Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5901

Search results for: raw material handling

5901 Developing Ergonomic Prototype Testing Method for Manual Material Handling

Authors: Yusuf Nugroho Doyo Yekti, Budi Praptono, Fransiskus Tatas Dwi Atmaji

Abstract:

There is no ergonomic prototype testing method for manual material handling yet. This study has been carried out to demonstrate the comprehensive ergonomic assessment. The ergonomic assessment is important to improve safety of products and to ensure usefulness of the product. The prototype testing is conducted by involving few intended users and ordinary people. In this study, there are four operators who participated in several tests. Also, there are 30 ordinary people who joined the usability test. All the ordinary people never do material handling activity nor use material handling device. The methods used in the tests are Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), Recommended Weight Limit (RWL), and Cardiovascular Load (%CVL) other than usability test and questionnaire. The proposed testing methods cover comprehensive ergonomic aspects, i.e. physical aspect, mental aspect, emotional aspects of human.

Keywords: ergonomic, manual material handling, prototype testing, assessment

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5900 Material Handling Equipment Selection Using Fuzzy AHP Approach

Authors: Priyanka Verma, Vijaya Dixit, Rishabh Bajpai

Abstract:

This research paper is aimed at selecting appropriate material handling equipment among the given choices so that the automation level in material handling can be enhanced. This work is a practical case scenario of material handling systems in consumer electronic appliances manufacturing organization. The choices of material handling equipment among which the decision has to be made are Automated Guided Vehicle’s (AGV), Autonomous Mobile Robots (AMR), Overhead Conveyer’s (OC) and Battery Operated Trucks/Vehicle’s (BOT). There is a need of attaining a certain level of automation in order to reduce human interventions in the organization. This requirement of achieving certain degree of automation can be attained by material handling equipment’s mentioned above. The main motive for selecting above equipment’s for study was solely based on corporate financial strategy of investment and return obtained through that investment made in stipulated time framework. Since the low cost automation with respect to material handling devices has to be achieved hence these equipment’s were selected. Investment to be done on each unit of this equipment is less than 20 lakh rupees (INR) and the recovery period is less than that of five years. Fuzzy analytic hierarchic process (FAHP) is applied here for selecting equipment where the four choices are evaluated on basis of four major criteria’s and 13 sub criteria’s, and are prioritized on the basis of weight obtained. The FAHP used here make use of triangular fuzzy numbers (TFN). The inability of the traditional AHP in order to deal with the subjectiveness and impreciseness in the pair-wise comparison process has been improved in the FAHP. The range of values for general rating purposes for all decision making parameters is kept between 0 and 1 on the basis of expert opinions captured on shop floor. These experts were familiar with operating environment and shop floor activity control. Instead of generating exact value the FAHP generates the ranges of values to accommodate the uncertainty in decision-making process. The four major criteria’s selected for the evaluation of choices of material handling equipment’s available are materials, technical capabilities, cost and other features. The thirteen sub criteria’s listed under these following four major criteria’s are weighing capacity, load per hour, material compatibility, capital cost, operating cost and maintenance cost, speed, distance moved, space required, frequency of trips, control required, safety and reliability issues. The key finding shows that among the four major criteria selected, cost is emerged as the most important criteria and is one of the key decision making aspect on the basis of which material equipment selection is based on. While further evaluating the choices of equipment available for each sub criteria it is found that AGV scores the highest weight in most of the sub-criteria’s. On carrying out complete analysis the research shows that AGV is the best material handling equipment suiting all decision criteria’s selected in FAHP and therefore it is beneficial for the organization to carry out automated material handling in the facility using AGV’s.

Keywords: fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP), material handling equipment, subjectiveness, triangular fuzzy number (TFN)

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5899 Efficient Reduction of Organophosphate Pesticide from Fruits and Vegetables Using Cost Effective Neutralizer

Authors: Debjani Dasgupta, Aman Zalawadia, Anuj Thapa, Pranjali Sing, Ashish Dabade

Abstract:

Organophosphate group pesticides are common pesticide group, which gain entry into food product due to incomplete removal of pesticide residues. The current food industry raw material handling process is not sufficient to eliminate pesticide residues. A neutralizer was used to neutralize the residues of pesticide on Vitis vinifera (Grapes). The water based dilution of neutralizer was demonstrated on fruits like grapes. Analysis for pesticides in water wash and neutralizer wash was carried out using GCMS. Fruits washed with neutralizer exhibited 72.95% removal of pesticides compared with normal water wash method. An economical chemical neutralizer can be used to remove such residues in raw material handling at industrial scale with minor modification in process to achieve minimum pesticide entry into final food products.

