Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 57

Search results for: discontinuities

57 Efficient Modeling Technique for Microstrip Discontinuities

Authors: Nassim Ourabia, Malika Ourabia

Abstract:

A new and efficient method is presented for the analysis of arbitrarily shaped discontinuities. The technique obtains closed form expressions for the equivalent circuits which are used to model these discontinuities. Then it would be easy to handle and to characterize complicated structures like T and Y junctions, truncated junctions, arbitrarily shaped junctions, cascading junctions, and more generally planar multiport junctions. Another advantage of this method is that the edge line concept for arbitrary shape junctions operates with real parameters circuits. The validity of the method was further confirmed by comparing our results for various discontinuities (bend, filters) with those from HFSS as well as from other published sources.

Keywords: CAD analysis, contour integral approach, microwave circuits, s-parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
56 Characteization and Optimization of S-Parameters of Microwave Circuits

Authors: N. Ourabia, M. Boubaker Ourabia

Abstract:

An approach for modeling and numerical simulation of passive planar structures using the edge line concept is developed. With this method, we develop an efficient modeling technique for microstrip discontinuities. The technique obtains closed form expressions for the equivalent circuits which are used to model these discontinuities. Then, it would be easy to handle and to characterize complicated structures like T and Y junctions, truncated junctions, arbitrarily shaped junctions, cascading junctions and more generally planar multiport junctions. Another advantage of this method is that the edge line concept for arbitrary shape junctions operates with real parameters circuits. The validity of the method was further confirmed by comparing our results for various discontinuities (bend, filters) with those from HFSS as well as from other published sources.

Keywords: optimization, CAD analysis, microwave circuits, S-parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
55 Effect of Inclusions on the Shape and Size of Crack Tip Plastic Zones by Element Free Galerkin Method

Authors: A. Jameel, G. A. Harmain, Y. Anand, J. H. Masoodi, F. A. Najar

Abstract:

The present study investigates the effect of inclusions on the shape and size of crack tip plastic zones in engineering materials subjected to static loads by employing the element free Galerkin method (EFGM). The modeling of the discontinuities produced by cracks and inclusions becomes independent of the grid chosen for analysis. The standard displacement approximation is modified by adding additional enrichment functions, which introduce the effects of different discontinuities into the formulation. The level set method has been used to represent different discontinuities present in the domain. The effect of inclusions on the extent of crack tip plastic zones is investigated by solving some numerical problems by the EFGM.

Keywords: EFGM, stress intensity factors, crack tip plastic zones, inclusions

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54 Optimization Techniques for Microwave Structures

Authors: Malika Ourabia

Abstract:

A new and efficient method is presented for the analysis of arbitrarily shaped discontinuities. The discontinuities is characterized using a hybrid spectral/numerical technique. This structure presents an arbitrary number of ports, each one with different orientation and dimensions. This article presents a hybrid method based on multimode contour integral and mode matching techniques. The process is based on segmentation and dividing the structure into key building blocks. We use the multimode contour integral method to analyze the blocks including irregular shape discontinuities. Finally, the multimode scattering matrix of the whole structure can be found by cascading the blocks. Therefore, the new method is suitable for analysis of a wide range of waveguide problems. Therefore, the present approach can be applied easily to the analysis of any multiport junctions and cascade blocks. The accuracy of the method is validated comparing with results for several complex problems found in the literature. CPU times are also included to show the efficiency of the new method proposed.

Keywords: segmentation, s parameters, simulation, optimization

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53 Study of the Stability of the Slope Open-Pit Mines: Case of the Mine of Phosphates – Tebessa, Algeria

Authors: Mohamed Fredj, Abdallah Hafsaoui, Radouane Nakache

Abstract:

The study of the stability of the mining works in rock masses fractured is the major concern of the operating engineer. For geotechnical works in mines and quarries, it there is not today's general methodology for analysis and the quantification of the risks relating to the dangers inherent in these concrete types (falling boulders, landslides, etc.). The reasons for this are uncertainty, which weighs on available data or lack of knowledge of the values of the parameters required for this analysis type. Stability calculations must be based on reliable knowledge of the distribution of discontinuities that dissect the Rocky massif and the resistance to shear of the intact rock and discontinuities. This study is aimed to study the stability of slope of mine (Kef Sennoun - Tebessa, Algeria). The problem is analyzed using a numerical model based on the finite elements (software Plaxis 3D).

