research project is to delve into a multitude of geomechanical risks associated with various mining methods employed within the underground mining industry. Controlling geotechnical design parameters and operational factors affecting the selection of suitable mining techniques for a given underground mining condition will be considered from a risk assessment point of view. Important geomechanical challenges will be investigated as appropriate and relevant to the commonly used underground mining methods. Given the complicated nature of rock mass in-situ and complicated boundary conditions and operational complexities associated with various underground mining methods, the selection of a safe and economic mining operation is of paramount significance. Rock failure at varying scales within the underground mining openings is always a threat to mining operations and causes human and capital losses worldwide. Geotechnical design is a major design component of all underground mines and basically dominates the safety of an underground mine. With regard to uncertainties that exist in rock characterization prior to mine development, there are always risks associated with inappropriate design as a function of mining conditions and the selected mining method. Uncertainty often results from the inherent variability of rock masse, which in turn is a function of both geological materials and rock mass in-situ conditions. The focus of this research is on developing a methodology which enables a geomechanical risk assessment of given underground mining conditions. The outcome of this research is a geotechnical risk analysis algorithm, which can be used as an aid in selecting the appropriate mining method as a function of mine design parameters (e.g., rock in-situ properties, design method, governing boundary conditions such as in-situ stress and groundwater, etc.).

Keywords: geomechanical risk assessment, rock mechanics, underground mining, rock engineering

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3250 An Evaluation of Discontinuities in Rock Mass Using Coupled Hydromechanical Finite Element and Discrete Element Analyses

Authors: Mohammad Moridzadeh, Aaron Gallant


The paper will present the design and construction of the underground excavations of a pump station forebay and its related components including connector tunnels, access shaft, riser shaft and well shafts. The underground openings include an 8 m-diameter riser shaft, an 8-m-diameter access shaft, 34 2.4-m-diameter well shafts, a 107-m-long forebay with a cross section having a height of 11 m and width of 10 m, and a 6 m by 6 m stub connector tunnel between the access shaft and a future forebay extension. The riser shaft extends down from the existing forebay connector tunnel at elevation 247 m to the crown of the forebay at elevation 770.0 feet. The access shaft will extend from the platform at the surface down to El. 223.5 m. The pump station will have the capacity to deliver 600 million gallons per day. The project is located on an uplifted horst consisting of a mass of Precambrian metamorphic rock trending in a north-south direction. The eastern slope of the area is very steep and pronounced and is likely the result of high-angle normal faulting. Toward the west, the area is bordered by a high angle normal fault and recent alluvial, lacustrine, and colluvial deposits. An evaluation of rock mass properties, fault and discontinuities, foliation and joints, and in situ stresses was performed. The response of the rock mass was evaluated in 3DEC using Discrete Element Method (DEM) by explicitly accounting for both major and minor discontinuities within the rock mass (i.e. joints, shear zones, faults). Moreover, the stability of the entire subsurface structure including the forebay, access and riser shafts, future forebay, well shafts, and connecting tunnels and their interactions with each other were evaluated using a 3D coupled hydromechanical Finite Element Analysis (FEA).

Keywords: coupled hydromechanical analysis, discontinuities, discrete element, finite element, pump station

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3249 Prediction of in situ Permeability for Limestone Rock Using Rock Quality Designation Index

Authors: Ahmed T. Farid, Muhammed Rizwan


Geotechnical study for evaluating soil or rock permeability is a highly important parameter. Permeability values for rock formations are more difficult for determination than soil formation as it is an effect of the rock quality and its fracture values. In this research, the prediction of in situ permeability of limestone rock formations was predicted. The limestone rock permeability was evaluated using Lugeon tests (in-situ packer permeability). Different sites which spread all over the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia were chosen to conduct our study of predicting the in-situ permeability of limestone rock. Correlations were deducted between the values of in-situ permeability of the limestone rock with the value of the rock quality designation (RQD) calculated during the execution of the boreholes of the study areas. The study was performed for different ranges of RQD values measured during drilling of the sites boreholes. The developed correlations are recommended for the onsite determination of the in-situ permeability of limestone rock only. For the other sedimentary formations of rock, more studies are needed for predicting the actual correlations related to each type.