Keywords: GCMS, organophosphate, raw material handling, Vitis vinifera, pesticide neutralizer

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5898 Current Status of Industry 4.0 in Material Handling Automation and In-house Logistics

Authors: Orestis Κ. Efthymiou, Stavros T. Ponis

Abstract:

In the last decade, a new industrial revolution seems to be emerging, supported -once again- by the rapid advancements of Information Technology in the areas of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication permitting large numbers of intelligent devices, e.g. sensors to communicate with each other and take decisions without any or minimum indirect human intervention. The advent of these technologies have triggered the emergence of a new category of hybrid (cyber-physical) manufacturing systems, combining advanced manufacturing techniques with innovative M2M applications based on the Internet of Things (IoT), under the umbrella term Industry 4.0. Even though the topic of Industry 4.0 has attracted much attention during the last few years, the attempts of providing a systematic literature review of the subject are scarce. In this paper, we present the authors’ initial study of the field with a special focus on the use and applications of Industry 4.0 principles in material handling automations and in-house logistics. Research shows that despite the vivid discussion and attractiveness of the subject, there are still many challenges and issues that have to be addressed before Industry 4.0 becomes standardized and widely applicable.

Keywords: Industry 4.0, internet of things, manufacturing systems, material handling, logistics

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5897 Analysis and Re-Design Ergonomic Mineral Water Gallon Trolley

Authors: Dessy Laksyana Utami

Abstract:

Manual material handling activities often make it difficult for humans to work like this. Muscle injury due to incorrect posture.Workers need to facilitate their activities. One tool to assist their activities in the transportation of ordinary materials is a trolley. This tool is very useful because it can be used.It can bring many items without having to spend more energy to operate it. Very Comfortable used a trolley in the community. But the old design still have a complaint by worker, because lack of grip and capacity. After posture analysis with the REBA method, the value of risk need to be increased is obtained tool. Re design use Indonesian anthropometric data with the 50th percentile.

Keywords: Material Handling, REBA method, postural assessment, Trolley.

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5896 Analyzing the Ergonomic Design of Manual Material Handling in Chemical Industry: Case Study of Activity Task Weigh Liquid Catalyst to the Container Storage

Authors: Yayan Harry Yadi, L. Meily Kurniawidjaja

Abstract:

Work activities for MMH (Manual Material Handling) in the storage of liquid catalyst raw material workstations in chemical industries identify high-risk MSDs (Musculoskeletal Disorders). Their work is often performed frequently requires an awkward body posture, twisting, bending because of physical space limited, cold, slippery, and limited tools for transfer container and weighing the liquid chemistry of the catalyst into the container. This study aims to develop an ergonomic work system design on the transfer and weighing process of liquid catalyst raw materials at the storage warehouse. A triangulation method through an interview, observation, and detail study team with assessing the level of risk work posture and complaints. Work postures were analyzed using the RULA method, through the support of CATIA software. The study concludes that ergonomic design can make reduce 3 levels of risk scores awkward posture. CATIA Software simulation provided a comprehensive solution for a better posture of manual material handling at task weigh. An addition of manual material handling tools such as adjustable conveyors, trolley and modification tools semi-mechanical weighing with techniques based on rule ergonomic design can reduce the hazard of chemical fluid spills.

Keywords: ergonomic design, MSDs, CATIA software, RULA, chemical industry

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5895 The Analysis Fleet Operational Performance as an Indicator of Load and Haul Productivity

Authors: Linet Melisa Daubanes, Nhleko Monique Chiloane

Abstract:

The shovel-truck system is the most prevalent material handling system used in surface mining operations. Material handling entails the loading and hauling of material from production areas to dumping areas. The material handling process has operational delays that have a negative impact on the productivity of the load and haul fleet. Factors that may contribute to operational delays include shovel-truck mismatch, haul routes, machine breakdowns, extreme weather conditions, etc. The aim of this paper is to investigate factors that contribute to operational delays affecting the productivity of the load and haul fleet at the mine. Productivity is the measure of the effectiveness of producing products from a given quantity of units, the ratio of output to inputs. Productivity can be improved by producing more outputs with the same or fewer units and/or introducing better working methods etc. Several key performance indicators (KPI) for the evaluation of productivity will be discussed in this study. These KPIs include but are not limited to hauling conditions, bucket fill factor, cycle time, and utilization. The research methodology of this study is a combination of on-site time studies and observations. Productivity can be optimized by managing the factors that affect the operational performance of the haulage fleet.

