Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: mudstone

18 Clay Mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation in Shewasoor Area: Northeastern Kirkuk City, Iraq

Authors: Abbas R. Ali, Diana A. Bayiz

Abstract:

14 mudstone samples were collected within the sedimentary succession of Mukdadiya Formation (Late Miocene – Early Pliocene) from Shewasoor area at Northeastern Iraq. The samples were subjected to laboratory studies including mineralogical analysis (using X-ray Diffraction technique) in order to identify the clay mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation of both clay and non-clay minerals. The results of non-clay minerals are: quartz, feldspar and carbonate (calcite and dolomite) minerals. The clay minerals are: montmorillonite, kaolinite, palygorskite, chlorite, and illite by the major basal reflections of each mineral. The origins of these minerals are deduced also.

Keywords: Mukdadiya Formation, mudstone, clay minerals, XRD, Shewasoor

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
17 Undrained Shear Strength and Anisotropic Yield Surface of Diatomaceous Mudstone

Authors: Najibullah Arsalan, Masaru Akaishi, Motohiro Sugiyama

Abstract:

When constructing a structure on soft rock, adequate research and study are required concerning the shear behavior in the over-consolidation region because soft rock is considered to be in a heavily over-consolidated state. In many of the existing studies concerning the strength of soft rock, triaxial compression tests were conducted using isotropically consolidated samples. In this study, the strength of diatomaceous soft rock anisotropically consolidated under a designated consolidation pressure is examined in undrained triaxial compression tests, and studies are made of the peak and residual strengths of the sample in the over-consolidated state in the initial yield surface and the anisotropic yield surface.

Keywords: diatomaceouse mudstone, shear strength, yield surface, triaxial compression test

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
16 The Reconstruction of Paleoenvironment Aptian Sediments of the Massive Serdj, North Central Tunisia

Authors: H. Khaled, F. Chaabani, F. Boulvain

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the studied of Aptian series that crops out at the Jebel Serdj in the north central Tunisia. The study series is about 590 meters thick and it is consisting of limestones, marly limestones associated with some levels of siltstones and marls. Two sections are studied in detail regarding lithology, microfacies, magnetic susceptibility and mineralogical composition to provide new insights into the paleoenvironmental evolution and paleoclimatological implications during this period. The following facies associations representing different ramp palaeoenvironments have been identified: mudstone–wackestone outer ramp facies; skeletal grainstone- packstone mid-ramp facies, packstone-grainstone inner-ramp facies which include a variety of organisms such as rudists and ooids and mudstone–wackestone coastal facies rich with miliolidea and orbitolines. The magnetic susceptibility (Xᵢₙ) of all samples was compared with the lithological and microfacies variation. We show that high values of magnetic susceptibility are correlated with the distal facies.

Keywords: Aptian, Serdj Formation, geochemical, mineralogy

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
15 Establishing Sequence Stratigraphic Framework and Hydrocarbon Potential of the Late Cretaceous Strata: A Case Study from Central Indus Basin, Pakistan

Authors: Bilal Wadood, Suleman Khan, Sajjad Ahmed

Abstract:

The Late Cretaceous strata (Mughal Kot Formation) exposed in Central Indus Basin, Pakistan is evaluated for establishing sequence stratigraphic framework and potential of hydrocarbon accumulation. The petrographic studies and SEM analysis were carried out to infer the hydrocarbon potential of the rock unit. The petrographic details disclosed 4 microfacies including Pelagic Mudstone, OrbitoidalWackestone, Quartz Arenite, and Quartz Wacke. The lowermost part of the rock unit consists of OrbitoidalWackestone which shows deposition in the middle shelf environment. The Quartz Arenite and Quartz Wacke suggest deposition on the deep slope settings while the Pelagic Mudstone microfacies point toward deposition in the distal deep marine settings. Based on the facies stacking patterns and cyclicity in the chronostratigraphic context, the strata is divided into two 3rd order cycles. One complete sequence i.e Transgressive system tract (TST), Highstand system tract (HST) and Lowstand system tract (LST) are again replaced by another Transgressive system tract and Highstant system tract with no markers of sequence boundary. The LST sands are sandwiched between TST and HST shales but no potential porosity/permeability values have been determined. Microfacies and SEM studies revealed very fewer chances for hydrocarbon accumulation and overall reservoir potential is characterized as low.

