Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 588

Search results for: pollutants

588 Numerical Simulation of the Air Pollutants Dispersion Emitted by CPH Using ANSYS CFX

Authors: Oliver Mărunţălu, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu, Elena Elisabeta Manea, Dana Andreya Bondrea, Lăcrămioara Diana Robescu


This paper presents the results obtained by numerical simulation of the pollutants dispersion in the atmosphere coming from the evacuation of combustion gases resulting from the fuel combustion used by electric thermal power plant using the software ANSYS CFX-CFD. The model uses the Navier-Stokes equation to simulate the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. We considered as important factors in elaboration of simulation the atmospheric conditions (pressure, temperature, wind speed, wind direction), the exhaust velocity of the combustion gases, chimney height and the obstacles (buildings). Using the air quality monitoring stations we have measured the concentrations of main pollutants (SO2, NOx and PM). The pollutants were monitored over a period of 3 months, after that we calculated the average concentration, which is used by the software. The concentrations are: 8.915 μg/m3 (NOx), 9.587 μg/m3 (SO2) and 42 μg/m3 (PM). A comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that CFX was able to describe the dispersion of the pollutant as well the concentration of this pollutants in the atmosphere.

Keywords: air pollutants, computational fluid dynamics, dispersion, simulation

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587 Estimation of Gaseous Pollutants at Kalyanpur, Dhaka City

Authors: Farhana Tarannum


Ambient (outdoor) air pollution is now recognized as an important problem, both nationally and worldwide. The concentrations of gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx, CO and O3) have been determined from samples collected at Kallyanpur along Shamoli corridor in Dhaka city. Pollutants were determined in a sample collected at ground level and a roof of a 7-storied building. These pollutants are emitted largely from stationary sources like fossil fuel fired power plants, industrial plants, and manufacturing facilities as well as mobile sources. The incomplete combustion of fuel, wood and the Sulphur containing fuel used in the vehicles are one of the main causes of CO and SOx respectively in our natural environment. When the temperature of combustion in high enough and some of that nitrogen reacts with oxygen in the air, various nitrogen oxides (NOx) are then formed. The VOCs react with NOx in the presence of sunlight to form O3. UV Visible spectrophotometric method has been used for the determination of SOx, NOx and O3. The sensor type device was used for the estimation of CO. It was found that the air pollutants (CO, SOx, NOx and O3) of a sample collected at the roof of a building were lower compared to the ground level; it indicated that ground level people are mostly affected by the gaseous pollutants.

Keywords: gaseous pollutants, UV-visible spectrophotometry, ambient air quality, Dhaka city

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586 Release of Legacy Persistent Organic Pollutants and Mitigating Their Effects in Downstream Communities

Authors: Kimberley Rain Miner, Karl Kreutz, Larry LeBlanc


During the period of 1950-1970 persistent organic pollutants such as DDT, dioxin and PCB were released in the atmosphere and distributed through precipitation into glaciers throughout the world. Recent abrupt climate change is increasing the melt rate of these glaciers, introducing the toxins to the watershed. Studies have shown the existence of legacy pollutants in glacial ice, but neither the impact nor quantity of these toxins on downstream populations has been assessed. If these pollutants are released at toxic levels it will be necessary to create a mitigation plan to lower their impact on the affected communities.

Keywords: climate change, adaptation, mitigation, risk management

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585 Deteriorating Ambient Air Quality Resulted from Invasion of Foreign Air Pollutants

Authors: Kuo-C. Lo, Chung-H. Hung


Invasion of foreign air pollutants to deteriorate local air quality has become an emerging international issue of concern. This study aimed to apply meteorological and air quality model, WRF-Chem (V3.1), for simulating and analyzing the phenomenon of forming of high-concentrated particulate matters, PM10 and PM2.5, in ambient air of Taiwan during January 17th to 19th, 2014. The foreign air pollutants were mainly from long-distance transport of air pollutants of China being transported with a strong continental cold high. It was observed that PM10 and PM2.5 peaked as high as 182~588 μg/m3 and 95~165 μg/m3, respectively, in the ambient air of west side of Taiwan. They were about 2~3 folds higher than the usual concentrations of particulate matters in these seasons.

Keywords: WRF-Chem, air pollution, PM2.5, ambient air quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
584 A Comparison of Air Quality in Arid and Temperate Climatic Conditions – a Case Study of Leeds and Makkah

Authors: Turki M. Habeebullah, Said Munir, Karl Ropkins, Essam A. Morsy, Atef M. F. Mohammed, Abdulaziz R. Seroji


In this paper air quality conditions in Makkah and Leeds are compared. These two cities have totally different climatic conditions. Makkah climate is characterised as hot and dry (arid) whereas that of Leeds is characterised as cold and wet (temperate). This study uses air quality data from year 2012 collected in Makkah, Saudi Arabia and Leeds, UK. The concentrations of all pollutants, except NO are higher in Makkah. Most notable, the concentrations of PM10 are much higher in Makkah than in Leeds. This is probably due to the arid nature of climatic conditions in Makkah and not solely due to anthropogenic emission sources, otherwise like PM10 some of the other pollutants, such as CO, NO, and SO2 would have shown much greater difference between Leeds and Makkah. Correlation analysis is performed between different pollutants at the same site and the same pollutants at different sites. In Leeds the correlation between PM10 and other pollutants is significantly stronger than in Makkah. Weaker correlation in Makkah is probably due to the fact that in Makkah most of the gaseous pollutants are emitted by combustion processes, whereas most of the PM10 is generated by other sources, such as windblown dust, re-suspension, and construction activities. This is in contrast to Leeds where all pollutants including PM10 are predominantly emitted by combustions, such as road traffic. Furthermore, in Leeds frequent rains wash out most of the atmospheric particulate matter and supress re-suspension of dust. Temporal trends of various pollutants are compared and discussed. This study emphasises the role of climatic conditions in managing air quality, and hence the need for region-specific controlling strategies according to the local climatic and meteorological conditions.