Keywords: cycle time, fleet performance, load and haul, surface mining

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5894 Application of the Material Point Method as a New Fast Simulation Technique for Textile Composites Forming and Material Handling

Authors: Amir Nazemi, Milad Ramezankhani, Marian Kӧrber, Abbas S. Milani

Abstract:

The excellent strength to weight ratio of woven fabric composites, along with their high formability, is one of the primary design parameters defining their increased use in modern manufacturing processes, including those in aerospace and automotive. However, for emerging automated preform processes under the smart manufacturing paradigm, complex geometries of finished components continue to bring several challenges to the designers to cope with manufacturing defects on site. Wrinklinge. g. is a common defectoccurring during the forming process and handling of semi-finished textile composites. One of the main reasons for this defect is the weak bending stiffness of fibers in unconsolidated state, causing excessive relative motion between them. Further challenges are represented by the automated handling of large-area fiber blanks with specialized gripper systems. For fabric composites forming simulations, the finite element (FE)method is a longstanding tool usedfor prediction and mitigation of manufacturing defects. Such simulations are predominately meant, not only to predict the onset, growth, and shape of wrinkles but also to determine the best processing condition that can yield optimized positioning of the fibers upon forming (or robot handling in the automated processes case). However, the need for use of small-time steps via explicit FE codes, facing numerical instabilities, as well as large computational time, are among notable drawbacks of the current FEtools, hindering their extensive use as fast and yet efficient digital twins in industry. This paper presents a novel woven fabric simulation technique through the application of the material point method (MPM), which enables the use of much larger time steps, facing less numerical instabilities, hence the ability to run significantly faster and efficient simulationsfor fabric materials handling and forming processes. Therefore, this method has the ability to enhance the development of automated fiber handling and preform processes by calculating the physical interactions with the MPM fiber models and rigid tool components. This enables the designers to virtually develop, test, and optimize their processes based on either algorithmicor Machine Learning applications. As a preliminary case study, forming of a hemispherical plain weave is shown, and the results are compared to theFE simulations, as well as experiments.

Keywords: material point method, woven fabric composites, forming, material handling

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5893 Characterization of Surface Suction Grippers for Continuous-Discontinuous Fiber Reinforced Semi-Finished Parts of an Automated Handling and Preforming Operation

Authors: Jürgen Fleischer, Woramon Pangboonyanon, Dominic Lesage

Abstract:

Non-metallic lightweight materials such as fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) become very significant at present. Prepregs e.g. SMC and unidirectional tape (UD-tape) are one of raw materials used to produce FRP. This study concerns with the manufacturing steps of handling and preforming of this UD-SMC and focuses on the investigation of gripper characteristics regarding gripping forces in normal and lateral direction, in order to identify suitable operating pressures for a secure gripping operation. A reliable handling and preforming operation results in a higher adding value of the overall process chain. As a result, the suitable operating pressures depending on travelling direction for each material type could be shown. Moreover, system boundary conditions regarding allowable pulling force in normal and lateral directions during preforming could be measured.

Keywords: continuous-discontinuous fiber reinforced plastics, UD-SMC-prepreg, handling, preforming, prepregs, sheet moulding compounds, surface suction gripper

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5892 Physical Properties of Nine Nigerian Staple Food Flours Related to Bulk Handling and Processing

Authors: Ogunsina Babatunde, Aregbesola Omotayo, Adebayo Adewale, Odunlami Johnson

Abstract:

The physical properties of nine Nigerian staple food flours related to bulk handling and processing were investigated following standard procedures. The results showed that the moisture content, bulk density, angle of repose, water absorption capacity, swelling index, dispersability, pH and wettability of the flours ranged from 9.95 to 11.98%, 0.44 to 0.66 g/cm3, 31.43 to 39.65o, 198.3 to 291.7 g of water/100 g of sample, 5.53 to 7.63, 60.3 to 73.8%, 4.43 to 6.70, and 11 to 150 s. The particle size analysis of the flour samples indicated significant differences (p<0.05). The least gelation concentration of the flour samples ranged from 6 to 14%. The colour of the flours fell between light and saturated, with the exception of cassava, millet and maize flours which appear dark and dull. The properties of food flours depend largely on the inherent property of the food material and may influence their functional behaviour as food materials.

