Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: Anuj Thapa

43 Efficient Reduction of Organophosphate Pesticide from Fruits and Vegetables Using Cost Effective Neutralizer

Authors: Debjani Dasgupta, Aman Zalawadia, Anuj Thapa, Pranjali Sing, Ashish Dabade

Abstract:

Organophosphate group pesticides are common pesticide group, which gain entry into food product due to incomplete removal of pesticide residues. The current food industry raw material handling process is not sufficient to eliminate pesticide residues. A neutralizer was used to neutralize the residues of pesticide on Vitis vinifera (Grapes). The water based dilution of neutralizer was demonstrated on fruits like grapes. Analysis for pesticides in water wash and neutralizer wash was carried out using GCMS. Fruits washed with neutralizer exhibited 72.95% removal of pesticides compared with normal water wash method. An economical chemical neutralizer can be used to remove such residues in raw material handling at industrial scale with minor modification in process to achieve minimum pesticide entry into final food products.

Keywords: GCMS, organophosphate, raw material handling, Vitis vinifera, pesticide neutralizer

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42 Increasing Number of NGOs and Their Conduct: A Case Study of Far Western Region of Nepal

Authors: Raju Thapa

Abstract:

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are conducting activities in Nepal with the overall objective to strengthen peace, progress and prosperity in the society. Based on the research objectives, this study has tried to trace out the reasons behind massive growth of NGOs and the trends that have shaped the handling and functioning of NGOs in the Kailali district. The outcomes of this research are quite embarrassing for NGOs officials. Based on the findings of this research, NGOs are expected to review their guiding principal, integrity and conduct for the betterment of the society.

Keywords: NGO, trends, increasing, conduct, integrity, guiding principle, legal, governance, human resources, public trust, financial, collaboration, networking

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
41 A Hybrid Method for Determination of Effective Poles Using Clustering Dominant Pole Algorithm

Authors: Anuj Abraham, N. Pappa, Daniel Honc, Rahul Sharma

Abstract:

In this paper, an analysis of some model order reduction techniques is presented. A new hybrid algorithm for model order reduction of linear time invariant systems is compared with the conventional techniques namely Balanced Truncation, Hankel Norm reduction and Dominant Pole Algorithm (DPA). The proposed hybrid algorithm is known as Clustering Dominant Pole Algorithm (CDPA) is able to compute the full set of dominant poles and its cluster center efficiently. The dominant poles of a transfer function are specific eigenvalues of the state space matrix of the corresponding dynamical system. The effectiveness of this novel technique is shown through the simulation results.

Keywords: balanced truncation, clustering, dominant pole, Hankel norm, model reduction

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40 Sustainability: Effect of Earthquake in Micro Hydro Sector, a Case Study of Micro Hydro Projects in Northern Part of Kavre District, Nepal

Authors: Ram Bikram Thapa, Ganesh Lama

Abstract:

The Micro Hydro is one of the successful technology in Rural Nepal. Kavre is one of the pioneer district of sustainability of Micro Hydro Projects. A total of 30 Micro Hydro projects have been constructed with producing 700 KW of energy in northern side of the Kavre district. This study shows that 67% of projects have been affected by devastating earthquake in April and May, 2015. Out of them 23% are completely damaged. Most of the structures are failure like Penstock 71%, forebay 21%, powerhouse 7% have been completely damaged and 91% Canal & 44% Intake structures have been partially damaged by the earthquake. This paper empathizes that the engineering design is the vital component for sustainability of Micro Hydro Projects. This paper recommended that technicians should be considered the safety factor of earthquake and provision of disaster recovery fund during design of Micro Hydro Projects.

Keywords: micro hydro, earthquake, structural failure, sustainability

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39 International Investment Arbitration and Environment: Trends and Approaches within the Framework of the ICSID

Authors: Anuj Kumar Vaksha

Abstract:

The research paper examines the trends and approaches of the international investment arbitral tribunals to the issues of environment and the exercise of states' regulatory power for the preservation of environment vis-à-vis the rights of the affected foreign investors. The paper analyses arbitral awards, decisions and orders in the leading cases of international investment arbitrations involving issues of environment and finds that there has been strong trend among the arbitral tribunals to balance the imperatives of the environmental regulation and the interest of the foreign investors. The arbitral tribunals have reflected deference to States' competence for regulation of environment to the extent they were genuine, relevant and in proportion to the legitimate objective sought to be achieved. The arbitral tribunals have at times been innovative and non-conservative in promoting the cause of environment through the mechanism of investor-state arbitration.

Keywords: International Investment Arbitration, environmental regulations, bilateral investment treaties, ICSID, NAFTA, amicus curiae, pollution havens hypothesis, environmental race to the bottom hypothesis

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38 Studying the Influence of Stir Cast Parameters on Properties of Al6061/Al2O3 Composite

Authors: Anuj Suhag, Rahul Dayal

Abstract:

Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) refer to the class of metal matrix composites that are lightweight but high performance aluminum centric material systems. The reinforcement in AMCs could be in the form of continuous/discontinuous fibers, whisker or particulates, in volume fractions. Properties of AMCs can be altered to the requirements of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. This work focuses on the fabrication of aluminum alloy (Al6061) matrix composites (AMCs) reinforced with 5 and 3 wt% Al2O3 particulates of 45µm using stir casting route. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of process parameters, determined by design of experiments, on microhardness, microstructure, Charpy impact strength, surface roughness and tensile properties of the AMC.