Keywords: air pollution, climatic conditions, particulate matter, Makkah, Leeds

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583 Development of Nanostructured Materials for the Elimination of Emerging Pollutants in Water through Adsorption Processes

Authors: J. Morillo, Otal E., A. Caballero, R. M. Pereñiguez, J. Usero


The present work shows in the first place, the manufacture of the perovskitic material used as adsorbent, by means of two different methods to obtain two types of perovskites (LaFeO₃ and BiFeO₃). The results of this work show the characteristics of this manufactured material, as well as the synthesis yields obtained, achieving a better result for the self-combustion synthesis. Secondly, from the manufactured perovskites, an adsorption system has been developed, at the laboratory level, for the adsorption of the emerging pollutants Trimethoprim, Ciprofloxacin and Ibuprofen.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, emerging pollutants, water, adsorption processes

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582 Time Series Analysis of Air Pollution in Suceava County ( Nord- East of Romania)

Authors: Lazurca Liliana Gina


Different time series analysis of yearly air pollution at Suceava County, Nord-East of Romania, has been performed in this study. The trends in the atmospheric concentrations of the main gaseous and particulate pollutants in urban, industrial and rural environments across Suceava County were estimated for the period of 2008-2014. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to determine the trends in the annual average concentrations of air pollutants (NO2, NO, NOx, SO2, CO, PM10, O3, C6H6). The slope was estimated using the non-parametric Sen’s method. Trend significance was assumed at the 5% significance level (p < 0.05) in the current study. During the 7 year period, trends in atmospheric concentrations may not have been monotonic, in some instances concentrations of species increased and subsequently decreased. The trend in Suceava County is to keep a low concentration of pollutants in ambient air respecting the limit values.All the results that we obtained show that Romania has taken a lot of regulatory measures to decrease the concentrations of air pollutants in the last decade, in Suceava County the air quality monitoring highlight for the most part of the analyzed pollutants decreasing trends. For the analyzed period we observed considerable improvements in background air in Suceava County.

Keywords: pollutant, trend, air quality monitoring, Mann-Kendall

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581 Divalent Iron Oxidative Process for Degradation of Carbon and Nitrogen Based Pollutants from Dye Intermediate Industrial Wastewater

Authors: Nibedita Pani, Vishnu Tejani, T. S. Anantha Singh


Water pollution resulting from discharge of partial/not treated textile wastewater containing high carbon and nitrogen pollutants pose a huge threat to the environment, ecosystem, and human health. It is essential to remove carbon- and nitrogen-based organic pollutants more effectively from industrial wastewater before discharging. The present study focuses on removal of carbon-based pollutant in particular COD (chemical oxygen demand) and nitrogen-based pollutants, in particular, ammoniacal nitrogen by Fenton oxidation process using Fe²⁺ and H₂O₂ as reagents. The study was carried out with high strength wastewater containing initial COD 5632 mg/L and NH⁴⁺-N 1372 mg/L. The major operating condition like pH was varied between 1.0 to 4.0. The maximum degradation was obtained at pH 3.0 taking the molar ratio of Fe²⁺/H₂O₂ as 1:1. At this pH, the removal efficiencies of COD and ammoniacal nitrogen were found to be 77.27% and 74.9%, respectively. The Fenton process can be the best alternative for the simultaneous removal of COD and NH4+-N from industrial wastewater.

Keywords: ammoniacal nitrogen, COD, Fenton oxidation, industrial wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
580 Impacts of Urban Morphologies on Air Pollutants Dispersion in Porto's Urban Area

Authors: Sandra Rafael, Bruno Vicente, Vera Rodrigues, Carlos Borrego, Myriam Lopes


Air pollution is an environmental and social issue at different spatial scales, especially in a climate change context, with an expected decrease of air quality. Air pollution is a combination of high emissions and unfavourable weather conditions, where wind speed and wind direction play a key role. The urban design (location and structure of buildings and trees) can both promote the air pollutants dispersion as well as promote their retention within the urban area. Today, most of the urban areas are applying measures to adapt to future extreme climatic events. Most of these measures are grounded on nature-based solutions, namely green roofs and green areas. In this sense, studies are required to evaluate how the implementation of these actions will influence the wind flow within the urban area and, consequently, how this will influence air pollutants' dispersion. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of a set of urban morphologies in the wind conditions and in the dispersion of air pollutants, in a built-up area in Portugal. For that, two pollutants were analysed (NOx and PM10) and four scenarios were developed: i) a baseline scenario, which characterizes the current status of the study area, ii) an urban green scenario, which implies the implementation of a green area inside the domain, iii) a green roof scenario, which consists in the implementation of green roofs in a specific area of the domain; iv) a 'grey' scenario, which consists in a scenario with absence of vegetation. For that, two models were used, namely the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the CFD model VADIS (pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere under variable wind conditions). The WRF model was used to initialize the CFD model, while the last was used to perform the set of numerical simulations, on an hourly basis. The implementation of the green urban area promoted a reduction of air pollutants' concentrations, 16% on average, related to the increase in the wind flow, which promotes air pollutants dispersion; while the application of green roofs showed an increase of concentrations (reaching 60% during specific time periods). Overall the results showed that a strategic placement of vegetation in cities has the potential to make an important contribution to increase air pollutants dispersion and so promote the improvement of air quality and sustainability of urban environments.