Keywords: properties, flours, staple food, bulk handling

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5891 Designing of Tooling Solution for Material Handling in Highly Automated Manufacturing System

Authors: Muhammad Umair, Yuri Nikolaev, Denis Artemov, Ighor Uzhinsky

Abstract:

A flexible manufacturing system is an integral part of a smart factory of industry 4.0 in which every machine is interconnected and works autonomously. Robots are in the process of replacing humans in every industrial sector. As the cyber-physical-system (CPS) and artificial intelligence (AI) are advancing, the manufacturing industry is getting more dependent on computers than human brains. This modernization has boosted the production with high quality and accuracy and shifted from classic production to smart manufacturing systems. However, material handling for such automated productions is a challenge and needs to be addressed with the best possible solution. Conventional clamping systems are designed for manual work and not suitable for highly automated production systems. Researchers and engineers are trying to find the most economical solution for loading/unloading and transportation workpieces from a warehouse to a machine shop for machining operations and back to the warehouse without human involvement. This work aims to propose an advanced multi-shape tooling solution for highly automated manufacturing systems. The currently obtained result shows that it could function well with automated guided vehicles (AGVs) and modern conveyor belts. The proposed solution is following requirements to be automation-friendly, universal for different part geometry and production operations. We used a bottom-up approach in this work, starting with studying different case scenarios and their limitations and finishing with the general solution.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, cyber physics system, Industry 4.0, material handling, smart factory, flexible manufacturing system

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5890 A Simulative Approach for JIT Parts-Feeding Policies

Authors: Zhou BingHai, Fradet Victor

Abstract:

Lean philosophy follows the simple principle of “creating more value with fewer resources”. In accordance with this policy, material handling can be managed by the mean of Kanban which by triggering every feeding tour only when needed regulates the flow of material in one of the most efficient way. This paper focuses on Kanban Supermarket’s parameters and their optimization on a purely cost-based point of view. Number and size of forklifts, as well as size of the containers they carry, will be variables of the cost function which includes handling costs, inventory costs but also shortage costs. With an innovative computational approach encoded into industrial engineering software Tecnomatix and reproducing real-life conditions, a fictive assembly line is established and produces a random list of orders. Multi-scenarios are then run to study the impact of each change of parameter and the variation of costs it implies. Lastly, best-case scenarios financially speaking are selected.

Keywords: Kanban, supermarket, parts-feeding policies, multi-scenario simulation, assembly line

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5889 Calibration of Discrete Element Method Parameters for Modelling DRI Pellets Flow

Authors: A. Hossein Madadi-Najafabadi, Masoud Nasiri

Abstract:

The discrete element method is a powerful technique for numerical modeling the flow of granular materials such as direct reduced iron. It would enable us to study processes and equipment related to the production and handling of the material. However, the characteristics and properties of the granules have to be adjusted precisely to achieve reliable results in a DEM simulation. The main properties for DEM simulation are size distribution, density, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and the contact coefficients of restitution, rolling friction and sliding friction. In the present paper, the mentioned properties are determined for DEM simulation of DRI pellets. A reliable DEM simulation would contribute to optimizing the handling system of DRIs in an iron-making plant. Among the mentioned properties, Young's modulus is the most important parameter, which is usually hard to get for particulate solids. Here, an especial method is utilized to precisely determine this parameter for DRI.

Keywords: discrete element method, direct reduced iron, simulation parameters, granular material

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5888 Automated Method Time Measurement System for Redesigning Dynamic Facility Layout

Authors: Salam Alzubaidi, G. Fantoni, F. Failli, M. Frosolini

Abstract:

The dynamic facility layout problem is a really critical issue in the competitive industrial market; thus, solving this problem requires robust design and effective simulation systems. The sustainable simulation requires inputting reliable and accurate data into the system. So this paper describes an automated system integrated into the real environment to measure the duration of the material handling operations, collect the data in real-time, and determine the variances between the actual and estimated time schedule of the operations in order to update the simulation software and redesign the facility layout periodically. The automated method- time measurement system collects the real data through using Radio Frequency-Identification (RFID) and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. Hence, attaching RFID- antenna reader and RFID tags enables the system to identify the location of the objects and gathering the time data. The real duration gathered will be manipulated by calculating the moving average duration of the material handling operations, choosing the shortest material handling path, and then updating the simulation software to redesign the facility layout accommodating with the shortest/real operation schedule. The periodic simulation in real-time is more sustainable and reliable than the simulation system relying on an analysis of historical data. The case study of this methodology is in cooperation with a workshop team for producing mechanical parts. Although there are some technical limitations, this methodology is promising, and it can be significantly useful in the redesigning of the manufacturing layout.