Keywords: cycle, deposition, microfacies, reservoir

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
14 The Relationship between Lithological and Geomechanical Properties of Carbonate Rocks. Case study: Arab-D Reservoir Outcrop Carbonate, Central Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ammar Juma Abdlmutalib, Osman Abdullatif

Abstract:

Upper Jurrasic Arab-D Reservoir is considered as the largest oil reservoir in Saudi Arabia. The equivalent outcrop is exposed near Riyadh. The study investigates the relationships between lithofacies properties changes and geomechanical properties of Arab-D Reservoir in the outcrop scale. The methods used included integrated field observations and laboratory measurements. Schmidt Hammer Rebound Hardness, Point Load Index tests were carried out to estimate the strength of the samples, ultrasonic wave velocity test also was applied to measure P-wave, S-wave, and dynamic Poisson's ratio. Thin sections have been analyzed and described. The results show that there is a variation in geomechanical properties between the Arab-D member and Upper Jubaila Formation at outcrop scale, the change in texture or grain size has no or little effect on these properties. This is because of the clear effect of diagenesis which changes the strength of the samples. The result also shows the negative or inverse correlation between porosity and geomechanical properties. As for the strength, dolomitic mudstone and wackestone within Upper Jubaila Formation has higher Schmidt hammer values, wavy rippled sandy grainstone which is rich in quarts has the greater point load index values. While laminated mudstone and breccias, facies has lower strength. This emphasizes the role of mineral content in the geomechanical properties of Arab-D reservoir lithofacies.

Keywords: geomechanical properties, Arab-D reservoir, lithofacies changes, Poisson's ratio, diageneis

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
13 The Paleoenvironment and Paleoclimatological Variations during Aptian in North Central Tunisia

Authors: Houda Khaled, Frederic Boulvain, Fredj Chaabani

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the sedimentological and mineralogical studies of Aptian series outcrops in the Serdj and Bellouta Mountain situated in north-central Tunisia. In the Serdj Mountain, the Aptian series is about 590 meters thick and it is defined by tow formations corresponding respectively to the Sidi Hamada formation (Barremian-Gragasian) and the Serdj formation (Middle Gragasian-Late Clansaysian). This later is consisting of five limestones sequences separated by marly levels limestones associated to some siltstones bed. The Bellouta section is especially composed of carbonate rocks and it is attributed to the Middle Gragasian - Late Clansaysian. These sections are studied in detail regarding lithology, micropaleontology, microfacies, magnetic susceptibility and mineralogical composition in order to provide new insights into the paleoenvironmental evolution and paleoclimatological implications during Aptian. The following facies associations representing different ramp palaeoenvironments have been identified: mudstone-wackestone outer ramp facies; skeletal grainstone-packstone mid-ramp facies, packstone-grainstone inner-ramp facies which include a variety of organisms such as ooliths, rudists ostracods associated to athor bioclats. The coastal facies is especially defined by a mudstone -wackestone texture coastal rich with miliolidea and orbitolines. The magnetic susceptibility (Xin) of all samples was compared with the lithological and microfacies variation. The MS curves show that the high values are correlated with the distal facies and the low values are registred in the coastal environment. The X-ray diffractometer analysis show the presence of kaolinite and illite.