Keywords: stability, discontinuities, finite elements, rock mass, open-pit mine

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
52 Material Failure Process Simulation by Improved Finite Elements with Embedded Discontinuities

Authors: Gelacio Juárez-Luna, Gustavo Ayala, Jaime Retama-Velasco

Abstract:

This paper shows the advantages of the material failure process simulation by improve finite elements with embedded discontinuities, using a new definition of traction vector, dependent on the discontinuity length and the angle. Particularly, two families of this kind of elements are compared: kinematically optimal symmetric and statically and kinematically optimal non-symmetric. The constitutive model to describe the behavior of the material in the symmetric formulation is a traction-displacement jump relationship equipped with softening after reaching the failure surface. To show the validity of this symmetric formulation, representative numerical examples illustrating the performance of the proposed formulation are presented. It is shown that the non-symmetric family may over or underestimate the energy required to create a discontinuity, as this effect is related with the total length of the discontinuity, fact that is not noticed when the discontinuity path is a straight line.

Keywords: variational formulation, strong discontinuity, embedded discontinuities, strain localization

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
51 Determining Abnomal Behaviors in UAV Robots for Trajectory Control in Teleoperation

Authors: Kiwon Yeom

Abstract:

Change points are abrupt variations in a data sequence. Detection of change points is useful in modeling, analyzing, and predicting time series in application areas such as robotics and teleoperation. In this paper, a change point is defined to be a discontinuity in one of its derivatives. This paper presents a reliable method for detecting discontinuities within a three-dimensional trajectory data. The problem of determining one or more discontinuities is considered in regular and irregular trajectory data from teleoperation. We examine the geometric detection algorithm and illustrate the use of the method on real data examples.

Keywords: change point, discontinuity, teleoperation, abrupt variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
50 An Evaluation of Discontinuities in Rock Mass Using Coupled Hydromechanical Finite Element and Discrete Element Analyses

Authors: Mohammad Moridzadeh, Aaron Gallant

Abstract:

The paper will present the design and construction of the underground excavations of a pump station forebay and its related components including connector tunnels, access shaft, riser shaft and well shafts. The underground openings include an 8 m-diameter riser shaft, an 8-m-diameter access shaft, 34 2.4-m-diameter well shafts, a 107-m-long forebay with a cross section having a height of 11 m and width of 10 m, and a 6 m by 6 m stub connector tunnel between the access shaft and a future forebay extension. The riser shaft extends down from the existing forebay connector tunnel at elevation 247 m to the crown of the forebay at elevation 770.0 feet. The access shaft will extend from the platform at the surface down to El. 223.5 m. The pump station will have the capacity to deliver 600 million gallons per day. The project is located on an uplifted horst consisting of a mass of Precambrian metamorphic rock trending in a north-south direction. The eastern slope of the area is very steep and pronounced and is likely the result of high-angle normal faulting. Toward the west, the area is bordered by a high angle normal fault and recent alluvial, lacustrine, and colluvial deposits. An evaluation of rock mass properties, fault and discontinuities, foliation and joints, and in situ stresses was performed. The response of the rock mass was evaluated in 3DEC using Discrete Element Method (DEM) by explicitly accounting for both major and minor discontinuities within the rock mass (i.e. joints, shear zones, faults). Moreover, the stability of the entire subsurface structure including the forebay, access and riser shafts, future forebay, well shafts, and connecting tunnels and their interactions with each other were evaluated using a 3D coupled hydromechanical Finite Element Analysis (FEA).

Keywords: coupled hydromechanical analysis, discontinuities, discrete element, finite element, pump station

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
49 A Coupled Extended-Finite-Discrete Element Method: On the Different Contact Schemes between Continua and Discontinua

Authors: Shervin Khazaeli, Shahab Haj-zamani

Abstract:

Recently, advanced geotechnical engineering problems related to soil movement, particle loss, and modeling of local failure (i.e. discontinua) as well as modeling the in-contact structures (i.e. continua) are of the great interest among researchers. The aim of this research is to meet the requirements with respect to the modeling of the above-mentioned two different domains simultaneously. To this end, a coupled numerical method is introduced based on Discrete Element Method (DEM) and eXtended-Finite Element Method (X-FEM). In the coupled procedure, DEM is employed to capture the interactions and relative movements of soil particles as discontinua, while X-FEM is utilized to model in-contact structures as continua, which may consist of different types of discontinuities. For verification purposes, the new coupled approach is utilized to examine benchmark problems including different contacts between/within continua and discontinua. Results are validated by comparison with those of existing analytical and numerical solutions. This study proves that extended-finite-discrete element method can be used to robustly analyze not only contact problems, but also other types of discontinuities in continua such as (i) crack formations and propagations, (ii) voids and bimaterial interfaces, and (iii) combination of previous cases. In essence, the proposed method can be used vastly in advanced soil-structure interaction problems to investigate the micro and macro behaviour of the surrounding soil and the response of the embedded structure that contains discontinuities.