Keywords: air pollutants dispersion, wind conditions, urban morphologies, road traffic emissions

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579 Performance of CALPUFF Dispersion Model for Investigation the Dispersion of the Pollutants Emitted from an Industrial Complex, Daura Refinery, to an Urban Area in Baghdad

Authors: Ramiz M. Shubbar, Dong In Lee, Hatem A. Gzar, Arthur S. Rood


Air pollution is one of the biggest environmental problems in Baghdad, Iraq. The Daura refinery located nearest the center of Baghdad, represents the largest industrial area, which transmits enormous amounts of pollutants, therefore study the gaseous pollutants and particulate matter are very important to the environment and the health of the workers in refinery and the people whom leaving in areas around the refinery. Actually, some studies investigated the studied area before, but it depended on the basic Gaussian equation in a simple computer programs, however, that kind of work at that time is very useful and important, but during the last two decades new largest production units were added to the Daura refinery such as, PU_3 (Power unit_3 (Boiler 11&12)), CDU_1 (Crude Distillation unit_70000 barrel_1), and CDU_2 (Crude Distillation unit_70000 barrel_2). Therefore, it is necessary to use new advanced model to study air pollution at the region for the new current years, and calculation the monthly emission rate of pollutants through actual amounts of fuel which consumed in production unit, this may be lead to accurate concentration values of pollutants and the behavior of dispersion or transport in study area. In this study to the best of author’s knowledge CALPUFF model was used and examined for first time in Iraq. CALPUFF is an advanced non-steady-state meteorological and air quality modeling system, was applied to investigate the pollutants concentration of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM1-10μm, at areas adjacent to Daura refinery which located in the center of Baghdad in Iraq. The CALPUFF modeling system includes three main components: CALMET is a diagnostic 3-dimensional meteorological model, CALPUFF (an air quality dispersion model), CALPOST is a post processing package, and an extensive set of preprocessing programs produced to interface the model to standard routinely available meteorological and geophysical datasets. The targets of this work are modeling and simulation the four pollutants (SO2, NO2, CO, and PM1-10μm) which emitted from Daura refinery within one year. Emission rates of these pollutants were calculated for twelve units includes thirty plants, and 35 stacks by using monthly average of the fuel amount consumption at this production units. Assess the performance of CALPUFF model in this study and detect if it is appropriate and get out predictions of good accuracy compared with available pollutants observation. CALPUFF model was investigated at three stability classes (stable, neutral, and unstable) to indicate the dispersion of the pollutants within deferent meteorological conditions. The simulation of the CALPUFF model showed the deferent kind of dispersion of these pollutants in this region depends on the stability conditions and the environment of the study area, monthly, and annual averages of pollutants were applied to view the dispersion of pollutants in the contour maps. High values of pollutants were noticed in this area, therefore this study recommends to more investigate and analyze of the pollutants, reducing the emission rate of pollutants by using modern techniques and natural gas, increasing the stack height of units, and increasing the exit gas velocity from stacks.

Keywords: CALPUFF, daura refinery, Iraq, pollutants

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578 A Study of Anoxic - Oxic Microbiological Technology for Treatment of Heavy Oily Refinery Wastewater

Authors: Di Wang, Li Fang, Shengyu Fang, Jianhua Li, Honghong Dong, Zhongzhi Zhang


Heavy oily refinery wastewater with the characteristics of high concentration of toxic organic pollutant, poor biodegradability and complicated dissolved recalcitrant compounds is intractable to be degraded. In order to reduce the concentrations of COD and total nitrogen pollutants which are the major pollutants in heavy oily refinery wastewater, the Anoxic - Oxic microbiological technology relies mainly on anaerobic microbial reactor which works with methanogenic archaea mainly that can convert organic pollutants to methane gas, and supplemented by aerobic treatment. The results of continuous operation for 2 months with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 60h showed that, the COD concentration from influent water of anaerobic reactor and effluent water from aerobic reactor were 547.8mg/L and 93.85mg/L, respectively. The total removal rate of COD was up to 84.9%. Compared with the 46.71mg/L of total nitrogen pollutants in influent water of anaerobic reactor, the concentration of effluent water of aerobic reactor decreased to 14.11mg/L. In addition, the average removal rate of total nitrogen pollutants reached as high as 69.8%. Based on the data displayed, Anoxic - Oxic microbial technology shows a great potential to dispose heavy oil sewage in energy saving and high-efficiency of biodegradation.