Keywords: Aptian, Serdj formation, mineralogy, petrography

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
12 Organic Geochemical Characteristics of Cenozoic Mudstones, NE Bengal Basin, Bangladesh

Authors: H. M. Zakir Hossain

Abstract:

Cenozoic mudstone samples, obtained from drilled cored and outcrop in northeastern Bengal Basin of Bangladesh were organic geochemically analyzed to identify vertical variations of organic facies, thermal maturity, hydrocarbon potential and depositional environments. Total organic carbon (TOC) content ranges from 0.11 to 1.56 wt% with an average of 0.43 wt%, indicating a good source rock potential. Total sulphur content is variable with values ranging from ~0.001 to 1.75 wt% with an average of 0.065 wt%. Rock-Eval S1 and S2 yields range from 0.03 to 0.14 mg HC/g rock and 0.01 to 0.66 mg HC/g rock, respectively. The hydrogen index values range from 2.71 to 56.09 mg HC/g TOC. These results revealed that the samples are dominated by type III kerogene. Tmax values of 426 to 453 °C and vitrinite reflectance of 0.51 to 0.66% indicate the organic matter is immature to mature. Saturated hydrocarbon ratios such as pristane, phytane, steranes, and hopanes, indicate mostly terrigenous organic matter with small influence of marine organic matter. Organic matter in the succession was accumulated in three different environmental conditions based on the integration of biomarker proxies. First phase (late Eocene to early Miocene): Deposition occurred entirely in seawater-dominated oxic conditions, with high inputs of land plants organic matter including angiosperms. Second phase (middle to late Miocene): Deposition occurred in freshwater-dominated anoxic conditions, with phytoplanktonic organic matter and a small influence of land plants. Third phase (late Miocene to Pleistocene): Deposition occurred in oxygen-poor freshwater conditions, with abundant input of planktonic organic matter and high influx of angiosperms. The lower part (middle Eocene to early Miocene) of the succession with moderate TOC contents and primarily terrestrial organic matter could have generated some condensates and oils in and around the study area.

Keywords: Bangladesh, geochemistry, hydrocarbon potential, mudstone

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
11 Ichnofacies and Microfacies Analysis of Late Eocene Rocks in Fayum Area, Egypt and Their Paleoenvironmental Implications

Authors: Soheir El-Shazly, Gouda Abdelgawad, Yasser Salama, Dina Sayed

Abstract:

Abstract- The Late Eocene rocks (Qasr El-Sagha ) Formation, north east of Birket Qarun in Fayum area of Egypt reveals 6 Ichnogenera Thalassinoides Ehrenberg, 1944, Ophiomorpha Lundgren (1891), Skolithos Haldemann (1840), Diplocraterion Torell, 1870, Arenicolites Salter, 1857 and Planolites Nicholson, 1873. These Ichnogenera are related to Skolithos ichnofacies of typical sandy shoreline environment, only the ichnogenus Planolites is related to Cruziana ichnofacies, which occurs in somewhat deeper water than the Skolithos ichnofacies. Four microfacies types have been distinguished from the study sections, Mudstone, Sandy micrite (wackstone), Sandy dolomitic ferruginous biomicrite (Packstone), Sandy glauconitic biomicrite (packstone). The ichnofacies and the microfacies study indicates that the study area was deposited in shelf lagoon with open circulation environment

Keywords: Egypt, Fayum, icnofacies, late eocene, microfacies

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
10 Sedimentological Study of Bivalve Fossils Site Locality in Hong Hoi Formation in Lampang, Thailand

Authors: Kritsada Moonpa, Kannipa Motanated, Weerapan Srichan

Abstract:

Hong Hoi Formation is a Middle Triassic deep marine succession presented in outcrops throughout the Lampang Basin of northern Thailand. The primary goal of this research is to diagnose the paleoenvironment, petrographic compositions, and sedimentary sources of the Hong Hoi Formation in Ban Huat, Ngao District. The Triassic Hong Hoi Formation is chosen because the outcrops are continuous and fossils are greatly exposed and abundant. Depositional environment is reconstructed through sedimentological studies along with facies analysis. The Hong Hoi Formation is petrographically divided into two major facies, they are: sandstones with mudstone interbeds, and mudstones or shale with sandstone interbeds. Sandstone beds are lithic arenite and lithic greywacke, volcanic lithic fragments are dominated. Sedimentary structures, paleocurrent data and lithofacies arrangement indicate that the formation deposited in a part of deep marine abyssal plain environment. The sedimentological and petrographic features suggest that during the deposition the Hong Hoi Formation received sediment supply from nearby volcanic arc. This suggested that the intensive volcanic activity within the Sukhothai Arc during the Middle Triassic is the main sediment source.