Keywords: contact problems, discrete element method, extended-finite element method, soil-structure interaction

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48 Why and When to Teach Definitions: Necessary and Unnecessary Discontinuities Resulting from the Definition of Mathematical Concepts

Authors: Josephine Shamash, Stuart Smith

Abstract:

We examine reasons for introducing definitions in teaching mathematics in a number of different cases. We try to determine if, where, and when to provide a definition, and which definition to choose. We characterize different types of definitions and the different purposes we may have for formulating them, and detail examples of each type. Giving a definition at a certain stage can sometimes be detrimental to the development of the concept image. In such a case, it is advisable to delay the precise definition to a later stage. We describe two models, the 'successive approximation model', and the 'model of the extending definition' that fit such situations. Detailed examples that fit the different models are given based on material taken from a number of textbooks, and analysis of the way the concept is introduced, and where and how its definition is given. Our conclusions, based on this analysis, is that some of the definitions given may cause discontinuities in the learning sequence and constitute obstacles and unnecessary cognitive conflicts in the formation of the concept definition. However, in other cases, the discontinuity in passing from definition to definition actually serves a didactic purpose, is unavoidable for the mathematical evolution of the concept image, and is essential for students to deepen their understanding.

Keywords: concept image, mathematical definitions, mathematics education, mathematics teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
47 Regularized Euler Equations for Incompressible Two-Phase Flow Simulations

Authors: Teng Li, Kamran Mohseni

Abstract:

This paper presents an inviscid regularization technique for the incompressible two-phase flow simulations. This technique is known as observable method due to the understanding of observability that any feature smaller than the actual resolution (physical or numerical), i.e., the size of wire in hotwire anemometry or the grid size in numerical simulations, is not able to be captured or observed. Differ from most regularization techniques that applies on the numerical discretization, the observable method is employed at PDE level during the derivation of equations. Difficulties in the simulation and analysis of realistic fluid flow often result from discontinuities (or near-discontinuities) in the calculated fluid properties or state. Accurately capturing these discontinuities is especially crucial when simulating flows involving shocks, turbulence or sharp interfaces. Over the past several years, the properties of this new regularization technique have been investigated that show the capability of simultaneously regularizing shocks and turbulence. The observable method has been performed on the direct numerical simulations of shocks and turbulence where the discontinuities are successfully regularized and flow features are well captured. In the current paper, the observable method will be extended to two-phase interfacial flows. Multiphase flows share the similar features with shocks and turbulence that is the nonlinear irregularity caused by the nonlinear terms in the governing equations, namely, Euler equations. In the direct numerical simulation of two-phase flows, the interfaces are usually treated as the smooth transition of the properties from one fluid phase to the other. However, in high Reynolds number or low viscosity flows, the nonlinear terms will generate smaller scales which will sharpen the interface, causing discontinuities. Many numerical methods for two-phase flows fail at high Reynolds number case while some others depend on the numerical diffusion from spatial discretization. The observable method regularizes this nonlinear mechanism by filtering the convective terms and this process is inviscid. The filtering effect is controlled by an observable scale which is usually about a grid length. Single rising bubble and Rayleigh-Taylor instability are studied, in particular, to examine the performance of the observable method. A pseudo-spectral method is used for spatial discretization which will not introduce numerical diffusion, and a Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) Runge Kutta method is applied for time integration. The observable incompressible Euler equations are solved for these two problems. In rising bubble problem, the terminal velocity and shape of the bubble are particularly examined and compared with experiments and other numerical results. In the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, the shape of the interface are studied for different observable scale and the spike and bubble velocities, as well as positions (under a proper observable scale), are compared with other simulation results. The results indicate that this regularization technique can potentially regularize the sharp interface in the two-phase flow simulations

Keywords: Euler equations, incompressible flow simulation, inviscid regularization technique, two-phase flow

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46 Numerical Analysis of Gas-Particle Mixtures through Pipelines

Authors: G. Judakova, M. Bause

Abstract:

The ability to model and simulate numerically natural gas flow in pipelines has become of high importance for the design of pipeline systems. The understanding of the formation of hydrate particles and their dynamical behavior is of particular interest, since these processes govern the operation properties of the systems and are responsible for system failures by clogging of the pipelines under certain conditions. Mathematically, natural gas flow can be described by multiphase flow models. Using the two-fluid modeling approach, the gas phase is modeled by the compressible Euler equations and the particle phase is modeled by the pressureless Euler equations. The numerical simulation of compressible multiphase flows is an important research topic. It is well known that for nonlinear fluxes, even for smooth initial data, discontinuities in the solution are likely to occur in finite time. They are called shock waves or contact discontinuities. For hyperbolic and singularly perturbed parabolic equations the standard application of the Galerkin finite element method (FEM) leads to spurious oscillations (e.g. Gibb's phenomenon). In our approach, we use stabilized FEM, the streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method, where artificial diffusion acting only in the direction of the streamlines and using a special treatment of the boundary conditions in inviscid convective terms, is added. Numerical experiments show that the numerical solution obtained and stabilized by SUPG captures discontinuities or steep gradients of the exact solution in layers. However, within this layer the approximate solution may still exhibit overshoots or undershoots. To suitably reduce these artifacts we add a discontinuity capturing or shock capturing term. The performance properties of our numerical scheme are illustrated for two-phase flow problem.