Keywords: dynamic facility layout problem, internet of things, method time measurement, radio frequency identification, simulation

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5887 Application of Cube IQ Software to Optimize Heterogeneous Packing Products in Logistics Cargo and Minimize Transportation Cost

Authors: Muhammad Ganda Wiratama

Abstract:

XYZ company is one of the upstream chemical companies that produce chemical products such as NaOH, HCl, NaClO, VCM, EDC, and PVC for downstream companies. The products are shipped by land using trucks and sea lanes using ship mode. Especially for solid products such as flake caustic soda (F-NaOH) and PVC resin, the products are sold in loose bag packing and palletize packing (packed in pallet). The focus of this study is to increase the number of items that can be loaded in pallet packaging on the company's logistics vehicle. This is very difficult because on this packaging, the dimensions or size of the material to be loaded become larger and certainly much heavier than the loose bag packing. This factor causes the arrangement and handling of materials in the mode of transportation more difficult. In this case, it is difficult to load a different type of volume packing pallet dimension in one truck or container. By using the Cube-IQ software, it is hoped that the planning of stuffing activity material by pallet can become easier in optimizing the existing space with various possible combinations of possibilities. In addition, the output of this software can also be used as a reference for operators in the material handling include the order and orientation of materials contained in the truck or container. The more optimal contents of logistics cargo, then transportation costs can also be minimized.

Keywords: loading activity, container loading, palletize product, simulation

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5886 Accelerated Aging of Photopolymeric Material Used in Flexography

Authors: S. Mahovic Poljacek, T. Tomasegovic, T. Cigula, D. Donevski, R. Szentgyörgyvölgyi, S. Jakovljevic

Abstract:

In this paper, a degradation of the photopolymeric material (PhPM), used as printing plate in the flexography reproduction technique, caused by accelerated aging has been observed. Since the basis process for production of printing plates from the PhPM is a radical cross-linking process caused by exposing to UV wavelengths, the assumption was that improper storage or irregular handling of the PhPM plate can change the surface and structure characteristics of the plates. Results have shown that the aging process causes degradation in the structure and changes in the surface of the PhPM printing plate.

Keywords: aging process, artificial treatment, flexography, photopolymeric material (PhPM)

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5885 Pressure-Detecting Method for Estimating Levitation Gap Height of Swirl Gripper

Authors: Kaige Shi, Chao Jiang, Xin Li

Abstract:

The swirl gripper is an electrically activated noncontact handling device that uses swirling airflow to generate a lifting force. This force can be used to pick up a workpiece placed underneath the swirl gripper without any contact. It is applicable, for example, in the semiconductor wafer production line, where contact must be avoided during the handling and moving of a workpiece to minimize damage. When a workpiece levitates underneath a swirl gripper, the gap height between them is crucial for safe handling. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method to estimate the levitation gap height by detecting pressure at two points. The method is based on theoretical model of the swirl gripper, and has been experimentally verified. Furthermore, the force between the gripper and the workpiece can also be estimated using the detected pressure. As a result, the nonlinear relationship between the force and gap height can be linearized by adjusting the rotating speed of the fan in the swirl gripper according to the estimated force and gap height. The linearized relationship is expected to enhance handling stability of the workpiece.

Keywords: swirl gripper, noncontact handling, levitation, gap height estimation

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5884 Energy Saving and Performance Evaluation of an Air Handling Unit Integrated with a Membrane Energy Exchanger for Cold Climates

Authors: Peng Liu, Maria Justo Alonso, Hans Martin Mathisen

Abstract:

A theoretical model is developed to evaluate the performance and energy saving potential of an air handling unit integrated with a membrane energy exchanger in cold climates. The recovered sensible and latent heat, fan preheating use for frost prevention and heating energy consumed by heating coil after the ventilator is compared for the air handling unit combined heat and energy exchanger respectively. A concept of coefficient of performance of air handling unit is presented and applied to assess the energy use of air handling unit (AHU) in cold climates. The analytic results indicate downsizing of the preheating coil before exchanger and heating coils after exchanger are expected since the required power to preheat and condition the air is reduced compared to heat exchanger when the MEE is integrated with AHU. Simultaneously, a superior ratio of energy recovered (RER) is obtained from AHU build-in a counter-flow MEE. The AHU with sensible-only heat exchanger has noticeably low RER, around 1 at low outdoor air temperature where the maximum energy rate is desired to condition the severe cold and dry air.

