Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Kamila Michalkova

17 Low-Dose Chest Computed Tomography Can Help in Differential Diagnosis of Asthma–COPD Overlap Syndrome in Children

Authors: Frantisek Kopriva, Kamila Michalkova, Radim Dudek, Jana Volejnikova

Abstract:

Rationale: Diagnostic criteria of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) are controversial in pediatrics. Emphysema is characteristic of COPD and usually does not occur in typical asthma; its presence in patients with asthma suggests the concurrence with COPD. Low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) allows a non-invasive assessment of the lung tissue structure. Here we present CT findings of emphysematous changes in a child with ACOS. Patient and Methods: In a 6-year-old boy, atopy was confirmed by a skin prick test using common allergen extracts (grass and tree pollen, house dust mite, molds, cat, dog; manufacturer Stallergenes Greer, London, UK), where reactions over 3 mm were considered positive. Treatment with corticosteroids was started during the course of severe asthma. At 12 years of age, his spirometric parameters deteriorated despite treatment adjustment (VC 1.76 L=85%, FEV1 1.13 L=67%, TI%VCmax 64%, MEF25 19%, TLC 144%) and the bronchodilator test became negative. Results: Low-dose chest CT displayed irregular regions with increased radiolucency of pulmonary parenchyma (typical for hyperinflation in emphysematous changes) in both lungs. This was in accordance with the results of spirometric examination. Conclusions: ACOS is infrequent in children. However, low-dose chest CT scan can be considered to confirm this diagnosis or eliminate other diagnoses when the clinical condition is deteriorating and treatment response is poor.

Keywords: child, asthma, low-dose chest CT, ACOS

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16 Ecocriticism and Sustainable Development: A Study of Kamila Shamsie's a God in Every Stone

Authors: Shaista Maseeh

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English Literature from the beginning itself has had psychological, social and environment concerns. Virgil, Shakespeare, John Milton, William Wordsworth to the most current Robert Hass have shown and proved their environmental and ecological interests as well as distress related to its loss. Pastoral literature is also one such genre that links literature with environment. Thanks to the contemporary literary theories that they successfully are relating Literature formally to the subjects other than written text. One of such literary theory is 'Ecocriticism.' It stands under the umbrella of the Economics term, Sustainable Development,' or it can also be understood as an ecological extension of it. Ecocriticism helps the reader to study the dynamic relation between literature and our degrading environment. It draws attention towards the ravaged condition of nature and animals, that how nature is exploited by human beings for their own benefit leaving nature at a repairable loss. For instance, deforestation is reducing the size of forest every year, injuring permanently flora, fauna and also the habitat of animals. This paper will study the ecological and environmental concerns in the latest novel by Pakistani British writer Kamila Shamsie, A God in every Stone (2014). The book is not only a literary masterpiece in elegant prose, but also a novel posing a lot of questions about 'nature and environment' in general and 'animals' in particular. It gives the glimpses of the interesting history of Temple of Zeus in Greece and Ancient Caria, and covers many episodes of history the Indian freedom struggle. In course of novel's narrative Kamila Shamsie poses disturbing question about environmental abuse, about how human beings are more 'beasts' than so call beasts, poor animals. She also glorifies the simplicity of past. The novel has enough instances to prove Shamsie's positive stand on saving the earth that is being more abused than used by human beings. This paper will provide an ecocritical approach to study A God in Every Stone (2014).

Keywords: animals, ecocriticism, environment, nature

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15 Usability Evaluation of a Mobile Application to Enhance the Use of Smartphone, by Visually Impaired Users in Indonesia

Authors: Johanna Renny Octavia, Kamila Okta Saarah

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Smartphone nowadays is widely used by many people all over the world. However, people with vision impairment may experience difficulties that interfere with the proper usage of the smartphone. In Indonesia, the population of visually impaired is about 13 million people (estimated 285 million people worldwide). There are a number of mobile applications developed to enhance the use of smartphone by visually impaired. This paper discusses the usability evaluation of a mobile application, namely Ray Vision, designed to help visually impaired in using smartphone. A series of usability testing with a number of Indonesian visually impaired revealed 28 usability problems in the mobile application that led to 14 design recommendations. The redesigned application was then re-evaluated through another usability testing series. The results showed that all five usability criteria assessed were increased (usefulness by 13%, effectiveness by 27%, efficiency by 27%, satisfaction by 23%, and learnability by 12%). The System Usability Score (SUS) was also increased by 14.92%.

