Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6519

Search results for: organic content

6519 Secondary Compression Behavior of Organic Soils in One-Dimensional Consolidation Tests

Authors: Rinku Varghese, S. Chandrakaran, K. Rangaswamy

Abstract:

The standard one-dimensional consolidation test is used to find the consolidation behaviour of artificially consolidated organic soils. Incremental loading tests were conducted on the clay without and with organic matter. The study was conducted with soil having different organic content keeping all other parameters constant. The tests were conducted on clay and artificially prepared organic soil sample at different vertical pressure. The load increment ratio considered for the test is equal to one. Artificial organic soils are used for the test by adding starch to the clay. The percentage of organic content in starch is determined by adding 5% by weight starch into the clay (inorganic soil) sample and corresponding change in organic content of soil was determined. This was expressed as percentage by weight of starch, and it was found that about 95% organic content in the soil sample. Accordingly percentage of organic content fixed and added to the sample for testing to understand the consolidation behaviour clayey soils with organic content. A detailed study of the results obtained from IL test was investigated. The main items investigated were (i) coefficient of consolidation (cv), (ii) coefficient of volume compression (mv), (iii) coefficient of permeability (k). The consolidation parameter obtained from IL test was used for determining the creep strain and creep parameter and also predicting their variation with vertical stress and organic content.

Keywords: consolidation, secondary compression, creep, starch

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
6518 Effects of Organic Amendments on Primary Nutrients (N, P and K) in a Sandy Soil

Authors: Nejib Turki, Karima Kouki Khalfallah

Abstract:

The effect of six treatments of organic amendments were evaluated on a sandy soil in the region of Soukra in Tunisia. T1: cattle manure 55 t.ha-1, T2: commercial compost from Germany to 1 t.ha-1, T3: a mixture of 27.5 t.ha-1 of T1 with 0.5 t. ha-1 of T2, T4: commercial compost from France 2 t.ha-1, T5: a Tunisian commercial compost to 10 t.ha-1 and T0: control without treatment. The nitrogen in the soil increase to 0.029 g.kg-1 of soil treatment for the T1 and 0.021 g. kg-1 of soil treatment for the T3. The highest content of P2O5 has been registered by the T3 treatment that 0.44 g kg-1 soil with respect to the control (T0), which shows a content of 0.36 g.kg-1 soil. The soil was initially characterized by a potassium content of 0.8 g kg-1 soil, K2O exchangeable rate varied between 0.63 g.Kg-1 and 0.71 g.kg-1 soil respectively T2 and T1.

Keywords: compost, organic amendement, Ntot, P2O5, K2O

Procedia PDF Downloads 528
6517 Chemometric Analysis of Raw Milk Quality Originating from Conventional and Organic Dairy Farming in AP Vojvodina, Serbia

Authors: Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Denis Kučević, Strahinja Kovačević, Milica Karadžić, Lidija Jevrić

Abstract:

The present study describes the application of chemometric methods in analysis of milk samples which were collected in a conventional dairy farm and an organic dairy farm in AP Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia. The chemometric analysis included the application of univariate regression modeling and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method. The ANOVA was used in order to determine the differences in fatty acids content in the milk samples from conventional and organic farm. The results of the ANOVA testing indicate that there is a highly statistically significant difference between the content of fatty acid (saturated fatty acid vs. unsaturated fatty acids) in different dairy farming. Besides, the linear univariate models have been obtained as a result of modeling the linear relationships between the milk fat content and saturated fatty acids content, and the linear relationships between the milk fat content and unsaturated fatty acids content. The models obtained on the basis of the milk samples which originate from the organic farming are statistically better than the models based on the milk samples from conventional farming.

Keywords: hemometrics, milk, organic farming, quality control

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
6516 Co-Composting of Poultry Manure with Different Organic Amendments

Authors: M. E. Silva, I. Brás

Abstract:

To study the influence of different organic amendments on the quality of poultry manure compost, three pilot composting trials were carried out with different mixes: poultry manure/carcasse meal/ashes/grape pomace (Pile 1), poultry manure/ cellulosic sludge (Pile 2) and poultry manure (Pile 3). For all piles, wood chips were applied as bulking agent. The process was monitored, over time, by evaluating standard physical and chemical parameters, such as, pH, electric conductivity, moisture, organic matter and ash content, total carbon and total nitrogen content, carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and content in mineral elements. Piles 1 and 2 reached a thermophilic phase, however having different trends. Pile 1 reached this phase earlier than Pile 2. For both, the pH showed a slight alkaline character and the electric conductivity was lower than 2 mS/cm. Also, the initial C/N value was 22 and reached values lower than 15 at the end of composting process. The total N content of the Pile 1 increased slightly during composting, in contrast with the others piles. At the end of composting process, the phosphorus content ranged between 54 and 236 mg/kg dry matter, for Pile 2 and 3, respectively. Generally, the Piles 1 and 3 exhibited similar heavy metals content. This study showed that organic amendments can be used as carbon source, given that the final composts presented parameters within the range of those recommended in the 2nd Draft of EU regulation proposal (DG Env.A.2 2001) for compost quality.

