Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16895

Search results for: high density polyethylene

16895 Effect of Tool Geometry and Welding Parameters on Macrostructure and Weld Strength in Friction Stir Welded of High Density Polyethylene Sheets

Authors: Mustafa Kemal Bilici, Memduh Kurtulmuş, İlyas Kartal, Ahmet İrfan Yükler

Abstract:

Friction stir welding is a solid-state joining process that has gained acceptable progress in recent years. This method which was first used for welding of aluminum and its alloys is now employed for welding of other materials such as polymers and composites. The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties of butt joints produced by friction stir welding (FSW) in high density polyethylene sheets of 4 mm thickness. The effects of critical welding parameters and tool design have affected on mechanical properties, weld surface and macrostructure of friction stir welded polyethylene. Experiments were performed at tool rotational speeds of 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 r/min and traverse speeds of 30, 45 and 60 mm/min, tool diameters (d) of 4, 5, 6 mm and tool shoulder diameters (D) 20, 25, 30 mm. A strength value of 80 % of the base material was achieved at the isolated optimum welding condition. According to the tool design, the welding parameters and the mechanical properties changed to a great extent. The highest tensile strength was achieved at low feed rates, high tool rotation speeds and shoulder diameters/pin diameters ratio.

Keywords: friction stir welding, mechanical properties, polyethylene, high density polyethylene, tool design

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16894 A Unified Constitutive Model for the Thermoplastic/Elastomeric-Like Cyclic Response of Polyethylene with Different Crystal Contents

Authors: A. Baqqal, O. Abduhamid, H. Abdul-Hameed, T. Messager, G. Ayoub

Abstract:

In this contribution, the effect of crystal content on the cyclic response of semi-crystalline polyethylene is studied over a large strain range. Experimental observations on a high-density polyethylene with 72% crystal content and an ultralow density polyethylene with 15% crystal content are reported. The cyclic stretching does appear a thermoplastic-like response for high crystallinity and an elastomeric-like response for low crystallinity, both characterized by a stress-softening, a hysteresis and a residual strain, whose amount depends on the crystallinity and the applied strain. Based on the experimental observations, a unified viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model capturing the polyethylene cyclic response features is proposed. A two-phase representation of the polyethylene microstructure allows taking into consideration the effective contribution of the crystalline and amorphous phases to the intermolecular resistance to deformation which is coupled, to capture the strain hardening, to a resistance to molecular orientation. The polyethylene cyclic response features are captured by introducing evolution laws for the model parameters affected by the microstructure alteration due to the cyclic stretching.

Keywords: cyclic loading unloading, polyethylene, semi-crystalline polymer, viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model

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16893 The Effect of Irgafos 168 in the Thermostabilization of High Density Polyethylene

Authors: Mahdi Almaky

Abstract:

The thermostabilization of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is realized through the action of primary antioxidant such as phenolic antioxidants and secondary antioxidants as aryl phosphates. The efficiency of two secondary antioxidants, commercially named Irgafos 168 and Weston 399, was investigated using different physical, mechanical, spectroscopic, and calorimetric methods. The effect of both antioxidants on the processing stability and long term stability of HDPE produced in Ras Lanuf oil and gas processing Company were measured and compared. The combination of Irgafos 168 with Irganox 1010, as used in smaller concentration, results in a synergetic effect against thermo-oxidation and protect better than the combination of Weston 399 with Irganox 1010 against the colour change at processing temperature and during long term oxidation process.

Keywords: thermostabilization, high density polyethylene, primary antioxidant, phenolic antioxidant, Irgafos 168, Irganox 1010, Weston 399

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16892 The Effect of Surface Modifiers on the Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Waste Silicon Carbide Filled High-Density Polyethylene

Authors: R. Dangtungee, A. Rattanapan, S. Siengchin

Abstract:

Waste silicon carbide (waste SiC) filled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with and without surface modifiers were studied. Two types of surface modifiers namely; high-density polyethylene-grafted-maleic anhydride (HDPE-g-MA) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane have been used in this study. The composites were produced using a two roll mill, extruder and shaped in a hydraulic compression molding machine. The mechanical properties of polymer composites such as flexural strength and modulus, impact strength, tensile strength, stiffness and hardness were investigated over a range of compositions. It was found that, flexural strength and modulus, tensile modulus and hardness increased, whereas impact strength and tensile strength decreased with the increasing in filler contents, compared to the neat HDPE. At similar filler content, the effect of both surface modifiers increased flexural modulus, impact strength, tensile strength and stiffness but reduced the flexural strength. Morphological investigation using SEM revealed that the improvement in mechanical properties was due to enhancement of the interfacial adhesion between waste SiC and HDPE.