Keywords: mobile application, smartphone, usability evaluation, vision impaired

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14 Chemical and Sensory Properties of Chardonnay Wines Produced in Different Oak Barrels

Authors: Valentina Obradović, Josip Mesić, Maja Ergović Ravančić, Kamila Mijowska, Brankica Svitlica

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French oak and American oak barrels are most famous all over the world, but barrels of different origin can also be used for obtaining high quality wines. The aim of this research was to compare the influence of different Slavonian (Croatian) and French oak barrels on the quality of Chardonnay wine. Grapes were grown in Croatian wine growing region of Kutjevo in 2015. Chardonnay wines were tested for basic oenological parameters (alcohol, extract, reducing sugar, SO2, acidity), total polyphenols content (Folin-Ciocalteu method), antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH method) and color density. Sensory evaluation was performed by students of viticulture/oenology. Samples produced by classical fermentation and ageing in French oak barrels, had better results for polyphenols and sensory evaluation (especially low toasting level) than samples in Slavonian barrels. All tested samples were scored as a “quality” or “premium quality” wines. Sur lie method of fermentation and ageing in Slavonian oak barrel had very good extraction of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity with the usage of authentic yeasts, while commercial yeast strain resulted in worse chemical and sensory parameters.

Keywords: chardonnay, French oak, Slavonian oak, sur lie

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13 Sportband: An Idea for Workout Monitoring in Amateur and Recreational Sports

Authors: Kamila Mazur-Oleszczuk, Rafal Banasiuk, Dawid Krasnowski, Maciej Pek, Marcin Podgorski, Krzysztof Rykaczewski, Sabina Zoledowska, Dawid Nidzworski

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Workout safety is one of the most significant challenges of recreational sports. Loss of water and electrolytes is a consequence of thermoregulatory sweating during exercise. The rate of sweat loss and its chemical composition can fluctuate within and among individuals. That is why we propose our sportband 'Flow' as a device for monitoring these parameters. 'Flow' consists of two parts: an intelligent module and a mobile application. The application allows verifying the training progress and data archiving. The sportband intelligent module includes temperature, heart rate and pulse measurement (non-invasive, continuous methods of workout monitoring). Apart from the standard components, the device will consist of a sweat composition analyzer situated in sportband intelligent module. Sweat is a water solution of numerous compounds such as ions (sodium up to 1609 µg/ml, potassium up to 274 µg/ml), lactic acid (skin pH is between 4.5 - 6) and a small amount of glucose. Awareness of sweat composition allows personalizing electrolyte intake after training. A comprehensive workout monitoring (sweat composition, heart rate, blood oxygen level) will provide improvement in the training routine and time management, which is our goal for the development of the sweat composition analyzer.

Keywords: flow, sportband, sweat, workout monitoring

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12 Physiological Normoxia and Cellular Adhesion of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Primary Cells: Real-Time PCR and Immunohistochemistry Study

Authors: Kamila Duś-Szachniewicz, Kinga M. Walaszek, Paweł Skiba, Paweł Kołodziej, Piotr Ziółkowski