Keywords: In situ, packer, permeability, rock, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
3248 Verification of Geophysical Investigation during Subsea Tunnelling in Qatar

Authors: Gary Peach, Furqan Hameed


Musaimeer outfall tunnel is one of the longest storm water tunnels in the world, with a total length of 10.15 km. The tunnel will accommodate surface and rain water received from the drainage networks from 270 km of urban areas in southern Doha with a pumping capacity of 19.7m³/sec. The tunnel is excavated by Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) through Rus Formation, Midra Shales, and Simsima Limestone. Water inflows at high pressure, complex mixed ground, and weaker ground strata prone to karstification with the presence of vertical and lateral fractures connected to the sea bed were also encountered during mining. In addition to pre-tender geotechnical investigations, the Contractor carried out a supplementary offshore geophysical investigation in order to fine-tune the existing results of geophysical and geotechnical investigations. Electric resistivity tomography (ERT) and Seismic Reflection survey was carried out. Offshore geophysical survey was performed, and interpretations of rock mass conditions were made to provide an overall picture of underground conditions along the tunnel alignment. This allowed the critical tunnelling area and cutter head intervention to be planned accordingly. Karstification was monitored with a non-intrusive radar system facility installed on the TBM. The Boring Electric Ahead Monitoring(BEAM) was installed at the cutter head and was able to predict the rock mass up to 3 tunnel diameters ahead of the cutter head. BEAM system was provided with an online system for real time monitoring of rock mass condition and then correlated with the rock mass conditions predicted during the interpretation phase of offshore geophysical surveys. The further correlation was carried by Samples of the rock mass taken from tunnel face inspections and excavated material produced by the TBM. The BEAM data was continuously monitored to check the variations in resistivity and percentage frequency effect (PFE) of the ground. This system provided information about rock mass condition, potential karst risk, and potential of water inflow. BEAM system was found to be more than 50% accurate in picking up the difficult ground conditions and faults as predicted in the geotechnical interpretative report before the start of tunnelling operations. Upon completion of the project, it was concluded that the combined use of different geophysical investigation results can make the execution stage be carried out in a more confident way with the less geotechnical risk involved. The approach used for the prediction of rock mass condition in Geotechnical Interpretative Report (GIR) and Geophysical Reflection and electric resistivity tomography survey (ERT) Geophysical Reflection surveys were concluded to be reliable as the same rock mass conditions were encountered during tunnelling operations.

Keywords: tunnel boring machine (TBM), subsea, karstification, seismic reflection survey

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3247 Valorization and Conservation of Rock Painting and Engravings of Kabylia Region (Algeria)

Authors: Samia Ait Ali Yahia


In Algeria, the most impressive and most known prehistoric art is the painted or engraved rock art which is present with abundance in several regions. The existence of rock art in Great Kabylia region has been known for over sixty years. The main purpose of this research is to show the dangers facing these rock paintings and engravings and what are the arrangements for their protection and recovery. As every vestige destroyed is a part of the world's memory which disappears, some steps have to be taken in order to protect these historical and archaeological heritages.

Keywords: rock paintings and engravings, preservation, valorization, Kabylia

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
3246 Two-Phase Flow Modelling and Numerical Simulation for Waterflooding in Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: Peña A. Roland R., Lozano P. Jean P.


The waterflooding process is an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method that appears tremendously successful. This paper shows the importance of the role of the numerical modelling of waterflooding and how to provide a better description of the fluid flow during this process. The mathematical model is based on the mass conservation equations for the oil and water phases. Rock compressibility and capillary pressure equations are coupled to the mathematical model. For discretizing and linearizing the partial differential equations, we used the Finite Volume technique and the Newton-Raphson method, respectively. The results of three scenarios for waterflooding in porous media are shown. The first scenario was estimating the water saturation in the media without rock compressibility and without capillary pressure. The second scenario was estimating the front of the water considering the rock compressibility and capillary pressure. The third case is to compare different fronts of water saturation for three fluids viscosity ratios without and with rock compressibility and without and with capillary pressure. Results of the simulation indicate that the rock compressibility and the capillary pressure produce changes in the pressure profile and saturation profile during the displacement of the oil for the water.