Keywords: co-composting, compost quality, organic ammendment, poultry manure

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
6515 Safety Date Fruits for Human Being as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilization Applications in Egypt

Authors: A. M. Attalla, A. F. lbrahim, Laila Y. Mostaffa

Abstract:

This study was conducted during three seasons 2010, 2011 and 2012 on Zahhloul date palm cultivar grown in calcareous soil, Alexandria governorate, Egypt. The palms received recommended dose of mineral N only or plus different rates of organic N with or without bio fertilizer to study the effect of such treatments on date palm yield and fruit nitrate and nitrite content due to its negative influence on human, animal and environment. The obtained results clarified that all used treatments of organic and bio fertilizers were effective in improving date palm yield and decreased fruit content of NO2 and NO3 in comparison with 100 % mineral N. It was also noticed that combined treatments of 50 % mineral N + 50 % organic manure with bio fertilizer is the superior treatments for increasing the values of yield and decreasing its content of NO2 and NO3. Hence, it could be concluded that, minimizing the use of chemical nitrogen fertilizer to half of recommended dose through addition of 50 % mineral N + 50 % organic manure with bio fertilizer and also, the utilization of organic and bio fertilizers is considered as a promising alternative for chemical fertilizers to avoid pollution and reduce the costs of mineral fertilizers.

Keywords: organic and bio fertilizers, mineral fertilizer, nitrate, nitrite, zaghloul date palm cv

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
6514 Consumer Attitude and Purchase Intention towards Organic Food: Insights from Pakistan

Authors: Muneshia Maheshwar, Kanwal Gul, Shakira Fareed, Ume-Amama Areeb Gul

Abstract:

Organic food is commonly known for its healthier content without the use of pesticides, herbicides, inorganic fertilizers, antibiotics and growth hormones. The aim of this research is to examine the effect of health consciousness, environmental concern and organic food knowledge on both the intention to buy organic foods and the attitude towards organic foods and the effect of attitude towards organic foods on the intention to buy organic foods in Pakistan. Primary data was used which was collected through adopted questionnaire from previous research. Non- probability convenience sampling was used to select sample size of 200 consumers based on Karachi. The data was analyzed through Descriptive statistics and Multi regression method. The findings of the study showed that the attitude and the intention to buy organic food were affected by health consciousness, environmental concern, and organic food knowledge. The results also revealed that attitude also affects the intention to buy organic food.

Keywords: health consciousness, attitude, intention to purchase, environmental concern, organic food knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
6513 Choosing Local Organic Food: Consumer Motivations and Ethical Spaces

Authors: Artur Saraiva, Moritz von Schwedler, Emília Fernandes

Abstract:

In recent years, the organic sector has increased significantly. However, with the ‘conventionalization’ of these products, it has been questioned whether these products have been losing their original vision. Accordingly, this research based on 31 phenomenological interviews with committed organic consumers in urban and rural areas of Portugal, aims to analyse how ethical motivations and ecological awareness are related to organic food consumption. The content thematic analysis highlights aspects related to society and environmental concerns. On an individual level, the importance of internal coherence, peace of mind and balance that these consumers find in the consumption of local organic products was stressed. For these consumers, local organic products consumption made for significant changes in their lives, aiding in the establishment of a green identity, and involves a certain philosophy of life. This vision of an organic lifestyle is grounded in a political and ecological perspective, beyond the usual organic definition, as a ‘post-organic era’. The paper contributes to better understand how an ideological environmental discourse allows highlighting the relationship between consumers’ environmental concerns and the politics of food, resulting in a possible transition to new sustainable consumption practices.

Keywords: organic consumption, localism, content thematic analysis, pro-environmental discourse, political consumption, Portugal

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
6512 Classification Systems of Peat Soils Based on Their Geotechnical, Physical and Chemical Properties

Authors: Mohammad Saberian, Reza Porhoseini, Mohammad Ali Rahgozar

Abstract:

Peat is a partially carbonized vegetable tissue which is formed in wet conditions by decomposition of various plants, mosses and animal remains. This restricted definition, including only materials which are entirely of vegetative origin, conflicts with several established soil classification systems. Peat soils are usually defined as soils having more than 75 percent organic matter. Due to this composition, the structure of peat soil is highly different from the mineral soils such as silt, clay and sand. Peat has high compressibility, high moisture content, low shear strength and low bearing capacity, so it is considered to be in the category of problematic. Since this kind of soil is generally found in many countries and various zones, except for desert and polar zones, recognizing this soil is inevitably significant. The objective of this paper is to review the classification of peats based on various properties of peat soils such as organic contents, water content, color, odor, and decomposition, scholars offer various classification systems which Von Post classification system is one of the most well-known and efficient system.

Keywords: peat soil, degree of decomposition, organic content, water content, Von Post classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 496
6511 Impact of Organic Farming on Soil Fertility and Microbial Activity

Authors: Menuka Maharjan

Abstract:

In the name of food security, agriculture intensification through conventional farming is being implemented in Nepal. Government focus on increasing agriculture production completely ignores soil as well human health. This leads to create serious soil degradation, i.e., reduction of soil fertility and microbial activity and health hazard in the country. On this note, organic farming is sustainable agriculture approach which can address challenge of sustaining food security while protecting the environment. This creates a win-win situation both for people and the environment. However, people have limited knowledge on significance of organic farming for environment conservation and food security especially developing countries like Nepal. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the impacts of organic farming on soil fertility and microbial activity compared to conventional farming and forest in Chitwan, Nepal. Total soil organic carbon (C) was highest in organic farming (24 mg C g⁻¹ soil) followed by conventional farming (15 mg C g⁻¹ soil) and forest (9 mg C g⁻¹ soil) in the topsoil layer (0-10 cm depth). A similar trend was found for total nitrogen (N) content in all three land uses with organic farming soil possessing the highest total N content in both 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth. Microbial biomass C and N were also highest under organic farming, especially in the topsoil layer (350 and 46 mg g⁻¹ soil, respectively). Similarly, microbial biomass phosphorus (P) was higher (3.6 and 1.0 mg P kg⁻¹ at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth, respectively) in organic farming compared to conventional farming and forest at both depths. However, conventional farming and forest soils had similar microbial biomass (C, N, and P) content. After conversion of forest, the P stock significantly increased by 373% and 170% in soil under organic farming at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth, respectively. In conventional farming, the P stock increased by 64% and 36% at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth, respectively, compared to forest. Overall, organic farming practices, i.e., crop rotation, residue input and farmyard manure application, significantly alters soil fertility and microbial activity. Organic farming system is emerging as a sustainable land use system which can address the issues of food security and environment conservation by increasing sustainable agriculture production and carbon sequestration, respectively, supporting to achieve goals of sustainable development.

Keywords: organic farming, soil fertility, micobial biomas, food security

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
6510 Degradation of Endosulfan in Different Soils by Indigenous and Adapted Microorganisms

Authors: A. Özyer, N. G. Turan, Y. Ardalı

Abstract:

The environmental fate of organic contaminants in soils is influenced significantly by the pH, texture of soil, water content and also presence of organic matter. In this study, biodegradation of endosulfan isomers was studied in two different soils (Soil A and Soil B) that have contrasting properties in terms of their texture, pH, organic content, etc. Two Nocardia sp., which were isolated from soil, were used for degradation of endosulfan. Soils were contaminated with commercial endosulfan. Six sets were maintained from two different soils, contaminated with different endosulfan concentrations for degradation experiments. Inoculated and uninoculated mineral media with Nocardia isolates were added to the soils and mixed. Soils were incubated at a certain temperature (30 °C) during ten weeks. Residue endosulfan and its metabolites’ concentrations were determined weekly during the incubation period. The changes of the soil microorganisms were investigated weekly.

Keywords: endosulfan, biodegradation, Nocardia sp. soil, organochlorine pesticide

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
6509 Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Wastes for Biogas Production

Authors: Ayhan Varol, Aysenur Ugurlu

Abstract:

Due to the depletion of fossil fuels and climate change, there is a rising interest in renewable energy sources. In this concept, a wide range of biomass (energy crops, animal manure, solid wastes, etc.) are used for energy production. There has been a growing interest in biomethane production from biomass. Biomethane production from organic wastes is a promising alternative for waste management by providing organic matter stabilization. Anaerobic digestion of organic material produces biogas, and organic substrate is degraded into a more stable material. Therefore, anaerobic digestion technology helps reduction of carbon emissions and produces renewable energy. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR), as well as TS (VS) loadings, influences the anaerobic digestion of organic wastes significantly. The optimum range for HRT varies between 15 days to 30 days, whereas OLR differs between 0.5 to 5 g/L.d depending on the substrate type and its lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. The organic wastes have biogas production potential through anaerobic digestion. In this study, biomethane production potential of wastes like sugar beet bagasse, agricultural residues, food wastes, olive mill pulp, and dairy manure having different characteristics was investigated in mesophilic CSTR reactor, and their performances were compared. The reactor was mixed in order to provide homogenized content at a rate of 80 rpm. The organic matter content of these wastes was between 85 to 94 % with 61% (olive pulp) to 22 % (food waste) dry matter content. The hydraulic retention time changed between 20-30 days. High biogas productions, 13.45 to 5.70 mL/day, were achieved from the wastes studied when operated at 9 to 10.5% TS loadings where OLR varied between 2.92 and 3.95 gVS/L.day. The results showed that food wastes have higher specific methane production rate and volumetric methane production potential than the other wastes studied, under the similar OLR values. The SBP was 680, 585, 540, 390 and 295 mL/g VS for food waste, agricultural residues, sugar beet bagasse, olive pulp and dairy manure respectively. The methane content of the biogas varied between 72 and 60 %. The volatile solids conversion rate for food waste was 62%.

Keywords: biogas production, organic wastes, biomethane, anaerobic digestion

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
6508 Evaluation of Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Amaranth Seeds Grown in Latvia

Authors: Alla Mariseva, Ilze Beitane

Abstract:

Daily intake of products rich in antioxidants that scavenge free radicals in cell membranes is an effective way to combat oxidative stress. Last year there was noticed higher interest towards the identification and utilization of plants rich in antioxidant compounds as they may behave as preventive medicine. Amaranth seeds due to polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and tocopherols are characterized by high antioxidant activity. The study aimed to evaluate the total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of amaranth seeds cultivated in 2020 in two farms in Latvia. One sample of amaranth seeds came from an organic farm, the other – from a conventional farm. The total phenol content of amaranth seed extracts was measured with the Folin-Ciocalte spectrophotometric method. The total phenols were expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per 100 g dry weight (DW) of the samples. The antioxidant activity of amaranth seed extracts was calculated based on scavenging activities of the stable 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical, the radical scavenging capacity (ABTS) was demonstrated as Trolox mM equivalents (TE) per 100 g-1 dry weight. Three parallel measurements were performed on all samples. There were significant differences between organic and conventional amaranth seeds in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Organic amaranth seeds showed higher total phenolic content compared to conventional amaranth seeds, 65.4±6.0 mg GAE 100 g⁻¹ DW and 43.4±7.8 mg GAE 100 g⁻¹ DW respectively. Organic amaranth seeds were also characterized by higher DPPH radical scavenging activity (7.9±0.4 mM TE 100 g⁻¹ of dry matter) and ABTS radical scavenging capacity (13.2±1.5 mM TE 100 g⁻¹ of dry matter). The results obtained on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of amaranth seeds grown in Latvia confirmed that the samples have a high biological value; therefore, it would be necessary to promote their consumption by including them in various food products, including vegan products, increasing their nutritional value.

