Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: Strontium Cerate

42 The Effect of Yb3+ Concentration on Spectroscopic properties of Strontium Cerate Doped with Tm3+ and Yb3+

Authors: Yeon Woo Seo, Haeyoung Choi, Jung Hyun Jeong

Abstract:

Recently, the UC phosphors have attracted much attention owing to their wide applicability in areas such as biological fluorescence labeling, three-dimensional color displays, temperature sensor, solar cells, white light emitting diodes (WLEDs), fiber optic communication, anti-counterfeiting and other areas. The UC efficiency is mainly dependent on the host lattice and the interaction between the host lattice and doped ions. Up to date, various host matrices, such as oxides, fluorides, vanadates and phosphates, have been investigated as efficient UC luminescent hosts. Recently, oxide materials with low phonon energy have been investigated as the host matrices of UC materials due to their high chemical durability and physical stability. A series of Sr2CeO4: Tm3+/Yb3+ phosphors with different concentrations of Yb3+ ions have been successfully prepared using the high-energy ball milling method. In this study, we reported the UC luminescent properties of Tm3+/Yb3+ ions co-doped Sr2CeO4 phosphors under an excitation wavelength of 975 nm. Furthermore, the structural and morphological characteristics, as well as the UC luminescence mechanism were investigated in detail. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed their orthorhombic structure. Under 975 nm excitation, the emission peaks were observed at 478 nm (blue) and 652 nm (red), corresponding to the 1G4 → 3H6 and 1G4 → 3F4 transitions of Tm3+, respectively. The optimized doping concentration of Yb3+ ion was 10 mol%.

Keywords: Strontium Cerate, up-conversion, luminescence, Tm3+, Yb3+

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41 Study of Strontium Sorption onto Indian Bentonite

Authors: Pankaj Pathak, Susmita Sharma

Abstract:

Incessant industrial growth fulfill the energy demand of present day society, at the same time it produces huge amount of waste which could be hazardous or non-hazardous in nature. These wastes are coming out from different sources viz, nuclear power, thermal power, coal mines which contain different types of contaminants and one of the emergent contaminant is strontium, used in the present study. The isotope of strontium (Sr90) is radioactive in nature with half-life of 28.8 years and permissible limit of strontium in drinking water is 1.5 ppm. Above the permissible limit causes several types of diseases in human being. Therefore, safe disposal of strontium into ground becomes a biggest challenge for the researchers. In this context, bentonite is being used as an efficient material to retain strontium onto ground due to its specific physical, chemical and mineralogical properties which exhibits higher cation exchange capacity and specific surface area. These properties influence the interaction between strontium and bentonite, which is quantified by employing a parameter known as distribution coefficient. Batch test was conducted, and sorption isotherms were modelled at different interaction time. The pseudo first-order and pseudo second order kinetic models have been used to fit experimental data, which helps to determine the sorption rate and mechanism.

Keywords: bentonite, interaction time, sorption, strontium

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40 The Influence of Reaction Parameters on Magnetic Properties of Synthesized Strontium Ferrite

Authors: M. Bahgat, F. M. Awan, H. A. Hanafy

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The conventional ceramic route was utilized to prepare a hard magnetic powder (M-type strontium ferrite, SrFe12O19). The stoichiometric mixture of iron oxide and strontium carbonate were calcined at 1000°C and then fired at various temperatures. The influence of various reaction parameters such as mixing ratio, calcination temperature, firing temperature and firing time on the magnetic behaviors of the synthesized magnetic powder were investigated.The magnetic properties including Coercivity (Hc), Magnetic saturation (Ms), and Magnetic remnance (Mr) were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. Morphologically the produced magnetic powder has a dense hexagonal grain shape structure.

Keywords: hard magnetic materials, ceramic route, strontium ferrite, magnetic properties

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39 Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants Using Strontium Titanate Synthesized by Electrospinning Method

Authors: Hui-Hsin Huang, Yi-Feng Lin, Che-Chia Hu

Abstract:

To date, photocatalytic wastewater treatment using solar energy has attracted considerable attention. In this study, strontium titanates with various morphologies, i.e., nanofibers and cubic-like particles, were prepared as photocatalysts using the electrospinning (ES), solid-state (SS), and sol-gel (SG) methods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that ES and SS can be assigned to pure phase SrTiO3, while SG was referred to Sr2TiO4. These samples displayed optical absorption edges at 385-395 nm, indicating they can be activated in UV light irradiation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses revealed that ES SrTiO3 has a uniform fibrous structure with length and diameter of several microns and 100-200 nm, respectively. After loading of nanoparticulate Ag as a co-catalyst onto the surface of strontium titanates, ES sample exhibited highest photocatalytic activity to degrade methylene orange dye solution in comparison to that of SS and SG ones. These results indicate that Ag-loaded ES SrTiO3, which has a desirable SrTiO3 phase and a facile electron transfer along the preferential direction in fibrous structure, can be a promising photocatalyst.