Keywords: two-phase flow, gas-particle mixture, inviscid two-fluid model, euler equation, finite element method, streamline upwind petrov-galerkin, shock capturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
45 Calculating Non-Unique Sliding Modes for Switched Dynamical Systems

Authors: Eugene Stepanov, Arkadi Ponossov

Abstract:

Ordinary differential equations with switching nonlinearities constitute a very useful tool in many applications. The solutions of such equations can usually be calculated analytically if they cross the discontinuities transversally. Otherwise, one has trajectories that slides along the discontinuity, and the calculations become less straightforward in this case. For instance, one of the problems one faces is non-uniqueness of the sliding modes. In the presentation, it is proposed to apply the theory of hybrid dynamical systems to calculate the solutions that are ‘hidden’ in the discontinuities. Roughly, one equips the underlying switched system with an explicitly designed discrete dynamical system (‘automaton’), which governs the dynamics of the switched system. This construction ‘splits’ the dynamics, which, as it is shown in the presentation, gives uniqueness of the resulting hybrid trajectories and at the same time provides explicit formulae for them. Projecting the hybrid trajectories back onto the original continuous system explains non-uniqueness of its trajectories. The automaton is designed with the help of the attractors of the specially constructed adjoint dynamical system. Several examples are provided in the presentation, which supports the efficiency of the suggested scheme. The method can be of interest in control theory, gene regulatory networks, neural field models and other fields, where switched dynamics is a part of the analysis.

Keywords: hybrid dynamical systems, singular perturbation analysis, sliding modes, switched dynamics

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44 Peridynamic Modeling of an Isotropic Plate under Tensile and Flexural Loading

Authors: Eda Gök

Abstract:

Peridynamics is a new modeling concept of non-local interactions for solid structures. The formulations of Peridynamic (PD) theory are based on integral equations rather than differential equations. Through, undefined equations of associated problems are avoided. PD theory might be defined as continuum version of molecular dynamics. The medium is usually modeled with mass particles bonded together. Particles interact with each other directly across finite distances through central forces named as bonds. The main assumption of this theory is that the body is composed of material points which interact with other material points within a finite distance. Although, PD theory developed for discontinuities, it gives good results for structures which have no discontinuities. In this paper, displacement control of the isotropic plate under the effect of tensile and bending loading has been investigated by means of PD theory. A MATLAB code is generated to create PD bonds and corresponding surface correction factors. Using generated MATLAB code the geometry of the specimen is generated, and the code is implemented in Finite Element Software. The results obtained from non-local continuum theory are compared with the Finite Element Analysis results and analytical solution. The results show good agreement.

Keywords: non-local continuum mechanics, peridynamic theory, solid structures, tensile loading, flexural loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
43 Q Slope Rock Mass Classification and Slope Stability Assessment Methodology Application in Steep Interbedded Sedimentary Rock Slopes for a Motorway Constructed North of Auckland, New Zealand

Authors: Azariah Sosa, Carlos Renedo Sanchez

Abstract:

The development of a new motorway north of Auckland (New Zealand) includes steep rock cuts, from 63 up to 85 degrees, in an interbedded sandstone and siltstone rock mass of the geological unit Waitemata Group (Pakiri Formation), which shows sub-horizontal bedding planes, various sub-vertical joint sets, and a diverse weathering profile. In this kind of rock mass -that can be classified as a weak rock- the definition of the stable maximum geometry is not only governed by discontinuities and defects evident in the rock but is important to also consider the global stability of the rock slope, including (in the analysis) the rock mass characterisation, influence of the groundwater, the geological evolution, and the weathering processes. Depending on the weakness of the rock and the processes suffered, the global stability could, in fact, be a more restricting element than the potential instability of individual blocks through discontinuities. This paper discusses those elements that govern the stability of the rock slopes constructed in a rock formation with favourable bedding and distribution of discontinuities (horizontal and vertical) but with a weak behaviour in terms of global rock mass characterisation. In this context, classifications as Q-Slope and slope stability assessment methodology (SSAM) have been demonstrated as important tools which complement the assessment of the global stability together with the analytical tools related to the wedge-type failures and limit equilibrium methods. The paper focuses on the applicability of these two new empirical classifications to evaluate the slope stability in 18 already excavated rock slopes in the Pakiri formation through comparison between the predicted and observed stability issues and by reviewing the outcome of analytical methods (Rocscience slope stability software suite) compared against the expected stability determined from these rock classifications. This exercise will help validate such findings and correlations arising from the two empirical methods in order to adjust the methods to the nature of this specific kind of rock mass and provide a better understanding of the long-term stability of the slopes studied.