Keywords: capillary pressure, numerical simulation, rock compressibility, two-phase flow

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3245 Determination of Geotechnical Properties of Travertine Lithotypes in Van-Turkey

Authors: Ali Ozvan, Ismail Akkaya, Mucip Tapan


Travertine is generally a weak or medium strong rock, and physical, mechanical and structural properties of travertines are direct impacts on geotechnical studies. New settlement areas were determined on travertine units after two destructive earthquakes which occurred on October 23rd, 2011 (M=7.1) and November 9th, 2011 (M=5.6) in Tabanlı and Edremit districts of Van province in Turkey, respectively. In the study area, the travertines have different lithotype and engineering properties such as strong crystalline crust, medium strong shrub, and weak reed which can affect mechanical and engineering properties of travertine and each level have different handicaps. Travertine has a higher strength when compared to the soil ground; however, it can have different handicaps such as having poor rock mass, karst caves and weathering alteration. Physico-mechanical properties of travertine in the study area are determined by laboratory tests and field observations. Uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) values were detected by indirect methods, and the strength map of different lithotype of Edremit travertine was created in order to define suitable settlement areas. Also, rock mass properties and underground structure were determined by bore holes, field studies, and geophysical method. The reason of this study is to investigate the relationship between lithotype and physicomechanical properties of travertines. According to the results, lithotype has an effect on physical, mechanical and rock mass properties of travertine levels. It is detected by several research methods that various handicaps may occur on such areas when the active tectonic structure of the area is evaluated along with the karstic cavities within the travertine and different lithotype qualities.

Keywords: travertine, lithotype, geotechnical parameters, Van earthquake

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3244 Study of the Landslide and Stability of Open Pit Quarry: Case of Open Pite Quarry of Chouf Amar M'sila, Algeria

Authors: Saadoun Abd Errazak, Hafssaoui Abdallah, Fredj Mohamed


Mining operations open induce risks of instability that can cause landslides and collapse at the bleachers slope. These risks may occur both during and after the operation phase. The magnitude of these risks depends on the mechanical and physical characteristics of the rock mass, the geometrical dimensions of ore bodies, their spatial arrangement, and the state of the operated area. If security and technology measures are not taken into account for this purpose, the environment will be affected. The main objective of this work is to assess these risks by analytical and numerical methods. The study is based on the geological, hydrogeological and geotechnical rock mass of the open pit quarry of Chouf Amar M'sila. The results obtained have allowed us to obtain an acceptable factor of safety and stability study of the open pit.

Keywords: stability, land sliding, numerical modeling, safety factor, open-pit quarry

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3243 Relation between Energy Absorption and Box Dimension of Rock Fragments under Impact Loading

Authors: Li Hung-Hui, Chen Chi-Chieh, Yang Zon-Yee


This study aims to explore the impact energy absorption in the fragmented processes of rock samples during the split-Hopkinson-pressure-bar tests. Three kinds of rock samples including granite, marble and sandstone were tested. The impact energy absorptions were calculated according to the incident, reflected and transmitted strain wave histories measured by a oscilloscope. The degree of fragment rocks after tests was quantified by the box dimension of the fractal theory. The box dimension of rock fragments was obtained from the particle size distribution curve by the sieve analysis. The results can be concluded that: (1) the degree of rock fragments after tests can be well described by the value of box dimension; (2) with the impact energy absorption increasing, the degrees of rock fragments are varied from the very large fragments to very small fragments, and the corresponding box dimension varies from 2.9 to 1.2.

Keywords: SHPB test, energy absorption, rock fragments, impact loading, box dimension

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3242 Mechanistic Studies of Compacted and Sintered Rock Salt

Authors: Claudia H. Swanson, Jens Günster


This research addresses the densification via compaction and sintering of naturally occurring rock salt which was motivated by the fact that in a saline environment rock salt is thermodynamically stable and does show a mechanical behavior compatible to the surrounding host material. The sintering of rock salt powder compacts was systematically investigated using temperature and pressure as variables for the sinter process. The behavior of rock salt showed segregations of anhydrite, CaSO4 - the major impurity found in rock salt, to the grain boundaries between individual sodium chloride crystals. Powder compacts treated with lower pressures lost those anhydrite segregates over time while high pressure treated compacts remained with anhydrite segregates. The density reached in this study is 2.008 g cm-3 corresponding to a density of 92.5 % of the theoretical value. This high density is making the sintering a promising technique for rock salt as applications in underground appropriate environment.