Keywords: photocatalytic degradation, strontium titanate, electrospinning, co-catalyst

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38 Lanthanum Strontium Titanate Based Anode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors: A. Saurabh Singh, B. Raghvendra, C. Prabhakar Singh

Abstract:

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are one of the most attractive electrochemical energy conversion systems, as these devices present a clean energy production, thus promising high efficiencies and low environmental impact. The electrodes are the main components that decisively control the performance of a SOFC. Conventional, anode materials (like Ni-YSZ) are operates at very high temperature. Therefore, cost-effective materials which operate at relatively lower temperatures are still required. In present study, we have synthesized La doped Strontium Titanate via solid state reaction route. The structural, microstructural and density of the pellet have been investigated employing XRD, SEM and Archimedes Principle, respectively. The electrical conductivity of the systems has been determined by impedance spectroscopy techniques. The electrical conductivity of the Lanthanum Strontium Titanate (LST) has been found to be higher than the composite Ni-YSZ system at 700 °C.

Keywords: IT-SOFC, LST, Lanthanum Strontium Titanate, electrical conductivity

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37 Synthesis of Hard Magnetic Material from Secondary Resources

Authors: M. Bahgat, F. M. Awan, H. A. Hanafy, O. N. Alzeghaibi

Abstract:

Strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19; Sr-ferrite) is one of the well-known materials for permanent magnets. In this study, M-type strontium ferrite was prepared by following the conventional ceramic method from steelmaking by-product. Initial materials; SrCO3 and by-product, were mixed together in the composition of SrFe12O19 in different Sr/Fe ratios. The mixtures of these raw materials were dry-milled for 6h. The blended powder was pre-sintered (i.e. calcination) at 1000°C for different times periods, then cooled down to room temperature. These pre-sintered samples were re-milled in a dry atmosphere for 1h and then fired at different temperatures in atmospheric conditions, and cooled down to room temperature. The produced magnetic powder has a dense hexagonal grain shape structure. The calculated energy product values for the produced samples ranged from 0.3 to 2.4 MGOe.

Keywords: hard magnetic materials, ceramic route, strontium ferrite, synthesis

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36 Magnetic Properties of Sr-Ferrite Nano-Powder Synthesized by Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method

Authors: M. Ghobeiti-Hasab, Z. Shariati

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In this paper, strontium ferrite (SrO.6Fe2O3) was synthesized by the sol-gel auto-combustion process. The thermal behavior of powder obtained from self-propagating combustion of initial gel was evaluated by simultaneous differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermo gravimetric (TG), from room temperature to 1200°C. The as-burnt powder was calcined at various temperatures from 700-900°C to achieve the single-phase Sr-ferrite. Phase composition, morphology and magnetic properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) techniques. Results showed that the single-phase and nano-sized hexagonal strontium ferrite particles were formed at calcination temperature of 800°C with crystallite size of 27 nm and coercivity of 6238 Oe.

Keywords: hard magnet, Sr-ferrite, sol-gel auto-combustion, nano-powder

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35 Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium and Strontium Doped Sulphate-Hydroxyapatite

Authors: Ammar Z. Alshemary, Yi-Fan Goh, Rafaqat Hussain

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Magnesium (Mg2+), strontium (Sr2+) and sulphate ions (SO42-) were successfully substituted into hydroxyapatite (Ca10-x-y MgxSry(PO4)6-z(SO4)zOH2-z) structure through ion exchange process at cationic and anionic sites. Mg2+and Sr2+ ions concentrations were varied between (0.00-0.10), keeping concentration of SO42- ions at z=0.05. [Mg (NO3)2], [Sr (NO3)2] and (Na2SO4) were used as Mg2+, Sr2+, and SO42- sources respectively. The synthesized white precipitate were subjected to heat treatment at 500ºC and finally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the substitution of Mg2+, Sr2+ and SO42- ions into the HA lattice resulted in an increase in the broadness and reduction of XRD peaks. This confirmed that the crystallinity was reduced due to the substitution of ions. Similarly, FTIR result showed the effect of substitution on phosphate bands as well as exchange of hydroxyl group by SO42- ions to balance the charges on HA surface.

Keywords: hydroxyapatite, substitution, characterization, XRD, FTIR

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34 Extraction of Strontium Ions through Ligand Assisted Ionic Liquids

Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Abhishek Kumar Chandra, Ashok Khanna

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Extraction of Strontium by crown ether (DCH18C6) hasbeen investigated in [BMIM][TF2N] Ionic Liquid (IL) giving higher extraction ~98% and distribution ratio as compared to other organic solvents (Dodecane, Hexane, & Isodecyl alcohol + Dodecane). Distribution ratio of Sr in IL at 0.15M DCH18C6 indicates an enhancement of 20000, 2000, 500 times over Dodecane, Hexane and 5% Isodecyl Alcohol + 95 % Dodecane at 0.01M aqueous acidity respectively. In presence of IL, Sr extraction decreases with increase in HNO3 concentration in aqueous phase whereas opposite trend was observed with organic solvents.Extraction of Sr initially increases with increase in DCH18C6 concentration in IL, finally reaching an asymptotic constant.