Keywords: anoxic - oxic microbiological technology, COD, heavy oily refinery wastewater, total nitrogen pollutant

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577 A Prediction Method of Pollutants Distribution Pattern: Flare Motion Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Fluent Model with Weather Research Forecast Input Model during Transition Season

Authors: Benedictus Asriparusa, Lathifah Al Hakimi, Aulia Husada


A large amount of energy is being wasted by the release of natural gas associated with the oil industry. This release interrupts the environment particularly atmosphere layer condition globally which contributes to global warming impact. This research presents an overview of the methods employed by researchers in PT. Chevron Pacific Indonesia in the Minas area to determine a new prediction method of measuring and reducing gas flaring and its emission. The method emphasizes advanced research which involved analytical studies, numerical studies, modeling, and computer simulations, amongst other techniques. A flaring system is the controlled burning of natural gas in the course of routine oil and gas production operations. This burning occurs at the end of a flare stack or boom. The combustion process releases emissions of greenhouse gases such as NO2, CO2, SO2, etc. This condition will affect the chemical composition of air and environment around the boundary layer mainly during transition season. Transition season in Indonesia is absolutely very difficult condition to predict its pattern caused by the difference of two air mass conditions. This paper research focused on transition season in 2013. A simulation to create the new pattern of the pollutants distribution is needed. This paper has outlines trends in gas flaring modeling and current developments to predict the dominant variables in the pollutants distribution. A Fluent model is used to simulate the distribution of pollutants gas coming out of the stack, whereas WRF model output is used to overcome the limitations of the analysis of meteorological data and atmospheric conditions in the study area. Based on the running model, the most influence factor was wind speed. The goal of the simulation is to predict the new pattern based on the time of fastest wind and slowest wind occurs for pollutants distribution. According to the simulation results, it can be seen that the fastest wind (last of March) moves pollutants in a horizontal direction and the slowest wind (middle of May) moves pollutants vertically. Besides, the design of flare stack in compliance according to EPA Oil and Gas Facility Stack Parameters likely shows pollutants concentration remains on the under threshold NAAQS (National Ambient Air Quality Standards).

Keywords: flare motion, new prediction, pollutants distribution, transition season, WRF model

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576 Different Tools and Complex Approach for Improving Phytoremediation Technology

Authors: T. Varazi, M. Pruidze, M. Kurashvili, N. Gagelidze, M. Sutton


The complex phytoremediation approach given in the presented work implies joint application of natural sorbents, microorganisms, natural biosurfactants and plants. The approach is based on using the natural mineral composites, microorganism strains with high detoxification abilities, plants-phytoremediators and natural biosurfactants for enhancing the uptake of intermediates of pollutants by plant roots. In this complex strategy of phytoremediation technology, the sorbent serves to uptake and trap the pollutants and thus restrain their emission in the environment. The role of microorganisms is to accomplish the first stage biodegradation of organic contaminants. This is followed by application of a phytoremediation technology through purposeful planting of selected plants. Thus, using of different tools will provide restoration of polluted environment and prevention of toxic compounds’ dissemination from hotbeds of pollution for a considerable length of time. The main idea and novelty of the carried out work is the development of a new approach for the ecological safety. The wide spectrum of contaminants: Organochlorine pesticide – DDT, heavy metal –Cu, oil hydrocarbon (hexadecane) and wax have been used in this work. The presented complex biotechnology is important from the viewpoint of prevention, providing total rehabilitation of soil. It is unique to chemical pollutants, ecologically friendly and provides the control of erosion of soils.

Keywords: bioremediation, phytoremediation, pollutants, soil contamination

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575 Development of Non-Point Pollutants Removal Equipments Using Media with Bacillus sp.

Authors: Han-Seul Lee, Min-Koo Kang, Sang-Ill Lee


This study was conducted to reduce runoff by rainwater infiltration facility using attached growth with Bacillus sp., which are reported to remove nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as organic matter effectively. This study was investigated non-point pollutants removal efficiency of organic, nitrogen, and phosphorus in column using the media attached growth with Bacillus sp. To compare attached growth with bacillus sp. and detached media, two columns filled with perlite, zeolite, vermiculite, pumice, peat-moss was installed. In A column (attached growth with bacillus sp.), in case of infiltration velocity 30 mm/hr in high concentration of influent, it showed the removal efficiency (after aging term) is SS (suspended solid) 85.8±1.2 %, T-P (total phosphorus) 67.0±8.1 %, T-N (total nitrogen) 66.0±4.9 %, COD (chemical oxygen demand) 73.6±2.9 %, NH4+-N 72.7±3.0 %. In B column (detached media), in case of infiltration velocity 30 mm/hr in high concentration of influent, it showed the removal efficiency (after aging term) is SS 86.0±2.2 %, T-P 62.5±11.3 %, T-N 53.3±3.9 %, COD 34.6±3.7 %, NH4+-N 61.5±2.8 %. Removal efficiency of A column is better than B column. As the result from this study, using media with Bacillus sp. can improve an effective removal of non-point source pollutants.

Keywords: non-point source pollutants, Bacillus sp., rainwater, infiltration facility

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574 Sulfate Radicals Applied to the Elimination of Selected Pollutants in Water Matrices

Authors: F. Javier Benitez, Juan L. Acero, Francisco J. Real, Elena Rodriguez


Five selected pollutants which are frequently present in waters and wastewaters have been degraded by the advanced oxidation process constituted by UV radiation activated with the additional presence of persulfate (UV/PS). These pollutants were 1H-benzotriazole (BZ), N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or DEET (DT), chlorophene (CP), 3-methylindole (ML), and nortriptyline hydrochloride (NH).While UV radiation alone almost not degraded these substances, the addition of PS generated the very reactive and oxidizing sulfate radical SO₄⁻. The kinetic study provided the second order rate constants for the reaction between this radical and each pollutant. An increasing dose of PS led to an increase in the degradation rate, being the highest results obtained at near neutral pH. Several water matrices were tested, and the presence of bicarbonate showed different effects: a decrease in the elimination of DT, BZ, and NH; and an increase in the oxidation of CP and ML. The additional presence of humic acids (AH) decreased this degradation, because of several effects: light screening and radical scavenging. The presence of several natural substances in waters (both types, inorganic and organic matter) usually diminishes the oxidation rates of organic pollutants, but this combination UV/PS process seems to be an efficient solution for the removal of the selected contaminants when are present in contaminated waters.