Keywords: aluminium matrix composite, Charpy impact strength test, composite materials, matrix, metal matrix composite, surface roughness, reinforcement

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37 Clothes Identification Using Inception ResNet V2 and MobileNet V2

Authors: Subodh Chandra Shakya, Badal Shrestha, Suni Thapa, Ashutosh Chauhan, Saugat Adhikari

Abstract:

To tackle our problem of clothes identification, we used different architectures of Convolutional Neural Networks. Among different architectures, the outcome from Inception ResNet V2 and MobileNet V2 seemed promising. On comparison of the metrices, we observed that the Inception ResNet V2 slightly outperforms MobileNet V2 for this purpose. So this paper of ours proposes the cloth identifier using Inception ResNet V2 and also contains the comparison between the outcome of ResNet V2 and MobileNet V2. The document here contains the results and findings of the research that we performed on the DeepFashion Dataset. To improve the dataset, we used different image preprocessing techniques like image shearing, image rotation, and denoising. The whole experiment was conducted with the intention of testing the efficiency of convolutional neural networks on cloth identification so that we could develop a reliable system that is good enough in identifying the clothes worn by the users. The whole system can be integrated with some kind of recommendation system.

Keywords: inception ResNet, convolutional neural net, deep learning, confusion matrix, data augmentation, data preprocessing

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36 Unsteady Numerical Analysis of Sediment Erosion Affected High Head Francis Turbine

Authors: Saroj Gautam, Ram Lama, Hari Prasad Neopane, Sailesh Chitrakar, Biraj Singh Thapa, Baoshan Zhu

Abstract:

Sediment flowing along with the water in rivers flowing in South Asia erodes the turbine components. The erosion of turbine components is influenced by the nature of fluid flow along with components of typical turbine types. This paper examines two cases of high head Francis turbines with the same speed number numerically. The numerical investigation involves both steady-state and transient analysis of the numerical model developed for both cases. Furthermore, the influence of leakage flow from the clearance gap of guide vanes is also examined and compared with no leakage flow. It presents the added pressure pulsation to rotor-stator-interaction in the turbine runner for both cases due to leakage flow. It was also found that leakage flow was a major contributor to the sediment erosion in those turbines.

Keywords: sediment erosion, Francis turbine, leakage flow, rotor stator interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
35 Design Modification in CNC Milling Machine to Reduce the Weight of Structure

Authors: Harshkumar K. Desai, Anuj K. Desai, Jay P. Patel, Snehal V. Trivedi, Yogendrasinh Parmar

Abstract:

The need of continuous improvement in a product or process in this era of global competition leads to apply value engineering for functional and aesthetic improvement in consideration with economic aspect too. Solar industries located at G.I.D.C., Makarpura, Vadodara, Gujarat, India; a manufacturer of variety of CNC Machines had a challenge to analyze the structural design of column, base, carriage and table of CNC Milling Machine in the account of reduction of overall weight of a machine without affecting the rigidity and accuracy at the time of operation. The identified task is the first attempt to validate and optimize the proposed design of ribbed structure statically using advanced modeling and analysis tools in a systematic way. Results of stress and deformation obtained using analysis software are validated with theoretical analysis and found quite satisfactory. Such optimized results offer a weight reduction of the final assembly which is desired by manufacturers in favor of reduction of material cost, processing cost and handling cost finally.

Keywords: CNC milling machine, optimization, finite element analysis (FEA), weight reduction

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34 An Evaluation of People’s Susceptibility to Phishing Attacks in Nepal and Effectiveness of the Applied Countermeasures

Authors: Sunil Chaudhary, Rajendra Bahadur Thapa, Eleni Berki, Marko Helenius

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The increasing number of Internet and mobile phone users, and essentially those, who use these electronic media to perform online transactions makes Nepal lucrative for phishing attacks. It is one of the reasons behind escalating phishing attacks in the country. Therefore, in this paper we examine various phishing attempts and real scenarios in Nepal to determine the seriousness of the problem. We also want to find out how prepared are the Internet and mobile phone users and how well-equipped are the private sector and government authorities responsible to handle cybercrime in the country. We considered five areas of research study, i.e., legal measures, technical and procedural measures, organizational structure, capacity building and international cooperation. These constitute important factors in cyber security and are recommended by the Global Cyber security Agenda (GCA). On the basis of our findings, we provide essential suggestions to make anti-phishing measures more appropriate to Nepalese State and society.