Keywords: distribution ratio, ionic liquid, ligand, organic solvent, stripping

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33 Phase Equilibria in the Ln-Sr-Co-O Systems

Authors: Anastasiia Maklakova

Abstract:

The perovskite type oxides formed in the Ln-Me-Me/-O systems (where Ln – rare-earth, Me – alkaline earth metal, Me/ - 3-d metal) have potential applications as gas sensors, catalysts or cathode materials for IT-SOFCs due to the high values of mixed electronic -ionic conductivity and high oxygen diffusivity. Complex oxides in the Sr-(Pr,Gd)-Co-O systems were prepared via the glycerol-nitrate technique The phase composition was determined using a Shimadzu XRD-7000 diffractometer at room temperature in air. Phase identification was performed using the ICDD database. The structure was refined by the full-profile Rietveld method using Fullprof 2008 software. Gradual substitution of strontium by Pr or Gd leads to the decrease of unit cell parameters and unit cell volume that can be explained by the size factor. An introduction of Pr or Gd into the strontium cobaltite increases the oxygen content in samples.

Keywords: phase equilibria, crystal structure, oxygen nonstoichiometry, solid oxide fuel cell

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32 Effect of Strontium on Surface Roughness and Chip Morphology When Turning Al-Si Cast Alloy Using Carbide Tool Insert

Authors: Mohsen Marani Barzani, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, Saeed Farahany, Ramesh Singh

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Surface roughness and chip morphology are important output in manufacturing product. In this paper, an experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of various cutting speeds and feed rates on surface roughness and chip morphology in turning the Al-Si cast alloy and Sr-containing. Experimental trials carried out using coated carbide inserts. Experiments accomplished under oblique dry cutting when various cutting speeds 70, 130 and 250 m/min and feed rates of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 mm/rev were used, whereas depth of cut kept constant at 0.05 mm. The results showed that Sr-containing Al-Si alloy have poor surface roughness in comparison to Al-Si alloy (base alloy). The surface roughness values reduce with cutting speed increment from 70 to 250 m/min. the size of chip changed with changing silicon shape in Al matrix. Also, the surface finish deteriorated with increase in feed rate from 0.5 mm/rev to 0.15 mm/rev.

Keywords: strontium, surface roughness, chip, morphology, turning

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31 Production of Sr-Ferrite Sub-Micron Powder by Conventional and Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Methods

Authors: M. Ghobeiti-Hasab

Abstract:

Magnetic powder of Sr-ferrite was prepared by conventional and sol-gel auto-combustion methods. In conventional method, strontium carbonate and ferric oxide powders were mixed together and then mixture was calcined. In sol-gel auto-combustion method, a solution containing strontium nitrate, ferric nitrate and citric acid was heated until the combustion took place automatically; then, as-burnt powder was calcined. Thermal behavior, phase identification, morphology and magnetic properties of powders obtained by these two methods were compared by DTA, XRD, SEM, and VSM techniques. According to the results of DTA analysis, formation temperature of Sr-ferrite obtained by conventional and sol-gel auto-combustion methods were 1300 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. XRD results confirmed the formation of pure Sr-ferrite at the mentioned temperatures. Plate and hexagonal-shape particles of Sr-ferrite were observed using SEM. The Sr-ferrite powder obtained by sol-gel auto-combustion method had saturation magnetization of 66.03 emu/g and coercivity of 5731 Oe in comparison with values of 58.20 emu/g and 4378 Oe obtained by conventional method.

Keywords: Sr-ferrite, sol-gel, magnetic properties, calcination

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30 Heavy Metals of Natural Phosphate Ore and the Way They Affect the Various Mineralurgic Modes of Treatment

Authors: Bezzi Nacer

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The study focused on the qualitative and quantitative study of Trace elements contained in the natural phosphate ore of Djebel Onk layer and their behaviour to the various mineralurgic modes of treatment. The main objective is to locate the importance of these contents according to granulometry and their association with the existing mineralogical species and to define how the most appropriate treatment. The raw ore is in first submitted to a prior mechanical treatment consisting of homogenization operations, of grinding and of sifting, in order to separate it into three particle-size classes: fine <100 µm (F); medium 100-500 µm (I) and coarse > 500 µm (G), and then treated by calcination, washing and floatation. The identification of the different mineralogical phases, the chemical composition and the thermal behaviour of these samples were realized by various techniques: MEB, DRX, ATG-ATD, etc. The study of Trace elements, carried out by ICP-MS, identified thirty items, consisting mainly of rare earths and of transition metals. A close relation between trace elements and various minerals phases (apatite, dolomite and silicates), through operations of substitution. These elements are distributed between several mineralogical phases, in particular apatite (strontium, uranium, chrome, barium, cadmium) and silicates (strontium, sodium, nickel, zinc and copper).