Keywords: Pakiri formation, Q-slope, rock slope stability, SSAM, weak rock

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
42 InSAR Times-Series Phase Unwrapping for Urban Areas

Authors: Hui Luo, Zhenhong Li, Zhen Dong

Abstract:

The analysis of multi-temporal InSAR (MTInSAR) such as persistent scatterer (PS) and small baseline subset (SBAS) techniques usually relies on temporal/spatial phase unwrapping (PU). Unfortunately, it always fails to unwrap the phase for two reasons: 1) spatial phase jump between adjacent pixels larger than π, such as layover and high discontinuous terrain; 2) temporal phase discontinuities such as time varied atmospheric delay. To overcome these limitations, a least-square based PU method is introduced in this paper, which incorporates baseline-combination interferograms and adjacent phase gradient network. Firstly, permanent scatterers (PS) are selected for study. Starting with the linear baseline-combination method, we obtain equivalent 'small baseline inteferograms' to limit the spatial phase difference. Then, phase different has been conducted between connected PSs (connected by a specific networking rule) to suppress the spatial correlated phase errors such as atmospheric artifact. After that, interval phase difference along arcs can be computed by least square method and followed by an outlier detector to remove the arcs with phase ambiguities. Then, the unwrapped phase can be obtained by spatial integration. The proposed method is tested on real data of TerraSAR-X, and the results are also compared with the ones obtained by StaMPS(a software package with 3D PU capabilities). By comparison, it shows that the proposed method can successfully unwrap the interferograms in urban areas even when high discontinuities exist, while StaMPS fails. At last, precise DEM errors can be got according to the unwrapped interferograms.

Keywords: phase unwrapping, time series, InSAR, urban areas

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
41 A Hybrid Artificial Intelligence and Two Dimensional Depth Averaged Numerical Model for Solving Shallow Water and Exner Equations Simultaneously

Authors: S. Mehrab Amiri, Nasser Talebbeydokhti

Abstract:

Modeling sediment transport processes by means of numerical approach often poses severe challenges. In this way, a number of techniques have been suggested to solve flow and sediment equations in decoupled, semi-coupled or fully coupled forms. Furthermore, in order to capture flow discontinuities, a number of techniques, like artificial viscosity and shock fitting, have been proposed for solving these equations which are mostly required careful calibration processes. In this research, a numerical scheme for solving shallow water and Exner equations in fully coupled form is presented. First-Order Centered scheme is applied for producing required numerical fluxes and the reconstruction process is carried out toward using Monotonic Upstream Scheme for Conservation Laws to achieve a high order scheme.  In order to satisfy C-property of the scheme in presence of bed topography, Surface Gradient Method is proposed. Combining the presented scheme with fourth order Runge-Kutta algorithm for time integration yields a competent numerical scheme. In addition, to handle non-prismatic channels problems, Cartesian Cut Cell Method is employed. A trained Multi-Layer Perceptron Artificial Neural Network which is of Feed Forward Back Propagation (FFBP) type estimates sediment flow discharge in the model rather than usual empirical formulas. Hydrodynamic part of the model is tested for showing its capability in simulation of flow discontinuities, transcritical flows, wetting/drying conditions and non-prismatic channel flows. In this end, dam-break flow onto a locally non-prismatic converging-diverging channel with initially dry bed conditions is modeled. The morphodynamic part of the model is verified simulating dam break on a dry movable bed and bed level variations in an alluvial junction. The results show that the model is capable in capturing the flow discontinuities, solving wetting/drying problems even in non-prismatic channels and presenting proper results for movable bed situations. It can also be deducted that applying Artificial Neural Network, instead of common empirical formulas for estimating sediment flow discharge, leads to more accurate results.

Keywords: artificial neural network, morphodynamic model, sediment continuity equation, shallow water equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
40 Modeling of Gas Migration in High-Pressure–High-Temperature Fields

Authors: Deane Roehl, Roberto Quevedo

Abstract:

Gas migration from pressurized formations is a problem reported in the oil and gas industry. This means increased risks for drilling, production, well integrity, and hydrocarbon escape. Different processes can contribute to the development of pressurized formations, particularly in High-Pressure–High-Temperature (HPHT) gas fields. Over geological time-scales, the different formations of those fields have maintained and/or developed abnormal pressures owing to low permeability and the presence of an impermeable seal. However, if this seal is broken, large volumes of gas could migrate into other less pressurized formations. Three main mechanisms for gas migration have been identified in the literature –molecular diffusion, continuous-phase flow, and continuous-phase flow coupled with mechanical effects. In relation to the latter, gas migration can occur as a consequence of the mechanical effects triggered by reservoir depletion. The compaction of the reservoir can redistribute the in-situ stresses sufficiently to induce deformations that may increase the permeability of rocks and lead to fracture processes or reactivate nearby faults. The understanding of gas flow through discontinuities is still under development. However, some models based on porosity changes and fracture aperture have been developed in order to obtain enhanced permeabilities in numerical simulations. In this work, a simple relationship to integrate fluid flow through rock matrix and discontinuities has been implemented in a fully thermo-hydro-mechanical simulator developed in-house. Numerical simulations of hydrocarbon production in an HPHT field were carried out. Results suggest that rock permeability can be considerably affected by the deformation of the field, creating preferential flow paths for the transport of large volumes of gas.

