Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Kanwal Gul

13 Numerical Solutions of Fractional Order Epidemic Model

Authors: Sadia Arshad, Ayesha Sohail, Sana Javed, Khadija Maqbool, Salma Kanwal


The dynamical study of the carriers play an essential role in the evolution and global transmission of infectious diseases and will be discussed in this study. To make this approach novel, we will consider the fractional order model which is generalization of integer order derivative to an arbitrary number. Since the integration involved is non local therefore this property of fractional operator is very useful to study epidemic model for infectious diseases. An extended numerical method (ODE solver) is implemented on the model equations and we will present the simulations of the model for different values of fractional order to study the effect of carriers on transmission dynamics. Global dynamics of fractional model are established by using the reproduction number.

Keywords: Fractional differential equation, Numerical simulations, epidemic model, transmission dynamics

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12 Attributes of Employee Engagement Best Practices: A Guideline for SMEs

Authors: Ghazanfar Bozai, Kanwal Gul


In Pakistan, SMEs are the major source of contribution to the economy, but due to lack of proper HR practices (lack of employee engagement), these fast growing business shut down with in few years of startup. The purpose of this study is to conduct a comprehensive literature survy of the major best practices used for employee engagement globally. This paper could be used as employee engagement best practices guide for SME’s in developing countries. This article is focused on identifying the attributes of employee engagement in different countries/ cultures and organizations. It will provide a summary of employee engagement models used globally and how SMEs could pick suitable attributes of employee engagement as per their structural culture. This article will add valuable literature on employee engagement in developing countries for new startups and small, medium business.

Keywords: attributes, employee engagement, human resources practices, small medium enterprises

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11 Consumer Attitude and Purchase Intention towards Organic Food: Insights from Pakistan

Authors: Muneshia Maheshwar, Kanwal Gul, Shakira Fareed, Ume-Amama Areeb Gul


Organic food is commonly known for its healthier content without the use of pesticides, herbicides, inorganic fertilizers, antibiotics and growth hormones. The aim of this research is to examine the effect of health consciousness, environmental concern and organic food knowledge on both the intention to buy organic foods and the attitude towards organic foods and the effect of attitude towards organic foods on the intention to buy organic foods in Pakistan. Primary data was used which was collected through adopted questionnaire from previous research. Non- probability convenience sampling was used to select sample size of 200 consumers based on Karachi. The data was analyzed through Descriptive statistics and Multi regression method. The findings of the study showed that the attitude and the intention to buy organic food were affected by health consciousness, environmental concern, and organic food knowledge. The results also revealed that attitude also affects the intention to buy organic food.

Keywords: health consciousness, attitude, intention to purchase, environmental concern, organic food knowledge

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10 Impact of Distributive in-Justice on Turnover Intention: An Exploratory Study on Turnover Intention among Line Staff Working in Textile Composite Units in Karachi Pakistan

Authors: Warraichi, G. Kanwal


The main purpose of the study was to explore relationship between distributive justice and intention to leave the organization by the line staff working in textile sector of Karachi Pakistan. Based on literature review it was hypothesized that perceived distributive justice is positively correlated with intention to leave the organization. A survey of 92 participants (12 female and 80 Male) of textile employee of Karachi was conducted. Two measures were used i.e. 3 item questionnaires on turn over intention developed by Mobley, Horner, & Hollingsworth (1978) and a 13 item and 6 point likert scale questionnaire is adopted from the validated questionnaire of Robert Moorman. Result supports the hypothesis that significant correlation was found between distributive justice and intention to leave the organization. Moreover the results also suggest that distributive justice effect on the intention to leave the organization by the textile line staff. Theoretical and methodological outcome are discussed including recommendations are provided which possibly contribute to the textile industry. Highlighted areas of further study are also provided to open research arena for other researchers.