Keywords: membrane energy exchanger, cold climate, energy efficient building, HVAC

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5883 Material Supply Mechanisms for Contemporary Assembly Systems

Authors: Rajiv Kumar Srivastava

Abstract:

Manufacturing of complex products such as automobiles and computers requires a very large number of parts and sub-assemblies. The design of mechanisms for delivery of these materials to the point of assembly is an important manufacturing system and supply chain challenge. Different approaches to this problem have been evolved for assembly lines designed to make large volumes of standardized products. However, contemporary assembly systems are required to concurrently produce a variety of products using approaches such as mixed model production, and at times even mass customization. In this paper we examine the material supply approaches for variety production in moderate to large volumes. The conventional approach for material delivery to high volume assembly lines is to supply and stock materials line-side. However for certain materials, especially when the same or similar items are used along the line, it is more convenient to supply materials in kits. Kitting becomes more preferable when lines concurrently produce multiple products in mixed model mode, since space requirements could increase as product/ part variety increases. At times such kits may travel along with the product, while in some situations it may be better to have delivery and station-specific kits rather than product-based kits. Further, in some mass customization situations it may even be better to have a single delivery and assembly station, to which an entire kit is delivered for fitment, rather than a normal assembly line. Finally, in low-moderate volume assembly such as in engineered machinery, it may be logistically more economical to gather materials in an order-specific kit prior to launching final assembly. We have studied material supply mechanisms to support assembly systems as observed in case studies of firms with different combinations of volume and variety/ customization. It is found that the appropriate approach tends to be a hybrid between direct line supply and different kitting modes, with the best mix being a function of the manufacturing and supply chain environment, as well as space and handling considerations. In our continuing work we are studying these scenarios further, through the use of descriptive models and progressing towards prescriptive models to help achieve the optimal approach, capturing the trade-offs between inventory, material handling, space, and efficient line supply.

Keywords: assembly systems, kitting, material supply, variety production

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5882 Design and Fabrication of a Programmable Stiffness-Sensitive Gripper for Object Handling

Authors: Mehdi Modabberifar, Sanaz Jabary, Mojtaba Ghodsi

Abstract:

Stiffness sensing is an important issue in medical diagnostic, robotics surgery, safe handling, and safe grasping of objects in production lines. Detecting and obtaining the characteristics in dwelling lumps embedded in a soft tissue and safe removing and handling of detected lumps is needed in surgery. Also in industry, grasping and handling an object without damaging in a place where it is not possible to access a human operator is very important. In this paper, a method for object handling is presented. It is based on the use of an intelligent gripper to detect the object stiffness and then setting a programmable force for grasping the object to move it. The main components of this system includes sensors (sensors for measuring force and displacement), electrical (electrical and electronic circuits, tactile data processing and force control system), mechanical (gripper mechanism and driving system for the gripper) and the display unit. The system uses a rotary potentiometer for measuring gripper displacement. A microcontroller using the feedback received by the load cell, mounted on the finger of the gripper, calculates the amount of stiffness, and then commands the gripper motor to apply a certain force on the object. Results of Experiments on some samples with different stiffness show that the gripper works successfully. The gripper can be used in haptic interfaces or robotic systems used for object handling.

Keywords: gripper, haptic, stiffness, robotic

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5881 Slave Museums and a Site of Democratic Pedagogy: Engagement, Healing and Tolerance

Authors: Elaine Stavro

Abstract:

In our present world where acts of incivility, intolerance and anger towards minority communities is on the rise, the ways museum practices cultivate ethical generosity is of interest. Democratic theorists differ as to how they believe respect can be generated through active participation. Allowing minority communities a role in determining what artifacts will be displayed and how they will be displayed has been an important step in generating respect. In addition, the rise of indigenous museums, slave museums and curators who represent these communities, contribute to the communication of their history of oppression. These institutional practices have been supplemented by the handling of objects, recognition stories and multisensory exhibitions. Psychoanalysis, object relations theorists believe that the handling of objects: amenable objects and responsive listeners will trigger the expression of anomie, alienation and traumatizing experiences. Not only memorializing but engaging with one’s lose in a very personal way can facilitate the process of mourning. Manchester Museum (UK) gathered together Somalian refugees, who in the process of handling their own objects and those offered at the museum, began to tell their stories. Democratic theorists (especially affect theorists or vital materialists or Actor Network theorists) believe that things can be social actants- material objects have agentic capacities that humans should align with. In doing so, they challenge social constructivism that attributes power to interpreted things, but like them they assume an openness or responsiveness to Otherness can be cultivated. Rich sensory experiences, corporeal engagement (devices that involve bodily movement or objects that involve handling) auditory experiences (songs) all contribute to improve one’s responsiveness and openness to Others. This paper will focus specifically on slave museums/ and exhibits in the U.K, the USA., South Africa to explore and evaluate their democratic strategies in cultivating tolerant practices via the various democratic avenues outlined above.

Keywords: democratic pedagogy, slave exhibitions, affect/emotion, object handling

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5880 Determination of Mechanical Properties of Tomato Fruits: Experimental and Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Mallikarjunachari G., Venkata Ravi M.

