Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 630

Search results for: black pepper

630 Comparison of Aflatoxin B1 Levels in Iranian and Indian Spices by ELISA Method

Authors: Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad

Abstract:

This study was carried out to detect the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in 36 samples of spices from Iran and India that was included of chilli powder (n=12), black pepper powder (n=12) and whole black pepper (n=12). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used for analysing the samples. Aflatoxin B1 was found in all the spices samples, the concentration of AFB1 in Iranian samples was ranged from 63.16 to 626.81 ng/kg and in Indian samples was ranged from 31.15 to 245.94 ng/kg. The mean of AFB1 concentration in the chilli powder was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the whole and powdered black pepper. However, none of the samples exceeded the maximum prescribed limit i.e. 5 µg/kg of European Union regulations for aflatoxin B1. The occurrence of AFB1 in spices samples could be a potential hazard for public health.

Keywords: Aflatoxin B1, chilli, black pepper, ELISA, Iran, India

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
629 Development of a Harvest Mechanism for the Kahramanmaraş Chili Pepper

Authors: O. E. Akay, E. Güzel, M. T. Özcan

Abstract:

The pepper has quite a rich variety. The development of a single harvesting machine for all kinds of peppers is a difficult research topic. By development of harvesting mechanisms, we could be able to facilitate the pepper harvesting problems. In this study, an experimental harvesting machine was designed for chili pepper. Four-bar mechanism was used for the design of the prototype harvesting machine. At the result of harvest trials, 80% of peppers were harvested and 8% foreign materials were collected. These results have provided some tips on how to apply to large-scale pepper Four-bar mechanism of the harvest machine.

Keywords: kinematic simulation, four bar linkage, harvest mechanization, pepper harvest

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
628 Antioxidant Properties, Ascorbic Acid and Total Carotenoids Values of Sweet and Hot Red Pepper Paste: A Traditional Food in Turkish Diet

Authors: Kubra Sayin, Derya Arslan

Abstract:

Red pepper (Capsicum annum L.) has long been recognized as a good source of antioxidants, being rich in ascorbic acid and other phytochemicals. In Turkish cuisine red pepper is sometimes consumed raw in salads and baked as a garnish, but its most wide consumption type is red pepper paste. The processing of red pepper into pepper paste includes various thermal treatment steps such as heating and pasteurizing. There are reports demonstrating an enhancement or reduction in antioxidant activity of vegetables after thermal treatment. So this study was conducted to investigate the total phenolics, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids as well as free radical scavenging activity of raw red pepper and various red pepper pastes obtainable on the market. The samples were analyzed for radical-scavenging activity (RSA) and total polyphenol (TP) content using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu methods, respectively. They were also evaluated for ascorbic acid content (AsA) by HPLC. Total carotenoids content was determined spectrophotometrically. Results suggest that there is no significant (P > 0.05) difference in RSA, TP, AsA and total carotenoids content between various red pepper paste products. However, red pepper paste showed marked differences (P < 0.05) in the RSA, TP and AsA contents compared with raw red pepper. It is concluded that the red pepper paste, that has a wide range of consumption in Turkish cuisine, presents a good dose of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity and it should be regarded as a functional food.

Keywords: red pepper paste, antioxidant properties, total carotenoids, total phenolics

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627 Antimicrobial Functions of Some Spice Extracts Such as Sumac, Cumin, Black Pepper and Red Pepper on the Growth of Common Food-Borne Pathogens and Their Biogenic Amine Formation

Authors: Fatih Özogul, Esmeray Kuley Boga, Ferhat Kuley, Yesim Özogul

Abstract:

The impact of diethyl ether extract of spices (sumac, cumin, black pepper and red pepper) on growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Camplylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Yersinia enterocolitica and their biogenic amine production were investigated in tyrosine decarboxylase broth. Sumac extract generally had the highest activity to inhibit bacterial growth compared to other extracts, although antimicrobial effect of extracts used varied depending on bacterial strains. Sumac extract resulted in 3.34 and 2.54 log reduction for Y. enterocolitica and Camp. jejuni growth, whilst red pepper extract induced 0.65, 0.41 and 0.34 log reduction for growth of Y. enterocolitica, S. Paratyphi A and Staph. aureus, respectively. Spice extracts significantly inhibited ammonia production by bacteria (P < 0.05). Eleven and nine fold reduction on ammonia production by S. Paratyphi A and Staph. aureus were observed in the presence of sumac extract. Dopamine, agmatine, tyramine, serotonin and TMA were main amines produced by bacteria. Tyramine production by food-borne-pathogens was more than 10 mg/L, whereas histamine accumulated below 52 mg/L. The effect of spice extracts on biogenic amine production varied depending on amino acid decarboxylase broth, spice type, bacterial strains and specific amine, although cumin extract generally increased biogenic amine production by bacteria.