Keywords: high-density polyethylene, HDPE-g-MA, mechanical properties, morphological properties, silicon carbide, waste silicon carbide

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16891 The Fabrication and Characterization of Hierarchical Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber/High-Density Polyethylene Composites via Twin-Screw Extrusion

Authors: Chao Hu, Xinwen Liao, Qing-Hua Qin, Gang Wang

Abstract:

The hierarchical carbon nanotube (CNT)/carbon fiber (CF)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) was fabricated via compound extrusion and injection molding, in which to author’s best knowledge CNT was employed as a nano-coatings on the surface of CF for the first time by spray coating technique. The CNT coatings relative to CF was set at 1 wt% and the CF content relative to the composites varied from 0 to 25 wt% to study the influence of CNT coatings and CF contents on the mechanical, thermal and morphological performance of this hierarchical composites. The results showed that with the rise of CF contents, the mechanical properties, including the tensile properties, flexural properties, and hardness of CNT/CF/HDPE composites, were effectively improved. Furthermore, the CNT-coated composites showed overall higher mechanical performance than the uncoated counterparts. It can be ascribed to the enhancement of interfacial bonding between the CF and HDPE via the incorporation of CNT, which was demonstrated by the scanning electron microscopy observation. Meanwhile, the differential scanning calorimetry data indicated that by the introduction of CNT and CF, the crystallization temperature and crystallinity of HDPE were affected while the melting temperature did not have an obvious alteration.

Keywords: carbon fibers, carbon nanotubes, extrusion, high density polyethylene

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16890 Compatibilization of Polymer Blends based on Recycled High-Density Polyethylene and Low-Density Polyethylene

Authors: Hniya Kharmoudi, Said Elkoun

Abstract:

In the literature, the elaboration of polymer blends based on recycled HDPE and LDPE is challenging because of the nonmiscibility of the molecules. Ensuring the compatibility and the miscibility of blends is a must to have the best mechanical properties, this article will discuss the different methods to be adopted to assess the compatibility of polymer blends. (a) The first one aims to act on the extrusion process while varying the speed, flow rate, and residence time. (b) This method consists of incorporating additives such as Kevlar and graphene, (c) The last method has as its purpose the use of grafted anhydride maleic elastomer chains as a compatibilizer. The results of the formulations will be characterized via dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) as well as mechanical tensile and bending tests to assess whether pipes made from recycled polyethylene meet the standards.

Keywords: compatibility, miscibility, extrusion, additives, compatibilizer, grafted anhydride maleic, DMA, DSC, mechanical properties, recycled polyethylene

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16889 Evaluation of Vine Stem Waste as a Filler Material for High Density Polyethylene

Authors: Y. Seki, A. Ç. Kılıç, M. Atagür, O. Özdemir, İ. Şen, K. Sever, Ö. Seydibeyoğlu, M. Sarikanat, N. Küçükdoğan

Abstract:

Cheap and abundant waste materials have been investigated as filler materials in thermoplastic polymers instead of wood- based materials because of deforestation. Vine stem, as an agricultural waste, was used as a filler material for a thermoplastic polymer, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in this study. Agricultural waste of vine stem was collected from Manisa region, Turkey. Vine stem at different rations was used to reinforce HDPE. The effect of vine stem loading on tensile strength and Young’s modulus of composites were obtained. It was clearly observed that tensile strength and Young’s modulus of HDPE was increased by vine stem loading. Thermal stabilities of composites were obtained by using thermogravimetric analysis. Water absorption behavior of HDPE was improved by loading vine stem into HDPE. The crystallinity index values of neat HDPE and vine stem loaded HDPE composites were investigated byX-ray diffraction analysis. From this study, it was inferred that vine stem, as an agricultural waste, can be used as a filler material for HDPE.

Keywords: waste filler, high density polyethylene, composite, composite materials

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16888 High Density Polyethylene Biocomposites Reinforced with Hydroxyapatite Nanorods and Carbon Nanofibers for Joint Replacements

Authors: Chengzhu Liao, Jianbo Zhang, Haiou Wang, Jing Ming, Huili Li, Yanyan Li, Hua Cheng, Sie Chin Tjong

Abstract:

Since Bonfield’s group’s pioneer work, there has been growing interest amongst the materials scientists, biomedical engineers and surgeons in the use of novel biomaterials for the treatment of bone defects and injuries. This study focuses on the fabrication, mechanical characterization and biocompatibility evaluation of high density polyethylene (HDPE) reinforced with hydroxyapatite nanorods (HANR) and carbon nanofibers (CNF). HANRs of 20 wt% and CNFs of 0.5-2 wt% were incorporated into HDPE to form biocomposites using traditional melt-compounding and injection molding techniques. The mechanical measurements show that CNF additions greatly improve the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of HDPE and HDPE-20% nHA composites. Meanwhile, the nHA and CNF fillers were found to be effective to improve dimensional and thermal stability of HDPE. The results of osteoblast cell cultivation and dimethyl thiazolyl diphenyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) tests showed that the HDPE/ CNF-nHA nanocomposites are biocompatible. Such HDPE/ CNF-nHA hybrids are found to be potential biomaterials for making orthopedic joint/bone replacements.