Keywords: internet banking, mobile banking, e-commerce, phishing, anti-phishing, Nepal

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33 Early Identification and Early Intervention: Pre and Post Diagnostic Tests in Mathematics Courses

Authors: Kailash Ghimire, Manoj Thapa

Abstract:

This study focuses on early identification of deficiencies in pre-required areas of students who are enrolled in College Algebra and Calculus I classes. The students were given pre-diagnostic tests on the first day of the class before they are provided with the syllabus. The tests consist of prerequisite, uniform and advanced content outlined by the University System of Georgia (USG). The results show that 48% of students in College Algebra are lacking prerequisite skills while 52% of Calculus I students are lacking prerequisite skills but, interestingly these students are prior exposed to uniform content and advanced content. The study is still in progress and this paper contains the outcome from Fall 2017 and Spring 2018. In this paper, early intervention used in these classes: two days vs three days meeting a week and students’ self-assessment using exam wrappers and their effectiveness on students’ learning will also be discussed. A result of this study shows that there is an improvement on Drop, Fail and Withdraw (DFW) rates by 7%-10% compared to those in previous semesters.

Keywords: student at risk, diagnostic tests, identification, intervention, normalization gain, validity of tests

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32 Historical Metaphors in Insurance: A Journey

Authors: Anjuman Antil, Anuj Kapoor, Neha Saini

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the evolution of insurance in India and the world. The paper also traced the historical basis of life insurance in the world and how it emerged as a major sector in India’s economy. The promotional strategies and distribution channel of top three companies in the Indian insurance sector are also discussed. Design/methodology/approach: The paper examined the secondary data which includes the reports issued by Insurance Regulatory Authority of India, websites of companies, books, and journals relevant to the study. Findings: The paper argued the role and importance of insurance in an emerging economy. The challenges and opportunities of the insurance sector are briefed out. The emerging areas in the insurance sector in terms of promotional strategies and distribution channel are also listed. Implications: The historical evolution can be studied by companies while formulating their strategies. It will help them analyse the insurance sector, how things have changed and how to change with the changing times. Originality/value: This paper gives comprehensive data regarding the background of the insurance sector. Along with historical perspective, marketing and distribution, current and future trends have been discussed.

Keywords: insurance, evolution, life insurance, marketing, distribution channels

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
31 Real Time Monitoring and Control of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell in Cognitive Radio Environment

Authors: Prakash Thapa, Gye Choon Park, Sung Gi Kwon, Jin Lee

Abstract:

The generation of electric power from a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is influenced by temperature, pressure, humidity, flow rate of reactant gaseous and partial flooding of membrane electrode assembly (MEA). Among these factors, temperature and cathode flooding are the most affecting parameters on the performance of fuel cell. This paper describes the detail design and effect of these parameters on PEM fuel cell. Performance of all parameters was monitored, analyzed and controlled by using 5KWatt PEM fuel cell. In the real-time data communication for remote monitoring and control of PEM fuel cell, a normalized least mean square algorithm in cognitive radio environment is used. By the use of this method, probability of energy signal detection will be maximum which solved the frequency shortage problem. So the monitoring system hanging out and slow speed problem will be solved. Also from the control unit, all parameters are controlled as per the system requirement. As a result, PEM fuel cell generates maximum electricity with better performance.

Keywords: proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, pressure, temperature and humidity sensor (PTH), efficiency curve, cognitive radio network (CRN)

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30 Abundance and Diversity of Fruit Flies (Tephritidae: Diptera) In Citrus Orchards in Sindhuli, Nepal

Authors: Debraj Adhikari, Resham Bahadur Thapa, Samudra Lal Joshi, Jason Jinping Du, Sundar Tiwari

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to keep a record of fruit fly species (Tephritidae: Diptera) in the sweet orange orchards of Sindhuli district, Nepal. Male fruit fly species were trapped and collected fortnightly using para-pheromone lures (methyl eugenol and cue lure) in Steiner traps at 25 orchards starting in March 2019 and continuing until February 2021. During the monitoring period, there was a significant variation in the occurrence of the fruit fly species. Fruit flies were captured in greater numbers during warm and rainy months (June, July, August, September) than during dry and winter months (December, January, February). Higher numbers of fruit flies were trapped in methyl eugenol than cue lure traps. Bactrocera dorsalis, B. zonata were major fruit fly species trapped in the methyl eugenol trap. Whereas, Zeugodacus tau, Z. cucurbitae, Z. scutellaris, and Dacus longicornis were major fruit fly species trapped in the cue lure trap. The findings of this study could be used to develop a long-term pest management strategy for the agro-ecological system.