Keywords: antimicrobials, biogenic amines, food-borne pathogens, spice extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
626 Spin One Hawking Radiation from Dirty Black Holes

Authors: Petarpa Boonserm, Tritos Ngampitipan, Matt Visser

Abstract:

A 'clean' black hole is a black hole in vacuum such as the Schwarzschild black hole. However in real physical systems, there are matter fields around a black hole. Such a black hole is called a 'dirty black hole'. In this paper, The effect of matter fields on the black hole and the greybody factor is investigated. The results show that matter fields make a black hole smaller. They can increase the potential energy to a black hole to obstruct Hawking radiation to propagate. This causes the greybody factor of a dirty black hole to be less than that of a clean black hole.

Keywords: dirty black hole, greybody factor, hawking radiation, matter fields.

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
625 Designing Price Stability Model of Red Cayenne Pepper Price in Wonogiri District, Centre Java, Using ARCH/GARCH Method

Authors: Fauzia Dianawati, Riska W. Purnomo

Abstract:

Food and agricultural sector become the biggest sector contributing to inflation in Indonesia. Especially in Wonogiri district, red cayenne pepper was the biggest sector contributing to inflation on 2016. A national statistic proved that in recent five years red cayenne pepper has the highest average level of fluctuation among all commodities. Some factors, like supply chain, price disparity, production quantity, crop failure, and oil price become the possible factor causes high volatility level in red cayenne pepper price. Therefore, this research tries to find the key factor causing fluctuation on red cayenne pepper by using ARCH/GARCH method. The method could accommodate the presence of heteroscedasticity in time series data. At the end of the research, it is statistically found that the second level of supply chain becomes the biggest part contributing to inflation with 3,35 of coefficient in fluctuation forecasting model of red cayenne pepper price. This model could become a reference to the government to determine the appropriate policy in maintaining the price stability of red cayenne pepper.

Keywords: ARCH/GARCH, forecasting, red cayenne pepper, volatility, supply chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
624 Effect of Ginger, Red Pepper, and Their Mixture in Diet on Growth Performance and Body Composition of Oscar, Astronotus ocellatus

Authors: Sarah Jorjani, Afshin Ghelichi, Mazyar Kamali

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of addition of ginger and red pepper and their mixture in diet on growth performance, survival rate and body composition of Astronotus ocellatus (Oscar fish). This study had been carried out for 8 weeks. For this reason 132 oscar fishes with intial weight of 2.44±0.26 (gr) were divided into 4 treatments with three replicate as compeletly randomize design test and fed by 100% Biomar diet (T1), Biomar + red pepper (55 mg/kg) (T2), Biomar + ginger (1%) (T3) and Biomar + mixture of red pepper and ginger (T4).The fish were fed in 5% of their body weight. The results showed T2 have significant differences in most of growth parameters in compare with other treatments, such as PBWI, SGR, PER and SR (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences between treatments in FCR and FE (P > 0.05).

Keywords: red pepper, ginger, oscar fish, growth performance, body composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
623 Nutritional Composition of Maize-Based Snack Fortified with Kidney Beans and Alligator Pepper

Authors: B. E. Adeyanju, M. K. Bolade, V. N. Enijuigha

Abstract:

This work examined the nutritional composition of maize-based snack (kango) fortified with kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta). The snack is essentially traditional food being consumed by all ages in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Three varieties of maize were obtained from the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IAR&T), Ibadan, Nigeria, namely: ART-98-SW06-W, Br 9943-DMR-SR-W and SUWAN-1-SR-Y. Flour blends were obtained using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) which resulted in appropriate blending ratios of maize, kidney beans and alligator pepper. Kango was prepared by milling maize grain into flour; ingredients such as pepper, onion, salt and water were added to the maize flour, mixed together to make a slurry. The slurry was fried in hot groundnut oil at a temperature of 126°C for 8 minutes. The incorporation of kidney bean and alligator pepper in maize flour was observed to increase the water and oil absorption capacities of the resultant blends thereby giving 109.21 to 156.90 ml/mg and 110.68 to 136.67 ml/mg respectively for kango. The pasting properties of the maize flour blends were also enhanced due to the incorporation of kidney bean and alligator pepper. The peak viscosity of the flour blends ranged from 3.24 to 7.67 RVU. The incorporation of kidney bean and alligator pepper in the production of the snacks increased the protein contents from 9.63 to 16.37%. The mineral contents (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc) of the snacks were equally increased due to the incorporation of kidney bean and alligator pepper. A general increase was observed for vitamin B1 (0.69- 1.25 mg/100g), B2 (0.09 - 0.46 mg/100g) and B3 (0.11 - 0.72 mg/100g) in the snacks due to the incorporation of kidney bean and alligator pepper. This research work showed that kango produced from the composited maize flour, kidney bean and alligator pepper had better functional properties and higher nutritional contents.