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Cell adhesion is of fundamental importance in the cell communication, signaling, and motility, and its dysfunction occurs prevalently during cancer progression. The knowledge of the molecular and cellular processes involved in abnormalities in cancer cells adhesion has greatly increased, and it has been focused mainly on cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) and tumor microenvironment. Unfortunately, most of the data regarding CAMs expression relates to study on cells maintained in standard oxygen condition of 21%, while the emerging evidence suggests that culturing cells in ambient air is far from physiological. In fact, oxygen in human tissues ranges from 1 to 11%. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of physiological lymph node normoxia (5% O2), and hyperoxia (21% O2) on the expression of cellular adhesion molecules of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells (DLBCL) isolated from 10 lymphoma patients. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to confirm the differential expression of several CAMs, including ICAM, CD83, CD81, CD44, depending on the level of oxygen. Our findings also suggest that DLBCL cells maintained at ambient O2 (21%) exhibit reduced growth rate and migration ability compared to the cells growing in normoxia conditions. Taking into account all the observations, we emphasize the need to identify the optimal human cell culture conditions mimicking the physiological aspects of tumor growth and differentiation.

Keywords: adhesion molecules, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, physiological normoxia, quantitative RT-PCR

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11 Biomechanical Assessment of Esophageal Elongation

Authors: Marta Kozuń, Krystian Toczewski, Sylwester Gerus, Justyna Wolicka, Kamila Boberek, Jarosław Filipiak, Dariusz Patkowski

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Long gap esophageal atresia is a congenital defect and is a challenge for pediatric surgeons all over the world. There are different surgical techniques in use to treat atresia. One of them is esophageal elongation but the optimal suture placement technique to achieve maximum elongation with low-risk complications is still unknown. The aim of the study was to characterize the process of esophageal elongation from the biomechanical point of view. Esophagi of white Pekin Duck was used as a model based on the size of this animal which is similar to a newborn (2.5-4kg). The specimens were divided into two groups: the control group (CG) and the group with sutures (SG). The esophagi of the control group were mounted in the grips of the MTS Tytron 250 testing machine and tensile test until rupture was performed. The loading speed during the test was 10mm/min. Then the SG group was tested. Each esophagus was cut into two equal parts and that were fused together using surgical sutures. The distance between both esophagus parts was 20mm. Ten both ends were mounted on the same testing machine and the tensile test with the same parameters was conducted. For all specimens, force and elongation were recorded. The biomechanical properties, i.e., the maximal force and maximal elongation, were determined on the basis of force-elongation curves. The maximal elongation was determined at the point of maximal force. The force achieved with the suture group was 10.1N±1.9N and 50.3N±11.6N for the control group. The highest elongation was also obtained for the control group: 18mm±3mm vs. 13.5mm ±2.4mm for the suture group. The presented study expands the knowledge of elongation of esophagi. It is worth emphasizing that the duck esophagus differs from the esophagus of a newborn, i.e., its wall lacks striated muscle cells. This is why the parts of animal esophagi used in the research are may characterized by different biomechanical properties in comparison with newborn tissue.

Keywords: long gap atresia treatment, esophageal elongation, biomechanical properties, soft tissue

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10 The Effect of Common Daily Schedule on the Human Circadian Rhythms during the Polar Day on Svalbard: Field Study

Authors: Kamila Weissova, Jitka Skrabalova, Katerina Skalova, Jana Koprivova, Zdenka Bendova

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Any Arctic visitor has to deal with extreme conditions, including constant light during the summer season or constant darkness during winter time. Light/dark cycle is the most powerful synchronizing signal for biological clock and the absence of daily dark period during the polar day can significantly alter the functional state of the internal clock. However, the inner clock can be synchronized by other zeitgebers such as physical activity, food intake or social interactions. Here, we investigated the effect of polar day on circadian clock of 10 researchers attending the polar base station in the Svalbard region during July. The data obtained on Svalbard were compared with the data obtained before the researchers left for the expedition (in the Czech Republic). To determine the state of circadian clock we used wrist actigraphy followed by sleep diaries, saliva, and buccal mucosa samples, both collected every 4 hours during 24h-interval to detect melatonin by radioimmunoassay and clock gene (PER1, BMAL1, NR1D1, DBP) mRNA levels by RT-qPCR. The clock gene expression was analyzed using cosinor analysis. From our results, it is apparent that the constant sunlight delayed melatonin onset and postponed the physical activity in the same order. Nevertheless, the clock gene expression displayed higher amplitude on Svalbard compared to the amplitude detected in the Czech Republic. These results have suggested that the common daily schedule at the Svalbard expedition can strengthen circadian rhythm in the environment that is lacking light/dark cycle. In conclusion, the constant sunlight delays melatonin onset, but it still maintains its rhythmic secretion. The effect of constant sunlight on circadian clock can be minimalized by common daily scheduled activity.