Keywords: gas migration, pressurized formations, fractured rocks, numerical modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
39 Multiscale Edge Detection Based on Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform

Authors: Enqing Chen, Jianbo Wang

Abstract:

It is well known that the wavelet transform provides a very effective framework for multiscale edges analysis. However, wavelets are not very effective in representing images containing distributed discontinuities such as edges. In this paper, we propose a novel multiscale edge detection method in nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain, which is based on the dominant multiscale, multidirection edge expression and outstanding edge location of NSCT. Through real images experiments, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is better than other edge detection methods based on Canny operator, wavelet and contourlet. Additionally, the proposed method also works well for noisy images.

Keywords: edge detection, NSCT, shift invariant, modulus maxima

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38 Spatial Interpolation Technique for the Optimisation of Geometric Programming Problems

Authors: Debjani Chakraborty, Abhijit Chatterjee, Aishwaryaprajna

Abstract:

Posynomials, a special type of polynomials, having singularities, pose difficulties while solving geometric programming problems. In this paper, a methodology has been proposed and used to obtain extreme values for geometric programming problems by nth degree polynomial interpolation technique. Here the main idea to optimise the posynomial is to fit a best polynomial which has continuous gradient values throughout the range of the function. The approximating polynomial is smoothened to remove the discontinuities present in the feasible region and the objective function. This spatial interpolation method is capable to optimise univariate and multivariate geometric programming problems. An example is solved to explain the robustness of the methodology by considering a bivariate nonlinear geometric programming problem. This method is also applicable for signomial programming problem.

Keywords: geometric programming problem, multivariate optimisation technique, posynomial, spatial interpolation

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37 Solving Ill-Posed Initial Value Problems for Switched Differential Equations

Authors: Eugene Stepanov, Arcady Ponosov

Abstract:

To model gene regulatory networks one uses ordinary differential equations with switching nonlinearities, where the initial value problem is known to be well-posed if the trajectories cross the discontinuities transversally. Otherwise, the initial value problem is usually ill-posed, which lead to theoretical and numerical complications. In the presentation, it is proposed to apply the theory of hybrid dynamical systems, rather than switched ones, to regularize the problem. 'Hybridization' of the switched system means that one attaches a dynamic discrete component ('automaton'), which follows the trajectories of the original system and governs its dynamics at the points of ill-posedness of the initial value problem making it well-posed. The construction of the automaton is based on the classification of the attractors of the specially designed adjoint dynamical system. Several examples are provided in the presentation, which support the suggested analysis. The method can also be of interest in other applied fields, where differential equations contain switchings, e.g. in neural field models.

Keywords: hybrid dynamical systems, ill-posed problems, singular perturbation analysis, switching nonlinearities

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36 Challenges in Experimental Testing of a Stiff, Overconsolidated Clay

Authors: Maria Konstadinou, Etienne Alderlieste, Anderson Peccin da Silva, Ben Arntz, Leonard van der Bijl, Wouter Verschueren

Abstract:

The shear strength and compression properties of stiff Boom clay from Belgium at the depth of about 30 m has been investigated by means of cone penetration and laboratory testing. The latter consisted of index classification, constant rate of strain, direct, simple shear, and unconfined compression tests. The Boom clay samples exhibited strong swelling tendencies. The suction pressure was measured via different procedures and has been compared to the expected in-situ stress. The undrained shear strength and OCR profile determined from CPTs is not compatible with the experimental measurements, which gave significantly lower values. The observed response can be attributed to the presence of pre-existing discontinuities, as shown in microscale CT scans of the samples. The results of this study demonstrate that the microstructure of the clay prior to testing has an impact on the mechanical behaviour and can cause inconsistencies in the comparison of the laboratory test results with in-situ data.

Keywords: boom clay, laboratory testing, overconsolidation ratio, stress-strain response, swelling, undrained shear strength

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35 Evaluation of Geomechanical and Geometrical Parameters’ Effects on Hydro-Mechanical Estimation of Water Inflow into Underground Excavations

Authors: M. Mazraehli, F. Mehrabani, S. Zare

Abstract:

In general, mechanical and hydraulic processes are not independent of each other in jointed rock masses. Therefore, the study on hydro-mechanical coupling of geomaterials should be a center of attention in rock mechanics. Rocks in their nature contain discontinuities whose presence extremely influences mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of the medium. Assuming this effect, experimental investigations on intact rock cannot help to identify jointed rock mass behavior. Hence, numerical methods are being used for this purpose. In this paper, water inflow into a tunnel under significant water table has been estimated using hydro-mechanical discrete element method (HM-DEM). Besides, effects of geomechanical and geometrical parameters including constitutive model, friction angle, joint spacing, dip of joint sets, and stress factor on the estimated inflow rate have been studied. Results demonstrate that inflow rates are not identical for different constitutive models. Also, inflow rate reduces with increased spacing and stress factor.