Keywords: biocompatibility, biocomposite, carbon nanofiber, high density polyethylene, hydroxyapatite

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16887 Bio-Based Polyethylene/Rice Starch Composite Prepared by Twin Screw Extruder

Authors: Waris Piyaphon, Sathaphorn O-Suwankul, Kittima Bootdee, Manit Nithitanakul

Abstract:

Starch from rice was used as a filler in low density polyethylene in preparation of low density polyethylene/rice starch composite. This study aims to prepare LDPE/rice starch composites. Glycerol (GC) was used as a plasticizer in order to increase dispersion and reduce agglomeration of rice starch in low density polyethylene (LDPE) matrix. Low density polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (LDPE-g-MA) was used as a compatibilizer to increase the compatibility between LDPE and rice starch. The content of rice starch was varied between 10, 20, and 30 %wt. Results indicated that increase of rice starch content reduced tensile strength at break, elongation, and impact strength of composites. LDPE-g-MA showed positive effect on mechanical properties which increased in tensile strength and impact properties as well as compatibility between rice starch and LDPE matrix. Moreover, the addition of LDPE-g-MA significantly improved the impact strength by 50% compared to neat composite. The incorporation of GC enhanced the processability of composite. Introduction of GC affected the viscosity after blending by reducing the viscosity at all shear rate. The presence of plasticizer increased the impact strength but decreased the stiffness of composite. Water absorption of the composite was increased when plasticizer was added.

Keywords: composite material, plastic starch composite, polyethylene composite, PE grafted maleic anhydride

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16886 Effects of Additives on Thermal Decompositions of Carbon Black/High Density Polyethylene Compounds

Authors: Orathai Pornsunthorntawee, Wareerom Polrut, Nopphawan Phonthammachai

Abstract:

In the present work, the effects of additives, including contents of the added antioxidants and type of the selected metallic stearates (either calcium stearate (CaSt) or zinc stearate (ZnSt)), on the thermal stabilities of carbon black (CB)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) compounds were studied. The results showed that the AO contents played a key role in the thermal stabilities of the CB/HDPE compounds—the higher the AO content, the higher the thermal stabilities. Although the CaSt-containing compounds were slightly superior to those with ZnSt in terms of the thermal stabilities, the remaining solid residue of CaSt after heated to the temperature of 600 °C (mainly calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique) seemed to catalyze the decomposition of CB in the HDPE-based compounds. Hence, the quantification of CB in the CaSt-containing compounds with a muffle furnace gave an inaccurate CB content—much lower than actual value. However, this phenomenon was negligible in the ZnSt-containing system.

Keywords: antioxidant, stearate, carbon black, polyethylene

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16885 Investigation of Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Poly (trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT)/Polyethylene Blend Using Carboxylate and Ionomer as Compatibilizers

Authors: Wuttikorn Chayapanja, Sutep Charoenpongpool, Manit Nithitanakul, Brian P. Grady

Abstract:

Poly (trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) is a linear aromatic polyester with good strength and stiffness, good surface appearance, low shrinkage and war page, and good dimensional stability. However, it has low impact strength which is a problem in automotive application. Thus, modification of PTT with the other polymer or polymer blending is a one way to develop a new material with excellence properties. In this study, PTT/High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) blends and PTT/Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) blends with and without compatibilizers base on maleic anhydride grafted HDPE (MAH-g-HDPE) and ethylene-methacrylic acid neutralized sodium metal (Na-EMAA) were prepared by a twin-screw extruder. The blended samples with different ratios of polymers and compatibilizers were characterized on mechanical and rheological properties. Moreover, the phase morphology and dispersion size were studied by using SEM to give better understanding of the compatibility of the blends.

Keywords: poly trimethylene terephthalate, polyethylene, compatibilizer, polymer blend

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16884 Simple Rheological Method to Estimate the Branch Structures of Polyethylene under Reactive Modification

Authors: Mahdi Golriz

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to estimate the change in molecular structure of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) during peroxide modification can be detected by a simple rheological method. For this purpose a commercial grade LLDPE (Exxon MobileTM LL4004EL) was reacted with different doses of dicumyl peroxide (DCP). The samples were analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with a light scattering detector. The dynamic shear oscillatory measurements showed a deviation of the δ-׀G ׀٭curve from that of the linear LLDPE, which can be attributed to the presence of long-chain branching (LCB). By the use of a simple rheological method that utilizes melt rheology, transformations in molecular architecture induced on an originally linear low density polyethylene during the early stages of reactive modification were indicated. Reasonable and consistent estimates are obtained, concerning the degree of LCB, the volume fraction of the various molecular species produced in peroxide modification of LLDPE.