Keywords: actighraph, clock genes, human, melatonin, polar day

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9 The Strategy for Detection of Catecholamines in Body Fluids: Optical Sensor

Authors: Joanna Cabaj, Sylwia Baluta, Karol Malecha, Kamila Drzozga

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Catecholamines are the principal neurotransmitters that mediate a variety of the central nervous system functions, such as motor control, cognition, emotion, memory processing, and endocrine modulation. Dysfunctions in catecholamine neurotransmission are induced in some neurologic and neuropsychiatric diseases. Changeable neurotransmitters level in biological fluids can be a marker of several neurological disorders. Because of its significance in analytical techniques and diagnostics, sensitive and selective detection of neurotransmitters is increasingly attracting a lot of attention in different areas of bio-analysis or biomedical research. Recently, fluorescent techniques for detection of catecholamines have attracted interests due to their reasonable cost, convenient control, as well as maneuverability in biological environments. Nevertheless, with the observed need for a sensitive and selective catecholamines sensor, the development of a convenient method for this neurotransmitter is still at its basic level. The manipulation of nanostructured materials in conjunction with biological molecules has led to the development of a new class of hybrid modified biosensors in which both enhancement of charge transport and biological activity preservation may be obtained. Immobilization of biomaterials on electrode surfaces is the crucial step in fabricating electrochemical as well as optical biosensors and bioelectronic devices. Continuing systematic investigation in the manufacturing of enzyme–conducting sensitive systems, here is presented a convenient fluorescence sensing strategy for catecholamines detection based on FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) phenomena observed for, i.e., complexes of Fe²⁺ and epinephrine. The biosensor was constructed using low temperature co-fired ceramics technology (LTCC). This sensing system used the catalytical oxidation of catecholamines and quench of the strong luminescence of obtained complexes due to FRET. The detection process was based on the oxidation of substrate in the presence of the enzyme–laccase/tyrosinase.

Keywords: biosensor, conducting polymer, enzyme, FRET, LTCC

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8 Ergonomic Adaptations in Visually Impaired Workers - A Literature Review

Authors: Kamila Troper, Pedro Mestre, Maria Lurdes Menano, Joana Mendonça, Maria João Costa, Sandra Demel

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Introduction: Visual impairment is a problem that has an influence on hundreds of thousands of people all over the world. Although it is possible for a Visually Impaired person to do most jobs, the right training, technological assistance, and emotional support are essential. Ergonomics be able to solve many of the problems/issues with the relative ease of positioning, lighting and design of the workplace. A little forethought can make a tremendous difference to the ease with which a person with an impairment function. Objectives: Review the main ergonomic adaptation measures reported in the literature in order to promote better working conditions and safety measures for the visually impaired. Methodology: This was an exploratory-descriptive, qualitative literature systematic review study. The main databases used were: PubMed, BIREME, LILACS, with articles and studies published between 2000 and 2021. Results: Based on the principles of the theoretical references of ergonomic analysis of work, the main restructuring of the physical space of the workstations were: Accessibility facilities and assistive technologies; A screen reader that captures information from a computer and sends it in real-time to a speech synthesizer or Braille terminal; Installations of software with voice recognition, Monitors with enlarged screens; Magnification software; Adequate lighting, magnifying lenses in addition to recommendations regarding signage and clearance of the places where the visually impaired pass through. Conclusions: Employability rates for people with visual impairments(both those who are blind and those who have low vision)are low and continue to be a concern to the world and for researchers as a topic of international interest. Although numerous authors have identified barriers to employment and proposed strategies to remediate or circumvent those barriers, people with visual impairments continue to experience high rates of unemployment.