Keywords: valorization of natural phosphate ore, heavy metals, qualitative and quantitative analysis, various mineralurgic

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29 The Effect of Substitution of CaO/MgO and CaO/SrO on in vitro Bioactivity of Sol-Gel Derived Bioactive Glass

Authors: Zeinab Hajifathali, Moghan Amirhosseinian

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This study had two main aims: firstly, to determine how the individual substitution of CaO/MgO and CaO/SrO can affect the in vitro bioactivity of sol-gel derived substituted 58S bioactive glass (BG) and secondly to introduce a composition in the 60SiO2–(36-x)CaO–4P2O5–(x)MgO and 60SiO2–(36-x)CaO–4P2O5–(x)SrO quaternary systems (where x= 0, 5, 10 mol.%) with enhanced biocompatibility, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and more efficient antibacterial activity against MRSA bacteria. Results showed that both magnesium-substituted bioactive glasses (M-BGs) and strontium- substituted bioactive glasses (S-BGs) retarded the Hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. Meanwhile, magnesium had more pronounced effect. The 3-(4, 5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and ALP assays revealed that the presence of moderate amount (5 mol%) of Mg and Sr had a stimulating effect on increasing of both proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Live dead and Dapi/actin staining revealed both substitution of CaO/MgO and CaO/SrO resulted in more biocompatibility and stimulation potential of the MC3T3 cells compared with control. Taken together, among all of the synthesized magnesium substituted (MBGs) and strontium substituted (SBGs), the sample 58- BG with 5 mol% CaO/MgO substitution (BG-5M) was considered as a multifunctional biomaterial in bone tissue regeneration field with enhanced biocompatibility, ALP activity as well as the highest antibacterial efficiency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria.

Keywords: apatite, alkaline earth, bioactivity, biomedical applications, Sol-gel

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28 Participation in IAEA Proficiency Test to Analyse Cobalt, Strontium and Caesium in Seawater Using Direct Counting and Radiochemical Techniques

Authors: S. Visetpotjanakit, C. Khrautongkieo

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Radiation monitoring in the environment and foodstuffs is one of the main responsibilities of Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) as the nuclear regulatory body of Thailand. The main goal of the OAP is to assure the safety of the Thai people and environment from any radiological incidents. Various radioanalytical methods have been developed to monitor radiation and radionuclides in the environmental and foodstuff samples. To validate our analytical performance, several proficiency test exercises from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have been performed. Here, the results of a proficiency test exercise referred to as the Proficiency Test for Tritium, Cobalt, Strontium and Caesium Isotopes in Seawater 2017 (IAEA-RML-2017-01) are presented. All radionuclides excepting ³H were analysed using various radioanalytical methods, i.e. direct gamma-ray counting for determining ⁶⁰Co, ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs and developed radiochemical techniques for analysing ¹³⁴Cs, ¹³⁷Cs using AMP pre-concentration technique and 90Sr using di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) liquid extraction technique. The analysis results were submitted to IAEA. All results passed IAEA criteria, i.e. accuracy, precision and trueness and obtained ‘Accepted’ statuses. These confirm the data quality from the OAP environmental radiation laboratory to monitor radiation in the environment.

Keywords: international atomic energy agency, proficiency test, radiation monitoring, seawater

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27 The Synthesis and Analysis of Two Long Lasting Phosphorescent Compounds: SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+

Authors: Ghayah Alsaleem

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This research project focussed on specific compounds, whereas a literature review was completed on the broader subject of long-lasting phosphorescence. For the review and subsequent laboratory work, long lasting phosphorescence compounds were defined as materials that have an afterglow decay time greater than a few minutes. The decay time is defined as the time between the end of excitation and the moment the light intensity drops below 0.32mcd/m2. This definition is widely used in industry and in most research studies. The experimental work focused on known long-lasting phosphorescence compounds – strontium aluminate (SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+). At first, preparation was similar to literary methods. Temperature, dopant levels and mixing methods were then varied in order to expose their effects on long-lasting phosphorescence. The effect of temperature was investigated for SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+, and resulted in the discovery that 1350°C was the only temperature that the compound could be heated to in the Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in order to achieve any phosphorescence. However, no temperatures above 1350°C were investigated. The variation of mixing method and co-dopant level in the strontium aluminate compounds resulted in the finding that the dry mixing method using a Turbula mixer resulted in the longest afterglow. It was also found that an increase of europium inclusion, from 1mol% to 2mol% in these compounds, increased the brightest of the phosphorescence. As this increased batch was mixed using sonication, the phosphorescent time was actually reduced which produced green long-lasting phosphorescence for up to 20 minutes following 30 minutes excitation and 50 minutes when the europium content was doubled and mixed using sonication.