Keywords: bactrocera, cue lure, methyl eugenol, monitoring, zeugodacus

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29 Particulate Pollution and Its Effect on Respiratory Symptoms of Exposed Personnel's in Three Heavy Traffic Cities (Roads), Kathmandu, Nepal

Authors: Sujen Man Shrestha, Kanchan Thapa, Tista Prasai Joshi

Abstract:

Background: The present study was carried out to determine suspended particles and respirable particles of diameter less than 1 micrometers (PM1) on road side and some distance of outside from road; and to compare the respiratory symptoms between traffic police men and shop keepers directly 'exposed' to traffic fumes and office worker stay in 'protected' enclosed environment. Methods: Semi structured questionnaire was used to collect the data among case and control after getting verbal informed consent among the convenience sample of traffic police, shopkeepers and officials in three different locations in Kathmandu. Secondary data analysis of hospital data of three hospitals of Kathmandu was also performed. The data on air Particulate Matter was taken by Haz Dust. Results: The result showed air quality of road side traffic is unhealthy and there was increasing trends of respiratory illness in hospital outpatient department (OPD). The people who were exposed found to have more risk of developing respiratory diseases symptoms. Conclusions: The study concluded that air pollution level is strong contributing factor for respiratory diseases and further recommended strong, epidemiological studies with larger sample size, less bias, and also measuring other significant physical and chemicals parameters of air pollution.

Keywords: heavy traffic cities, Kathmandu, particulate pollution, respiratory symptoms

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28 Theoretical Analysis of Photoassisted Field Emission near the Metal Surface Using Transfer Hamiltonian Method

Authors: Rosangliana Chawngthu, Ramkumar K. Thapa

Abstract:

A model calculation of photoassisted field emission current (PFEC) by using transfer Hamiltonian method will be present here. When the photon energy is incident on the surface of the metals, such that the energy of a photon is usually less than the work function of the metal under investigation. The incident radiation photo excites the electrons to a final state which lies below the vacuum level; the electrons are confined within the metal surface. A strong static electric field is then applied to the surface of the metal which causes the photoexcited electrons to tunnel through the surface potential barrier into the vacuum region and constitutes the considerable current called photoassisted field emission current. The incident radiation is usually a laser beam, causes the transition of electrons from the initial state to the final state and the matrix element for this transition will be written. For the calculation of PFEC, transfer Hamiltonian method is used. The initial state wavefunction is calculated by using Kronig-Penney potential model. The effect of the matrix element will also be studied. An appropriate dielectric model for the surface region of the metal will be used for the evaluation of vector potential. FORTRAN programme is used for the calculation of PFEC. The results will be checked with experimental data and the theoretical results.

Keywords: photoassisted field emission, transfer Hamiltonian, vector potential, wavefunction

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27 The Study of the Perspectives on Economic Development in Bilateral Investment Treaties

Authors: Anuj Kumar Vaksha

Abstract:

In the post cold war era the foreign direct investments have come to be considered as one of the most critical factors for economic development of a country particularly for the capital scarce countries like the developing and the under developed countries. The rush for foreign direct investments have led to intense competition between the countries treaties to attract foreign investments by entering into alluring Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs). The Bilateral Investment Treaties are the intergovernmental legal framework for the promotion of private investments from one country to other. With more than 3000 BITs, the web of such BITs are the most dominant development of International Law in the post cold war era. The essence of all these BITs are bilateral cooperation for economic development and thus it is actually the theme of economic development around which the International Law had developed most dominantly in the post cold war era. Within the framework of two generally accepted premises that foreign direct investments are critical for economic development and the bilateral investment treaties are critical for promotion of foreign direct investments, the research paper seeks to explore the perspectives and paradigms on economic development as embodied in various Bilateral Investment Treaties. It seeks to address how and in what manners the perspectives on economic development as embodied in bilateral investment varies between the developed, developing and underdeveloped countries. It goes without saying that economic development is a very broad, complex and operationally intricate concept. In the paradigm of International Law it becomes much more complex and intricate. Understanding the concept of economic development from the perspectives of Bilateral Investment Treaties is a novel idea with far reaching significance. Such a perspective on economic development would help in enriching the contemporary International Law perspectives and paradigms on economic development.

Keywords: bilateral investment treaties, economic development, international Law, perspectives

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
26 Effects of Family Order and Informal Social Control on Protecting against Child Maltreatment: A Comparative Study of Seoul and Kathmandu

Authors: Thapa Sirjana, Clifton R. Emery

Abstract:

This paper examines the family order and Informal Social Control (ISC) by the extended families as a protective factor against Child Maltreatment. The findings are discussed using the main effects and the interaction effects of family order and informal social control by the extended families. The findings suggest that IPV mothers are associated with child abuse and child neglect. The children are neglected in the home more and physical abuse occurs in the case, if mothers are abused by their husbands. The mother’s difficulties of being abused may lead them to neglect their children. The findings suggest that ‘family order’ is a significant protective factor against child maltreatment. The results suggest that if the family order is neither too high nor too low than that can play a role as a protective factor. Soft type of ISC is significantly associated with child maltreatment. This study suggests that the soft type of ISC by the extended families is a helpful approach to develop child protection in both the countries. This study is analyzed the data collected from Seoul and Kathmandu families and neighborhood study (SKFNS). Random probability cluster sample of married or partnered women in 20 Kathmandu wards and in Seoul 34 dongs were selected using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling. Overall, the study is to make a comparative study of Korea and Nepal and examine how the cultural differences and similarities associate with the child maltreatment.