Keywords: functional properties, kango, nutritional composition, snack

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
622 Analysis of the Black Sea Gas Hydrates

Authors: Sukru Merey, Caglar Sinayuc

Abstract:

Gas hydrate deposits which are found in deep ocean sediments and in permafrost regions are supposed to be a fossil fuel reserve for the future. The Black Sea is also considered rich in terms of gas hydrates. It abundantly contains gas hydrates as methane (CH4~80 to 99.9%) source. In this study, by using the literature, seismic and other data of the Black Sea such as salinity, porosity of the sediments, common gas type, temperature distribution and pressure gradient, the optimum gas production method for the Black Sea gas hydrates was selected as mainly depressurization method. Numerical simulations were run to analyze gas production from gas hydrate deposited in turbidites in the Black Sea by depressurization.

Keywords: CH4 hydrate, Black Sea hydrates, gas hydrate experiments, HydrateResSim

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
621 Noise Removal Techniques in Medical Images

Authors: Amhimmid Mohammed Saffour, Abdelkader Salama

Abstract:

Filtering is a part of image enhancement techniques, it is used to enhance certain details such as edges in the image that are relevant to the application. Additionally, filtering can even be used to eliminate unwanted components of noise. Medical images typically contain salt and pepper noise and Poisson noise. This noise appears to the presence of minute grey scale variations within the image. In this paper, different filters techniques namely (Median, Wiener, Rank order3, Rank order5, and Average) were applied on CT medical images (Brain and chest). We using all these filters to remove salt and pepper noise from these images. This type of noise consists of random pixels being set to black or white. Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error r(MSE) and Histogram were used to evaluated the quality of filtered images. The results, which we have achieved shows that, these filters, are more useful and they prove to be helpful for general medical practitioners to analyze the symptoms of the patients with no difficulty.

Keywords: CT imaging, median filter, adaptive filter and average filter, MATLAB

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
620 Effect of Ultrasound on Carotenoids Extraction from Pepper and Process Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Authors: Elham Mahdian, Reza Karazhian, Rahele Dehghan Tanha

Abstract:

Pepper (Capsicum annum L.) which belong to the family Solananceae, are known for their versatility as a vegetable crop and are consumed both as fresh vegetables or dehydrated for spices. Pepper is considered an excellent source of bioactive nutrients. Ascorbic acid, carotenoids and phenolic compounds are its main antioxidant constituents. Ultrasound assisted extraction is an inexpensive, simple and efficient alternative to conventional extraction techniques. The mechanism of action for ultrasound-assisted extraction are attributed to cavitations, mechanical forces and thermal impact, which result in disruption of cells walls, reduce particle size, and enhance mass transfer across cell membranes. In this study, response surface methodology was used to optimize experimental conditions for ultrasonic assisted extraction of carotenoid compounds from Chili peppers. Variables were included extraction temperatures at 3 levels (30, 40 and 50 °C), extraction times at 3 levels (10, 25 and 40 minutes) and power at 3 levels (30, 60 and 90 %). It was observed that ultrasound waves applied at temperature of 49°C, time of 10 minutes and power 89 % resulted to the highest carotenoids contents (lycopene and β-carotene), while the lowest value was recorded in the control. Thus, results showed that ultrasound waves have strong impact on extraction of carotenoids from pepper.

Keywords: carotenoids, optimization, pepper, response surface methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
619 Impacts of Racialization: Exploring the Relationships between Racial Discrimination, Racial Identity, and Activism

Authors: Brianna Z. Ross, Jonathan N. Livingston

Abstract:

Given that discussions of racism and racial tensions have become more salient, there is a need to evaluate the impacts of racialization among Black individuals. Racial discrimination has become one of the most common experiences within the Black American population. Likewise, Black individuals have indicated a need to address their racial identities at an earlier age than their non-Black peers. Further, Black individuals have been found at the forefront of multiple social and political movements, including but not limited to the Civil Rights Movement, Black Lives Matter, MeToo, and Say Her Name. Moreover, the present study sought to explore the predictive relationships that exist between racial discrimination, racial identity, and activism in the Black community. The results of standard and hierarchical regression analyses revealed that racial discrimination and racial identity significantly predict each other, but only racial discrimination is a significant predictor for the relationship to activism. Nonetheless, the results from this study will provide a basis for social scientists to better understand the impacts of racialization on the Black American population.