Keywords: long lasting, phosphorescence, excitation, europium

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26 Honey Contamination in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: B. Sadepovich Maikanov, Z. Shabanbayevich Adilbekov, R. Husainovna Mustafina, L. Tyulegenovna Auteleyeva

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This study involves detailed information about contaminants of honey in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The requirements of the technical regulation ‘Requirements to safety of honey and bee products’ and GOST 19792-2001 were taken into account in this research. Contamination of honey by antibiotics wqs determined by the IEA (immune-enzyme analysis), Ridder analyzer and Tecna produced test systems. Voltammetry (TaLab device) was used to define contamination by salts of heavy metals and gamma-beta spectrometry, ‘Progress BG’ system, with preliminary ashing of the sample of honey was used to define radioactive contamination. This article pointed out that residues of chloramphenicol were detected in 24% of investigated products, in 22% of them –streptomycin, in 7.3% - sulfanilamide, in 2.4% - tylosin, and in 12% - combined contamination was noted. Geographically, the greatest degree of contamination of honey with antibiotics occurs in the Northern Kazakhstan – 54.4%, and Southern Kazakhstan - 50%, and the lowest in Central and Eastern Kazakhstan with 30% and 25%, respectively. Generally, pollution by heavy metals is within acceptable limits, but the contamination from lead is highest in the Akmola region. The level of radioactive cesium and strontium is also within acceptable concentrations. The highest radioactivity in terms of cesium was observed in the East Kazakhstan region - 49.00±10 Bq/kg, in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty - 12.00±5, 11.05±3 and 19.0±8 Bq/kg, respectively, while the norm is 100 Bq/kg. In terms of strontium, the radioactivity in the East Kazakhstan region is 25.03±15 Bq/kg, while in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty regions it is 12.00±3, 10.2±4 and 1.0±2 Bq/kg, respectively, with the norm of 80 Bq/kg. This accumulation is mainly associated with the environmental degradation, feeding and treating of bees. Moreover, in the process of collecting nectar, external substances can penetrate honey. Overall, this research determines factors and reasons of honey contamination.

Keywords: antibiotics, contamination of honey, honey, radionuclides

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25 Development of a Cathode-Type Ca1-xSrxMnO3

Authors: A. Guemache, M. Omari

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Oxides with formula Ca1-xSrx MnO3 (0≤x≤0.2) were synthesized using co-precipitation method. The identification of the obtained phase was carried out using infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Thermogravimetric and differential analysis was permitted to characterize different transformations of precursors which take place during one heating cycle. The study of electrochemical behavior was carried out by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results show that apparent catalytic activity improved when increasing the concentration of strontium. Anodic current densities varies from 1.3 to 5.9 mA/cm2 at the rate scan of 20 mV.s-1 and a potential 0.8 V for oxides with composition x=0 to 0.2.

Keywords: oxide, co-precipitation, electrochemical properties, cathode-type

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24 Synthesis and Characterization of a Type Oxide Ca1-x Srx MnO3

Authors: A. Guemache, M. Omari

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Oxides with formula Ca1-xSrx MnO3(0≤x≤0.2) were synthesized using co precipitation method. The identification of the obtained phase was carried out using infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Thermogravimetric and differential analysis was permitted to characterize different transformations of precursors which take place during one heating cycle. The study of electrochemical behavior was carried out by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results show that apparent catalytic activity improved when increasing the concentration of strontium. Anodic current densities varies from 1.3 to 5.9 mA/cm2 at the rate scan of 20 mV.s-1 and a potential 0.8 V for oxides with composition x=0 to 0.2.

Keywords: oxide, co-precipitation, thermal analysis, electrochemical properties

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23 Chemical Treatment of Wastewater through Biosorption for the Removal of Toxic Metals

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Manjunathan Ulaganathan

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Water/wastewater often contains heavy/toxic metals, such as lead, copper, zinc and arsenic as well as harmful elements, such as antimony, selenium and fluoride. It may also contains radioactive elements, such as cesium and strontium. If they are not removed from water/wastewater then the environment and human health can be negatively impacted. Extensive research has been carried out to remove such harmful metals/elements from water/wastewater through biosorption using biomaterials (bioadsorbents). This presentation will give an overview of the research on preparation of bioadsorbents from biomass wastes and their use for the removal of harmful metals/elements from aqueous media.

Keywords: biosorption, environmental, toxic metals, wastewater

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22 Analysis of Structural Phase Stability of Strontium Sulphide under High Pressure

Authors: Shilpa Kapoor, Namrata Yaduvanshi, Pooja Pawar, Sadhna Singh

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A Three Body Interaction Potential (TBIP) model is developed to study the high pressure phase transition of SrS having NaCl (B1) structure at room temperature. This model includes the long range Columbic, three body interaction forces, short range overlap forces operative up to next nearest neighbors and zero point energy effects. We have investigated the phase transition with pressure, volume collapse and second order elastic constants and found results well suited with available experimental data.