Keywords: child maltreatment, intimate partner violence, informal social control and family order Seoul, Kathmandu

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
25 Power Angle Control Strategy of Virtual Synchronous Machine: A Novel Approach to Control Virtual Synchronous Machine

Authors: Shishir Lamichhane, Saurav Dulal, Bibek Gautam, Madan Thapa Magar, Indraman Tamrakar

Abstract:

Renewable energies such as wind turbines and solar photovoltaic have gained significance as a result of global environmental pollution and energy crises. These sources of energy are converted into electrical energy and delivered to end-users through the utility system. As a result of the widespread use of power electronics-based grid-interfacing technologies to accommodate renewable sources of energy, the prevalence of converters has expanded as well. As a result, the power system's rotating inertia is decreasing, endangering the utility grid's stability. The use of Virtual Synchronous Machine (VSM) technology has been proposed to overcome the grid stability problem due to low rotating inertia. The grid-connected inverter used in VSM can be controlled to emulate inertia, which replicates the external features of a synchronous generator. As a result, the rotating inertia is increased to support the power system's stability. A power angle control strategy is proposed in this paper and its model is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink to study the effects of parameter disturbances on the active power and frequency for a VSM. The system consists of a synchronous generator, which is modeled in such a way that the frequency drops to an unacceptable region during transient conditions due to a lack of inertia when VSM is not used. Then, the suggested model incorporating VSM emulates rotating inertia, injecting a controllable amount of energy into the grid during frequency transients to enhance transient stability.

Keywords: damping constant, inertia–constant, ROCOF, transient stability, distributed sources

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24 Chaupadi Practice: A Cruel Discrimination against Women a Case Study of Achham District of Nepal

Authors: Santosh Thapa, Sankar Gurung

Abstract:

Chaupadi is a tradition widely practiced in the far and mid-western region of Nepal. It is a practice where girls and women are not allowed to inter the house and touch the food, water and milk during their menstruation period of 4-7 days. They have to spend all the nights during the period in a specific hut (Chhaupadi Goth) which is a bit far from their residence where they faces various kinds of risk and violence like bullying, snakes and insect bite, wild animal attack etc. Sometimes the girls even do not go to school during their menstruation periods. After childbirth, the woman must stay in a cow shed for 11 days in such Chhaupadi practiced areas. This study limits the Achham district of the far western region which is the most vulnerable Chhaupadi practicing district. Several governmental and non-governmental organizations have been involving and spending huge amount of money for capacity building and awareness raising campaign for last 2 decades but still 9 out of 75 Village Development Committees (VDCs) have been partially practicing Chaupadi in the district. This study shows that the school attendance rate of the girls during the period have visibly increased which helps to increase the number of the girl graduation as well. Similarly, the practice of Chhaupadi is one of the reasons for increasing the number of cases of uterus prolapsus and poor reproductive health of women and girls. Triggering tools are the one of the best ways to accelerate the awareness campaign in the VDCs. This study recommends that the local bodies should coordinate and lead the overall awareness campaign program to sustain the Chaupadi free VDCs.

Keywords: awareness campaign, chaupadi practice, gender discrimination, violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
23 DNA Damage and Apoptosis Induced in Drosophila melanogaster Exposed to Different Duration of 2400 MHz Radio Frequency-Electromagnetic Fields Radiation

Authors: Neha Singh, Anuj Ranjan, Tanu Jindal

Abstract:

Over the last decade, the exponential growth of mobile communication has been accompanied by a parallel increase in density of electromagnetic fields (EMF). The continued expansion of mobile phone usage raises important questions as EMF, especially radio frequency (RF), have long been suspected of having biological effects. In the present experiments, we studied the effects of RF-EMF on cell death (apoptosis) and DNA damage of a well- tested biological model, Drosophila melanogaster exposed to 2400 MHz frequency for different time duration i.e. 2 hrs, 4 hrs, 6 hrs,8 hrs, 10 hrs, and 12 hrs each day for five continuous days in ambient temperature and humidity conditions inside an exposure chamber. The flies were grouped into control, sham-exposed, and exposed with 100 flies in each group. In this study, well-known techniques like Comet Assay and TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) Assay were used to detect DNA damage and for apoptosis studies, respectively. Experiments results showed DNA damage in the brain cells of Drosophila which increases as the duration of exposure increases when observed under the observed when we compared results of control, sham-exposed, and exposed group which indicates that EMF radiation-induced stress in the organism that leads to DNA damage and cell death. The process of apoptosis and mutation follows similar pathway for all eukaryotic cells; therefore, studying apoptosis and genotoxicity in Drosophila makes similar relevance for human beings as well.