Keywords: ergonomic adaptations, visual impairments, ergonomic analysis of work, systematic review

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7 Locally Produced Solid Biofuels – Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Competitiveness with Conventional Ways of Individual Space Heating

Authors: Jiri Beranovsky, Jaroslav Knapek, Tomas Kralik, Kamila Vavrova

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The paper deals with the results of research focused on the complex aspects of the use of intentionally grown biomass on agricultural land for the production of solid biofuels as an alternative for individual household heating. . The study primarily deals with the analysis of CO2 emissions of the logistics cycle of biomass for the production of energy pellets. Growing, harvesting, transport and storage are evaluated in the pellet production cycle. The aim is also to take into account the consumption profile during the year in terms of heating of common family houses, which are typical end-market segment for these fuels. It is assumed that in family houses, bio-pellets are able to substitute typical fossil fuels, such as brown coal and old wood burning heating devices and also electric boilers. One of the competing technology with the pellets are heat pumps. The results show the CO2 emissions related with considered fuels and technologies for their utilization. Comparative analysis is aimed biopellets from intentionally grown biomass, brown coal, natural gas and electricity used in electric boilers and heat pumps. Analysis combines CO2 emissions related with individual fuels utilization with costs of these fuels utilization. Cost of biopellets from intentionally grown biomass is derived from the economic models of individual energy crop plantations. At the same time, the restrictions imposed by EU legislation on Ecodesign's fuel and combustion equipment requirements and NOx emissions are discussed. Preliminary results of analyzes show that to achieve the competitiveness of pellets produced from specifically grown biomass, it would be necessary to either significantly ecological tax on coal (from about 0.3 to 3-3.5 EUR/GJ), or to multiply the agricultural subsidy per area. In addition to the Czech Republic, the results are also relevant for other countries, such as Bulgaria and Poland, which also have a high proportion of solid fuels for household heating.

Keywords: CO2 emissions, heating costs, energy crop, pellets, brown coal, heat pumps, economical evaluation

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6 Coach-Created Motivational Climate and the Coach-Athlete Relationship

Authors: Kamila Irena Szpunar

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The central idea of the study is considered from two perspectives. The first perspective includes the interpersonal relationships formed by coach and athlete. Another perspective is connected with motivational environment which is created by the coach in team. This study will show the interplay between the perceived motivational climate created by the coach and the interpersonal dynamics between coaches and athletes. It is important because it will supply knowledge of the interpersonal conditions that can foster adaptive or maladaptive behavior in sport conditions. It also ensures implications for understanding how the perceived motivational atmosphere in a team is manifested at the level of coach – athlete relationship and interactions. The primary purpose of the study was to identify the association between coach-athlete relationship and athletes' perception of the motivational climate in team sports. The secondary purposes examined the differences between female and male athletes in perceiving of the motivational climate and the coach athlete-relationship. To check coach-athlete relationship Polish translation of The Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire will be used. It measures athletes' perceptions of coach- athlete relationship defined by 3+1 Cs conceptual model of the coach-athlete relationship. From this model were used three constructs such as closeness (feelings of trust, respect etc.), commitment (thoughts about the future of the relationship), and complementarity (co-operative interactions during practice sessions). To check perceived motivational climate will be used Polish translation of The Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (PMCSQ-2). PMCSQ-2 was created to assess athletes' perceptions of the motivational climates in their teams. The questionnaire includes two general dimensions, the perceived task-involving climate and the perceived ego-involving climate; each contains three subscales. To check the associations between elements the motivational climate and coach-athlete relationship was used canonical correlation analysis. Student's t-test was used to check gender differences in athletes' perceptions of the motivational climate and the coach-athlete relationship. The findings suggest that in Polish athletes' perceptions of the coach-athlete relationship have motivational significance and that there are gender differences between female and male athletes in both variables – coach-athlete relationship and kind of motivational climate. According to the author's knowledge, such kind of study has not been conducted in Polish conditions before and is the first study on the subject of the motivational climate and the coach-athlete relationship in Poland. Information from this study can be useful for the development of interventions for enhancing the quality of coach- athlete relationship and its associated outcomes connected with motivational climate.