Keywords: linear low-density polyethylene, peroxide modification, long-chain branching, rheological method

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16883 Effect of Hydrostatic Stress on Yield Behavior of the High Density Polyethylene

Authors: Kamel Hachour, Lydia Sadeg, Djamel Sersab, Tassadit Bellahcen

Abstract:

The hydrostatic stress is, for polymers, a significant parameter which affects the yield behavior of these materials. In this work, we investigate the influence of this parameter on yield behavior of the high density polyethylene (hdpe). Some tests on specimens with diverse geometries are described in this paper. Uniaxial tests: tensile on notched round bar specimens with different curvature radii, compression on cylindrical specimens and simple shear on parallelepiped specimens were performed. Biaxial tests with various combinations of tensile/compressive and shear loading on butterfly specimens were also realized in order to determine the hydrostatic stress for different states of solicitation. The experimental results show that the yield stress is very affected by the hydrostatic stress developed in the material during solicitations.

Keywords: biaxial tests, hdpe, Hydrostatic stress, yield behavior

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16882 The Effect of Addition of Dioctyl Terephthalate and Calcite on the Tensile Properties of Organoclay/Linear Low Density Polyethylene Nanocomposites

Authors: A. Gürses, Z. Eroğlu, E. Şahin, K. Güneş, Ç. Doğar

Abstract:

In recent years, polymer/clay nanocomposites have generated great interest in the polymer industry as a new type of composite material because of their superior properties, which includes high heat deflection temperature, gas barrier performance, dimensional stability, enhanced mechanical properties, optical clarity and flame retardancy when compared with the pure polymer or conventional composites. The investigation of change of the tensile properties of organoclay/linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) nanocomposites with the use of Dioctyl terephthalate (DOTP) (as plasticizer) and calcite (as filler) has been aimed. The composites and organoclay synthesized were characterized using the techniques such as XRD, HRTEM and FTIR techniques. The spectroscopic results indicate that platelets of organoclay were well dispersed within the polymeric matrix. The tensile properties of the composites were compared considering the stress-strain curve drawn for each composite and pure polymer. It was observed that the composites prepared by adding the plasticizer at different ratios and a certain amount of calcite exhibited different tensile behaviors compared to pure polymer.

Keywords: linear low density polyethylene, nanocomposite, organoclay, plasticizer

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16881 Ageing Deterioration of High-Density Polyethylene Cable Spacer under Salt Water Dip Wheel Test

Authors: P. Kaewchanthuek, R. Rawonghad, B. Marungsri

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of high-density polyethylene cable spacers for 22 kV distribution systems under salt water dip wheel test based on IEC 62217. The strength of anti-tracking and anti-erosion of cable spacer surface was studied in this study. During the test, dry band arc and corona discharge were observed on cable spacer surface. After 30,000 cycles of salt water dip wheel test, obviously surface erosion and tracking were observed especially on the ground end. Chemical analysis results by fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy showed chemical changed from oxidation and carbonization reaction on tested cable spacer. Increasing of C=O and C=C bonds confirmed occurrence of these reactions.

Keywords: cable spacer, HDPE, ageing of cable spacer, salt water dip wheel test

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16880 Experimental Investigation and Constitutive Modeling of Volume Strain under Uniaxial Strain Rate Jump Test in HDPE

Authors: Rida B. Arieby, Hameed N. Hameed

Abstract:

In this work, tensile tests on high density polyethylene have been carried out under various constant strain rate and strain rate jump tests. The dependency of the true stress and specially the variation of volume strain have been investigated, the volume strain due to the phenomena of damage was determined in real time during the tests by an optical extensometer called Videotraction. A modified constitutive equations, including strain rate and damage effects, are proposed, such a model is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach called (DNLR). The ability of the model to predict the complex nonlinear response of this polymer is examined by comparing the model simulation with the available experimental data, which demonstrate that this model can represent the deformation behavior of the polymer reasonably well.

Keywords: strain rate jump tests, volume strain, high density polyethylene, large strain, thermodynamics approach

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16879 Mechanical Properties of the Palm Fibers Reinforced HDPE Composites

Authors: Daniella R. Mulinari, Araujo J. F. Marina, Gabriella S. Lopes

Abstract:

Natural fibers are used in polymer composites to improve mechanical properties, substituting inorganic reinforcing agents produced by non-renewable resources. The present study investigates the tensile, flexural and impact behaviors of palm fibers-high density polyethylene (HDPE) composite as a function of volume fraction. The surface of the fibers was modified by mercerization treatments to improve the wetting behavior of the apolar HDPE. The treatment characterization was obtained by scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Results evidence that a good adhesion interfacial between fibers-matrix causing an increase strength and modulus flexural as well as impact strength in the modified fibers/HDPE composites when compared to the pure HDPE and unmodified fibers reinforced composites.