Keywords: distributive justice, turnover intention, textile industry, Karachi-Pakistan

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9 In-Vivo Study of Annacardium occidentale L. Emulgel Extract Using Non-Invasive Probes

Authors: Akhtar Naveed, Kanwal Shahla, Khan HMS, Rasool Fatima, Ijaz Shakeel


The focus of the study was to design, develop and characterize in vivo, a stable Emulgel formulation containing Anacardium occidentale L.(cashew extract) as an active ingredient. The formulation was prepared and kept at 8ºC, 25 ºC, 40ºC and 40ºC±RH for a period of 28 days. During this time period, stability, pH values, conductivity, organoleptic features (color, liquefaction, phase separation) were conducted at the intervals of day 1st, 2nd, 3rd , 7th, 14th and 28th days. In In vivo studies, the test formulation (5% Anacardium occidentale L, extract) and a base formulation (without cashew extract) were prepared and both were applied on cheek areas of healthy human female volunteers, after the skin sensitivity test of each volunteer, for a study period of 8 weeks after getting consent from them. Various parameters of skin like Melanin level, Erythema level, and skin elasticity were measured at regular time intervals. Results of the study were analyzed by statistical techniques i.e. Two Way ANOVA and paired sample t-test. The result showed significant results as the p ≤ 0.05. Findings of paired sample t-test explained that test formulation have profound effects on skin parameters when compared with control formulation.

Keywords: Anacardium occientale L., anti-oxidant, cashew nut, emulgel

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8 Pharmacokinetic Study of Clarithromycin in Human Female of Pakistani Population

Authors: Atifa Mushtaq, Tanweer Khaliq, Hafiz Alam Sher, Asia Farid, Anila Kanwal, Maliha Sarfraz


The study was designed to assess the various pharmacokinetic parameters of a commercially available clarithromycin Tablet (Klaricid® 250 mg Abbot, Pakistan) in plasma sample of healthy adult female volunteers by applying a rapid, sensitive and accurate HPLC-UV analytical method. The human plasma samples were evaluated by using an isocratic High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system of Sykam consisted of a pump with a column C18 column (250×4.6mn, 5µm) UV-detector. The mobile phase comprises of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (50 mM, pH 6.8, contained 0.7% triethylamine), methanol and acetonitrile (30:25:45, v/v/v) was delivered with injection volume of 20µL at flow rate of 1 mL/min. The detection was performed at λmax 275 nm. By applying this method, important pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax, Area under curve (AUC), half-life (t1/2), , Volume of distribution (Vd) and Clearance (Cl) were measured. The parameters of pharmacokinetics of clarithromycin were calculated by software (APO) pharmacological analysis. Maximum plasma concentrations Cmax 2.78 ±0.33 µg/ml, time to reach maximum concentration tmax 2.82 ± 0.11 h and Area under curve AUC was 20.14 h.µg/ml. The mean ± SD values obtained for the pharmacokinetic parameters showed a significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters observed in previous literature which emphasizes the need for dose adjustment of clarithromycin in Pakistani population.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetc, Clarothromycin, HPLC, Pakistan

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7 Estimation of Carbon Sequestration and Air Quality of Terrestrial Ecosystems Using Remote Sensing Techniques

Authors: Kanwal Javid, Shazia Pervaiz, Maria Mumtaz, Muhammad Ameer Nawaz Akram


Forests and grasslands ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Land management activities influence both ecosystems and enable them to absorb and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). Similarly, in Pakistan, these terrestrial ecosystems are well known to mitigate carbon emissions and have a great source to supply a variety of services such as clean air and water, biodiversity, wood products, wildlife habitat, food, recreation and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration is the main agenda of developed and developing nations to reduce the impacts of global warming. But the amount of carbon storage within these ecosystems can be affected by many factors related to air quality such as land management, land-use change, deforestation, over grazing and natural calamities. Moreover, the long-term capacity of forests and grasslands to absorb and sequester CO2 depends on their health, productivity, resilience and ability to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, the main rationale of this study is to monitor the difference in carbon amount of forests and grasslands of Northern Pakistan using MODIS data sets and map results using Geographic Information System. Results of the study conclude that forests ecosystems are more effective in reducing the CO2 level and play a key role in improving the quality of air.

Keywords: carbon sequestration, grasslands, global warming, climate change.

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6 Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Children under 5 Years of Age before Introduction of Pneumococcal Vaccine (PCV 10) in Urban and Rural Sindh

Authors: Muhammad Imran Nisar, Fyezah Jehan, Tauseef Akhund, Sadia Shakoor, Kanwal Nayani, Furqan Kabir, Asad Ali, Anita Zaidi