Keywords: ABTS, amaranth seeds, antioxidant activity, DPPH, total phenolic content

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
6507 Organic Geochemistry of the Late Cenomanian–Early Turonian Source Rock in Central and Northern Tunisia

Authors: Belhaj Mohamed, M. Saidi, I. Bouazizi, M. Soussi, M. Ben Jrad

Abstract:

The Late Cenomanian-Early Turonian laminated, black, organic-rich limestones were described in Central Tunisia and attributed to the Bahloul Formation. It covers central and northern Tunisia, and the northern part of the Gulf of Gabes. The Bahloul Formation is considered as one of the main source rocks in Tunisia and is composed of outer-shelf to slop-laminated and dark-gray to black-colored limestones and marls. This formation had been deposited in a relatively deep-marine, calm, and anoxic environment. Rock-Eval analysis and vitrinite reflectance (Ro) measurements were performed on the basis of the organic carbon content. Several samples were chosen for molecular organic geochemistry. Saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry. Geochemical data of the Bahloul Formation in northern and central Tunisia show this level to be a good potential source rock as indicated by the high content of type II organic matter. This formation exhibits high total organic carbon contents (as much as 14%), with an average value of 2% and a good to excellent petroleum potential, ranging between 2 and 50 kg of hydrocarbon/ton of rock. The extracts from the Bahloul Formation are characterized by Pr/Ph ratios ranging between 1.5 and 3, a moderate diasterane content, a C27 sterane approximately equal to C29 sterane, a high C28/C29 ratio, low gammacerane index, a C35/C34 homohopane ratio less than 1 and carbon isotope compositions between -24 and -26‰. The thermal maturity is relatively low, corresponding to the beginning of the oil window in the western area near the Algerian border, in the oil window in the eastern area (Sahel basin) and late mature in northern part.

Keywords: biomarkers, organic geochemistry, source rock, Tunisia

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
6506 Vitrification and Devitrification of Chromium Containing Tannery Ash

Authors: Savvas Varitis, Panagiotis Kavouras, George Kaimakamis, Eleni Pavlidou, George Vourlias, Konstantinos Chrysafis, Philomela Komninou, Theodoros Karakostas

Abstract:

Tannery industry produces high quantities of chromium containing waste which also have high organic content. Processing of this waste is important since the organic content is above the disposal limits and the containing trivalent chromium could be potentially oxidized to hexavalent in the environment. This work aims to fabricate new vitreous and glass ceramic materials which could incorporate the tannery waste in stabilized form either for safe disposal or for the production of useful materials. Tannery waste was incinerated at 500oC in anoxic conditions so most of the organic content would be removed and the chromium remained trivalent. Glass forming agents SiO2, Na2O and CaO were mixed with the resulting ash in different proportions with decreasing ash content. Considering the low solubility of Cr in silicate melts, the mixtures were melted at 1400oC and/or 1500oC for 2h and then casted on a refractory steel plate. The resulting vitreous products were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM and TEM). XRD reveals the existence of Cr2O3 (eskolaite) crystallites embedded in a glassy amorphous matrix. Such crystallites are not formed under a certain proportion of the waste in the ash-vitrified material. Reduction of the ash proportion increases chromium content in the silicate matrix. From these glassy products, glass-ceramics were produced via different regimes of thermal treatment.

Keywords: chromium containing tannery ash, glass ceramic materials, thermal processing, vitrification

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
6505 Organic Geochemical Characteristics of Cenozoic Mudstones, NE Bengal Basin, Bangladesh

Authors: H. M. Zakir Hossain

Abstract:

Cenozoic mudstone samples, obtained from drilled cored and outcrop in northeastern Bengal Basin of Bangladesh were organic geochemically analyzed to identify vertical variations of organic facies, thermal maturity, hydrocarbon potential and depositional environments. Total organic carbon (TOC) content ranges from 0.11 to 1.56 wt% with an average of 0.43 wt%, indicating a good source rock potential. Total sulphur content is variable with values ranging from ~0.001 to 1.75 wt% with an average of 0.065 wt%. Rock-Eval S1 and S2 yields range from 0.03 to 0.14 mg HC/g rock and 0.01 to 0.66 mg HC/g rock, respectively. The hydrogen index values range from 2.71 to 56.09 mg HC/g TOC. These results revealed that the samples are dominated by type III kerogene. Tmax values of 426 to 453 °C and vitrinite reflectance of 0.51 to 0.66% indicate the organic matter is immature to mature. Saturated hydrocarbon ratios such as pristane, phytane, steranes, and hopanes, indicate mostly terrigenous organic matter with small influence of marine organic matter. Organic matter in the succession was accumulated in three different environmental conditions based on the integration of biomarker proxies. First phase (late Eocene to early Miocene): Deposition occurred entirely in seawater-dominated oxic conditions, with high inputs of land plants organic matter including angiosperms. Second phase (middle to late Miocene): Deposition occurred in freshwater-dominated anoxic conditions, with phytoplanktonic organic matter and a small influence of land plants. Third phase (late Miocene to Pleistocene): Deposition occurred in oxygen-poor freshwater conditions, with abundant input of planktonic organic matter and high influx of angiosperms. The lower part (middle Eocene to early Miocene) of the succession with moderate TOC contents and primarily terrestrial organic matter could have generated some condensates and oils in and around the study area.