Keywords: distinct element method, fluid flow, hydro-mechanical coupling, jointed rock mass, underground excavations

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34 Determination of the Optimum Size of Building Stone Blocks: Case Study of Delichai Travertine Mine

Authors: Hesam Sedaghat Nejad, Navid Hosseini, Arash Nikvar Hassani

Abstract:

Determination of the optimum block size with high profitability is one of the significant parameters in designation of the building stone mines. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum dimensions of building stone blocks in Delichai travertine mine of Damavand in Tehran province through combining the effective parameters proven in determination of the optimum dimensions in building stones such as the spacing of joints and gaps, extraction tools constraints with the help of modeling by Gemcom software. To this end, following simulation of the topography of the mine, the block model was prepared and then in order to use spacing joints and discontinuities as a limiting factor, the existing joints set was added to the model. Since only one almost horizontal joint set with a slope of 5 degrees was available, this factor was effective only in determining the optimum height of the block, and thus to determine the longitudinal and transverse optimum dimensions of the extracted block, the power of available loader in the mine was considered as the secondary limiting factor. According to the aforementioned factors, the optimal block size in this mine was measured as 3.4×4×7 meter.

Keywords: building stone, optimum block size, Delichay travertine mine, loader power

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33 An Entropy Stable Three Dimensional Ideal MHD Solver with Guaranteed Positive Pressure

Authors: Andrew R. Winters, Gregor J. Gassner

Abstract:

A high-order numerical magentohydrodynamics (MHD) solver built upon a non-linear entropy stable numerical flux function that supports eight traveling wave solutions will be described. The method is designed to treat the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field in a similar fashion to a hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique. The solver is especially well-suited for flows involving strong discontinuities due to its strong stability without the need to enforce artificial low density or energy limits. Furthermore, a new formulation of the numerical algorithm to guarantee positivity of the pressure during the simulation is described and presented. By construction, the solver conserves mass, momentum, and energy and is entropy stable. High spatial order is obtained through the use of a third order limiting technique. High temporal order is achieved by utilizing the family of strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge-Kutta methods. Main attributes of the solver are presented as well as details on an implementation of the new solver into the multi-physics, multi-scale simulation code FLASH. The accuracy, robustness, and computational efficiency is demonstrated with a variety of numerical tests. Comparisons are also made between the new solver and existing methods already present in FLASH framework.

Keywords: entropy stability, finite volume scheme, magnetohydrodynamics, pressure positivity

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32 An Alternative Framework of Multi-Resolution Nested Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Schemes for Solving Euler Equations with Adaptive Order

Authors: Zhenming Wang, Jun Zhu, Yuchen Yang, Ning Zhao

Abstract:

In the present paper, an alternative framework is proposed to construct a class of finite difference multi-resolution nested weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes with an increasingly higher order of accuracy for solving inviscid Euler equations. These WENO schemes firstly obtain a set of reconstruction polynomials by a hierarchy of nested central spatial stencils, and then recursively achieve a higher order approximation through the lower-order precision WENO schemes. The linear weights of such WENO schemes can be set as any positive numbers with a requirement that their sum equals one and they will not pollute the optimal order of accuracy in smooth regions and could simultaneously suppress spurious oscillations near discontinuities. Numerical results obtained indicate that these alternative finite-difference multi-resolution nested WENO schemes with different accuracies are very robust with low dissipation and use as few reconstruction stencils as possible while maintaining the same efficiency, achieving the high-resolution property without any equivalent multi-resolution representation. Besides, its finite volume form is easier to implement in unstructured grids.

Keywords: finite-difference, WENO schemes, high order, inviscid Euler equations, multi-resolution

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31 Direct Visualization of Shear Induced Structures in Wormlike Micellar Solutions by Microfluidics and Advanced Microscopy

Authors: Carla Caiazza, Valentina Preziosi, Giovanna Tomaiuolo, Denis O'Sullivan, Vincenzo Guida, Stefano Guido

Abstract:

In the last decades, wormlike micellar solutions have been extensively used to tune the rheological behavior of home care and personal care products. This and other successful applications underlie the growing attention that both basic and applied research are devoting to these systems, and to their unique rheological and flow properties. One of the key research topics is the occurrence of flow instabilities at high shear rates (such as shear banding), with the possibility of appearance of flow induced structures. In this scenario, microfluidics is a powerful tool to get a deeper insight into the flow behavior of a wormlike micellar solution, as the high confinement of a microfluidic device facilitates the onset of the flow instabilities; furthermore, thanks to its small dimensions, it can be coupled with optical microscopy, allowing a direct visualization of flow structuring phenomena. Here, the flow of a widely used wormlike micellar solution through a glass capillary has been studied, by coupling the microfluidic device with μPIV techniques. The direct visualization of flow-induced structures and the flow visualization analysis highlight a relationship between solution structuring and the onset of discontinuities in the velocity profile.