Keywords: phase transition, second order elastic constants, three body interaction forces, volume collapses

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21 Low-Temperature Luminescence Spectroscopy of Violet Sr-Al-O:Eu2+ Phosphor Particles

Authors: Keiji Komatsu, Hayato Maruyama, Ariyuki Kato, Atsushi Nakamura, Shigeo Ohshio, Hiroki Akasaka, Hidetoshi Saitoh

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Violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor particles were synthesized from a metal–ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution of Sr, Al, Eu, and particulate alumina via spray drying and sintering in a reducing atmosphere. The crystal structures and emission properties at 85–300 K were investigated. The composition of the violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor particles was determined from various Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphors by their emission properties’ dependence on temperature. The highly crystalline SrAl12O19:Eu2+ emission phases were confirmed by their crystallite sizes and the activation energies for the 4f5d–8S7/2 transition of the Eu2+ ion. These results showed that the material identification for the violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor was accomplished by the low-temperature luminescence measurements.

Keywords: low temperature luminescence spectroscopy, material identification, strontium aluminates phosphor, emission properties

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20 Flexible Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) Nanocomposites Filled with Ternary Nanofillers for Energy Harvesting

Authors: D. Ponnamma, E. Alper, P. Sharma, M. A. AlMaadeed

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Integrating efficient energy harvesting materials into soft, flexible and eco-friendly substrates could yield significant breakthroughs in wearable and flexible electronics. Here we present a tri phasic filler combination of one-dimensional titanium dioxide nanotubes, two-dimensional reduced graphene oxide, and three-dimensional strontium titanate, introduced into a semi crystalline polymer, Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene). Simple mixing method is adopted for the composite fabrication after ensuring a high interaction among the various fillers. The films prepared were mainly tested for the piezoelectric responses and the mechanical stretchability. The results show that the piezoelectric constant has increased while changing the total filler concentration. We propose an integration of these materials in fabricating energy conversion devices useful in flexible and wearable electronics.

Keywords: dielectric property, hydrothermal growth, piezoelectricity, polymer nanocomposites

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19 Effect of Organics on Radionuclide Partitioning in Nuclear Fuel Storage Ponds

Authors: Hollie Ashworth, Sarah Heath, Nick Bryan, Liam Abrahamsen, Simon Kellet

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Sellafield has a number of fuel storage ponds, some of which have been open to the air for a number of decades. This has caused corrosion of the fuel resulting in a release of some activity into solution, reduced water clarity, and accumulation of sludge at the bottom of the pond consisting of brucite (Mg(OH)2) and other uranium corrosion products. Both of these phases are also present as colloidal material. 90Sr and 137Cs are known to constitute a small volume of the radionuclides present in the pond, but a large fraction of the activity, thus they are most at risk of challenging effluent discharge limits. Organic molecules are known to be present also, due to the ponds being open to the air, with occasional algal blooms restricting visibility further. The contents of the pond need to be retrieved and safely stored, but dealing with such a complex, undefined inventory poses a unique challenge. This work aims to determine and understand the sorption-desorption interactions of 90Sr and 137Cs to brucite and uranium phases, with and without the presence of organic molecules from chemical degradation and bio-organisms. The influence of organics on these interactions has not been widely studied. Partitioning of these radionuclides and organic molecules has been determined through LSC, ICP-AES/MS, and UV-vis spectrophotometry coupled with ultrafiltration in both binary and ternary systems. Further detailed analysis into the surface and bonding environment of these components is being investigated through XAS techniques and PHREEQC modelling. Experiments were conducted in CO2-free or N2 atmosphere across a high pH range in order to best simulate conditions in the pond. Humic acid used in brucite systems demonstrated strong competition against 90Sr for the brucite surface regardless of the order of addition of components. Variance of pH did have a small effect, however this range (10.5-11.5) is close to the pHpzc of brucite, causing the surface to buffer the solution pH towards that value over the course of the experiment. Sorption of 90Sr to UO2 obeyed Ho’s rate equation and demonstrated a slow second-order reaction with respect to the sharing of valence electrons from the strontium atom, with the initial rate clearly dependent on pH, with the equilibrium concentration calculated at close to 100% sorption. There was no influence of humic acid seen when introduced to these systems. Sorption of 137Cs to UO3 was significant, with more than 95% sorbed in just over 24 hours. Again, humic acid showed no influence when introduced into this system. Both brucite and uranium based systems will be studied with the incorporation of cyanobacterial cultures harvested at different stages of growth. Investigation of these systems provides insight into, and understanding of, the effect of organics on radionuclide partitioning to brucite and uranium phases at high pH. The majority of sorption-desorption work for radionuclides has been conducted at neutral to acidic pH values, and mostly without organics. These studies are particularly important for the characterisation of legacy wastes at Sellafield, with a view to their safe retrieval and storage.