Keywords: water purification, UV activated persulfate, kinetic study, sulfate radicals

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573 Correlation between Indoor and Outdoor Air

Authors: Jamal A. Radaideh, Ziad N. Shatnawi


Both indoor and outdoor air quality is investigated throughout residential areas of Al Hofuf city/ Eastern province of Saudi Arabia through a multi‐week multiple sites measurement and sampling survey. Concentration levels of five criteria air pollutants, including carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) were measured and analyzed during the study period from January to May 2014. For this survey paper, three different sites, roadside RS, urban UR, and rural RU were selected. Within each site type, six locations were assigned to carryout air quality measurements and to study varying indoor/outdoor air quality for each pollutant. Results indicate that a strong correlation between indoor and outdoor air exists. The I/O ratios for the considered criteria pollutants show that the strongest relationship between indoor and outdoor air is found by analyzing of carbon dioxide, CO2 (0.88), while the lowest is found by both NO2 and SO2 (0.7).

Keywords: criteria air pollutants, indoor/outdoor air pollution, indoor/outdoor ratio, Saudi Arabia

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572 The Effect of Gas Pollutants on Museum Environment: Case Study of an Oil Paintings in Ethnographic Museum, Egypt

Authors: Hagar Ezzat, Mostafa Attia, Ahmed Bedeir, Abdelrazek Elnagger, Matija Strlic


Ethnographic Museum in Cairo- Egypt is a place of valuable collections (manuscripts, paintings, textiles and other ethnographic materials), the museum experiences serious neglecting with unacceptable display and storage conditions, the museum is located in Tahrir sq., which consider a high traffic area where pollution levels exceed the acceptable levels in museums. The materials used in manufacturing the display cases are expected to be source of many pollutants which affecting the sensitive oil paintings objects in the galleries. 24 diffusion tubes (12 No2, So2 & 12 O3) have been used in "winter 2014 and spring 2014" for monitoring museum environment with three cases "outdoor & indoor and in the gallery display". A series of analytical techniques with scientific tools: Ion Chromatography have been used to assess measurements and effects of gas pollutants on the museum which help us to make good assessment for the damage of oil paintings objects and the condition of the museum and understand the effect of the museum environment on the deterioration of the sensitive oil paintings.

Keywords: environment, museum, paintings, ethnographic, conservation

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571 A Comprehensive Review on Health Hazards and Challenges for Microbial Remediation of Persistent Organic Pollutants

Authors: Nisha Gaur, K.Narasimhulu, Pydi Setty Yelamarthy


Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have become a great concern due to their toxicity, transformation and bioaccumulation property. Therefore, this review highlights the types, sources, classification health hazards and mobility of organochlorine pesticides, industrial chemicals and their by-products. Moreover, with the signing of Aarhus and Stockholm convention on POPs there is an increased demand to identify and characterise such chemicals from industries and environment which are toxic in nature or to existing biota. Due to long life, persistent nature they enter into body through food and transfer to all tropic levels of ecological unit. In addition, POPs are lipophilic in nature and accumulate in lipid-containing tissues and organs which further indicates the adverse symptoms after the threshold limit. Though, several potential enzymes are reported from various categories of microorganism and their interaction with POPs may break down the complex compounds either through biodegradation, biostimulation or bioaugmentation process, however technological advancement and human activities have also indicated to explore the possibilities for the role of genetically modified organisms and metagenomics and metabolomics. Though many studies have been done to develop low cost, effective and reliable method for detection, determination and removal of ultra-trace concentration of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) but due to insufficient knowledge and non-feasibility of technique, the safe management of POPs is still a global challenge.

Keywords: persistent organic pollutants, bioaccumulation, biostimulation, microbial remediation

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570 Impact of Ozone Produced by Vehicular Emission on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Authors: Mohd Kamil Vakil


Air Pollution is caused by the introduction of chemicals in the biosphere. Primary pollutants on reaction with the components of the earth produce Secondary Pollutants like Smog. Ozone is the main ingredient of Smog. The ground level ozone is created by the chemical reactions between Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the presence of Sunlight. This ozone can enter inside and call as indoor ozone. The automobile emissions in both moving and idling conditions contribute to the indoor ozone formation. During engine ignition and shutdown, motor vehicles emit the ozone forming pollutants like NOx and VOCs, and the phenomena are called Cold Start and Hot-Soak respectively. Subjects like Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and asthma associated with chronic respiratory diseases are susceptible to the harmful effects of Indoor Ozone. The most common cause of COPD other than smoking is the long-term contract with harmful pollutants like ground-level ozone. It is estimated by WHO that COPD will become the third leading cause of all deaths worldwide by 2030. In this paper, the cold-start and hot-soak vehicle emissions are studied in the context of accumulation of oxides of nitrogen at the outer walls of the building which may cause COPD. The titanium oxide coated building material is further discussed as an absorber of NOx when applied to the walls and roof.