Keywords: Bangladesh, geochemistry, hydrocarbon potential, mudstone

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
6504 Geotechnical Properties and Compressibility Behavior of Organic Dredged Soils

Authors: Inci Develioglu, Hasan Firat Pulat

Abstract:

Sustainable development is one of the most important topics in today's world, and it is also an important research topic for geoenvironmental engineering. Dredging process is performed to expand the river and port channel, flood control and accessing harbors. Every year large amount of sediment are dredged for these purposes. Dredged marine soils can be reused as filling materials, road and foundation embankments, construction materials and wildlife habitat developments. In this study, geotechnical engineering properties and compressibility behavior of dredged soil obtained from the Izmir Bay were investigated. The samples with four different organic matter contents were obtained and particle size distributions, consistency limits, pH and specific gravity tests were performed. The consolidation tests were conducted to examine organic matter content (OMC) effects on compressibility behavior of dredged soil. This study has shown that the OMC has an important effect on the engineering properties of dredged soils. The liquid and plastic limits increased with increasing OMC. The lowest specific gravity belonged to sample which has the maximum OMC. The specific gravity values ranged between 2.76 and 2.52. The maximum void ratio difference belongs to sample with the highest OMC (De11% = 0.38). As the organic matter content of the samples increases, the change in the void ratio has also increased. The compression index increases with increasing OMC.

Keywords: compressibility, consolidation, geotechnical properties, organic matter content, dredged soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
6503 Effect of Open Burning on Soil Carbon Stock in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand

Authors: Wilaiwan Sornpoon, Sébastien Bonnet, Savitri Garivait

Abstract:

Open burning of sugarcane fields is recognized to have a negative impact on soil by degrading its properties, especially soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Better understating the effect of open burning on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for documenting the carbon sequestration capacity of agricultural soils. In this study, experiments to investigate soil carbon stocks under burned and unburned sugarcane plantation systems in Thailand were conducted. The results showed that cultivation fields without open burning during 5 consecutive years enabled to increase the SOC content at a rate of 1.37 Mg ha-1y-1. Also it was found that sugarcane fields burning led to about 15% reduction of the total carbon stock in the 0-30 cm soil layer. The overall increase in SOC under unburned practice is mainly due to the large input of organic material through the use of sugarcane residues.

Keywords: soil organic carbon, soil inorganic carbon, carbon sequestration, open burning, sugarcane

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
6502 Investigation of Steady State Infiltration Rate for Different Head Condition

Authors: Nour Aljafari, Mariam, S. Maani, Serter Atabay, Tarig Ali, Said Daker, Lara Daher, Hamad Bukhammas, Mohammed Abou Shakra

Abstract:

This paper aims at determining the soil characteristics that influence the irrigation process of green landscapes and deciding on the optimum amount of water needed for irrigation. The laboratory experiments were conducted using the constant head methodology to determine the soil infiltration rates. The steady state infiltration rate was reached after 10 minutes of infiltration at a rate of 200 mm/hr. The effects of different water heads on infiltration rates were also investigated, and the head of 11 cm was found to be the optimum head for the test. The experimental results showed consistent infiltration results for the range between 11 cm and 15 cm. The study also involved finding the initial moisture content, which ranged between 5% and 25%, and finding the organic content, which occupied 1% to 2% of the soil. These results will be later utilized, using the water balance approach, to estimate the optimum amount of water needed for irrigation for changing weather conditions.

Keywords: infiltration rate, moisture content, grass type, organic content

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
6501 Soil Respiration Rate of Laurel-Leaved and Cryptomeria japonica Forests

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani

Abstract:

We assessed the ecology of the organic and mineral soil layers of laurel-leaved (BB-1) and Cryptomeria japonica (BB-2 and Pw) forests in the Kasugayama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan). The soil respiration rate was higher in the deeper horizons (F and H) of organic layers than in those of mineral soil layers, suggesting organic layers may be where active microbial metabolism occurs. Respiration rates in the soil of BB-1, BB-2 and Pw forests were closely similar at 5 and 10°C. However, the soil respiration rate increased in proportion to temperatures of 15°C or above. We therefore consider the activity of soil microorganisms to markedly decrease at temperatures below 10°C. At a temperature of 15°C or above, the soil respiration rate in the BB-1 organic layers was higher than in those of the BB-2 and Pw organic layers, due to differences in forest vegetation that appeared to influence several salient soil properties, particularly pH and the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content of the F and H horizons.