Pneumococcal Vaccine -10 (PCV 10) was included in the Expanded Program of immunization (EPI) in Sindh, Pakistan in February 2013. This study was carried out immediately before the introduction of PCV 10 to establish baseline pneumococcal carriage and prevalent serotypes in naso-pharynx of children 3-11 months of age in an urban and rural community in Sindh, Pakistan. An additional sample of children aged 12 to 59 months was drawn from the urban community. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from a random sample of children. Samples were processed in a central laboratory in Karachi. Pneumococci were cultured on 5% Sheep Blood Agar and serotyping was performed using CDC standardized sequential multiplex PCR assay on bacterial colonies. Serotypes were then categorized into vaccine (PCV-10 and PCV-13) type and non-vaccine types. A total of 670 children were enrolled. Carriage rate for pneumococcus based on culture positivity was 74% and 79.5 % in the infant group in Karachi and Matiari respectively. Carriage rate was 78.2% for children aged 12 to 59 months in Karachi. Proportion of PCV 10 serotypes in infants was 38.8% and 33.5% in Karachi and Matiari respectively. In the older age group in Karachi, the proportion was 30.6%. Most common serotypes were 6A, 6B, 23F, 19A and 18C. This survey establishes vaccine and non-vaccine serotype carriage rate in a vaccine-naïve pediatric population among rural and urban communities in Sindh province. Annually planned surveys in the same communities will inform change in carriage rate after the introduction and uptake of PCV 10 in these communities.

Keywords: Naso-Pharyngeal carriage, Pakistan, PCV10, Pneumococcus

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5 Evaluation and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution Using Edible Crabs, Based on Food Intended for Human Consumption

Authors: Nayab Kanwal, Noor Us Saher


The management and utilization of food resources is becoming a big issue due to rapid urbanization, wastage and non-sustainable use of food, especially in developing countries. Therefore, the use of seafood as alternative sources is strongly promoted worldwide. Marine pollution strongly affects marine organisms, which ultimately decreases their export quality. The monitoring of contamination in marine organisms is a good indicator of the environmental quality as well as seafood quality. Monitoring the accumulation of chemical elements within various tissues of organisms has become a useful tool to survey current or chronic levels of heavy metal exposure within an environment. In this perspective, this study was carried out to compare the previous and current levels (Year 2012 and 2014) of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn) in crabs marketed in Karachi and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. The accumulation of metals in marine organisms, both essential (Cu and Zn) and toxic (Pb, Cd and Cr), natural and anthropogenic, is an actual food safety issue. Significant (p>0.05) variations in metal concentrations were found in all crab species between the two years, with most of the metals showing high accumulation in 2012. For toxicological risk assessment, EWI (Estimated weekly intake), Target Hazard quotient (THQ) and cancer risk (CR) were also assessed and high EWI, Non- cancer risk (THQ < 1) showed that there is no serious threat associated with the consumption of shellfish species on Karachi coast. The Cancer risk showed the highest risk from Cd and Pb pollution if consumed in excess. We summarize key environmental health research on health effects associated with exposure to contaminated seafood. It could be concluded that considering the Pakistan coast, these edible species may be sensitive and vulnerable to the adverse effects of environmental contaminants; more attention should be paid to the Pb and Cd metal bioaccumulation and to toxicological risks to seafood and consumers.

Keywords: cancer risk, edible crabs, heavy metals pollution, risk assessment

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4 Evaluation of Neuroprotective Potential of Olea europaea and Malus domestica in Experimentally Induced Stroke Rat Model

Authors: Humaira M. Khan, Kanwal Asif


Ischemic stroke is a neurological disorder with a complex pathophysiology associated with motor, sensory and cognitive deficits. Major approaches developed to treat acute ischemic stroke fall into two categories, thrombolysis and neuroprotection. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the neuroprotective and anti-thrombolytic effects of Olea europaea (olive oil) and Malus domestica (apple cider vinegar) and their combination in rat stroke model. Furthermore, histopathological analysis was also performed to assess the severity of ischemia among treated and reference groups. Male albino rats (12 months age) weighing 300- 350gm were acclimatized and subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion method for stroke induction. Olea europaea and Malus domestica was administered orally in dose of 0.75ml/kg and 3ml/kg and combination was administered at dose of 0.375ml/kg and 1.5ml/kg prophylactically for consecutive 21 days. Negative control group was dosed with normal saline whereas piracetam (250mg/kg) was administered as reference. Neuroprotective activity of standard piracetam, Olea europaea, Malus domestica and their combination was evaluated by performing functional outcome tests i.e. Cylinder, pasta, ladder run, pole and water maize tests. Rats were subjected to surgery after 21 days of treatment for analysis from stroke recovery. Olea europaea and Malus domestica in individual doses of 0.75ml/kg and 3ml/kg respectively showed neuroprotection by significant improvement in ladder run test (121.6± 0.92;128.2 ± 0.73) as compare to reference (125.4 ± 0.74). Both test doses showed significant neuroprotection as compare to reference (9.60 ± 0.50) in pasta test (8.40 ± 0.24;9.80 ± 0.37) whereas with cylinder test, experimental groups showed significant increase in movements (6.60 ± 0.24; 8.40 ± 0.24) in contrast to reference (7.80 ± 0.37).There was a decrease in percentage time taken f to reach the hidden maize in water maize test (56.80 ± 0.58;61.80 ± 0.66) at doses 0.75ml/kg and 3ml/kg respectively as compare to piracetam (59.40 ± 1.07). Olea europaea and Malus domestica individually showed significant reduction in duration of mobility (127.0 ± 0.44; 123.0 ± 0.44) in pole test as compare to piracetam (124.0 ± 0.70). Histopathological analysis revealed the significant extent of protection from ischemia after prophylactic treatments. Hence it is concluded that Olea europaea and Malus domestica are effective neuroprotective agents alone as compare to their combination.