Keywords: cell death, apoptosis, Comet Assay, DNA damage, Drosophila, electromagnetic fields, EMF, radio frequency, RF, TUNEL assay

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22 Comprehensive Framework for Pandemic-Resilient Cities to Avert Future Migrant Crisis: A Case of Mumbai

Authors: Vasudha Thapa, Kiran Chappa

Abstract:

There is a pressing need to prepare cities in the developing countries of the global south such as India against the chaos created by COVID 19 pandemic and future disaster risks. This pandemic posed the nation with an unprecedented challenge of dealing with a wave of stranded migrant workers. These workers comprise the most vulnerable section of the society in case of any pandemic or disaster risks. The COVID 19 pandemic exposed the vulnerability of migrant workers in the urban form and the need for capacity-building strategies against future pandemics. This paper highlights the challenges of these migrant workers in the case of Mumbai city in lockdown, post lockdown, and the current uncertain scenarios. The paper deals with a thorough investigation of the existing and the recent policies and strategies taken by the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), state, and central government to assist these migrants in the city during this mayhem of uncertainties. The paper looks further deep into the challenges and opportunities presented in the current scenario through the assessment of existing data and response to policy measures taken by the government organizations. The ULBs are at the forefront in the response to any disaster risk, hence the paper assesses the capacity gaps of the Urban local bodies in mitigating the risks posed by any pandemic-like situation. The study further recommends capacity-building strategies at various levels of governance and uniform policy measures to assist the migrant population of the city.

Keywords: urban resilience, covid 19, migrant population, India, capacity building, governance

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21 Effect of Volute Tongue Shape and Position on Performance of Turbo Machinery Compressor

Authors: Anuj Srivastava, Kuldeep Kumar

Abstract:

This paper proposes a numerical study of volute tongue design, which affects the centrifugal compressor operating range and pressure recovery. Increased efficiency has been the traditional importance of compressor design. However, the increased operating range has become important in an age of ever-increasing productivity and energy costs in the turbomachinery industry. Efficiency and overall operating range are the two most important parameters studied to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of centrifugal compressor. Volute is one of the components that have significant effect on these two parameters. Choice of volute tongue geometry has major role in compressor performance, also affects performance map. The author evaluates the trade-off on using pull-back tongue geometry on centrifugal compressor performance. In present paper, three different tongue positions and shapes are discussed. These designs are compared in terms of pressure recovery coefficient, pressure loss coefficient, and stable operating range. The detailed flow structures for various volute geometries and pull back angle near tongue are studied extensively to explore the fluid behavior. The viscous Navier-Stokes equations are used to simulate the flow inside the volute. The numerical calculations are compared with thermodynamic 1-D calculations. Author concludes that the increment in compression ratio accompanies with more uniform pressure distribution in the modified tongue shape and location, a uniform static pressure around the circumferential which build a more uniform flow in the impeller and diffuser. Also, the blockage at the tongue of the volute was causing circumferentially nonuniformed pressure along the volute. This nonuniformity may lead impeller and diffuser to operate unstably. However, it is not the volute that directly controls the stall.

Keywords: centrifugal compressor volute, tongue geometry, pull-back, compressor performance, flow instability

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20 Development of Monoclonal Antibodies against the Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease Toxins

Authors: Naveen Kumar B. T., Anuj Tyagi, Niraj Kumar Singh, Visanu Boonyawiwat, Shanthanagouda A. H., Orawan Boodde, Shankar K. M., Prakash Patil, Shubhkaramjeet Kaur

Abstract:

Since 2009, Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) outbreaks have increased rapidly, and these have led to the major economic losses to the global shrimp industry. In comparison to other treatments, passive immunity and monoclonal antibody (MAb) based farmer level kit have proved their importance in controlling and treating the diseases in the shrimp industry. In the present study, MAbs were produced against the recombinant PirB protein Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain causing AHPND. Briefly, Balb/C mice were immunized with rPirB at 15 days interval, and antibody titer was determined by ELISA. Spleen cells from mice showing high antibody titer were fused with SP2O myeloma cells for hybridoma production. Among 130 hybridomas, four showed high antibody titer and positive reactivity in an immunoblot assay. In Western blot assay, three out of four MAbs (4C4, 2C2 and 4G3) showed reactivity to rPirB protein. However, in the natural host, only Mab clone 4G3 show strong reactivity (with a strain of V. parahemolyticus causing EMS/AHPND). These clones also showed reactivity with less than 20 kDa proteins in AHPND free V. parahaemolyticus (Thailand stain). Further, on from MAb 4G3 clone, four panels of single cell MAbs clones (G3F5, G3B8, G3H2, and G3D6) were produced of which three showed strong positive reactivity to rPirB protein in the Western blot. These MAbs have potential for controlling and prevention of the AHPND through passive immunity and development of filed level rapid diagnostic kits.

Keywords: shrimp, economic loss, AHPND, MAb

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19 Scientific Expedition to Understand the Crucial Issues of Rapid Lake Expansion and Moraine Dam Instability Phenomena to Justify the Lake Lowering Effort of Imja Lake, Khumbu Region of Sagarmatha, Nepal

Authors: R. C. Tiwari, N. P. Bhandary, D. B. Thapa Chhetri, R. Yatabe

Abstract:

The research enlightens the various issues of lake expansion and stability of the moraine dam of Imja lake. The Imja lake considered that the world highest altitude lake (5010m from m.s.l.), located in the Khumbu, Sagarmatha region of Nepal (27.90 N and 86.90 E) was reported as one of the fast growing glacier lakes in the Nepal Himalaya. The research explores a common phenomenon of lake expansion and stability issues of moraine dam to justify the necessity of lake lowering efforts if any in future in other glacier lakes in Nepal Himalaya. For this, we have explored the root causes of rapid lake expansion along with crucial factors responsible for the stability of moraine mass. This research helps to understand the structure of moraine dam and the ice, water and moraine interactions to the strength of moraine dam. The nature of permafrost layer and its effects on moraine dam stability is also studied here. The detail Geo-Technical properties of moraine mass of Imja lake gives a clear picture of the strength of the moraine material and their interactions. The stability analysis of the moraine dam under the consideration of strong ground motion of 7.8Mw 2015 Barpak-Gorkha and its major aftershock 7.3Mw Kodari, Sindhupalchowk-Dolakha border, Nepal earthquakes have also been carried out here to understand the necessity of lake lowering efforts. The lake lowering effort was recently done by Nepal Army by constructing an open channel and lowered 3m. And, it is believed that the entire region is now safe due to continuous draining of lake water by 3m. But, this option does not seem adequate to offer a significant risk reduction to downstream communities in this much amount of volume and depth, lowering as in the 75 million cubic meter water impounded with an average depth of 148.9m.

Keywords: finite element method, glacier, moraine, stability

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18 Hyper-Immunoglobulin E (Hyper-Ige) Syndrome In Skin Of Color: A Retrospective Single-Centre Observational Study

Authors: Rohit Kothari, Muneer Mohamed, Vivekanandh K., Sunmeet Sandhu, Preema Sinha, Anuj Bhatnagar

Abstract:

Introduction: Hyper-IgE syndrome is a rare primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterised by triad of severe atopic dermatitis, recurrent pulmonary infections, and recurrent staphylococcal skin infections. The diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion, typical clinical features, and not mere rise in serum-IgE levels, which may be seen in multiple conditions. Genetic studies are not always possible in a resource poor setting. This study highlights various presentations of Hyper-IgE syndrome in skin of color children. Case-series: Our study had six children of Hyper-IgE syndrome aged twomonths to tenyears. All had onset in first ten months of life except one with a late-onset at two years. All had recurrent eczematoid rash, which responded poorly to conventional treatment, secondary infection, multiple episodes of hospitalisation for pulmonary infection, and raised serum IgE levels. One case had occasional vesicles, bullae, and crusted plaques over both the extremities. Genetic study was possible in only one of them who was found to have pathogenic homozygous deletions of exon-15 to 18 in DOCK8 gene following which he underwent bone marrow transplant (BMT), however, succumbed to lower respiratory tract infection two months after BMT and rest of them received multiple courses of antibiotics, oral/ topical steroids, and cyclosporine intermittently with variable response. Discussion: Our study highlights various characteristics, presentation, and management of this rare syndrome in children. Knowledge of these manifestations in skin of color will facilitate early identification and contribute to optimal care of the patients as representative data on the same is limited in literature.

Keywords: absolute eosinophil count, atopic dermatitis, eczematous rash, hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome, pulmonary infection, serum IgE, skin of color

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17 Design of Nanoreinforced Polyacrylamide-Based Hybrid Hydrogels for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Anuj Kumar, Kummara M. Rao, Sung S. Han

Abstract:

Bone tissue engineering has emerged as a potentially alternative method for localized bone defects or diseases, congenital deformation, and surgical reconstruction. The designing and the fabrication of the ideal scaffold is a great challenge, in restoring of the damaged bone tissues via cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation under three-dimensional (3D) biological micro-/nano-environment. In this case, hydrogel system composed of high hydrophilic 3D polymeric-network that is able to mimic some of the functional physical and chemical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and possibly may provide a suitable 3D micro-/nano-environment (i.e., resemblance of native bone tissues). Thus, this proposed hydrogel system is highly permeable and facilitates the transport of the nutrients and metabolites. However, the use of hydrogels in bone tissue engineering is limited because of their low mechanical properties (toughness and stiffness) that continue to posing challenges in designing and fabrication of tough and stiff hydrogels along with improved bioactive properties. For this purpose, in our lab, polyacrylamide-based hybrid hydrogels were synthesized by involving sodium alginate, cellulose nanocrystals and silica-based glass using one-step free-radical polymerization. The results showed good in vitro apatite-forming ability (biomineralization) and improved mechanical properties (under compression in the form of strength and stiffness in both wet and dry conditions), and in vitro osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1 cells) cytocompatibility. For in vitro cytocompatibility assessment, both qualitative (attachment and spreading of cells using FESEM) and quantitative (cell viability and proliferation using MTT assay) analyses were performed. The obtained hybrid hydrogels may potentially be used in bone tissue engineering applications after establishment of in vivo characterization.