Keywords: palm fibers, polymer composites, mechanical properties, high density polyethylene (HDPE)

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16878 High-Yield Synthesis of Nanohybrid Shish-Kebab of Polyethylene on Carbon NanoFillers

Authors: Dilip Depan, Austin Simoneaux, William Chirdon, Ahmed Khattab

Abstract:

In this study, we present a novel approach to synthesize polymer nanocomposites with nanohybrid shish-kebab architecture (NHSK). For this low-density and high density polyethylene (PE) was crystallized on various carbon nano-fillers using a novel and convenient method to prepare high-yield NHSK. Polymer crystals grew epitaxially on carbon nano-fillers using a solution crystallization method. The mixture of polymer and carbon fillers in xylene was flocculated and precipitated in ethanol to improve the product yield. Carbon nanofillers of varying diameter were also used as a nucleating template for polymer crystallization. The morphology of the prepared nanocomposites was characterized scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to quantify the amount of crystalline polymer. Interestingly, whatever the diameter of the carbon nanofiller is, the lamellae of PE is always perpendicular to the long axis of nanofiller. Surface area analysis was performed using BET. Our results indicated that carbon nanofillers of varying diameter can be used to effectively nucleate the crystallization of polymer. The effect of molecular weight and concentration of the polymer was discussed on the basis of chain mobility and crystallization capability of the polymer matrix. Our work shows a facile, rapid, yet high-yield production method to form polymer nanocomposites to reveal application potential of NHSK architecture.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, polyethylene, nanohybrid shish-kebab, crystallization, morphology

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16877 Experiment and modeling of slow crack growth in high density polyethylene (HDPE) marine pipelines

Authors: Ge Zhu, Luis Marquez, Vikas Srivastava

Abstract:

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) is one of the most commonly used pipeline materials for marine wastewater transportation. Slow crack growth is a well-known failure phenomenon in high-density polyethylene and causes material failure well below the yield point with no obvious sign. The failure of wastewater transportation pipelines can cause catastrophic environmental and economic consequences. Using physics-based theoretical models to predict slow crack growth behavior in hazardous material transportation pipelines is the primary method employed by the marine and ocean engineering industry. Fracture mechanics-based slow crack growth models such as Brown and Lu's model can predict the slow crack growth behavior in the polymer material due to their ability to evaluate slow crack growth under different temperature and loading conditions. We developed computational models to predict the slow crack growth behavior in the HDPE-based pipeline with existing theoretical models. The result shows theoretical models such as Brown and Lu's model can accurately predict the slow crack growth behavior in HDPE-based wastewater pipelines. We are also working on a physics-based model that can address slow crack growth behavior under different chemical exposure conditions and developing an associated experimental method to improve the safety and reliability of HDPE-based pipelines with marine applications.

Keywords: marine engineering, pipeline safety, mechanics of material, fracture mechanics

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16876 Co-Pyrolysis of Olive Pomace with Plastic Wastes and Characterization of Pyrolysis Products

Authors: Merve Sogancioglu, Esra Yel, Ferda Tartar, Nihan Canan Iskender

Abstract:

Waste polyethylene (PE) is classified as waste low density polyethylene (LDPE) and waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) according to their densities. Pyrolysis of plastic waste may have an important role in dealing with the enormous amounts of plastic waste produced all over the world, by decreasing their negative impact on the environment. This waste may be converted into economically valuable hydrocarbons, which can be used both as fuels and as feed stock in the petrochemical industry. End product yields and properties depend on the plastic waste composition. Pyrolytic biochar is one of the most important products of waste plastics pyrolysis. In this study, HDPE and LDPE plastic wastes were co-pyrolyzed together with waste olive pomace. Pyrolysis runs were performed at temperature 700°C with heating rates of 5°C/min. Higher pyrolysis oil and gas yields were observed by the using waste olive pomace. The biochar yields of HDPE- olive pomace and LDPEolive pomace were 6.37% and 7.26% respectively for 50% olive pomace doses. The calorific value of HDPE-olive pomace and LDPE-olive pomace of pyrolysis oil were 8350 and 8495 kCal.