Keywords: coach-athlete relationship, ego-involving climate, motivational climate, task-involving climate

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5 Performance Management in Public Administration on Chile and Portugal

Authors: Lilian Bambirra De Assis, Patricia Albuquerque Gomes, Kamila Pagel De Oliveira, Deborah Oliveira Santos, Marcelo Esteves Chaves Campos

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This paper aimed to analyze how performance management occurs in the context of the modernization of the federal public sector in Chile and Portugal. To do so, the study was based on a theoretical framework that covers the modernization of public administration to performance management, passing on people management. The work consisted of qualitative-descriptive research in which 16 semi-structured interviews were applied in the countries of study and documents and legislation were used referring to the subject. Performance management, as well as other people management subsystems, is criticized for using private sector management tools, based on a results-driven logic. From this point of view, it is understood that certain practices of the private sector, regarding the measurement of performance, can not be simply inserted in the scenario of the public administration. Beyond this criticism, performance management can contribute to the achievement of the strategic objectives of the countries and its focus is upward, a trend that can be verified through the manuals produced; by the interest of consultants and professional organizations, both public and private; and OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) evaluations. In Portugal, public administration reform was implemented during the Constitutional Government (2005-2009) and had as its objective the restructuring of human resources management, with an emphasis on its integration with budget management, which is an inclination of the OECD, while in Chile HRM (Human Resource Management) practices are directed to ministries to a lesser extent than the OECD average. The central human resources management sector, for the most part, coordinates policy but is also responsible for other issues, including payment and classification systems. Chile makes less use of strategic Human Resource Management practices than the average of OECD countries, and its prominence lies in the decentralization of public bodies, which may grant autonomy, but fragments the implementation of policies and practices in that country since they are not adopted by all organs. Through the analysis, it was possible to identify that Chile and Portugal have practices and personnel management policies that make reference to performance management, which is similar to other OECD countries. The study countries also have limitations to implement performance management and the results indicate that there are still processes to be perfected, such as performance appraisal and compensation.

Keywords: management of people in the public sector, modernization of public administration, performance management in the public sector, HRM, OECD

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4 Multicellular Cancer Spheroids as an in Vitro Model for Localized Hyperthermia Study

Authors: Kamila Dus-Szachniewicz, Artur Bednarkiewicz, Katarzyna Gdesz-Birula, Slawomir Drobczynski

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In modern oncology hyperthermia (HT) is defined as a controlled tumor heating. HT treatment temperatures range between 40–48 °C and can selectively damage heat-sensitive cancer cells or limit their further growth, usually with minimal injury to healthy tissues. Despite many advantages, conventional whole-body and regional hyperthermia have clinically relevant side effects, including cardiac and vascular disorders. Additionally, the lack of accessibility of deep-seated tumor sites and impaired targeting micrometastases renders HT less effective. It is believed that above disadvantages can significantly overcome by the application of biofunctionalized microparticles, which can specifically target tumor sites and become activated by an external stimulus to provide a sufficient cellular response. In our research, the unique optical tweezers system have enabled capturing the silica microparticles, primary cells and tumor spheroids in highly controllable and reproducible environment to study the impact of localized heat stimulation on normal and pathological cell and within multicellular tumor spheroid. High throughput spheroid model was introduced to better mimic the response to HT treatment on tumors in vivo. Additionally, application of local heating of tumor spheroids was performed in strictly controlled conditions resembling tumor microenvironment (temperature, pH, hypoxia, etc.), in response to localized and nonhomogeneous hyperthermia in the extracellular matrix, which promotes tumor progression and metastatic spread. The lack of precise control over these well- defined parameters in basic research leads to discrepancies in the response of tumor cells to the new treatment strategy in preclinical animal testing. The developed approach enables also sorting out subclasses of cells, which exhibit partial or total resistance to therapy, in order to understand fundamental aspects of the resistance shown by given tumor cells in response to given therapy mode and conditions. This work was funded by the National Science Centre (NCN, Poland) under grant no. UMO-2017/27/B/ST7/01255.