Keywords: activism, racialization, racial discrimination, racial identity

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618 Black Bodies Matter: The Contemporary Manifestation of Saartjie Baartman

Authors: Rokeshia Renné Ashley

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to understand the perception of historical figure Saartjie 'Sara/Sarah' Baartman from a cross cultural perspective of black women in the United States and black women in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews (n = 30) uncover that many women in both countries did not have an accurate representation, recollection, or have been exposed to the story of Baartman. Nonetheless, those who were familiar with Baartman’s story, those participants compared her to modern examples of black women who are showcased in a contemporary familiarity. The women are described by participants as women who reveal their bodies in a sexualized manner and have the curves that are similar to Baartman’s historic figure. This comparison emphasized a connection to popular images of black women who represent the curvaceous ideal. Findings contribute to social comparison theory by providing a lens for examining black women’s body image.

Keywords: black women, body modification, media, South Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
617 Occurrence and Geological Setting of the Black Shales Outcrops in Malaysia

Authors: Hassan M. Baioumy, Yuniarti Ulfa

Abstract:

Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic black shales that can be a potential source of energy and precious metals are widely distributed in Malaysia Peninsula, Sarawak and Sabah. Two Paleozoic black shales outcrops were reported in the Langkawi Island belonging to the Cambrian fluvial Machinchang Formation and the Silurian glaciomarine Singa Formation. More the seventeen occurrences of Paleozoic black shales outcrops have been found in the Peninsular Malaysia that range in age from Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian in the Terengganu, Perlis, Pahang, and Perak States. Mesozoic black shales outcrops occur in several places in both the Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak. In the Peninsular Malaysia, Triassic black shales occur in the Nami area, Northern Kedah and in the Pahang area. In Sarawak, Triassic black shales have been reported in the Bau area. Cenozoic black shales outcrops were reported in both Sarawak at Miri area and Sabah at the Ranau and Tenom areas. Preliminary mineralogical and geochemical investigations on some of these black shales outcrops showed distinct compositional variations among these black shales outcrops probably due to variations in their source area composition and/or depositional and diagenetic settings of these shales. Some of these shalese also subjected to post-depositional hydrothermal mineralization that enriched these shales with Au-bearing minerals such as pyrite, calchopyrite, and arsenopyrite. Many of the studied black shales outcrops look rich in organic matter, which increase the possibility of using these black shales as an unconventional energy resource.

Keywords: black shales, energy, mineralization, Malaysia

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
616 Bio-Genetic Activities Associated with Resistant in Peppers to Phytophthora capsici

Authors: Mehdi Nasr-Esfahani, Leila Mohammad Bagheri, Ava Nasr-Esfahani

Abstract:

Root and collar rot disease caused by Phytophthora capsici (Leonian) is one of the most serious diseases in pepper, Capsicum annuum L. In this study, a diverse collection of 37 commercial edible and ornamental pepper genotypes infected with P. capsici were investigated for biomass parameters and enzymatic activity of peroxidase or peroxide reductases (EC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenol oxidase (PPOs), catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Seven candidate DEG genes were also evaluated on resistant and susceptible pepper cultivars, through measuring product formation, using spectrophotometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. All the five enzymes and seven defense-gene candidates were up-regulated in all inoculated pepper accessions to P. capsici. But, the enzymes and DEG genes were highly expressed in resistant cv. 19OrnP-PBI, 37ChillP-Paleo, and “23CherryP-Orsh". The expression level of enzymes were 1.5 to 5.6-fold higher in the resistant peppers, than the control non-inoculated genotypes. Also, the transcriptional levels of related candidate DEG genes were 3.16 to 5.90-fold higher in the resistant genotypes. There was a direct and high correlation coefficient between resistance, bio-mass parameters, enzymatic activity, and resistance gene expression. The related enzymes and candidate genes expressed herein will provide a basis for further gene cloning and functional verification studies, and also will aid in an understanding of the regulatory mechanism of pepper resistance to P. capsici.