Keywords: biochar, co-pyrolysis, waste plastic, waste olive pomace

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16875 Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of High Barrier Polymer Packaging for Selecting Resource Efficient and Environmentally Low-Impact Materials

Authors: D. Kliaugaitė, J. K, Staniškis

Abstract:

In this study tree types of multilayer gas barrier plastic packaging films were compared using life cycle assessment as a tool for resource efficient and environmentally low-impact materials selection. The first type of multilayer packaging film (PET-AlOx/LDPE) consists of polyethylene terephthalate with barrier layer AlOx (PET-AlOx) and low density polyethylene (LDPE). The second type of polymer film (PET/PE-EVOH-PE) is made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and co-extrusion film PE-EVOH-PE as barrier layer. And the third one type of multilayer packaging film (PET-PVOH/LDPE) is formed from polyethylene terephthalate with barrier layer PVOH (PET-PVOH) and low density polyethylene (LDPE). All of analyzed packaging has significant impact to resource depletion, because of raw materials extraction and energy use and production of different kind of plastics. Nevertheless the impact generated during life cycle of functional unit of II type of packaging (PET/PE-EVOH-PE) was about 25% lower than impact generated by I type (PET-AlOx/LDPE) and III type (PET-PVOH/LDPE) of packaging. Result revealed that the contribution of different gas barrier type to the overall environmental problem of packaging is not significant. The impact are mostly generated by using energy and materials during raw material extraction and production of different plastic materials as plastic polymers material as PE, LDPE and PET, but not gas barrier materials as AlOx, PVOH and EVOH. The LCA results could be useful in different decision-making processes, for selecting resource efficient and environmentally low-impact materials.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, polymer packaging, resource efficiency, materials extraction, polyethylene terephthalate

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16874 Hybrid Conductive Polymer Composites: Effect of Mixed Fillers and Polymer Blends on Pyroresistive Properties

Authors: Eric Asare, Jamie Evans, Mark Newton, Emiliano Bilotti

Abstract:

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) filled with silver coated glass flakes (5µm) was investigated and the effect on PTC by addition of a second filler (100µm silver coated glass flake) or matrix (polypropylene elastomer) to the composite were examined. The addition of the secondary filler promoted the electrical properties of the composite. The bigger flakes acted like a bridge between the small flakes and this helped to enhance the electrical properties. The PTC behaviour of the composite was also improved by the addition of the bigger flakes due to the increase in separation distance between particles caused by the bigger flakes. Addition of small amount of polypropylene elastomer enhanced not only PTC effect but also improved substantially the flexibility of the composite as well as reduces the overall filler content. SEM images showed that the fillers were dispersed in the HDPE phase.

Keywords: positive temperature coefficient, conductive polymer composite, electrical conductivity, high density polyethylene

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16873 Recycling of Plastic Waste into Composites Using Kaolin as Reinforcement

Authors: Gloria P. Manu, Johnson K. Efavi, Abu Yaya, Grace K. Arkorful, Frank Godson

Abstract:

Plastics have been used extensively in both food and water packaging and other applications because of their inherent properties of low bulk densities and inertness as well as its low cost. Waste management of these plastics after usage is troubling in Ghana. One way of addressing the environmental problems associated with these plastic wastes is by recycling into useful products such as composites for energy and construction applications using natural or local materials as reinforcement. In this work, composites have been formed from waste low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and kaolin at temperatures as low as 70 ֯C using low-cost solvents like kerosene. Chemical surface modifications have been employed to improve the interfacial bonding resulting in the enhancement of properties of the composites. Kaolin particles of sizes ≤ 90µm were dispersed in the polyethylene matrix. The content of the LDPE was varied between 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 %wt. Results obtained indicated that all the composites exhibited impressive compressive and flexural strengths with the 50%wt. composition having the highest strength. The hardness value of the composites increased as the polyethylene composition reduces and that of the kaolin increased. The average density and water of absorption of the composites were 530kg/m³ and 1.3% respectively.

Keywords: polyethylene, recycling, waste, composite, kaolin

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16872 Microwave Absorption Properties of Low Density Polyethelene-Cobalt Ferrite Nanocomposite

Authors: Reza Fazaeli, Reza Eslami-Farsani, Hamid Targhagh

Abstract:

Low density polyethylene (LDPE) nanocomposites with 3, 5 and 7 wt. % cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanopowder fabricated with extrusion mixing and followed up by hot press to reach compact samples. The transmission/reflection measurements were carried out with a network analyzer in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz. By increasing the percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder, reflection loss (S11) increases, while transferring loss (S21) decreases. Reflectivity (R) calculations made using S11 and S21. Increase in percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder up to 7 wt. % in composite leaded to higher reflectivity amount, and revealed that increasing the percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder up to 7 wt. % leads to further microwave absorption in 8-12 GHz range.