Abstract:

The objective of this research work is to evaluate the mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and critical rupture load of tomato fruits. Determination of mechanical properties of tomato fruits is essential in various material handling applications, especially as related to robot harvesting, packaging, and transportation. However, extracting meaningful mechanical properties of tomato fruits are extremely challenging due to its layered structure, i.e., the combination of exocarp, mesocarp, and locular gel tissues. Apart from this layered structure, other physical parameters such as diameter, sphericity, locule number, and, the surface to volume ratio also influence the mechanical properties. In this research work, tomato fruits are cultivated in two different ways, namely organic and inorganic farming. Static compression tests are performed to extract the mechanical properties of tomato fruits. Finite element simulations are done to complement the experimental results. It is observed that the effective modulus decreases as the compression depth increase from 0.5 mm to 10 mm and also a critical load of fracture decreases as the locule number increases from 3 to 5. Significant differences in mechanical properties are observed between organically and inorganically cultivated tomato fruits. The current study significantly helps in the design of material handling systems to avoid damage of tomato fruits.

Keywords: elastic modulus, critical load of fracture, locule number, finite element analysis

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5879 The Effect of Cassava Starch on Compressive Strength and Tear Strength of Alginate Impression Material

Authors: Mirna Febriani

Abstract:

Statement of problem. Alginate impression material is an imported material and a dentist always used this material to make impression of teeth and oral cavity tissues. Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare about compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material and alginate impression material combined with cassava. Material and methods.Property measured included compressive strength and tear strength. Results.The compressive strength and tear strength of the impression materials tested of a comparable ANSI/ADA standard no.18.The compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material combined with cassava have lower than the compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material. The alginate impression material combined with cassava has more water and silica content more decrease than alginate impression material. Conclusions.We concluded that compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material combined with cassava has lower than alginate impression material without cassava starch.

Keywords: compressive strength, tear strength, Cassava starch, alginate

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5878 Methodology for the Integration of Object Identification Processes in Handling and Logistic Systems

Authors: L. Kiefer, C. Richter, G. Reinhart

Abstract:

The uprising complexity in production systems due to an increasing amount of variants up to customer innovated products leads to requirements that hierarchical control systems are not able to fulfil. Therefore, factory planners can install autonomous manufacturing systems. The fundamental requirement for an autonomous control is the identification of objects within production systems. In this approach an attribute-based identification is focused for avoiding dose-dependent identification costs. Instead of using an identification mark (ID) like a radio frequency identification (RFID)-Tag, an object type is directly identified by its attributes. To facilitate that it’s recommended to include the identification and the corresponding sensors within handling processes, which connect all manufacturing processes and therefore ensure a high identification rate and reduce blind spots. The presented methodology reduces the individual effort to integrate identification processes in handling systems. First, suitable object attributes and sensor systems for object identification in a production environment are defined. By categorising these sensor systems as well as handling systems, it is possible to match them universal within a compatibility matrix. Based on that compatibility further requirements like identification time are analysed, which decide whether the combination of handling and sensor system is well suited for parallel handling and identification within an autonomous control. By analysing a list of more than thousand possible attributes, first investigations have shown, that five main characteristics (weight, form, colour, amount, and position of subattributes as drillings) are sufficient for an integrable identification. This knowledge limits the variety of identification systems and leads to a manageable complexity within the selection process. Besides the procedure, several tools, as an example a sensor pool are presented. These tools include the generated specific expert knowledge and simplify the selection. The primary tool is a pool of preconfigured identification processes depending on the chosen combination of sensor and handling device. By following the defined procedure and using the created tools, even laypeople out of other scientific fields can choose an appropriate combination of handling devices and sensors which enable parallel handling and identification.

Keywords: agent systems, autonomous control, handling systems, identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
5877 A Comparison of Single of Decision Tree, Decision Tree Forest and Group Method of Data Handling to Evaluate the Surface Roughness in Machining Process

Authors: S. Ghorbani, N. I. Polushin

Abstract:

The machinability of workpieces (AISI 1045 Steel, AA2024 aluminum alloy, A48-class30 gray cast iron) in turning operation has been carried out using different types of cutting tool (conventional, cutting tool with holes in toolholder and cutting tool filled up with composite material) under dry conditions on a turning machine at different stages of spindle speed (630-1000 rpm), feed rate (0.05-0.075 mm/rev), depth of cut (0.05-0.15 mm) and tool overhang (41-65 mm). Experimentation was performed as per Taguchi’s orthogonal array. To evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting surface roughness the single decision tree (SDT), Decision tree forest (DTF) and Group method of data handling (GMDH) were applied.