Keywords: AP2/ERF, cDNA, enzymes, MIP gene, q-RTPCR, XLOC

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
615 The Diversity of Black Flies in Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: C. D. Chen, H. Takaoka, Z. Ya’cob, V. L. Low, K. W. Lau, M. Sofian-Azirun

Abstract:

Adult black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are small (1.5-6.0 mm long), two-winged insects, and are well known as one of the biting flies of medical and veterinary importance. Female of certain species, when they bite and take blood, not only cause severe skin diseases to human and cattle but also play a role as vectors of viral, protozoan and filarial diseases in humans and animals. Black flies also attract environmental biologist and ecologist because their immature states breed only in clean running fresh waters, and larvae are one of the principal processors of plant debris in streams. All these researches on medical and ecological aspects of black flies could not be reliably proceeded without sufficient basic knowledge of the fauna of black flies established by traditional but still important morphotaxonomy. Previously, only 39 species of black flies were recorded from Peninsular Malaysia, all of which are classified into four subgenus (Daviesellum, Gomphostilbia, Nevermannia and Simulium) of the genus Simulium. We carried out faunal surveys and taxonomic works of black flies in Peninsular Malaysia since November 2010. A total of 17 new species and 4 newly recorded species were collected. This increased the number of the described species of black flies in Peninsular Malaysia from 39 to 60. Our results suggest that a much higher diverse nature of black flies in Peninsular Malaysia will be clarified by further extensive surveys.

Keywords: black flies, Simulium, Nevermannia, feuerborni species-group

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
614 Black Shales Outcrops in Malaysia: Occurrence and Geological Setting

Authors: Hassan Baioumy, Yuniarti Ulfa, Mohd Nawawi, Mohammad Noor Akmal Anuar

Abstract:

Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic black shales that can be a potential source of energy and precious metals are widely distributed in Malaysia Peninsula, Sarawak and Sabah. Two Paleozoic black shales outcrops were reported in the Langkawi Island belonging to the Cambrian fluvial Machinchang Formation and the Silurian glaciomarine Singa Formation. More the seventeen occurrences of Paleozoic black shales outcrops have been found in the Peninsular Malaysia that range in age from Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian in the Terengganu, Perlis, Pahang, and Perak States. Mesozoic black shales outcrops occur in several places in both the Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak. In the Peninsular Malaysia, Triassic black shales occur in the Nami area, Northern Kedah and in the Pahang area. In Sarawak, Triassic black shales have been reported in the Bau area. Cenozoic black shales outcrops were reported in both Sarawak at Miri area and Sabah at the Ranau and Tenom areas. Preliminary mineralogical and geochemical investigations on some of these black shales outcrops showed distinct compositional variations among these black shales outcrops probably due to variations in their source area composition and/or depositional and diagenetic settings of these shales. Some of these shalese also subjected to post-depositional hydrothermal mineralization that enriched these shales with Au-bearing minerals such as pyrite, calchopyrite, and arsenopyrite. Many of the studied black shales outcrops look rich in organic matter, which increase the possibility of using these black shales as an unconventional energy resource.

Keywords: black shales, energy, mineralization, Malaysia

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
613 Effect of Pretreatment and Drying Method on Selected Quality Parameters of Dried Bell Pepper

Authors: Toyosi Yewande Tunde-Akintunde, Grace Oluwatoyin Ogunlakin, Bosede Folake Olanipekun

Abstract:

Peppers are excellent sources of nutrients but its high moisture content makes it susceptible to spoilage. Drying, a common processing method, results in a reduction of these nutrients in the final product. Pre-treatment of pepper before drying can be used to reduce the level of degradation of nutrients. Thus this study investigated the effect of pre-treatment (hot water blanching and soaking in brine-sodium chloride) and drying methods (oven, microwave and sun) on selected quality parameters (proximate composition, capsaicin, reducing sugar and phenolic content, pH, total solid (TS), Titratable acidity (TA), water absorption capacity (WAC) and colour) of pepper. The protein and moisture content value ranged from 9.09 to 10.23% and 5.63 to 8.48% respectively. Sun dried samples had the highest value while oven dried samples had the lowest. Brine treated samples had higher protein but lower moisture content than blanched samples. Capsaicin, reducing sugar and phenolic content values ranged from 0.68 to 0.87 mg/dm3; 3.18 to 3.79 µg/ml; and 40.67 to 84.01 mg GAE/100 g d.m respectively. The sun dried samples had higher values while the lowest values were from microwave dried samples. The brine treated samples had higher values in capsaicin while the blanched samples had higher reducing sugar and phenolic contents. The values of L, a* and b* for the dried pepper varied from 58.76 to 63.13; 7.09 to 7.34; and 11.79 to 12.36 respectively. Oven dried samples had the lowest values for a*, while its L values were the highest. The L and a* values for brine treated samples were higher than blanched samples. The pre-treatment and drying method considered resulted in different values of the quality parameters considered which indicates that drying and pre-treatment has an effect on the quality of the final dried pepper samples.