Keywords: rock salt, sinter, anhydrite, nuclear safety

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3241 Comparison of Direct and Indirect Tensile Strength of Brittle Materials and Accurate Estimate of Tensile Strength

Authors: M. Etezadi, A. Fahimifar


In many geotechnical designs in rocks and rock masses, tensile strength of rock and rock mass is needed. The difficulties associated with performing a direct uniaxial tensile test on a rock specimen have led to a number of indirect methods for assessing the tensile strength that in the meantime the Brazilian test is more popular. Brazilian test is widely applied in rock engineering because specimens are easy to prepare, the test is easy to conduct and uniaxial compression test machines are quite common. This study compares experimental results of direct and Brazilian tensile tests carried out on two rock types and three concrete types using 39 cylindrical and 28 disc specimens. The tests are performed using Servo-Control device. The relationship between direct and indirect tensile strength of specimens is extracted using linear regression. In the following, tensile strength of direct and indirect test is evaluated using finite element analysis. The results are analyzed and effective factors on results are studied. According to the experimental results Brazilian test is shown higher tensile strength than direct test. Because of decreasing the contact surface of grains and increasing the uniformity in concrete specimens with fine aggregate (largest grain size= 6mm), higher tensile strength in direct test is shown. The experimental and numerical results of tensile strength are compared and empirical relationship witch is obtained from experimental tests is validated.

Keywords: tensile strength, brittle materials, direct and indirect tensile test, numerical modeling

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3240 Ab Initio Calculation of Fundamental Properties of CaxMg1-xA (a = Se and Te) Alloys in the Rock-Salt Structure

Authors: M. A. Ghebouli, H. Choutri, B. Ghebouli , M. Fatmi, L. Louail


We employed the density-functional perturbation theory (DFPT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), the local density approximation (LDA) and the virtual-crystal approximation (VCA) to study the effect of composition on the structure, stability, energy gaps, electron effective mass, the dynamic effective charge, optical and acoustical phonon frequencies and static and high dielectric constants of the rock-salt CaxMg1-xSe and CaxMg1-xTe alloys. The computed equilibrium lattice constant and bulk modulus show an important deviation from the linear concentration. From the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation, CaxMg1-xSe and CaxMg1-xTe present lower stiffness and lateral expansion. For Ca content ranging between 0.25-0.75, the elastic constants, energy gaps, electron effective mass and dynamic effective charge are predictions. The elastic constants and computed phonon dispersion curves indicate that these alloys are mechanically stable.

Keywords: CaxMg1-xSe, CaxMg1-xTe, band structure, phonon

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
3239 Study of the Stability of the Slope Open-Pit Mines: Case of the Mine of Phosphates – Tebessa, Algeria

Authors: Mohamed Fredj, Abdallah Hafsaoui, Radouane Nakache


The study of the stability of the mining works in rock masses fractured is the major concern of the operating engineer. For geotechnical works in mines and quarries, it there is not today's general methodology for analysis and the quantification of the risks relating to the dangers inherent in these concrete types (falling boulders, landslides, etc.). The reasons for this are uncertainty, which weighs on available data or lack of knowledge of the values of the parameters required for this analysis type. Stability calculations must be based on reliable knowledge of the distribution of discontinuities that dissect the Rocky massif and the resistance to shear of the intact rock and discontinuities. This study is aimed to study the stability of slope of mine (Kef Sennoun - Tebessa, Algeria). The problem is analyzed using a numerical model based on the finite elements (software Plaxis 3D).

Keywords: stability, discontinuities, finite elements, rock mass, open-pit mine

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
3238 A Discrete Element Method-Based Simulation of Toppling Failure Considering Block Interaction

Authors: Hooman Dabirmanesh, Attila M. Zsaki


The toppling failure mode in a rock mass is considerably different from the most common sliding failure type along an existing or an induced slip plane. Block toppling is observed in a rock mass which consists of both a widely-spaced basal cross-joint set and a closely-spaced discontinuity set dipping into the slope. For this case, failure occurs when the structure cannot bear the tensile portion of bending stress, and the columns or blocks overturn by their own weight. This paper presents a particle-based discrete element model of rock blocks subjected to a toppling failure where geometric conditions and interaction among blocks are investigated. A series of parametric studies have been conducted on particles’ size, arrangement and bond contact among of particles which are made the blocks. Firstly, a numerical investigation on a one-block system was verified. Afterward, a slope consisting of multi-blocks was developed to study toppling failure and interaction forces between blocks. The results show that the formation of blocks, especially between the block and basal plane surface, can change the process of failure. The results also demonstrate that the initial configuration of particles used to form the blocks has a significant role in achieving accurate simulation results. The size of particles and bond contacts have a considerable influence to change the progress of toppling failure.