Keywords: nanocomposite, cobalt ferrite, low density polyethylene, microwave absorption

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16871 Assessment of the Interface Strength between High-Density Polyethylene Geomembrane and Expanded Polystyrene by the Direct Shear Test

Authors: Sergio Luiz da Costa Junior, Carolina Fofonka Palomino, Paulo Cesar Lodi

Abstract:

The use of light landfills is an effective solution for road works in soft ground sites, such as Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Santos (SP) - the Southeastern Brazilian coast. The technique consists in replacing the topsoil by expandable polystyrene (EPS) geofoam, lined with geomembrane to prevent the attack of chemical products.Thus, knowing the interface shear strength of those materials is important in projects to avoid rupturing the system. The purpose of this paper is to compare the shear strength in the geomembrane-EPS interfaces by the direct shear test. The tests were performed under the dry and saturated condition, and four kind of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) 2,00mm geomembranes were used, smooth and texturized - manufactured in the flat die and blown film process. It was found that the shear strength is directly influenced by the roughness of the geomembrane, showed higher friction angle in the textured geomembrane. The direct shear test, in the saturated condition, also showed smaller friction angle than the now-wetted test.

Keywords: geofoam, geomembrane, soft ground, strength shear

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16870 Forecast of Polyethylene Properties in the Gas Phase Polymerization Aided by Neural Network

Authors: Nasrin Bakhshizadeh, Ashkan Forootan

Abstract:

A major problem that affects the quality control of polymer in the industrial polymerization is the lack of suitable on-line measurement tools to evaluate the properties of the polymer such as melt and density indices. Controlling the polymerization in ordinary method is performed manually by taking samples, measuring the quality of polymer in the lab and registry of results. This method is highly time consuming and leads to producing large number of incompatible products. An online application for estimating melt index and density proposed in this study is a neural network based on the input-output data of the polyethylene production plant. Temperature, the level of reactors' bed, the intensity of ethylene mass flow, hydrogen and butene-1, the molar concentration of ethylene, hydrogen and butene-1 are used for the process to establish the neural model. The neural network is taught based on the actual operational data and back-propagation and Levenberg-Marquart techniques. The simulated results indicate that the neural network process model established with three layers (one hidden layer) for forecasting the density and the four layers for the melt index is able to successfully predict those quality properties.

Keywords: polyethylene, polymerization, density, melt index, neural network

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16869 Effects of Coupling Agent on the Properties of Henequen Microfiber (NF) Filled High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Composites

Authors: Pravin Gaikwad, Prakash Mahanwar

Abstract:

The main objective of incorporating natural fibers such as Henequen microfibers (NF) into the High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) polymer matrix is to reduce the cost and to enhance the mechanical as well as other properties. The Henequen microfibers were chopped manually to 5-7mm in length and added into the polymer matrix at the optimized concentration of 8 wt %. In order to facilitate the link between Henequen microfibers (NF) and HDPE matrix, coupling agent such as Glycidoxy (Epoxy) Functional Methoxy Silane (GPTS) at various concentrations from 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 0.9%, and 1% by weight to the total fibers were added. The tensile strength of the composite increased marginally while % elongation at break of the composites decreased with increase in silane loading by wt %. Tensile modulus and stiffness observed increased at 0.9 wt % GPTS loading. Flexural as well as impact strength of the composite decreased with increase in GPTS loading by weight %. Dielectric strength of the composite also found increased marginally upto 0.5wt % silane loading and thereafter remained constant.

Keywords: Henequen microfibers (NF), polymer composites, HDPE, coupling agent, GPTS

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16868 An Approach to Study the Biodegradation of Low Density Polyethylene Using Microbial Strains of Bacillus subtilus, Aspergillus niger, Pseudomonas fluroscence in Different Media Form and Salt Condition

Authors: Monu Ojha, Rahul Rana, Satywati Sharma, Kavya Dashora

Abstract:

The global production rate of plastics has increased enormously and global demand for polyethylene resins –High-density polyethylene (HDPE), Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is expected to rise drastically, with very high value. These get accumulated in the environment, posing a potential ecological threat as they are degrading at a very slow rate and remain in the environment indefinitely. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of commonly found soil microbes like Bacillus subtilus, Aspergillus niger, Pseudomonas fluroscence for their ability to biodegrade LDPE in the lab on solid and liquid media conditions as well as in presence of 1% salt in the soil. This study was conducted at Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India from July to September where average temperature and RH (Relative Humidity) were 33 degrees Celcius and 80% respectively. It revealed that the weight loss of LDPE strip obtained from market of approximately 4x6 cm dimensions is more in liquid broth media than in solid agar media. The percentage weight loss by P. fluroscence, A. niger and B. subtilus observed after 80 days of incubation was 15.52, 9.24 and 8.99% respectively in broth media and 6.93, 2.18 and 4.76 % in agar media. The LDPE strips from same source and on the same were subjected to soil in presence of above microbes with 1% salt (NaCl: obtained from commercial table salt) with temperature and RH 33 degree Celcius and 80%. It was found that the rate of degradation increased in the soil than under lab conditions. The rate of weight loss of LDPE strips under same conditions given in lab was found to be 32.98, 15.01 and17.09 % by P. fluroscence, A. niger and B. subtilus respectively. The breaking strength was found to be 9.65N, 29N and 23.85 N for P. fluroscence, A. niger and B. subtilus respectively. SEM analysis conducted on Zeiss EVO 50 confirmed that surface of LDPE becomes physically weak after biological treatment. There was the increase in the surface roughness indicating Surface erosion of LDPE film. FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy) analysis of the degraded LDPE films showed stretching of aldehyde group at 3334.92 and 3228.84 cm-1,, C–C=C symmetric of aromatic ring at 1639.49 cm-1.There was also C=O stretching of aldehyde group at 1735.93 cm-1. N=O peak bend was also observed which corresponds to 1365.60 cm-1, C–O stretching of ether group at 1217.08 and 1078.21 cm-1.

Keywords: microbial degradation, LDPE, Aspergillus niger, Bacillus subtilus, Peudomonas fluroscence, common salt

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16867 Identification of the Best Blend Composition of Natural Rubber-High Density Polyethylene Blends for Roofing Applications

Authors: W. V. W. H. Wickramaarachchi, S. Walpalage, S. M. Egodage

Abstract:

Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) is a multifunctional polymeric material which possesses a combination of excellent properties of parent materials. Basically, TPE has a rubber phase and a thermoplastic phase which gives processability as thermoplastics. When the rubber phase is partially or fully crosslinked in the thermoplastic matrix, TPE is called as thermoplastic elastomer vulcanizate (TPV). If the rubber phase is non-crosslinked, it is called as thermoplastic elastomer olefin (TPO). Nowadays TPEs are introduced into the commercial market with different products. However, the application of TPE as a roofing material is limited. Out of the commercially available roofing products from different materials, only single ply roofing membranes and plastic roofing sheets are produced from rubbers and plastics. Natural rubber (NR) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) are used in various industrial applications individually with some drawbacks. Therefore, this study was focused to develop both TPO and TPV blends from NR and HDPE at different compositions and then to identify the best blend composition to use as a roofing material. A series of blends by varying NR loading from 10 wt% to 50 wt%, at 10 wt% intervals, were prepared using a twin screw extruder. Dicumyl peroxide was used as a crosslinker for TPV. The standard properties for a roofing material like tensile properties tear strength, hardness, impact strength, water absorption, swell/gel analysis and thermal characteristics of the blends were investigated. Change of tensile strength after exposing to UV radiation was also studied. Tensile strength, hardness, tear strength, melting temperature and gel content of TPVs show higher values compared to TPOs at every loading studied, while water absorption and swelling index show lower values, suggesting TPVs are more suitable than TPOs for roofing applications. Most of the optimum properties were shown at 10/90 (NR/HDPE) composition. However, high impact strength and gel content were shown at 20/80 (NR/HDPE) composition. Impact strength, as being an energy absorbing property, is the most important for a roofing material in order to resist impact loads. Therefore, 20/80 (NR/HDPE) is identified as the best blend composition. UV resistance and other properties required for a roofing material could be achieved by incorporating suitable additives to TPVs.

Keywords: thermoplastic elastomer, natural rubber, high density polyethylene, roofing material

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16866 The Role of Secondary Filler on the Fracture Toughness of HDPE/Clay Nanocomposites

Authors: R. Kamarudzaman, A. Kalam, N. A. Mohd Fadzil

Abstract:

Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Fiber (OPEFB) was used as secondary filler in HDPE/clay nanocomposites. The composites were prepared by melt compounding which contains High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), OPEFB fibers, Maleic Anhydride Graft Polyethylene (MAPE) and four different clay loading (3, 5, 7 and 10 PE nanoclay pellets per hundred of HDPE pellets). Four OPEFB sizes (180 µm, 250 µm, 300 µm and 355 µm) were added in the composites to investigate their effects on fracture toughness. Fracture toughness of the composites were determined according to ASTM D5045 and Single Edge Notch Bending (SENB) been employed during the test. The effects of alkali treatment were also investigated in this study. The results indicate that the fracture toughness slightly increased as clay loading increased. The highest value of fracture toughness was 0.47 and 1.06 MPa.m1/2 at 5 phr for both types of clay loading. The presence of filler as reinforcement with the matrix indicates the enhancement of composites compared to those without the filler.

Keywords: oil palm empty fruit bunch, fiber, polyethylene, polymer nanocomposite, impact strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 412