Keywords: decision tree forest, GMDH, surface roughness, Taguchi method, turning process

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
5876 Model Based Simulation Approach to a 14-Dof Car Model Using Matlab/Simulink

Authors: Ishit Sheth, Chandrasekhar Jinendran, Chinmaya Ranjan Sahu

Abstract:

A fourteen degree of freedom (DOF) ride and handling control mathematical model is developed for a car using generalized boltzmann hamel equation which will create a basis for design of ride and handling controller. Mathematical model developed yield equations of motion for non-holonomic constrained systems in quasi-coordinates. The governing differential equation developed integrates ride and handling control of car. Model-based systems engineering approach is implemented for simulation using matlab/simulink, vehicle’s response in different DOF is examined and later validated using commercial software (ADAMS). This manuscript involves detailed derivation of full car vehicle model which provides response in longitudinal, lateral and yaw motion to demonstrate the advantages of the developed model over the existing dynamic model. The dynamic behaviour of the developed ride and handling model is simulated for different road conditions.

Keywords: Full Vehicle Model, MBSE, Non Holonomic Constraints, Boltzmann Hamel Equation

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5875 Estimation of Coefficient of Discharge of Side Trapezoidal Labyrinth Weir Using Group Method of Data Handling Technique

Authors: M. A. Ansari, A. Hussain, A. Uddin

Abstract:

A side weir is a flow diversion structure provided in the side wall of a channel to divert water from the main channel to a branch channel. The trapezoidal labyrinth weir is a special type of weir in which crest length of the weir is increased to pass higher discharge. Experimental and numerical studies related to the coefficient of discharge of trapezoidal labyrinth weir in an open channel have been presented in the present study. Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) with the transfer function of quadratic polynomial has been used to predict the coefficient of discharge for the side trapezoidal labyrinth weir. A new model is developed for coefficient of discharge of labyrinth weir by regression method. Generalized models for predicting the coefficient of discharge for labyrinth weir using Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) network have also been developed. The prediction based on GMDH model is more satisfactory than those given by traditional regression equations.

Keywords: discharge coefficient, group method of data handling, open channel, side labyrinth weir

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5874 Material Selection for Footwear Insole Using Analytical Hierarchal Process

Authors: Mohammed A. Almomani, Dina W. Al-Qudah

Abstract:

Product performance depends on the type and quality of its building material. Successful product must be made using high quality material, and using the right methods. Many foot problems took place as a result of using poor insole material. Therefore, selecting a proper insole material is crucial to eliminate these problems. In this study, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is used to provide a systematic procedure for choosing the best material adequate for this application among three material alternatives (polyurethane, poron, and plastzote). Several comparison criteria are used to build the AHP model including: density, stiffness, durability, energy absorption, and ease of fabrication. Poron was selected as the best choice. Inconsistency testing indicates that the model is reasonable, and the materials alternative ranking is effective.

Keywords: AHP, footwear insole, insole material, materials selection

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5873 A Simulation Modeling Approach for Optimization of Storage Space Allocation in Container Terminal

Authors: Gamal Abd El-Nasser A. Said, El-Sayed M. El-Horbaty

Abstract:

Container handling problems at container terminals are NP-hard problems. This paper presents an approach using discrete-event simulation modeling to optimize solution for storage space allocation problem, taking into account all various interrelated container terminal handling activities. The proposed approach is applied on a real case study data of container terminal at Alexandria port. The computational results show the effectiveness of the proposed model for optimization of storage space allocation in container terminal where 54% reduction in containers handling time in port is achieved.

Keywords: container terminal, discrete-event simulation, optimization, storage space allocation

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
5872 Calcium Phosphate Cement/Gypsum Composite as Dental Pulp Capping

Authors: Jung-Feng Lin, Wei-Tang Chen, Chung-King Hsu, Chun-Pin Lin, Feng-Huei Lin

Abstract:

One of the objectives of operative dentistry is to maintain pulp health in compromised teeth. Mostly used methods for this purpose are direct pulp capping and pulpotomy, which consist of placement of biocompatible materials and bio-inductors on the exposed pulp tissue to preserve its health and stimulate repair by mineralized tissue formation. In this study, we developed a material (calcium phosphate cement (CPC)/gypsum composite) as the dental pulp capping material for shortening setting time and improving handling properties. We further discussed the influence of five different ratio of gypsum to CPC on HAP conversion, microstructure, setting time, weight loss, pH value, temperature difference, viscosity, mechanical properties, porosity, and biocompatibility.

Keywords: calcium phosphate cement, calcium sulphate hemihydrate, pulp capping, fast setting time

Procedia PDF Downloads 294