Keywords: ischemia, Malus domestica, neuroprotection, Olea europaea

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3 Psychological and Emotional Functioning of Elderly in Pakistan a Comparison in Punjab and Gilgit-Baltistan

Authors: Najma Najam, Rukhsana Kausar, Rabia Hussain Kanwal, Saira Batool, Anum Javed


In Pakistan, elderly population though increasing but it has been neglected by the researchers and policy makers which resulted in compromised quality of life of the ageing population. Two regions, Punjab and Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) were selected for comparison as Lahore and Multan (Punjab) are highly urbanized, large cities whereas Gilgit and Skardu are remote and mountain bounded valleys in GB. This study focuses on psychological and emotional functioning of elderly and a series of measures translated and adapted in Urdu language was used to assess quality of life, psychological and mental well-being, actual and perceived social support, attachment patterns, forgiveness, affects, geriatric depression, and emotional disturbance patterns (depression, anxiety, and stress) in elderly. A gender-equated sample of 201 elderly participants, 93 from GB (60 from Gilgit, 33 from Skardu) and 108 from Punjab (61 from Lahore, 47 from Multan) with over 60 years age was collected from the multiethnic community of Punjab and GB through purposive convenient sampling technique. Findings revealed that elderly from Multan have better psychological and emotional functioning, higher levels of social support, tendency to forgive, better mental wellbeing and quality of life and lower levels of stress, anxiety, depression, negative affect and attachment avoidance and anxiety related to partner as compared to the elderly from Lahore. Furthermore, both elderly male of Gilgit & Skardu have adequate mental well-being including subjective well-being and psychological functioning which showed positive aspects of mental health but elderly female are more attached to their home and neighbourhood which shows their social and environmental mastery. Gilgiti elderly male reported more degree of positive affect such as enthusiasm, active, alertness, excitement and strong whereas among elderly from Skardu shows more negative affect i.e. aversive mood states, irritability, hostility, and general distress. The need of psychosocial therapy and family counseling for the elderly in urban areas has been identified, which can facilitate in reducing or preventing the depressive and stressful tendencies. The findings are expected to have implications for improving quality of life of the elderly, designing interventions, support system and rehabilitation services to help them. However, findings may attract attention of policy makers and researchers as currently this is the most neglected population in Pakistan.

Keywords: psychological, emotional, aging, elderly, quality of life

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2 The Reality of Gender Equality in Universities Libraries: A Case of Pakistan