Keywords: indoor air quality, cold start emission, hot-soak, ozone

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569 The Influence of the Discharge Point Position on the Pollutant Dispersion

Authors: Sonia Ben Hamza, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Said, Hervé Bournot, Georges Le Palec


The distribution characteristics of pollutants released at different vertical inlet positions of an open channel are investigated with a three-dimensional numerical model. Pollutants are injected from time-dependent sources in a turbulent free surface flow. Numerical computations were carried out using ANSYS Fluent which is based on the finite volume approach. The air/water interface was modeled with the volume of the fluid method (VOF). By focusing on investigating the influences of flow on pollutants, it is found that pollutant released from the bottom position of the channel takes more time to disperse in the longitudinal direction of the flow in comparison with the case of pollutant released near the free surface. On the other hand, the pollutant released from the bottom position generates a vertical dispersion with decreased amplitude. These findings may assist in cost-effective scientific countermeasures to be taken for accident or planned pollutant discharged into a river.

Keywords: numerical simulation, pollutant release, turbulent free surface flow, VOF model

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568 Role of the Marshes in the Natural Decontamination of Surface Water: A Case of the Redjla Marsh, North-Eastern Algerian

Authors: S. Benessam, T. H. Debieche, A. Drouiche, S. Mahdid, F. Zahi


The marsh is the impermeable depression. It is not very deep and presents the stagnant water. Their water level varies according to the contributions of water (rain, groundwater, stream etc.), when this last reaches the maximum level of the marsh, it flows towards the downstream through the discharge system. The marsh accumulates all the liquid and solid contributions of upstream part. In the North-East Algerian, the Redjla marsh is located on the course of the Tassift river. Its contributions of water come from the upstream part of the river, often characterized by the presence of several pollutants in water related to the urban effluents, and its discharge system supply the downstream part of the river. In order to determine the effect of the marsh on the water quality of the river this study was conducted. A two-monthly monitoring of the physicochemical parameters and water chemistry of the river were carried out, before and after the marsh, during the period from November 2013 to January 2015. The results show that the marsh plays the role of a natural purifier of water of Tassift river, present by drops of conductivity and concentration of the pollutants (ammonium, phosphate, iron, chlorides and bicarbonates) between the upstream part and downstream of the marsh. That indicates that these pollutants are transformed with other chemical forms (case of ammonium towards nitrate), precipitated in complex forms or/and adsorbed by the sediments of the marsh. This storage of the pollutants in the ground of the marsh will be later on a source of pollution for the plants and river water.

Keywords: marsh, natural purification, urban pollution, nitrogen

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567 Air Pollutants Exposure and Blood High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Concentrations in Healthy Pregnant Women

Authors: Gwo-Hwa Wan, Tai-Ho Hung, Fen-Fang Chung, Wan-Ying Lee, Hui-Ching Yang


Air pollutant exposure results in elevated concentrations of oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in general populations. Increased concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers in pregnant women would be associated with preterm labor and low birth weight. To our best knowledge, the associations between air pollutants exposure and inflammation in pregnant women and fetuses are unknown, as well as their effects on fetal growth. This study aimed to evaluate the influences of outdoor air pollutants in northern Taiwan areas on the inflammatory biomarker (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, hs-CRP) concentration in the blood of healthy pregnant women and how the biomarker impacts fetal growth. In this study, 38 healthy pregnant women who are in their first trimester and live in northern Taiwan area were recruited from the Taipei Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Personal characteristics and prenatal examination data (e.g., blood pressure) were obtained from recruited subjects. The concentrations of inflammatory mediators, hs-CRP, in the blood of healthy pregnant women were analyzed. Additionally, hourly data of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, CO) concentrations were obtained from air quality monitoring stations in Taipei area, established by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. The definition of lag 0 and lag 01 are the exposure to air pollutants on the day of blood withdrawal, and the average exposure to air pollutants one day before and on the day of blood withdrawal, respectively. The statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS software version 22.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). This analytical result indicates that the healthy pregnant women aged between 28 and 42 years old. The body mass index before pregnancy averaged 21.51 (sd = 2.51) kg/m2. Around 90% of the pregnant women had never smoking habit, and 28.95% of them had allergic diseases. Approximately around 84% and 5.26% of the pregnant women worked at indoor and outdoor environments, respectively. The mean hematocrit level of the pregnant women was 37.10%, and the hemoglobin levels were ranged between 10.1 and 14.7 g/dL with 12.47 g/dL of mean value. The blood hs-CRP concentrations of healthy pregnant women in the first trimester ranged between 0.32 and 32.5 mg/L with 2.83 (sd = 5.69) mg/L of mean value. The blood hs-CRP concentrations were positively associated with ozone concentrations at lag 0-14 (r = 0.481, p = 0.017) in healthy pregnant women. Significant lag effects were identified in ozone at lag 0-14 with a positive excess concentration of blood hs-CRP.

Keywords: air pollutant, hs-CRP, pregnant woman, ozone, first trimester

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566 A Comparative Study of Localized Rainfall and Air Pollution between the Urban Area of Sungai Penchala with Sub-Urban and Green Area in Malaysia

Authors: Mohd N. Ahmad, Lariyah Mohd Sidek


The study had shown that Sungai Penchala (urban) was experiencing localized rainfall and hazardous air pollution due to urbanization. The high rainfall that partly added by localized rain had been seen as a threat of causing the flash floods and water quality deterioration in the area. The air pollution that consisted of mainly particulate matter (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) gave an alarming air pollution index (API) to the surrounding area. Comparison among urban area (Sungai Penchala), sub-urban (Gombak), and green areas (Jerantut plus Temerloh) with respect to the rainfall parameters and air pollutants, it was found that the degree of intensities of the parameters was positively related with the urbanization. The air pollutants especially NO2, SO2, and CO were in tandem with the increase of the rainfall. Specifically, if the water catchment area is physically near to the urban area, then the authorities need to look into related urban development program by considering the management of emitted pollutants with respect to the ecological setting of the urban area.