Keywords: Bell pepper, microwave drying, oven drying, quality, sun drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
612 Foliation and the First Law of Thermodynamics for the Kerr Newman Black Hole

Authors: Syed M. Jawwad Riaz

Abstract:

There has been a lot of interest in exploring the thermodynamic properties at the horizon of a black hole geometry. Earlier, it has been shown, for different spacetimes, that the Einstein field equations at the horizon can be expressed as a first law of black hole thermodynamics. In this paper, considering r = constant slices, for the Kerr-Newman black hole, shown that the Einstein field equations for the induced 3-metric of the hypersurface is expressed in thermodynamic quantities under the virtual displacements of the hypersurfaces. As expected, it is found that the field equations of the induced metric corresponding to the horizon can only be written as a first law of black hole thermodynamics. It is to be mentioned here that the procedure adopted is much easier, to obtain such results, as here one has to essentially deal with (n - 1)-dimensional induced metric for an n-dimensional spacetime.

Keywords: black hole space-times, Einstein's field equation, foliation, hyper-surfaces

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
611 The Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate on the Mg and P Concentrations in Turkish Black and Green Tea

Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, T. Yalcin, O. Dere Ozdemir, S. Kipcak, N. Tugrul, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Tea is one of the most consumed beverages all over the world. Especially, black and green teas are preferred to consume. In Turkey, some local tea houses use sodium bicarbonate (SB) to obtain more infusion by using less amount of tea. Therefore, the addition of SB to black and green teas affects element concentrations of these teas. In this study, determination of magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) contents in black and green teas is aimed for conscious consumption, after the addition of SB. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for these analysis. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of Mg and P decreased by adding SB from 11.020, 21.915 to 10.009, 17.520 in black tea and from 12.605, 14.550 to 8.118, 9.425 in green tea, respectively. The addition of SB on analyzed teas is not recommended as it reduces intake percentages of Mg and P from the essential elements.

Keywords: elements, ICP-OES, sodium bicarbonate, tea

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610 Quantum Mechanics as a Branch of Black Hole Cosmology

Authors: U. V. S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

Abstract:

In a unified approach observed cosmic red shift can be re-interpreted as an index of cosmological galactic atomic light emission phenomenon. By increasing the applications of Hubble volume in cosmology as well as in quantum physics, concepts of ‘Black Hole Cosmology’ can be well-confirmed. Clearly speaking ‘quantum mechanics’ can be shown to be a branch of ‘black hole cosmology’. In Big Bang Model, confirmation of all the observations directly depend on the large scale galactic distances that are beyond human reach and raise ambiguity in all respects. The subject of modern black hole physics is absolutely theoretical. Advantage of Black hole cosmology lies in confirming its validity through the ground based atomic and nuclear experimental results.

Keywords: Hubble volume, black hole cosmology, CMBR energy density, Planck’s constant, fine structure ratio, cosmic time, nuclear charge radius, unification

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609 Effects of Five Local Spices on the Mortality and Development of Larvae of Dermestes Maculatusdegeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) Reared on Dried Smoked Fish

Authors: A. Jatau, Q. Majeed, H. M. Bandiya

Abstract:

The efficacy of five local spices, namely; Hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.), Black pepper (Piper guinese Schum and Thonn), Sweet basil (Occimum canum Sim), African nut-meg (Monodora myristica Dunal), and Ginger (Zingiber officianale Ross) with conventional insecticide against the D. maculatus was studied under ambient laboratory conditions. The plants were pulverized into powders and applied at the rate of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0g per 25g of disinfected dried fish. The same amount of fish (25g) was treated with 5ml of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 percent solution of conventional insecticide (dichlorvos) and air dried for 2hrs. Ten newly hatched 1st instar larvae (24hrs old) were introduced into each powdered smoked fish in separate beakers. Untreated control was also set up. Observation on the mortality and development were recorded daily until the larvae pupated. Each of the treated smoked fish showed significant (p<0.05) effect on the larval mortality and development when compared with the control. The Piper guinense was as efficacious as dichlorvos in killing all the larvae (100%) at all concentrations before pupation. Ocimum Canunm gave the second best results (50.00, 63.33 and 100%), while the other three spices resulted in less than 50% mortalities at all rate of application. The spice powders were also observed to have extended the larval developmental period. Thus, the spices tested can be recommended for the control of D. maculatus.