Keywords: forest soil, mineralization rate, heterotroph, soil respiration rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
6500 Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Raw Milk Samples Obtained from Organic and Conventional Dairy Farming in Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia

Authors: Lidija Jevrić, Denis Kučević, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Strahinja Kovačević, Milica Karadžić

Abstract:

In the present study, the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) was applied in order to determine the differences between the milk samples originating from a conventional dairy farm (CF) and an organic dairy farm (OF) in AP Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia. The clustering was based on the basis of the average values of saturated fatty acids (SFA) content and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) content obtained for every season. Therefore, the HCA included the annual SFA and UFA content values. The clustering procedure was carried out on the basis of Euclidean distances and Single linkage algorithm. The obtained dendrograms indicated that the clustering of UFA in OF was much more uniform compared to clustering of UFA in CF. In OF, spring stands out from the other months of the year. The same case can be noticed for CF, where winter is separated from the other months. The results could be expected because the composition of fatty acids content is greatly influenced by the season and nutrition of dairy cows during the year.

Keywords: chemometrics, clustering, food engineering, milk quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
6499 Production and Market of Certified Organic Products in Thailand

Authors: Chaiwat Kongsom, Vitoon Panyakul

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to assess the production and market of certified organic products in Thailand. A purposive sampling technique was used to identify a sample group of 154 organic entrepreneurs for the study. A survey and in-depth interview were employed for data collection. Also, secondary data from organic agriculture certification body and publications was collected. Then descriptive statistics and content analysis technique were used to describe about production and market of certified organic products in Thailand. Results showed that there were 9,218 farmers on 213,183.68 Rai (83,309.2 acre) of certified organic agriculture land (0.29% of national agriculture land). A total of 57.8% of certified organic agricultural lands were certified by the international certification body. Organic farmers produced around 71,847 tons/year and worth around THB 1,914 million (Euro 47.92 million). Excluding primary producers, 471 operators involved in the Thai organic supply chains, including processors, exporters, distributors, green shops, modern trade shops (supermarket shop), farmer’s markets and food establishments were included. Export market was the major market channel and most of organic products were exported to Europe and North America. The total Thai organic market in 2014 was estimated to be worth around THB 2,331.55 million (Euro 58.22 million), of which, 77.9% was for export and 22.06% was for the domestic market. The largest exports of certified organic products were processed foods (66.1% of total export value), followed by organic rice (30.4%). In the domestic market, modern trade was the largest sale channel, accounting for 59.48% of total domestic sales, followed by green shop (29.47%) and food establishment (5.85%). To become a center of organic farming and trading within ASEAN, the Thai organic sector needs to have more policy support in regard to agricultural chemicals, GMO, and community land title. In addition, appropriate strategies need to be developed.

Keywords: certified organic products, production, market, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
6498 Agro-Measures Influence Soil Physical Parameters in Alternative Farming

Authors: Laura Masilionyte, Danute Jablonskyte-Rasce, Kestutis Venslauskas, Zita Kriauciuniene

Abstract:

Alternative farming systems are used to cultivate high-quality food products and sustain the viability and fertility of the soil. Plant nutrition in all ecosystems depends not only on fertilization intensity or soil richness in organic matter but also on soil physical parameters –bulk density, structure, pores with the optimum moisture and air ratio available to plants. The field experiments of alternative (sustainable and organic) farming systems were conducted at Joniskelis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in 2006–2016. The soil of the experimental site was Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol (CMg-n-w-can). In alternative farming systems, farmyard manure, straw and catch crops for green manure were used for fertilization both in the soil with low and moderate humus contents. It had a more significant effect in the 0–20 cm depth layer on soil moisture than on other physical soil properties. In the agricultural systems, where catch crops were grown, soil physical characteristics did not differ significantly before their biomass incorporation, except for the moisture content, which was lower in rainy periods and higher in drier periods than in the soil of farming systems without catch crops. Soil bulk density and porosity in the topsoil layer were more dependent on soil humus content than on agricultural measures used: in the soil with moderate humus content, compared with the soil with low humus content, bulk density was by 1.4% lower, and porosity by 1.8% higher. The research findings allow to make improvements in alternative farming systems by choosing appropriate combinations of organic fertilizers and catch crops that have a sustainable effect on soil and maintain the sustainability of soil productivity parameters. Rational fertilization systems, securing the stability of soil productivity parameters and crop rotation productivity will promote the development of organic agriculture.

Keywords: agro-measures, soil physical parameters, organic farming, sustainable farming

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
6497 The Importance of Storage Period on Biogas Potential of Cattle Manure

Authors: Seongwon Im, Jimin Kim, Kyeongcheol Kim, Dong-Hoon Kim

Abstract:

Cattle manure (CM) produced from farmhas been utilized to soils for increasing crop production owing to high nutrients content and effective microorganisms. Some cities with the concentrated activity of livestock industry have suffered from environmental problems, such as odorous gas emissions and soil and water pollution, caused by excessive use of compost. As an alternative option, the anaerobic digestion (AD) process can be utilized, which can reduce the volume of organic waste but also produce energy. According to Korea-Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy (KMTIE), the energy potential of CM via biogas production was estimated to be 0.8 million TOE per year, which is higher than that of other organic wastes. However, limited energy is recovered since useful organic matter, capable of converting to biogas, may be degraded during the long storage period (1-6 months).In this study, the effect of storage period on biogas potential of CM was investigated. Compared to fresh CM (VS 14±1 g/L, COD 205±5 g/L, TKN 7.4±0.8 g/L, NH4+-N 1.5±0.1), old CM has higher organic (35-37%) and nitrogen content (50-100%) due to the drying process during storage. After stabilization period, biogas potential of 0.09 L CH4/g VS was obtained in R1 (old CM supplement) at HRT of 150-100 d, and it was decreased further to 0.06 L CH4/g VS at HRT of 80 d. The drop of pH and organic acids accumulation were not observed during the whole operation of R1. Ammonia stripping and pretreatment of CM were found to be not effective to increase CH4 yield. On the other hand, a sudden increase of biogas potential to 0.19-0.22 L CH4/g VS was achieved in R2 after changing feedstock to fresh CM. The expected reason for the low biogas potential of old CM might be related with the composition of organic matters in CM. Easily biodegradable organic matters in the fresh CM were contained in high concentration, butthey were removed by microorganisms during storing CM in a farm, resulting low biogas yield. This study implies that fresh storage is important to make AD process applicable for CM.

Keywords: storage period, cattle manure, biogas potential, microbial analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
6496 Quality of So-Called Organic Fertilizers in Vietnam's Market

Authors: Hoang Thi Quynh, Shima Kazuto

Abstract:

Organic farming is gaining interest in Vietnam. However, organic fertilizer production is not sufficiently regulated, resulting in unknown quality. This study investigated characteristics of so-called organic fertilizers in the Vietnam’s market and their mineralization in soil-plant system. We collected 15 commercial products (11 domestic and 4 imported) which labelled 'organic fertilizer' in the market to analyze nutrients composition. A 20 day-incubation experiment was carried on with 80 g sandy-textured soil, amended with the fertilizer at a rate of 109.4 mgN.kg⁻¹soil in 150 mL glass bottle at 25℃. We categorized them according to nutrients content and mineralization rate, and then selected 8 samples for cultivation experiment. The experiment was conducted by growing Komatsuna (Brassica campestris) in sandy-textured soil using an automatic watering apparatus in a greenhouse. The fertilizers were applied to the top one-third of the soil stratum at a rate of 200 mgN.kg⁻¹ soil. Our study also analyzed material flow of coffee husk compost in Central Highland of Vietnam. Total N, P, K, Ca, Mg and C: N ratio varied greatly cross the domestic products, whereas they were quite similar among the imported materials. The proportion of inorganic-N to T-N of domestic products was higher than 25% in 8 of 11 samples. These indicate that N concentration increased dramatically in most domestic products compared with their raw materials. Additionally, most domestic products contained less P, and their proportions of Truog-P to T-P were greatly different. These imply that some manufactures were interested in adjusting P concentration, but some ones were not. Furthermore, the compost was made by mixing with chemical substances to increase nutrients content (N, P), and also added construction surplus soil to gain weight before packing product to sell in the market as 'organic fertilizer'. There was a negative correlation between C:N ratio and mineralization rate of the fertilizers. There was a significant difference in N efficiency among the fertilizer treatments. N efficiency of most domestic products was higher than chemical fertilizer and imported organic fertilizers. These results suggest regulations on organic fertilizers production needed to support organic farming that is based on internationally accepted standards in Vietnam.

Keywords: inorganic N, mineralization, N efficiency, so-called organic fertilizers, Vietnam’s market

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
6495 Producing Lutein Powder from Algae by Extraction and Drying

Authors: Zexin Lei, Timothy Langrish

Abstract:

Lutein is a type of carotene believed to be beneficial to the eyes. This study aims to explore the possibility of using a closed cycle spray drying system to produce lutein. The system contains a spray dryer, a condenser, a heater, and a pressure seal. Hexane, ethanol, and isopropanol will be used as organic solvents to compare the extraction effects. Several physical and chemical methods of cell disruption will be compared. By continuously sweeping the system with nitrogen, the oxygen content will be controlled below 2%, reducing the concentration of organic solvent below the explosion limit and preventing lutein from being oxidized. Lutein powder will be recovered in the collection device. The volatile organic solvent will be cooled in the condenser and deposited in the bottom until it is discharged from the bottom of the condenser.

Keywords: closed cycle spray drying system, Chlorella vulgaris, organic solvent, solvent recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
6494 Effect of Biostimulants Application on Quali-Quantitative Characteristics of Cauliflower, Pepper, and Fennel Crops Under Organic and Conventional Fertilization

Authors: E. Tarantino, G. Disciglio, L. Frabboni, A. Libutti, G. Gatta, A. Gagliaridi, A. Tarantino

Abstract:

Nowadays, the main goal for modern horticultural production is the increase of quality. In the recent years, the use of organic fertilizers or bio stimulants, that can be applied in agriculture in order to improve the quanti-qualitative crop yields, has encountered an increasing interest. The bio stimulants are gaining importance also for their possible use in organic and sustainable agriculture, avoiding excessive fertilizer applications. Consecutive experimental trials were carried out in Apulia region (southern Italy) on three herbaceous crops (cauliflower, pepper and fennel), grown in pots, under conventional and organic fertilization, with and without bio stimulants application, to verify the effects of several bio stimulants (Siapton®10L, Micotech L and Lysodin Alga-Fert) on quanti-qualitative yield characteristics. At the harvest, the quanti-qualitative yield characteristics of each crop were determined. All experimental data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and, when significant effects were detected, the mean values were compared using Tukey’s test. Results showed great differences of yield characteristics between conventional and organic crops, particularly highlighting a higher yield in the conventional one. Variable results were generally observed when bio stimulants were applied. In this contest no effect were noted on quantitative yield, whereas a light positive effect of bio stimulants on qualitative characteristic, related to the higher dry matter content of cauliflower and the higher soluble solid content of pepper, was observed. Moreover, an evident positive effect of bio stimulants was noted in the fennel due to the lower nitrate content. The latter results are according with most of published literature obtained on other herbaceous crops.