Keywords: bone tissue engineering, cellulose nanocrystals, hydrogels, polyacrylamide, sodium alginate

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16 Prevalence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in Shrimp Cultured in Inland Saline Water

Authors: Naveen Kumar B. T., Anuj Tyagi, Prabjeet Singh, Shanthanagouda A. H., Sumeet Rai

Abstract:

Inland saline water resources are gaining the importance in expanding the aquaculture activities to mitigate the nutritional and food security issues of the world. For profitable and sustainable aquaculture practices, scientific farming, biosecurity measure, and best fish health management should be the integral part of developmental activities. Keeping in line with global awareness and trends, the Indian government has taken an innovative step to conduct disease surveillance and awareness programme for aquatic disease through network project. This ‘National Surveillance Programme for Aquatic Animal Diseases (NSPAAD)’ is being implemented in collaboration of national institutes and state agriculture universities with funding support from National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB), Govt. of India. Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (GADVASU), Ludhiana, an NSPAAD collaborator, has been actively engaged in disease surveillance in the Indian state of Punjab. Shrimp farming in inland saline areas of Punjab is expanding at a tremendous pace under the guidance of GADVASU along with the support of State Fisheries Department. Under this national disease surveillance programme, we reported Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) infection in the Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in the inland saline waters. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnosis was carried out using the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) protocol. It was observed that out of 20 shrimp farms, two farms were 1st step PCR positive and two more farms were nested PCR positive. All the EHP positive ponds had shown the white faeces along with mortalities at very low rate. Therefore, implementation of biosecurity and continuous surveillance and monitoring program for finfish and shellfish aquaculture are in need of the hour to prevent and control the large-scale disease outbreaks and subsequent economic losses.

Keywords: disease, EHP, inland saline water, shrimp culture

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15 Stress among Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: Priyanka Tiwari, Uma Devi Ranjit, Ritesh Thapa

Abstract:

Background and Significance: Cerebral Palsy (CP) influences not only the child's everyday functioning but also the functioning of whole family. Application of study findings can be used in clinical or community setting to screen the parents of children with cerebral palsy in order to identify the compromised domain of stress which in turn will help to improve the interaction between parent and child with disability and thus ultimately affect the progress that a child makes in his or her therapeutic or educational programs. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the level of stress in mothers of children with CP by adopting mixed method design. Methodology: Cross-sectional descriptive design was adopted in the quantitative design where Parental Stress Scale (PSS) was utilized to collect data from a convenient sample of 40 mothers of children with CP who were under regular follow-up by home visitor of Self-help Group for Cerebral Palsy while embedded qualitative design was used to explore the stress of mothers of CP affected children. From the parent population of quantitative sample 4 mothers were chosen for in-depth exploration, regarding their stress by means of case study method. Descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage, mean, median, standard deviation, correlation and inferential statistics like Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used to describe and assess relationship between variables. Findings: The mean stress experienced by mothers of children with cerebral palsy was 53.62±9.53 with 15% percent of the mothers experiencing severe stress. There was significant association between age group of mother and total stress score and negative themes of stress. Similarly, signification association was found between educational status of the mother and positive themes of stress which was convergent with the qualitative finding as well, where literate mothers had more positive view of their child's disability which could be attributed to their educational level as education provides us with a broad perspective to look at a situation. Conclusions: Still one-sixth of the mothers experienced severe stress so if we want to ensure the well-being of the children affected by cerebral palsy, then parents caring for them need to be looked after as well.

Keywords: stress, cerebral palsy, mothers, mixed method

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14 Organic Paddy Production as a Coping Strategy to the Adverse Impact of Climate Change

Authors: Thapa M., J.P. Dutta, K.R. Pandey, R.R. Kattel

Abstract:

Nepal is extremely vulnerable to the impact of climate change. To mitigate the climate change effects on agricultural production and productivity a range of adaptive strategies needs to be considered. The study was conducted to assess organic paddy production as a coping strategy to the adverse impact of climate change in Phulbari, VDC of Chitwan district. Altogether, 120 respondents (60 adopters of organic farming and 60 from non adopter) were selected using snowball technique of sampling. Pre- tested interview schedule, direct observation, focus group discussion, key informant interview as well as secondary data were used to collect the required information. Factors determining the adoption of organic farming were found to be age, year of schooling, training, frequency of extension contact, perception about climate change, economically active members and poor. A unit increase in these factors except poor would increase the probability of adoption by 4.1%, 7.5%, 7.8%, 43.1%, 41.8% and 7% respectively. However, for poor, it would decrease the probability of adoption of organic farming by 5.1%. Average organic matter content in the adopters' field was higher (2.7%) than the non-adopters' field (2.5%). The regression result showed that type of farmer, price and area under rice cultivation had positive and significant relationship with income; however dependency ratio had negative relationship. As the year of adoption of organic farming increases, the production of rice decline in the first two years then after goes on increasing but the cost of production goes on decreasing with the year of adoption. The respondents adapted to the changing climate through diversification of crops, use of resistance varieties and following good cropping pattern. Gradually growing consumers' awareness about health, preference towards quality food products are the strong points behind organic farming, whereas lacks of bio-fertilizers, lack of effective extension services, no price differentiation between organic and inorganic products were the weak points. There is need for more training and education to change the attitude of farmers and enhance their confidence about the role of organic farming to cope with climate change impact.

Keywords: Organic farming, climate change, sustainable development

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