Keywords: development, dermestes maculatus, insecticide, local spices, mortality

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
608 The Relation Between Social Class, Race Homophily and Mental Health Outcomes of Black College Students

Authors: Omari W. Keeles

Abstract:

Attention to social class and race processes could illuminate within- group differences in Black students' experiences that help explain variation in adjustment. Of interest is how social class relates to development of intragroup connections with other Black students on campus in ways that promote or inhibit well-being. The present study’s findings suggest that students from lower class backgrounds may be more restrictive or limited in opportunities around their intragroup friendship networks than more affluent students. Furthermore, Black social relationship networks were related to positive mental health adjustment important to healthy psychological functioning and development.

Keywords: black students, social class, homophily, psychological adjustment

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
607 Detecting Black Hole Attacks in Body Sensor Networks

Authors: Sara Alshehri, Bayan Alenzi, Atheer Alshehri, Samia Chelloug, Zainab Almry, Hussah Albugmai

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This paper concerns body area networks sensor that collect signals around a human body. The black hole attacks are the main security challenging problem because the data traffic can be dropped at any node. The focus of our proposed solution is to efficiently route data packets while detecting black hole nodes.

Keywords: body sensor networks, security, black hole, routing, broadcasting, OMNeT++

Procedia PDF Downloads 494
606 The Agency of Black Women Professors in Higher Education: A Critical Consciousness Perspective

Authors: Ncamisile T. Zulu, Nicholas Munro

Abstract:

Black women academics in higher education institutions are predominantly portrayed by literature as individuals who usually lack a sense of belonging, progression, and workload management. The oversaturation of this literature can (overtime) perpetuate a stereotypical idea that Black women academics are incapable of coping and succeeding in higher education institutions. The current article explores the agency, motivated by critical consciousness that Black women professors have and utilise in higher education institutions. In order to provide an understanding of how Black women academics can progress, manage their workloads and succeed in higher education institutions, the article considers how these women can take responsibility for their self-development, adaptation, and self-renewal in academic endeavours. As a result, the article presents a line of thought which could help in challenging the stereotype about Black women academics. The study was conducted at two higher education institutions involving Black women professors from different disciplines. A combination of purposive and snowballing sampling was used to recruit nine women participants, while data were collected through interviews. A critical consciousness perspective was adopted to formulate an understanding of the agency of Black women professors in higher education institutions, while thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The results challenge the widely disseminated view that portrays Black women academics as incapable of coping and succeeding in higher education institutions. The findings highlight Black women professors as proactive, flexible, and self-regulating in their academic endeavours. These findings contribute to the literature by adding a more constructive narrative of Black women academics in higher education.

Keywords: agency, Black women academics, critical consciousness, higher education institutions

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605 A Wide View Scheme for Automobile's Black Box

Authors: Jaemyoung Lee

Abstract:

We propose a wide view camera scheme for automobile's black box. The proposed scheme uses the commercially available camera lenses of which view angles are about 120°}^{\circ}°. In the proposed scheme, we extend the view angle to approximately 200° ^{\circ}° using two cameras at the front side instead of three lenses with conventional black boxes.

Keywords: camera, black box, view angle, automobile

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604 Genetic Diversity in Capsicum Germplasm Based on Inter Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

Authors: Siwapech Silapaprayoon, Januluk Khanobdee, Sompid Samipak

Abstract:

Chili peppers are the fruits of Capsicum pepper plants well known for their fiery burning sensation on the tongue after consumption. They are members of the Solanaceae or common nightshade family along with potato, tomato and eggplant. Thai cuisine has gained popularity for its distinct flavors due to usages of various spices and its heat from the addition of chili pepper. Though being used in little quantity for each dish, chili pepper holds a special place in Thai cuisine. There are many varieties of chili peppers in Thailand, and thirty accessions were collected at Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Lampang, Thailand. To effectively manage any germplasm it is essential to know the diversity and relationships among members. Thirty-six Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSRs) DNA markers were used to analyze the germplasm. Total of 335 polymorphic bands was obtained giving the average of 9.3 alleles per marker. Unweighted pair-group mean arithmetic method (UPGMA) clustering of data using NTSYS-pc software indicated that the accessions showed varied levels of genetic similarity ranging from 0.57-1.00 similarity coefficient index indicating significant levels of variation. At SM coefficient of 0.81, the germplasm was separated into four groups. Phenotypic variation was discussed in context of phylogenetic tree clustering.