Keywords: cancer spheroids, hyperthermia, microparticles, optical tweezers

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3 First Systematic Review on Aerosol Bound Water: Exploring the Existing Knowledge Domain Using the CiteSpace Software

Authors: Kamila Widziewicz-Rzonca

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The presence of PM bound water as an integral chemical compound of suspended aerosol particles (PM) has become one of the hottest issues in recent years. The UN climate summits on climate change (COP24) indicate that PM of anthropogenic origin (released mostly from coal combustion) is directly responsible for climate change. Chemical changes at the particle-liquid (water) interface determine many phenomena occurring in the atmosphere such as visibility, cloud formation or precipitation intensity. Since water-soluble particles such as nitrates, sulfates, or sea salt easily become cloud condensation nuclei, they affect the climate for example by increasing cloud droplet concentration. Aerosol water is a master component of atmospheric aerosols and a medium that enables all aqueous-phase reactions occurring in the atmosphere. Thanks to a thorough bibliometric analysis conducted using CiteSpace Software, it was possible to identify past trends and possible future directions in measuring aerosol-bound water. This work, in fact, doesn’t aim at reviewing the existing literature in the related topic but is an in-depth bibliometric analysis exploring existing gaps and new frontiers in the topic of PM-bound water. To assess the major scientific areas related to PM-bound water and clearly define which among those are the most active topics we checked Web of Science databases from 1996 till 2018. We give an answer to the questions: which authors, countries, institutions and aerosol journals to the greatest degree influenced PM-bound water research? Obtained results indicate that the paper with the greatest citation burst was Tang In and Munklewitz H.R. 'water activities, densities, and refractive indices of aqueous sulfates and sodium nitrate droplets of atmospheric importance', 1994. The largest number of articles in this specific field was published in atmospheric chemistry and physics. An absolute leader in the quantity of publications among all research institutions is the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA). Meteorology and atmospheric sciences is a category with the most studies in this field. A very small number of studies on PM-bound water conduct a quantitative measurement of its presence in ambient particles or its origin. Most articles rather point PM-bound water as an artifact in organic carbon and ions measurements without any chemical analysis of its contents. This scientometric study presents the current and most actual literature regarding particulate bound water.

Keywords: systematic review, aerosol-bound water, PM-bound water, CiteSpace, knowledge domain

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2 Exploring Tweeters’ Concerns and Opinions about FIFA Arab Cup 2021: An Investigation Study

Authors: Md. Rafiul Biswas, Uzair Shah, Mohammad Alkayal, Zubair Shah, Othman Althawadi, Kamila Swart