Keywords: urbanization, green area localized rainfall, air pollution, sub-urban area

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565 Study of Ambient Air Quality on Building's Roof of Dhaka City

Authors: Koninika Tanzim


The gaseous pollutants, SO2, NO2, CO and O3 affect the environment of Dhaka City. These pollutants are mainly released from stationary sources, like, fossil-fueled, power plants, industrial units and brickfields around the city. Suspended particulate matters including PM10 and PM2.5 are also contributing to air pollution in Dhaka City. SO2, NO2 and O3 are determined by using UV and visible spectrophotometry. The sensor type devised has been used for the determination of CO in ambient air. Lead in the suspended particulate matter was determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were collected at ground level and on the roof of a seven-storied building. For all the criteria pollutants, the concentration at the roof was found to the lower than that at the ground level. The average concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 were found to the 241.5 and 81.1 mg/m3 at the ground level. On the roof of a 7 storied building was however 49.99 mg/m3 and 25.88 mg/m3 for PM10 and PM2.5 respectively. The concentration of Pb varied from 0.011 to 0.04 mg/m3 at the ground level. The values for Pb at the roof level were significantly lower. The values for SO2, NO2, CO and O3 were found to be higher than the USEPA values.

Keywords: gaseous air pollutant, PM, lead, gravimetry, spectrophotometry, atomic absorption, ambient air quality

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564 Comparison of Air Quality in 2019 and 2020 in the Campuses of the University of the Basque Country

Authors: Elisabete Alberdi, Irantzu Álvarez, Nerea Astigarraga, Heber Hernández


The purpose of this research work is to study the emissions of certain substances that contribute to air pollution and, as far as possible, to try to eliminate or reduce them, to avoid damage to both health and the environment. This work focuses on analyzing and comparing air quality in 2019 and 2020 in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, especially near the UPV/EHU campuses. We use Geostatistics to develop a spatial model and to analyse the levels of pollutants in those areas where the scope of the monitoring stations is limited. Finally, different more sustainable transport alternatives for users have been proposed.

Keywords: air quality, pollutants, monitoring stations, environment, geostatistics

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563 TiO2 Adsorbed on Cement Balls for Effective Photomineralization of Organic Pollutants under UV Light Irradiation

Authors: Tarun Jain, Lovnish Gupta, Soumen Basu


Organic pollutants like phenols and organic dyes present in industrial waste water are posing a hazardous threat to aquatic ecosystem. Several measures have been adopted for the neutralization and photodecomposition of these harmful organic moieties, among these semiconductor photocatalysis has been provided a major thrust after the discovery of Honda-Fujishema effect. Present study demonstrates the adsorption of TiO2- P25 in nano size (~36 nm) on cement balls for effective photodegradation of Alizarin and penta chlorophenol (PCP) under UV light illumination. Triton-X was used as a stabilizer for effective adsorption of TiO2 on cement balls (TCB) followed by calcination at ~300oC for 4 h. The TCB’s were dispersed randomly in a self designed reactor for phototcatalytic performance as shown in scheme 1. The change in concentration of alizarin and PCP was observed under UV-Vis spectroscopy, PCP was detoxified within 40 min while alizarin photodecomposed within 15 min of UV light irradiation. Taking into consideration the go green slogan and future prospective this technique can be also utilized under visible light and on mass scale because this is an effective tool for environmental remediation and waste water treatment.

Keywords: organic pollutants, TiO2 cement balls, photodegradation, UV light irradiation

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562 Air Dispersion Modeling for Prediction of Accidental Emission in the Atmosphere along Northern Coast of Egypt

Authors: Moustafa Osman


Modeling of air pollutants from the accidental release is performed for quantifying the impact of industrial facilities into the ambient air. The mathematical methods are requiring for the prediction of the accidental scenario in probability of failure-safe mode and analysis consequences to quantify the environmental damage upon human health. The initial statement of mitigation plan is supporting implementation during production and maintenance periods. In a number of mathematical methods, the flow rate at which gaseous and liquid pollutants might be accidentally released is determined from various types in term of point, line and area sources. These emissions are integrated meteorological conditions in simplified stability parameters to compare dispersion coefficients from non-continuous air pollution plumes. The differences are reflected in concentrations levels and greenhouse effect to transport the parcel load in both urban and rural areas. This research reveals that the elevation effect nearby buildings with other structure is higher 5 times more than open terrains. These results are agreed with Sutton suggestion for dispersion coefficients in different stability classes.

Keywords: air pollutants, dispersion modeling, GIS, health effect, urban planning

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561 Accumulation of Pollutants, Self-Purification and Impact on Peripheral Urban Areas: A Case Study in Shantytowns in Argentina

Authors: N. Porzionato, M. Mantiñan, E. Bussi, S. Grinberg, R. Gutierrez, G. Curutchet