Authors: Qurat Ul Ain Saleem, Kanwal Ameen


The library and information science discipline is universally known as a feminist profession. It is considered a suitable field for females in Pakistan like a few other fields such as teaching and healthcare. It is also reflected through the uneven enrollment at graduate levels in library schools across the country as there are more females as compared to males. However, that uneven ratio does not really translate in the profession after passing out. There are more males in the professional as compared to females, as well as males can be seen on managerial and administrative posts majorly. A few females who joined the perception remain underrated and are hardly seen at managerial or administrative positions in the academic libraries. Therefore, this study was designed to highlight the perceptions of those females who have joined the profession to identify the issues related to equality faced by them as a professional. A qualitative research design based on a semi-structured interview was selected as an appropriate method to achieve the objectives of this study. Female librarians working in the higher education commission’s recognized public and private sector universities of Punjab, Pakistan, were selected as the population for this study. Female librarians shared that inequalities and discrimination based on face value, experience, communication, and relationship with the manager are common at their workplaces. They added that managers prefer male professionals to deal with delegation or presentations though we both can do that. Female professionals from the private sector believed that library managers make final hiring and selection decisions based on job duties and gender. However, the one with strong references will be preferred for the job. Also, private-sector employees suffered more prejudice due to the non-availability of proper patterns of promotions and increments. The government personnel said there is always a proper board/procedure for hiring and promotions; therefore, it is difficult for them to identify any inequality. Participants were dissatisfied with their managers for not allowing them to attend training and conferences. The majority of participants from the private sector said they wouldn't speak up to prejudice because they are afraid of losing their jobs and their voice is lost in a male-dominated society where males hold numerous authoritative positions and females are considered less competent. Nonetheless, the discrimination and inequalities affected the work motivation and enthusiasm of employees. Therefore, organizations should not discriminate against the staff in terms of facilities and benefits. The sample may not represent the true picture of gender equality in university libraries of Pakistan due to less number of participants and limited geographical boundaries. It is also assumed that some females may refrain from disclosing factual information or some may exaggerate the facts as a large number of participants requested to become part of the study. Equal opportunities should be offered to female library professionals to uplift and involve them to mitigate the perception of gender dominance. The organizations or immediate authorities should allow their staff to participate in training opportunities to learn modern practices to better serve the community.

Keywords: equality-workplace, libraries as workplace, female professionals, librarians-Pakistan

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1 The Healing 'Touch' of Music: A Neuro-Acoustics Approach to Understand Its Therapeutic Effect

Authors: Jagmeet S. Kanwal, Julia F. Langley


Music can heal the body, but a mechanistic understanding of this phenomenon is lacking. This study explores the effects of music presentation on neurologic and physiologic responses leading to metabolic changes in the human body. The mind and body co-exist in a corporeal entity and within this framework, sickness ensues when the mind-body balance goes awry. It is further hypothesized that music has the capacity to directly reset this balance. Two lines of inquiry taken together can provide a mechanistic understanding of this phenomenon 1) Empirical evidence for a sound-sensitive pressure sensor system in the body, and 2) The notion of a “healing center” within the brain that is activated by specific patterns of sounds. From an acoustics perspective, music is spatially distributed as pressure waves ranging from a few cm to several meters in wavelength. These waves interact and propagate in three-dimensions in unique ways, depending on the wavelength. Furthermore, music creates dynamically changing wave-fronts. Frequencies between 200 Hz and 1 kHz generate wavelengths that range from 5'6" to 1 foot. These dimensions are in the range of the body size of most people making it plausible that these pressure waves can geometrically interact with the body surface and create distinct patterns of pressure stimulation across the skin surface. For humans, short wavelength, high frequency (> 200 Hz) sounds are best received via cochlear receptors. For low frequency (< 200 Hz), long wavelength sound vibrations, however, the whole body may act as an ideal receiver. A vast array of highly sensitive pressure receptors (Pacinian corpuscles) is present just beneath the skin surface, as well as in the tendons, bones, several organs in the abdomen, and the sexual organs. Per the available empirical evidence, these receptors contribute to music perception by allowing the whole body to function as a sound receiver, and knowledge of how they function is essential to fully understanding the therapeutic effect of music. Neuroscientific studies have established that music stimulates the limbic system that can trigger states of anxiety, arousal, fear, and other emotions. These emotional states of brain activity play a crucial role in filtering top-down feedback from thoughts and bottom-up sensory inputs to the autonomic system, which automatically regulates bodily functions. Music likely exerts its pleasurable and healing effects by enhancing functional and effective connectivity and feedback mechanisms between brain regions that mediate reward, autonomic, and cognitive processing. Stimulation of pressure receptors under the skin by low-frequency music-induced sensations can activate multiple centers in the brain, including the amygdala, the cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens. Melodies in music in the low (< 600 Hz) frequency range may augment auditory inputs after convergence of the pressure-sensitive inputs from the vagus nerve onto emotive processing regions within the limbic system. The integration of music-generated auditory and somato-visceral inputs may lead to a synergistic input to the brain that promotes healing. Thus, music can literally heal humans through “touch” as it energizes the brain’s autonomic system for restoring homeostasis.

Keywords: acoustics, brain, music healing, pressure receptors

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