Keywords: diversity, germplasm, Chili pepper, ISSR

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603 The Comparison of Chromium Ions Release Stainless Steel 18-8 between Artificial Saliva and Black Tea Leaves Extracts

Authors: Nety Trisnawaty, Mirna Febriani

Abstract:

The use of stainless steel wires in the field of dentistry is widely used, especially for orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment using stainless steel wire. The oral cavity is the ideal environment for corrosion, which can be caused by saliva. Prevention of corrosion on stainless steel wires can be done by using an organic or non-organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the organic inhibitors that can be used to prevent corrosion is black tea leaves extracts. To explain the comparison of chromium ions release for stainlees steel between artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts. In this research we used artificial saliva, black tea leaves extracts, stainless steel wire and using Atomic Absorption Spectrophometric testing machine. The samples were soaked for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days in the artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts. The results showed the difference of chromium ion release soaked in artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts on days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Statistically, calculation with independent T-test with p < 0,05 showed a significant difference. The longer the duration of days, the more ion chromium were released. The conclusion of this study shows that black tea leaves extracts can inhibit the corrosion rate of stainless steel wires.

Keywords: chromium ion, stainless steel, artificial saliva, black tea leaves extracts

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602 Analysis of Efficiency Production of Grass Black Jelly (Mesona palustris) in Double Scale

Authors: Irvan Adhin Cholilie, Susinggih Wijana, Yusron Sugiarto

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to compare the results of black grass jelly produced using laboratory scale and double scale. In this research, the production from the laboratory scale is using ingredients of 1 kg black grass jelly added with 5 liters of water, while the double scale is using 5 kg black grass jelly and 75 liters of water. The results of organoleptic tests performed by 30 panelists (general) to the sample gels of grass black powder produced from both of laboratory and double scale are not different significantly in color, odor, flavor, and texture. Proximate test results conducted in both of grass black jelly powder produced in laboratory scale and double scale also have no significant differences in all parameters. Grass black jelly powder from double scale contains water, carbohydrate, crude fiber, and yield in the amount of 12,25 %; 43,7 %; 5,89 %; and 16,28 % respectively. The results of the energy efficiency analysis by boiling, draining, evaporation, drying, and milling processes are 85,11 %; 76,97 %; 99,64 %; 99,99% and 99,39% respectively. The utility needs including water needs for each batch amounted 0.1 m3 and cost Rp 220,5 per batch, the electricity needs for each batch is 20.01 kWh and cost Rp 18569.28 per batch, and LPG needs for each batch is 30 kg costed Rp 234,000.00 so that the total cost spent for the process is Rp 252,789.78 .

Keywords: black grass jelly, powder, mass balance, energy balance, cost

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601 Effects of Palm Waste Ash Residues on Acidic Soil in Relation to Physiological Responses of Habanero Chili Pepper (Capsicum chinense jacq.)

Authors: Kalu Samuel Ukanwa, Kumar Patchigolla, Ruben Sakrabani

Abstract:

The use of biosolids from thermal conversion of palm waste for soil fertility enhancement was tested in acidic soil of Southern Nigeria for the growing of Habanero chili pepper (Capsicum chinense jacq.). Soil samples from the two sites, showed pH 4.8 and 4.8 for site A and B respectively, below 5.6-6.8 optimum range and other fertility parameters indicating a low threshold for pepper growth. Nursery planting was done at different weeks to determine the optimum planting period. Ash analysis showed that it contains 26% of total K, 20% of total Ca, 0.27% of total P, and pH 11. The two sites were laid for an experiment in randomized complete block design and setup with three replications side by side. Each plot measured 3 x 2 m and a total of 15 plots for each site, four treatments, and one control. Outlined as control, 2, 4, 6 and 8 tonnes/hectare of palm waste ash, the combined average for both sites with correspondent yield after six harvests in one season are; 0, 5.8, 6, 6, 14.5 tonnes/hectare respectively to treatments. Optimum nursery survival rate was high in July; the crop yield was linear to the ash application. Site A had 6% yield higher than site B. Fruit development, weight, and total yield in relation to the control plot showed that palm waste ash is effective for soil amendment, nutrient delivery, and exchange.

Keywords: ash, palm waste, pepper, soil amendment

Procedia PDF Downloads 36