Keywords: Sukhothai zone, petrography, Hong Hoi formation, Lampang, Triassic

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
9 The Application of Sequence Stratigraphy to the Sajau (Pliocene) Coal Distribution in Berau Basin, Northeast Kalimantan, Indonesia

Authors: Ahmad Helman Hamdani, Diana Putri Hamdiana

Abstract:

The Sajau coal measures of Berau Basin, northeastern Kalimantan were deposited within a range of facies associations spanning a spectrum of settings from fluvial to marine. The transitional to terrestrial coal measures are dominated by siliciclastics, but they also contain three laterally extensive marine bands (mudstone). These bands act as marker horizons that enable correlation between fully marine and terrestrial facies. Examination of this range of facies and their sedimentology has enabled the development of a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework. Set against the established backdrop of third-order Sajau transgression, nine fourth-order sequences are recognized. Results show that, in the composite sequences, peat accumulation predominantly correlates in transitional areas with early transgressive sequence sets (TSS) and highstand sequence set (HSS), while in more landward areas it correlates with the middle TSS to late highstand sequence sets (HSS). Differences in peat accumulation regimes within the sequence stratigraphic framework are attributed to variations in subsidence and background siliciclastic input rates in different depositional settings, with these combining to produce differences in the rate of accommodation change. The preservation of coal resources in the middle to late HSS in this area was most likely related to the rise of the regional base level throughout the Sajau.

Keywords: sequence stratigraphy, coal, Pliocene, Berau basin

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
8 Affect of Reservoir Fluctuations on an Active Landslide in the Xiangjiaba Reservoir Area, Southwest China

Authors: Javed Iqbal

Abstract:

Filling of Xiangjiaba Reservoir Lake in Southwest China triggered and re-activated numerous landslides due to water fluctuation. In order to understand the relationship between reservoirs and slope instability, a typical reservoir landslide (Dasha landslide) at right bank of Jinsha River was selected as a case study for in-depth investigations. The detailed field investigations were carried out in order to identify the landslide with respect to its surroundings and to find out the slip-surface. Boreholes were drilled in order to find out the subsurface lithology and the depth of failure of Dasha landslide. The in-situ geotechnical tests were performed, and the soil samples from exposed slip surface were retrieved for geotechnical laboratory analysis. Finally, stability analysis was done using 3D strength reduction method under different conditions of reservoir water level fluctuations and rainfall conditions. The in-depth investigations show that the Dasha landslide is a bedding rockslide which was once activated in 1986. The topography of Dasha landslide is relatively flat, while the back scarp and local terrain are relatively steep. The landslide area is about 29 × 104 m², and the maximum thickness of the landslide deposits revealed by drilling is about 40 m with the average thickness being about 20 m, and the volume is thus estimated being about 580 × 10⁴ m³. Bedrock in the landslide area is composed of Suining Formation of Jurassic age. The main rock type is silty mudstone with sandstone, and bedding orientation is 300~310° ∠ 7~22°. The factor of safety (FOS) of Dasha landslide obtained by 3D strength reduction cannot meet the minimum safety requirement under the working condition of reservoir level fluctuation as designed, with effect of rainfall and rapid drawdown.