Keywords: caesium, legacy wastes, organics, sorption-desorption, strontium, uranium

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18 The Mechanism of Calcium Carbonate Scale Deposition Affected by Carboxymethyl Chitosan

Authors: Genaro Bolívar, Manuel Mas, Maria Tortolero, Jorge Salazar

Abstract:

Due to the extensive use of water injection for oil displacement and pressure maintenance in oil fields, many reservoirs experience the problem of scale deposition when injection water starts to break through. In most cases the scaled-up wells are caused by the formation of sulfate and carbonate scales of calcium and strontium. Due to their relative hardness and low solubility, there are limited processes available for their removal and preventive measures such as the “squeeze” inhibitor treatment have to be taken. It is, therefore, important to gain a proper understanding of the kinetics of scale formation and its detrimental effects on formation damage under both inhibited and uninhibited conditions. Recently, the production of chitosan was started in our country and in the PDVSA-Intevep laboratories was synthesized and evaluated the properties of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMQ) as chelating agent of Ca2 + ions in water injection. In this regard, the characterization of the biopolymer by 13C - NMR, FTIR, TGA, and TM0374-2007 standard laboratory test has demonstrated the ability to remove up to 70% calcium ions in solution and shows a behavior that approaches that of commercial products.

Keywords: carboxymethyl chitosan, scale, calcium carbonate scale deposition, water injection

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17 Rapid Method for Low Level 90Sr Determination in Seawater by Liquid Extraction Technique

Authors: S. Visetpotjanakit, N. Nakkaew

Abstract:

Determination of low level 90Sr in seawater has been widely developed for the purpose of environmental monitoring and radiological research because 90Sr is one of the most hazardous radionuclides released from atmospheric during the testing of nuclear weapons, waste discharge from the generation nuclear energy and nuclear accident occurring at power plants. A liquid extraction technique using bis-2-etylhexyl-phosphoric acid to separate and purify yttrium followed by Cherenkov counting using a liquid scintillation counter to determine 90Y in secular equilibrium to 90Sr was developed to monitor 90Sr in the Asia Pacific Ocean. The analytical performance was validated for the accuracy, precision, and trueness criteria. Sr-90 determination in seawater using various low concentrations in a range of 0.01 – 1 Bq/L of 30 liters spiked seawater samples and 0.5 liters of IAEA-RML-2015-01 proficiency test sample was performed for statistical evaluation. The results had a relative bias in the range from 3.41% to 12.28%, which is below accepted relative bias of ± 25% and passed the criteria confirming that our analytical approach for determination of low levels of 90Sr in seawater was acceptable. Moreover, the approach is economical, non-laborious and fast.

Keywords: proficiency test, radiation monitoring, seawater, strontium determination

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16 Enhanced Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties in Holmium Substituted Stoichiometric and Non-Stoichiometric SBT Ferroelectric Ceramics

Authors: Sugandha Gupta, Arun Kumar Jha

Abstract:

A large number of ferroelectric materials have been intensely investigated for applications in non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories (FeRAMs), piezoelectric transducers, actuators, pyroelectric sensors, high dielectric constant capacitors, etc. Bismuth layered ferroelectric materials such as Strontium Bismuth Tantalate (SBT) has attracted a lot of attention due to low leakage current, high remnant polarization and high fatigue endurance up to 1012 switching cycles. However, pure SBT suffers from various major limitations such as high dielectric loss, low remnant polarization values, high processing temperature, bismuth volatilization, etc. Significant efforts have been made to improve the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of this compound. Firstly, it has been reported that electrical properties vary with the Sr/ Bi content ratio in the SrBi2Ta2O9 compsition i.e. non-stoichiometric compositions with Sr-deficient / Bi excess content have higher remnant polarization values than stoichiometic SBT compositions. With the objective to improve structural, dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of SBT compound, rare earth holmium (Ho3+) was chosen as a donor cation for substitution onto the Bi2O2 layer. Moreover, hardly any report on holmium substitution in stoichiometric SrBi2Ta2O9 and non-stoichiometric Sr0.8Bi2.2Ta2O9 compositions were available in the literature. The holmium substituted SrBi2-xHoxTa2O9 (x= 0.00-2.0) and Sr0.8Bi2.2Ta2O9 (x=0.0 and 0.01) compositions were synthesized by the solid state reaction method. The synthesized specimens were characterized for their structural and electrical properties. X-ray diffractograms reveal single phase layered perovskite structure formation for holmium content in stoichiometric SBT samples up to x ≤ 0.1. The granular morphology of the samples was investigated using scanning electron microscope (Hitachi, S-3700 N). The dielectric measurements were carried out using a precision LCR meter (Agilent 4284A) operating at oscillation amplitude of 1V. The variation of dielectric constant with temperature shows that the Curie temperature (Tc) decreases on increasing the holmium content. The specimen with x=2.0 i.e. the bismuth free specimen, has very low dielectric constant and does not show any appreciable variation with temperature. The dielectric loss reduces significantly with holmium substitution. The polarization–electric field (P–E) hysteresis loops were recorded using a P–E loop tracer based on Sawyer–Tower circuit. It is observed that the ferroelectric property improve with Ho substitution. Holmium substituted specimen exhibits enhanced value of remnant polarization (Pr= 9.22 μC/cm²) as compared to holmium free specimen (Pr= 2.55 μC/cm²). Piezoelectric co-efficient (d33 values) was measured using a piezo meter system (Piezo Test PM300). It is observed that holmium substitution enhances piezoelectric coefficient. Further, the optimized holmium content (x=0.01) in stoichiometric SrBi2-xHoxTa2O9 composition has been substituted in non-stoichiometric Sr0.8Bi2.2Ta2O9 composition to obtain further enhanced structural and electrical characteristics. It is expected that a new class of ferroelectric materials i.e. Rare Earth Layered Structured Ferroelectrics (RLSF) derived from Bismuth Layered Structured Ferroelectrics (BLSF) will generate which can be used to replace static (SRAM) and dynamic (DRAM) random access memories with ferroelectric random access memories (FeRAMS).