Keywords: block toppling failure, contact interaction, discrete element, particle size, random generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
3237 Rock Paintings with Libyan Inscriptions of Grande Kabylia, Algeria

Authors: Samia Ait Ali Yahia


The rock paintings of Grande Kabylia contain a good number of Libyan inscriptions. Of the 54 sites discovered, 23 have inscriptions painted in red ocher. We find them in rock shelters, on blocks of sandstone in the northern part of Kabylia. Our job is to collect as many cave paintings as possible with Libyan inscriptions. Then we will make an analysis on the epigraphic level, the different forms of the characters and their frequencies. The other purpose of this research is to bring out the different characters used in these paintings and compare them with those of the Libyan steles of Grande Kabylia.

Keywords: Grande Kabylia, Libyan inscriptions, Libyan stele, rock paintings

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
3236 Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Rock during Temperature Drop

Authors: N. Reppas, Y. L. Gui, B. Wetenhall, C. T. Davie, J. Ma


A theoretical constitutive model describing the stress-strain behavior of rock subjected to different confining pressures is presented. A bounding surface plastic model with hardening effects is proposed which includes the effect of temperature drop. The bounding surface is based on a mapping rule and the temperature effect on rock is controlled by Poisson’s ratio. Validation of the results against available experimental data is also presented. The relation of deviatoric stress and axial strain is illustrated at different temperatures to analyze the effect of temperature decrease in terms of stiffness of the material.

Keywords: bounding surface, cooling of rock, plasticity model, rock deformation, elasto-plastic behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
3235 A Robust Theoretical Elastoplastic Continuum Damage T-H-M Model for Rock Surrounding a Wellbore

Authors: Nikolaos Reppas, Yilin Gui, Ben Wetenhall, Colin Davie


Injection of CO2 inside wellbore can induce different kind of loadings that can lead to thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical changes on the surrounding rock. A dual-porosity theoretical constitutive model will be presented for the stability analysis of the wellbore during CO2 injection. An elastoplastic damage response will be considered. A bounding yield surface will be presented considering damage effects on sandstone. The main target of the research paper is to present a theoretical constitutive model that can help industries to safely store CO2 in geological rock formations and forecast any changes on the surrounding rock of the wellbore. The fully coupled elasto-plastic damage Thermo-Hydraulic-Mechanical theoretical model will be validated from existing experimental data for sandstone after simulating some scenarios by using FEM on MATLAB software.

Keywords: carbon capture and storage, rock mechanics, THM effects on rock, constitutive model

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
3234 Assessment of Rock Masses Performance as a Support of Lined Rock Cavern for Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage

Authors: Vathna Suy, Ki-Il Song


In order to store highly pressurized gas such as an isothermal compressed air energy storage, Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) are constructed underground and supported by layers of concrete, steel and rock masses. This study aims to numerically investigate the performance of rock masses which serve as a support of Lined Rock Cavern subjected to high cyclic pressure loadings. FLAC3D finite different software is used for the simulation since the software can effectively model the behavior of concrete lining and steel plate with its built-in structural elements. Cyclic pressure loadings are applied onto the inner surface of the cavern which then transmitted to concrete, steel and eventually to the surrounding rock masses. Changes of stress and strain are constantly monitored throughout all the process of loading operations. The results at various monitoring locations are then extracted and analyzed to assess the response of the rock masses, specifically on its ability to absorb energy during loadings induced by the changes of cyclic pressure loadings inside the cavern. By analyzing the obtained data of stress-strain relation and taking into account the behavior of materials under the effect of strain-dependency, conclusions on the performance of rock masses subjected to high cyclic loading conditions are drawn.

Keywords: cyclic loading, FLAC3D, lined rock cavern (LRC), strain-dependency

Procedia PDF Downloads 174