Keywords: Dasha landslide, Xiangjiaba reservoir, strength reduction method, bedding rockslide

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
7 Neotectonic Characteristics of the Western Part of Konya, Central Anatolia, Turkey

Authors: Rahmi Aksoy

Abstract:

The western part of Konya consists of an area of block faulted basin and ranges. Present day topography is characterized by alternating elongate mountains and depressions trending east-west. A number of depressions occur in the region. One of the large depressions is the E-W trending Kızılören-Küçükmuhsine (KK basin) basin bounded on both sides by normal faults and located on the west of the Konya city. The basin is about 5-12 km wide and 40 km long. Ranges north and south of the basin are composed of undifferentiated low grade metamorphic rocks of Silurian-Cretaceous age and smaller bodies of ophiolites of probable Cretaceous age. The basin fill consists of the upper Miocene-lower Pliocene fluvial, lacustrine, alluvial sediments and volcanic rocks. The younger and undeformed Plio-Quaternary basin fill unconformably overlies the older basin fill and is composed predominantly of conglomerate, mudstone, silt, clay and recent basin floor deposits. The paleostress data on the striated fault planes in the basin indicates NW-SE extension and associated with an NE-SW compression. The eastern end of the KK basin is cut and terraced by the active Konya fault zone. The Konya fault zone is NE trending, east dipping normal fault forming the western boundary of the Konya depression. The Konya depression consists mainly of Plio-Quaternary alluvial complex and recent basin floor sediments. The structural data gathered from the Konya fault zone support normal faulting with a small amount of dextral strike-slip tensional tectonic regime that shaped under the WNW-ESE extensional stress regime.

Keywords: central Anatolia, fault kinematics, Kızılören-Küçükmuhsine basin, Konya fault zone, neotectonics

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
6 Facies Analysis and Depositional Environment of Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Lidam Formation, South East Sirt Basin, Libya

Authors: Miloud M. Abugares

Abstract:

This study concentrates on the facies analysis, cyclicity and depositional environment of the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) carbonate ramp deposits of the Lidam Formation. Core description, petrographic analysis data from five wells in Hamid and 3V areas in the SE Sirt Basin, Libya were studied in detail. The Lidam Formation is one of the main oil producing carbonate reservoirs in Southeast Sirt Basin and this study represents one of the key detailed studies of this Formation. In this study, ten main facies have been identified. These facies are; Chicken-Wire Anhydrite Facies, Fine Replacive Dolomite Facies, Bioclastic Sandstone Facies, Laminated Shale Facies, Stromatolitic Laminated Mudstone Facies, Ostracod Bioturbated Wackestone Facies, Bioturbated Mollusc Packstone Facies, Foraminifera Bioclastic Packstone/Grainstone Facies Peloidal Ooidal Packstone/Grainstone Facies and Squamariacean/Coralline Algae Bindstone Facies. These deposits are inferred to have formed in supratidal sabkha, intertidal, semi-open restricted shallow lagoon and higher energy shallow shoal environments. The overall depositional setting is interpreted as have been deposited in inner carbonate ramp deposits. The best reservoir quality is encountered in Peloidal- Ooidal Packstone/Grainstone facies, these facies represents storm - dominated shoal to back shoal deposits and constitute the inner part of carbonate ramp deposits. The succession shows a conspicuous hierarchical cyclicity. Porous shoal and backshoal deposits form during maximum transgression system and early regression hemi-cycle of the Lidam Fm. However; oil producing from shoal and backshoal deposits which only occur in the upper intervals 15 - 20 feet, which forms the large scale transgressive cycle of the Upper Lidam Formation.

Keywords: Lidam Fm. Sirt Basin, Wackestone Facies, petrographic, intertidal

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
5 Microfacies and Sedimentary Environment of Potentially Hydrocarbon-Bearing Ordovician and Silurian Deposits of Selected Boreholes in the Baltic Syneclise (NE Poland)

Authors: Katarzyna Sobczak

Abstract:

Over the last few years extensive research on the Lower Palaeozic of the Baltic region has been carried out, associated with growing interest in the unconventional hydrocarbon resources of the area. The present study contributes to this investigation by providing relevant microfacies analysis of Ordovician and Silurian carbonate and clastic deposits of the Polish part of the Baltic Syneclise, using data from the Kętrzyn IG-1, Henrykowo 1 and Babiak 1 boreholes. The analytical data, encompassing sedimentological, palaeontological, and petrographic indicators enables the interpretation of the sedimentary environments and their control factors. The main microfacies types distinguished within the studied interval are: bioclastic wackestone, bioclastic packstone, carbonate-rich mudstone, marlstone, nodular limestone and bituminous claystone. The Ordovician is represented by redeposited carbonate rocks formed in a relatively high-energy environment (middle shelf setting). The Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian rocks of the studied basin represent sedimentary succession formed during a distinctive marine transgression. Considering the sedimentological and petrological data from the Silurian, a low-energy sedimentary environment (offshore setting) with intermittent high-energy events (tempestites) can be inferred for the sedimentary basin of NE Poland. Slow sedimentation of carbonate ooze and fine-grained siliciclastic rocks, formed under oxygen-deficient conditions of the seabed, favoured organic matter preservation. The presence of the storm beds suggests an episodic nature of seabed oxygenation. A significant part of the analysed depositional successions shows characteristics indicative of deposition from gravity flows, but lacks evidence of its turbidity origins. There is, however, evidence for storms acting as a mechanism of flow activation. The discussed Ordovician-Silurian transition of depositional environments in the Baltic area fits well to the global environmental changes encompassing the Upper Ordovician and the Lower Silurian.

Keywords: Baltic Syneclise, microfacies analysis, Ordovician, Silurian, unconventional hydrocarbons

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
4 Sedimentary, Diagenesis and Evaluation of High Quality Reservoir of Coarse Clastic Rocks in Nearshore Deep Waters in the Dongying Sag; Bohai Bay Basin

Authors: Kouassi Louis Kra

Abstract:

The nearshore deep-water gravity flow deposits in the Northern steep slope of Dongying depression, Bohai Bay basin, have been acknowledged as important reservoirs in the rift lacustrine basin. These deep strata term as coarse clastic sediment, deposit at the root of the slope have complex depositional processes and involve wide diagenetic events which made high-quality reservoir prediction to be complex. Based on the integrated study of seismic interpretation, sedimentary analysis, petrography, cores samples, wireline logging data, 3D seismic and lithological data, the reservoir formation mechanism deciphered. The Geoframe software was used to analyze 3-D seismic data to interpret the stratigraphy and build a sequence stratigraphic framework. Thin section identification, point counts were performed to assess the reservoir characteristics. The software PetroMod 1D of Schlumberger was utilized for the simulation of burial history. CL and SEM analysis were performed to reveal diagenesis sequences. Backscattered electron (BSE) images were recorded for definition of the textural relationships between diagenetic phases. The result showed that the nearshore steep slope deposits mainly consist of conglomerate, gravel sandstone, pebbly sandstone and fine sandstone interbedded with mudstone. The reservoir is characterized by low-porosity and ultra-low permeability. The diagenesis reactions include compaction, precipitation of calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, quartz cement and dissolution of feldspars and rock fragment. The main types of reservoir space are primary intergranular pores, residual intergranular pores, intergranular dissolved pores, intergranular dissolved pores, and fractures. There are three obvious anomalous high-porosity zones in the reservoir. Overpressure and early hydrocarbon filling are the main reason for abnormal secondary pores development. Sedimentary facies control the formation of high-quality reservoir, oil and gas filling preserves secondary pores from late carbonate cementation.

Keywords: Bohai Bay, Dongying Sag, deep strata, formation mechanism, high-quality reservoir

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
3 Research on Tight Sandstone Oil Accumulation Process of the Third Member of Shahejie Formation in Dongpu Depression, China

Authors: Hui Li, Xiongqi Pang

Abstract:

In recent years, tight oil has become a hot spot for unconventional oil and gas exploration and development in the world. Dongpu Depression is a typical hydrocarbon-rich basin in the southwest of Bohai Bay Basin, in which tight sandstone oil and gas have been discovered in deep reservoirs, most of which are buried more than 3500m. The distribution and development characteristics of deep tight sandstone reservoirs need to be studied. The main source rocks in study area are dark mudstone and shale of the middle and lower third sub-member of Shahejie Formation. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content of source rock is between 0.08-11.54%, generally higher than 0.6% and the value of S1+S2 is between 0.04–72.93 mg/g, generally higher than 2 mg/g. It can be evaluated as middle to fine level overall. The kerogen type of organic matter is predominantly typeⅡ1 andⅡ2. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) is mostly greater than 0.6% indicating that the source rock entered the hydrocarbon generation threshold. The physical property of reservoir was poor, the most reservoir has a porosity lower than 12% and a permeability of less than 1×10⁻³μm. The rocks in this area showed great heterogeneity, some areas developed desserts with high porosity and permeability. According to SEM, thin section image, inclusion test and so on, the reservoir was affected by compaction and cementation during early diagenesis stage (44-31Ma). The diagenesis caused the tight reservoir in Huzhuangji, Pucheng, Weicheng Area while the porosity in Machang, Qiaokou, Wenliu Area was still over 12%. In the process of middle diagenesis phase stage A (31-17Ma), the reservoir porosity in Machang, Pucheng, Huzhuangji Area increased due to dissolution; after that the oil generation window of source rock was achieved for the first phase hydrocarbon charging (31-23Ma), formed the conventional oil deposition in Machang, Qiaokou, Wenliu, Huzhuangji Area and unconventional tight reservoir in Pucheng, Weicheng Area. Then came to stage B of middle diagenesis phase (17-7Ma), in this stage, the porosity of reservoir continued to decrease after the dissolution and led to a situation that the reservoirs were generally compacted. And since then, the second hydrocarbon filling has been processing since 7Ma. Most of the pools charged and formed in this procedure are tight sandstone oil reservoir. In conclusion, tight sandstone oil was formed in two patterns in Dongpu Depression, which could be concluded as ‘density fist then accumulation’ pattern and ‘accumulation fist next density’ pattern.

Keywords: accumulation process, diagenesis, dongpu depression, tight sandstone oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
2 Diagenesis of the Permian Ecca Sandstones and Mudstones, in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: Implications for the Shale Gas Potential of the Karoo Basin

Authors: Temitope L. Baiyegunhi, Christopher Baiyegunhi, Kuiwu Liu, Oswald Gwavava

Abstract:

Diagenesis is the most important factor that affects or impact the reservoir property. Despite the fact that published data gives a vast amount of information on the geology, sedimentology and lithostratigraphy of the Ecca Group in the Karoo Basin of South Africa, little is known of the diagenesis of the potentially feasible shales and sandstones of the Ecca Group. The study aims to provide a general account of the diagenesis of sandstones and mudstone of the Ecca Group. Twenty-five diagenetic textures and structures are identified and grouped into three regimes or stages that include eogenesis, mesogenesis and telogenesis. Clay minerals are the most common cementing materials in the Ecca sandstones and mudstones. Smectite, kaolinite and illite are the major clay minerals that act as pore lining rims and pore-filling cement. Most of the clay minerals and detrital grains were seriously attacked and replaced by calcite. Calcite precipitates locally in pore spaces and partly or completely replaced feldspar and quartz grains, mostly at their margins. Precipitation of cements and formation of pyrite and authigenic minerals as well as little lithification occurred during the eogenesis. This regime was followed by mesogenesis which brought about an increase in tightness of grain packing, loss of pore spaces and thinning of beds due to weight of overlying sediments and selective dissolution of framework grains. Compaction, mineral overgrowths, mineral replacement, clay-mineral authigenesis, deformation and pressure solution structures occurred during mesogenesis. During rocks were uplifted, weathered and unroofed by erosion, this resulted in additional grain fracturing, decementation and oxidation of iron-rich volcanic fragments and ferromagnesian minerals. The rocks of Ecca Group were subjected to moderate-intense mechanical and chemical compaction during its progressive burial. Intergranular pores, matrix micro pores, secondary intragranular, dissolution and fractured pores are the observed pores. The presence of fractured and dissolution pores tend to enhance reservoir quality. However, the isolated nature of the pores makes them unfavourable producers of hydrocarbons, which at best would require stimulation. The understanding of the space and time distribution of diagenetic processes in these rocks will allow the development of predictive models of their quality, which may contribute to the reduction of risks involved in their exploration.