Keywords: dielectrics, ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, strontium bismuth tantalate

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15 Linkage between Trace Element Distribution and Growth Ring Formation in Japanese Red Coral (Paracorallium japonicum)

Authors: Luan Trong Nguyen, M. Azizur Rahman, Yusuke Tamenori, Toshihiro Yoshimura, Nozomu Iwasaki, Hiroshi Hasegawa

Abstract:

This study investigated the distribution of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and strontium (Sr) using micro X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) along the annual growth rings in the skeleton of Japanese red coral Paracorallium japonicum. The Mg, P and S distribution in µ-XRF mapping images correspond to the dark and light bands along the annual growth rings observed in microscopic images of the coral skeleton. The µ-XRF mapping data showed a positive correlation (r = 0.6) between P and S distribution in the coral skeleton. A contrasting distribution pattern of S and Mg along the axial skeleton of P. japonicum indicates a weak negative correlation (r = -0.2) between these two trace elements. The distribution pattern of S, P and Mg reveals linkage between their distributions and the formation of dark/light bands along the annual growth rings in the axial skeleton of P. japonicum. Sulfur and P were distributed in the organic matrix rich dark bands, while Mg was distributed in the light bands of the annual growth rings.

Keywords: µ-XRF, trace element, precious coral, Paracorallium japonicum

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14 The Pressure Effect and First-Principles Study of Strontium Chalcogenides SrS

Authors: Benallou Yassine, Amara Kadda, Bouazza Boubakar, Soudini Belabbes, Arbouche Omar, M. Zemouli

Abstract:

The study of the pressure effect on the materials, their functionality and their properties is very important, insofar as it provides the opportunity to identify others applications such the optical properties in the alkaline earth chalcogenides, as like the SrS. Here we present the first-principles calculations which have been performed using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) within the Generalized Gradient Approximation developed by Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhor for solids (PBEsol). The calculated structural parameters like the lattice parameters, the bulk modulus B and their pressure derivative B' are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data. In addition, the elastic properties such as elastic constants (C11, C12, and C44), the shear modulus G, the Young modulus E, the Poisson’s ratio ν and the B/G ratio are also given. The treatments of exchange and correlation effects were done by the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential for the electronic. The pressure effect on the electronic properties was visualized by calculating the variations of the gap as a function of pressure. The obtained results are compared to available experimental data and to other theoretical calculations

Keywords: SrS, GGA-PBEsol+TB-MBJ, density functional, Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhor, FP-LAPW, pressure effect

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13 Carbonate Crusts in Jordan: Records of Groundwater Flow, Carbon Fluxes, Tectonic Movement and Climate Change

Authors: Nizar Abu-Jaber

Abstract:

Late Pleistocene and Holocene carbonate crusts in the south of Jordan were studied using a combination of field documentation, petrography, geochemical and isotopic techniques. These surficial crusts and vein deposits appear to have formed as a result of interaction between near-surface groundwater, surficial soil and sediments and rising carbon dioxide. Rising mantle CO2 dissolves in the water to create carbonic acid, which in turn dissolves the calcite in the soil in the sediments. When the pH rises later due to degassing, the carbonate crusts are left in the places where the water was flowing in veins, channels and interfaces between high and low permeability materials. The crusts have the potential for being important records of natural and human agencies on the landscape of the area. They reflect the isotopic composition of the waters in which they precipitated in, and also contain isotopic information about the aeolian calcium fluxes affecting the area (using strontium isotopes). Moreover, changing stream valley base levels can be identified and measured, which can help quantify the rates of tectonic movement. Finally, human activities such and channel construction and terrace building can be identified and traced temporally and spatially using these deposits.

Keywords: anthropogenic change, carbonate crusts, environmental change, Jordan

Procedia PDF Downloads 192