This work sets out to debate the tensions involved in the processes of contamination and self-purification in the urban space, particularly in the streams that run through the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. For much of their course, those streams are piped; their waters do not come into contact with the outdoors until they have reached deeply impoverished urban areas with high levels of environmental contamination. These are peripheral zones that, until thirty years ago, were marshlands and fields. They are now densely populated areas largely lacking in urban infrastructure. The Cárcova neighborhood, where this project is underway, is in the José León Suárez section of General San Martín country, Buenos Aires province. A stretch of José León Suarez canal crosses the neighborhood. Starting upstream, this canal carries pollutants due to the sewage and industrial waste released into it. Further downstream, in the neighborhood, domestic drainage is poured into the stream. In this paper, we formulate a hypothesis diametrical to the one that holds that these neighborhoods are the primary source of contamination, suggesting instead that in the stretch of the canal that runs through the neighborhood the stream’s waters are actually cleaned and the sediments accumulate pollutants. Indeed, the stretches of water that runs through these neighborhoods act as water processing plants for the metropolis. This project has studied the different organic-load polluting contributions to the water in a certain stretch of the canal, the reduction of that load over the course of the canal, and the incorporation of pollutants into the sediments. We have found that the surface water has considerable ability to self-purify, mostly due to processes of sedimentation and adsorption. The polluting load is accumulated in the sediments where that load stabilizes slowly by means of anaerobic processes. In this study, we also investigated the risks of sediment management and the use of the processes studied here in controlled conditions as tools of environmental restoration.

Keywords: bioremediation, pollutants, sediments, urban streams

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560 Spatio-Temporal Variation of Gaseous Pollutants and the Contribution of Particulate Matters in Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand

Authors: Samart Porncharoen, Nisa Pakvilai


The elevated levels of air pollutants in regional atmospheric environments is a significant problem that affects human health in Thailand, particularly in the Chao Phraya River Basin. Of concern are issues surrounding ambient air pollution such as particulate matter, gaseous pollutants and more specifically concerning air pollution along the river. Therefore, the spatio-temporal study of air pollution in this real environment can gain more accurate air quality data for making formalized environmental policy in river basins. In order to inform such a policy, a study was conducted over a period of January –December, 2015 to continually collect measurements of various pollutants in both urban and regional locations in the Chao Phraya River Basin. This study investigated the air pollutants in many diverse environments along the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand in 2015. Multivariate Analysis Techniques such as Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Path analysis were utilised to classify air pollution in the surveyed location. Measurements were collected in both urban and rural areas to see if significant differences existed between the two locations in terms of air pollution levels. The meteorological parameters of various particulates were collected continually from a Thai pollution control department monitoring station over a period of January –December, 2015. Of interest to this study were the readings of SO2, CO, NOx, O3, and PM10. Results showed a daily arithmetic mean concentration of SO2, CO, NOx, O3, PM10 reading at 3±1 ppb, 0.5± 0.5 ppm, 30±21 ppb, 19±16 ppb, and 40±20 ug/m3 in urban locations (Bangkok). During the same time period, the readings for the same measurements in rural areas, Ayutthaya (were 1±0.5 ppb, 0.1± 0.05 ppm, 25±17 ppb, 30±21 ppb, and 35±10 ug/m3respectively. This show that Bangkok were located in highly polluted environments that are dominated source emitted from vehicles. Further, results were analysed to ascertain if significant seasonal variation existed in the measurements. It was found that levels of both gaseous pollutants and particle matter in dry season were higher than the wet season. More broadly, the results show that levels of pollutants were measured highest in locations along the Chao Phraya. River Basin known to have a large number of vehicles and biomass burning. This correlation suggests that the principle pollutants were from these anthropogenic sources. This study contributes to the body of knowledge surrounding ambient air pollution such as particulate matter, gaseous pollutants and more specifically concerning air pollution along the Chao Phraya River Basin. Further, this study is one of the first to utilise continuous mobile monitoring along a river in order to gain accurate measurements during a data collection period. Overall, the results of this study can be used for making formalized environmental policy in river basins in order to reduce the physical effects on human health.

Keywords: air pollution, Chao Phraya river basin, meteorology, seasonal variation, principal component analysis

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559 Producing Sustained Renewable Energy and Removing Organic Pollutants from Distillery Wastewater using Consortium of Sludge Microbes

Authors: Anubha Kaushik, Raman Preet


Distillery wastewater in the form of spent wash is a complex and strong industrial effluent, with high load of organic pollutants that may deplete dissolved oxygen on being discharged into aquatic systems and contaminate groundwater by leaching of pollutants, while untreated spent wash disposed on land acidifies the soil. Stringent legislative measures have therefore been framed in different countries for discharge standards of distillery effluent. Utilising the organic pollutants present in various types of wastes as food by mixed microbial populations is emerging as an eco-friendly approach in the recent years, in which complex organic matter is converted into simpler forms, and simultaneously useful gases are produced as renewable and clean energy sources. In the present study, wastewater from a rice bran based distillery has been used as the substrate in a dark fermenter, and native microbial consortium from the digester sludge has been used as the inoculum to treat the wastewater and produce hydrogen. After optimising the operational conditions in batch reactors, sequential batch mode and continuous flow stirred tank reactors were used to study the best operational conditions for enhanced and sustained hydrogen production and removal of pollutants. Since the rate of hydrogen production by the microbial consortium during dark fermentation is influenced by concentration of organic matter, pH and temperature, these operational conditions were optimised in batch mode studies. Maximum hydrogen production rate (347.87ml/L/d) was attained in 32h dark fermentation while a good proportion of COD also got removed from the wastewater. Slightly acidic initial pH seemed to favor biohydrogen production. In continuous stirred tank reactor, high H2 production from distillery wastewater was obtained from a relatively shorter substrate retention time (SRT) of 48h and a moderate organic loading rate (OLR) of 172 g/l/d COD.

Keywords: distillery wastewater, hydrogen, microbial consortium, organic pollution, sludge

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