Keywords: biostimulants, cauliflower, pepper, fennel

Procedia PDF Downloads 501
6493 Factors Influencing the Resistance of the Purchase of Organic Food and Market Education Process in Indonesia

Authors: Fety Nurlia Muzayanah, Arif Imam Suroso, Mukhamad Najib

Abstract:

The market share of organic food in Indonesia just reaches 0.5-2 percents from the entire of agricultural products. The aim of this research is to analyze the relation of gender, work, age and final education toward the buying interest of organic food, to identify the factors influencing the resistance of the purchase of organic food, and to identify the market education process. The analysis result of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) shows the factors causing the resistance of the purchase of organic food are the negative attitude toward organic food, the lack of affordable in range for organic food product and the lack of awareness toward organic food, while the subjective norms have no significant effect toward the buying interest. The market education process which can be done is the education about the use of the health of organic food, the organic certification and the economic value.

Keywords: market education, organic food, consumer behavior, structural equation modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 517
6492 Investigation of Biogas from Slaughterhouse and Dairy Farm Waste

Authors: Saadelnour Abdueljabbar Adam

Abstract:

Wastes from slaughterhouses in most towns in Sudan are often poorly managed and sometimes discharged into adjoining streams due to poor implementation of standards, thus causing environmental and public health hazards and also there is a large amount of manure from dairy farms. This paper presents a solution of organic waste from cow dairy farms and slaughterhouse. We present the findings of experimental investigation of biogas production using cow manure, blood and rumen content were mixed at three proportions :72.3%, 61%, 39% manure, 6%, 8.5%, 22% blood; and 21.7%, 30.5%, 39% rumen content in volume for bio-digester 1,2,3 respectively. This paper analyses the quantitative and qualitative composition of biogas: gas content, and the concentration of methane. The highest biogas output 0.116L/g dry matter from bio-digester1 together with a high-quality biogas of 85% methane Was from the mixture of cow manure with blood and rumen content were mixed at 72.3%manure, 6%blood and 21.7%rumen content which is useful for combustion and energy production. While bio-digester 2 and 3 gave 0.012L/g dry matter and 0.013L/g dry matter respectively with the weak concentration of methane (50%).

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, bio-digester, blood, cow manure, rumen content

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
6491 Attitude Towards Carnivore-Livestock Conflict and It’s Effect on Households Willingness to Pay for Organic Meat: A Contingent Valuation Approach

Authors: Abinet Tilahun Aweke

Abstract:

In Europe, there is a growing interest in food produced ethically and with a broader benefit for society. Consumers could consider numerous extrinsic and intrinsic quality attributes, including organically produced, when selecting meat to purchase. Many studies recorded various reasons why consumers may choose to pay the premium price for organic foods, although willingness to pay (WTP) for organic meat and motives behind the WTPs differ depending on the meat type/cut and place. Employing state of the art stated preference (SP) method, this study seeks to find out how environmental attitudes and health concerns shape the demand for organic agriculture in Norway. More specifically, this paper contributes to the existing knowledge on consumer preferences by exploring if consumer's attitude towards carnivore-sheep conflict affects the willingness to pay (WTP) for organic meat. This study will also have a methodological contribution by investigating whether having environmental attitude and carnivore-livestock conflict questions prior to the organic meat WTP question will significantly affect the will to pay and the amount paid. Understanding the effect of the content of the auxiliary questions posed before WTP questions will help to improve future CV survey designs and hence the validity of the results obtained.

Keywords: attitude, consumer reference, contingent valuation, meat, organic, stated preference, survey design

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
6490 Impacts Of Salinity on Co2 Turnover in Some Gefara Soils of Libya

Authors: Fathi Elyaagubi

Abstract:

Salinization is a major threat to the productivity of agricultural land. The Gefara Plain located in the northwest of Libya; comprises about 80% of the total agricultural activity. The high water requirements for the populations and agriculture are depleting the groundwater aquifer, resulting in intrusion of seawater in the first few kilometers along the coast. Due to increasing salinity in the groundwater used for irrigation, the soils of the Gefara Plain are becoming increasingly saline. This research paper investigated the sensitivity of these soils to increased salinity using Co2 evolution as an integrating measure of soil function. Soil was collected from four sites located in the Gefara Plain, Almaya, Janzur, Gargaresh and Tajura. Soil collected from Tajura had the highest background salinity, and Janzur had the highest organic matter content. All of the soils had relatively low organic matter content, ranging between 0.49-%1.25. The cumulative rate of 14CO2 of added 14C-labelled Lolium shoots (Lolium perenne L.) to soils was decreased under effects of water containing different concentrations of NaCl at 20, 50, 70, 90, 150, and 200 mM compared to the control at any time of incubation in four sites.

Keywords: soil salinity, gefara plain, organic matter, 14C-labelled lolium shoots

Procedia PDF Downloads 154