Keywords: diagenesis, reservoir quality, Ecca Group, Karoo Supergroup

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
1 The Development of the Geological Structure of the Bengkulu Fore Arc Basin, Western Edge of Sundaland, Sumatra, and Its Relationship to Hydrocarbon Trapping Mechanism

Authors: Lauti Dwita Santy, Hermes Panggabean, Syahrir Andi Mangga

Abstract:

The Bengkulu Basin is part of the Sunda Arc system, which is a classic convergent type margin that occur around the southern rim of the Eurasian continental (Sundaland) plate. The basin is located between deep sea trench (Mentawai Outer Arc high) and the volvanic/ magmatic Arc of the Barisan Mountains Range. To the northwest it is bounded by Padang High, to the northest by Barisan Mountains (Sumatra Fault Zone) to the southwest by Mentawai Fault Zone and to the southeast by Semangko High/ Sunda Strait. The stratigraphic succession and tectonic development can be broadly divided into four stage/ periods, i.e Late Jurassic- Early Cretaceous, Late Eocene-Early Oligocene, Late Oligocene-Early Miocene, Middle Miocene-Late Miocene and Pliocene-Plistocene, which are mainly controlled by the development of subduction activities. The Pre Tertiary Basement consist of sedimentary and shallow water limestone, calcareous mudstone, cherts and tholeiitic volcanic rocks, with Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous in age. The sedimentation in this basin is depend on the relief of the Pre Tertiary Basement (Woyla Terrane) and occured into two stages, i.e. transgressive stage during the Latest Oligocene-Early Middle Miocene Seblat Formation, and the regressive stage during the Latest Middle Miocene-Pleistocene (Lemau, Simpangaur and Bintunan Formations). The Pre-Tertiary Faults were more intensive than the overlying cover, The Tertiary Rocks. There are two main fault trends can be distinguished, Northwest–Southwest Faults and Northeast-Southwest Faults. The NW-SE fault (Ketaun) are commonly laterally persistent, are interpreted to the part of Sumatran Fault Systems. They commonly form the boundaries to the Pre Tertiary basement highs and therefore are one of the faults elements controlling the geometry and development of the Tertiary sedimentary basins.The Northeast-Southwest faults was formed a conjugate set to the Northwest–Southeast Faults. In the earliest Tertiary and reactivated during the Plio-Pleistocene in a compressive mode with subsequent dextral displacement. The Block Faulting accross these two sets of faults related to approximate North–South compression in Paleogene time and produced a series of elongate basins separated by basement highs in the backarc and forearc region. The Bengkulu basin is interpreted having evolved from pull apart feature in the area southwest of the main Sumatra Fault System related to NW-SE trending in dextral shear.Based on Pyrolysis Yield (PY) vs Total Organic Carbon (TOC) diagram show that Seblat and Lemau Formation belongs to oil and Gas Prone with the quality of the source rocks includes into excellent and good (Lemau Formation), Fair and Poor (Seblat Formation). The fine-grained carbonaceous sediment of the Seblat dan Lemau Formations as source rocks, the coarse grained and carbonate sediments of the Seblat and Lemau Formations as reservoir rocks, claystone bed in Seblat and Lemau Formation as caprock. The source rocks maturation are late immature to early mature, with kerogen type II and III (Seblat Formation), and late immature to post mature with kerogen type I and III (Lemau Formation). The burial history show to 2500 m in depthh with paleo temperature reached 80oC. Trapping mechanism occur during Oligo–Miocene and Middle Miocene, mainly in block faulting system.

Keywords: fore arc, bengkulu, sumatra, sundaland, hydrocarbon, trapping mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 447