Keywords: flow instabilities, flow-induced structures, μPIV, wormlike micelles

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30 Analysis of Slope in an Excavated Gneiss Rock Using Geological Strength Index (GSI) in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: S. A. Agbalajobi, W. A. Bello

Abstract:

The study carried out analysis on slope stability in an excavated gneiss rock using geological strength index (GSI) in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. A kinematic analysis of planar discontinuity sets in a gneiss deposit was carried out to ascertain the degree of slope stability. Discontinuity orientations in the rock mass were mapped using compass clinometers. The average result of physical and mechanical properties such as specific gravity, unit weight, uniaxial compressive strength, point load index, and Schmidt rebound value are 2.64 g/m3, 25.95 kN/m3, 156 MPa, 6.5 MPa, and 53.12 respectively. Also, a statistical model equation relating the rock strength was developed. The analyses states that the rock face is susceptible to wedge failures having all the geometrical conditions associated with the occurrence of such failures were noticeable. It can be concluded that analyses of discontinuity orientation in relation to cut face direction in rock excavation is essential for mine planning to forestall mine accidents. Assessment of excavated slope methods was evident that one excavation method (blasting and/or use of hydraulic hammer) is applicable for the given rock strength, the ease of excavation decreases as the rock mass quality increases, thus blasting most suitable for such operation.

Keywords: slope stability, wedge failure, geological strength index (GSI), discontinuities and excavated slope

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29 Experimental Investigation of Interfacial Bond Strength of Concrete Layers

Authors: Rajkamal Kumar, Sudhir Mishra

Abstract:

The connections between various elements of concrete structures play a vital role in determining the durability of structures. These connections produce discontinuities and to ensure the monolithic behavior of structures, these connections should be carefully designed. The connections between concrete layers may occur in various situations such as structure repairing and rehabilitation or construction of huge structures with cast-in-situ or pre-cast elements, etc. Bond strength at the interface of these concrete layers should be able to prevent the progressive slip from taking place and it should also ensure satisfactory performance of the structure. Different approaches to enhance the bond strength at interface have been a major area of research. Nowadays, micro-concrete is getting popular as a repair material. Under this ambit, this paper aims to present the experimental results of connections between concrete layers of different age with artificial indentation at interface with two types of repair material: Concrete with same parent concrete composition and ready-mix mortar (micro-concrete), artificial indentations (grooves and holes) were made on the old layer of concrete to increase the bond strength. Curing plays an important role in determining the bond strength. Optimum duration for curing have also been discussed for each type of repair material. Different types of failure patterns have also been mentioned.

Keywords: adhesion, cohesion, compressive stress, micro-concrete, shear stress, slant shear test

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28 Creator and Creation: Mary Shelley’s Monstrous ‘Last Men’ in 'Frankenstein' and 'The Last Man'

Authors: Courtney Laurey Davids

Abstract:

Mary Shelley’s two 19th century novels, the seminal Frankenstein (1818) and the less popular The Last Man (1826) draw on Gothic elements that invite a futuristic questioning and critique of man’s fallibility and propensity to be the author of his own demise be it by transgressing natural law through a scientific endeavour or ‘birthing’ a plague. Recent scholarship about ‘prophetic’ voices in fiction considers The Last Man an influential but overlooked novel deserving of renewed scholarly interest. Through close textual analysis and comparative reading, this paper seeks to explore the continuities (and discontinuities) in thematic concern of creator and creation in Frankenstein and The Last Man, emblematic in the oppositional characters of Victor Frankenstein and the Creature and Adrian, Earl of Windsor and Lionel Verney, his ‘creation’ in The Last Man. It argues that the creator/creation dynamic between Frankenstein and the Creature is to an extent revisited and inverted in Adrian and Verney but presented as no less problematic in The Last Man’s critique of man’s inevitable folly despite nurturing and acceptance of the marginalised figure. Drawing on Romanticism ideals of nature, its foregrounding of a scourging pandemic as punishment for man’s self-dislocation and with nature is a mirroring of Frankenstein and the Creature’s own plague-like deterioration and alienation from self and nature. In a sense, both Verney and the Creature as solitary figures at the novels' denouement are ‘last men’, having learned much about man and society and upon whom the moral injunction rests. In Verney, however, the moral warning coupled with the hope that man can yet be saved offers a different reading perhaps from Frankenstein regarding the creator/creation dichotomy.

Keywords: creator/creation, Frankenstein, Mary Shelley, The Gothic, The Last Man

Procedia PDF Downloads 110