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Background: Social media platforms play a significant role in the mediated consumption of sport, especially so for sport mega-event. The characteristics of Twitter data (e.g., user mentions, retweets, likes, #hashtag) accumulate the users in one ground and spread information widely and quickly. Analysis of Twitter data can reflect the public attitudes, behavior, and sentiment toward a specific event on a larger scale than traditional surveys. Qatar is going to be the first Arab country to host the mega sports event FIFA World Cup 2022 (Q22). Qatar has hosted the FIFA Arab Cup 2021 (FAC21) to serve as a preparation for the mega-event. Objectives: This study investigates public sentiments and experiences about FAC21 and provides an insight to enhance the public experiences for the upcoming Q22. Method: FCA21-related tweets were downloaded using Twitter Academic research API between 01 October 2021 to 18 February 2022. Tweets were divided into three different periods: before T1 (01 Oct 2021 to 29 Nov 2021), during T2 (30 Nov 2021 -18 Dec 2021), and after the FAC21 T3 (19 Dec 2021-18 Feb 2022). The collected tweets were preprocessed in several steps to prepare for analysis; (1) removed duplicate and retweets, (2) removed emojis, punctuation, and stop words (3) normalized tweets using word lemmatization. Then, rule-based classification was applied to remove irrelevant tweets. Next, the twitter-XLM-roBERTa-base model from Huggingface was applied to identify the sentiment in the tweets. Further, state-of-the-art BertTopic modeling will be applied to identify trending topics over different periods. Results: We downloaded 8,669,875 Tweets posted by 2728220 unique users in different languages. Of those, 819,813 unique English tweets were selected in this study. After splitting into three periods, 541630, 138876, and 139307 were from T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Most of the sentiments were neutral, around 60% in different periods. However, the rate of negative sentiment (23%) was high compared to positive sentiment (18%). The analysis indicates negative concerns about FAC21. Therefore, we will apply BerTopic to identify public concerns. This study will permit the investigation of people’s expectations before FAC21 (e.g., stadium, transportation, accommodation, visa, tickets, travel, and other facilities) and ascertain whether these were met. Moreover, it will highlight public expectations and concerns. The findings of this study can assist the event organizers in enhancing implementation plans for Q22. Furthermore, this study can support policymakers with aligning strategies and plans to leverage outstanding outcomes.

Keywords: FIFA Arab Cup, FIFA, Twitter, machine learning

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1 Alternative Fuel Production from Sewage Sludge

Authors: Jaroslav Knapek, Kamila Vavrova, Tomas Kralik, Tereza Humesova

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The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge is one of the most important and critical problems of waste water treatment plants. Currently, 180 thousand tonnes of sludge dry matter are produced in the Czech Republic, which corresponds to approximately 17.8 kg of stabilized sludge dry matter / year per inhabitant of the Czech Republic. Due to the fact that sewage sludge contains a large amount of substances that are not beneficial for human health, the conditions for sludge management will be significantly tightened in the Czech Republic since 2023. One of the tested methods of sludge liquidation is the production of alternative fuel from sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper production. The paper presents an analysis of economic efficiency of alternative fuel production from sludge and its use for fluidized bed boiler with nominal consumption of 5 t of fuel per hour. The evaluation methodology includes the entire logistics chain from sludge extraction, through mechanical moisture reduction to about 40%, transport to the pelletizing line, moisture drying for pelleting and pelleting itself. For economic analysis of sludge pellet production, a time horizon of 10 years corresponding to the expected lifetime of the critical components of the pelletizing line is chosen. The economic analysis of pelleting projects is based on a detailed analysis of reference pelleting technologies suitable for sludge pelleting. The analysis of the economic efficiency of pellet is based on the simulation of cash flows associated with the implementation of the project over the life of the project. For the entered value of return on the invested capital, the price of the resulting product (in EUR / GJ or in EUR / t) is searched to ensure that the net present value of the project is zero over the project lifetime. The investor then realizes the return on the investment in the amount of the discount used to calculate the net present value. The calculations take place in a real business environment (taxes, tax depreciation, inflation, etc.) and the inputs work with market prices. At the same time, the opportunity cost principle is respected; waste disposal for alternative fuels includes the saved costs of waste disposal. The methodology also respects the emission allowances saved due to the displacement of coal by alternative (bio) fuel. Preliminary results of testing of pellet production from sludge show that after suitable modifications of the pelletizer it is possible to produce sufficiently high quality pellets from sludge. A mixture of sludge and paper waste has proved to be a more suitable material for pelleting. At the same time, preliminary results of the analysis of the economic efficiency of this sludge disposal method show that, despite the relatively low calorific value of the fuel produced (about 10-11 MJ / kg), this sludge disposal method is economically competitive. This work has been supported by the Czech Technology Agency within the project TN01000048 Biorefining as circulation technology.

Keywords: Alternative fuel, Economic analysis, Pelleting, Sewage sludge

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