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Paper Count: 314

Search results for: poultry manure

314 Soil Properties and Yam Performance as Influenced by Poultry Manure and Tillage on an Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: E. O. Adeleye

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of soil tillage techniques and poultry manure application on the soil properties and yam (Dioscorea rotundata) performance in Ondo, southwestern Nigeria for two farming seasons. Five soil tillage techniques, namely ploughing (P), ploughing plus harrowing (PH), manual ridging (MR), manual heaping (MH) and zero-tillage (ZT) each combined with and without poultry manure at the rate of 10 tha-1 were investigated. Data were obtained on soil properties, nutrient uptake, growth and yield of yam. Soil moisture content, bulk density, total porosity and post harvest soil chemical characteristics were significantly (p>0.05) influenced by soil tillage-manure treatments. Addition of poultry manure to the tillage techniques in the study increased soil total porosity, soil moisture content and reduced soil bulk density. Poultry manure improved soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable Ca, k, leaf nutrients content of yam, yam growth and tuber yield relative to tillage techniques plots without poultry manure application. It is concluded that the possible deleterious effect of tillage on soil properties, growth and yield of yam on an alfisol in southwestern Nigeria can be reduced by combining tillage with poultry manure.

Keywords: poultry manure, tillage, soil chemical properties, yield

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313 Co-Composting of Poultry Manure with Different Organic Amendments

Authors: M. E. Silva, I. Brás

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To study the influence of different organic amendments on the quality of poultry manure compost, three pilot composting trials were carried out with different mixes: poultry manure/carcasse meal/ashes/grape pomace (Pile 1), poultry manure/ cellulosic sludge (Pile 2) and poultry manure (Pile 3). For all piles, wood chips were applied as bulking agent. The process was monitored, over time, by evaluating standard physical and chemical parameters, such as, pH, electric conductivity, moisture, organic matter and ash content, total carbon and total nitrogen content, carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and content in mineral elements. Piles 1 and 2 reached a thermophilic phase, however having different trends. Pile 1 reached this phase earlier than Pile 2. For both, the pH showed a slight alkaline character and the electric conductivity was lower than 2 mS/cm. Also, the initial C/N value was 22 and reached values lower than 15 at the end of composting process. The total N content of the Pile 1 increased slightly during composting, in contrast with the others piles. At the end of composting process, the phosphorus content ranged between 54 and 236 mg/kg dry matter, for Pile 2 and 3, respectively. Generally, the Piles 1 and 3 exhibited similar heavy metals content. This study showed that organic amendments can be used as carbon source, given that the final composts presented parameters within the range of those recommended in the 2nd Draft of EU regulation proposal (DG Env.A.2 2001) for compost quality.

Keywords: co-composting, compost quality, organic ammendment, poultry manure

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
312 Effects of Tillage and Poultry Manure on Soil Properties and Yam Performance on Alfisol in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Adeleye Ebenezer Omotayo

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The main effects of tillage, poultry manure and interaction effects of tillage-poultry manure combinations on soil characteristics and yam yield were investigated in a factorial experiment involving four tillage techniques namely (ploughing (p), ploughing plus harrowing (PH), manual ridging (MR), manual heaping (MH) and poultry manure at two levels 0 t ha-1 and 10 t ha-1 arranged in split-plot design. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Institute Package. Soil moisture content, bulk density and total porosity were significantly (p>0.05) influenced by soil tillage techniques. Manually heaped and ridged plots had the lowest soil bulk density, moisture content and highest total porosity. The soil total N, exchangeable Mg, k, base saturation and CEC were better enhanced in manually tilled plots. Soil nutrients status declined at the end of the second cropping for all the tillage techniques in the order PH>P>MH>MR. Yam tuber yields were better enhanced in manually tilled plots than mechanically tilled plots. Poultry manure application reduced soil bulk density, temperature, increased total porosity and soil moisture content. It also improved soil organic matter, total N, available P, exchangeable Mg, Ca, K and lowered exchange acidity. It also increased yam tuber yield significantly. Tillage techniques plots amended with poultry manure enhanced yam tuber yield relative to tillage techniques plots without poultry manure application. It is concluded that yam production on alfisol in Southwest Nigeria requires loose soil structure for tuber development and that the use of poultry manure in combination with tillage is recommended as it will ensure stability of soil structure, improve soil organic matter status, nutrient availability and high yam tuber yield. Also, it will help to reduce the possible deleterious effects of tillage on soil properties and yam performance.

Keywords: ploughing, poultry manure, yam, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
311 Renewable Energy Potential of Diluted Poultry Manure during Ambient Anaerobic Stabilisation

Authors: Cigdem Yangin-Gomec, Aigerim Jaxybayeva, Orhan Ince

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In this study, the anaerobic treatability of chicken manure diluted with tap water (with an influent feed ratio of 1 kg of fresh chicken manure to 6 liter of tap water) was investigated in a lab-scale anaerobic sludge bed (ASB) reactor inoculated with the granular sludge already adapted to chicken manure. The raw waste digested in this study was the manure from laying-hens having average total solids (TS) of about 30% with ca. 60% volatile content. The ASB reactor was fed semi-continuously at ambient operating temperature range (17-23C) at a HRT of 13 and 26 days for about 6 months, respectively. The respective average total and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals were ca. 90% and 75%, whereas average biomethane production rate was calculated ca. 180 lt per kg of CODremoved from the ASB reactor at an average HRT of 13 days. Moreover, total suspended solids (TSS) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) in the influent were reduced more than 97%. Hence, high removals of the organic compounds with respective biogas production made anaerobic stabilization of the diluted chicken manure by ASB reactor at ambient operating temperatures viable. By this way, external heating up to 35C (i.e. anaerobic processes have been traditionally operated at mesophilic conditions) could be avoided in the scope of this study.

Keywords: ambient anaerobic digestion, biogas recovery, poultry manure, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
310 Effects of Poultry Manure Rates on Some Growth and Yield Attributes of Cucumber in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Chinwe Pearl Poly-Mbah, Evelyn Obioma, Juliet Amajuoyi

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The investigation here reported examined growth and yield responses of Cucumber to manure rates in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria. Fruit vegetables are widely cultivated and produced in Northern Nigeria but greatly consumed in Southern Nigeria where cucumbers command high demand and price but are minimally cultivated. Unfortunately, farmers in northern Nigeria incur lots of losses because cucumber is a perishable vegetable and is transported all the way from the northern Nigeria where cucumbers are produced to Southern Nigeria where cucumbers are consumed, hence the high cost of cucumber fruits in Southern Nigeria. There is a need, therefore, to evolve packages that will enhance cucumber production in Southern Nigeria. The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of poultry manure rates on the growth and yield of cucumber in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria. Specifically, this study was designed to assess the effect of poultry manure rates on number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length/plant, leaf area per plant and the number of leaves produced per plant. The design used for the experiment was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three blocks (replications). Treatment consisted of four rates of well-decomposed poultry manure at the rate of 0 tons/ha, 2 tons/ha, 4 tons/ha and 6 tons/ha. Data were collected on number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length per plant at two weeks interval, leaf number per plant at two weeks interval, leaf area per plant at two weeks interval, number of fruits produced per plant, and fresh weight of fruits per plant at harvest. Results from the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were highly significant effects (P=0.05) of poultry manure on growth and yield parameters studied which include number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length per plant, leaf number per plant, leaf area per plant, fruit number and fruit weight per plant such that increase in poultry manure rates lead to increase in growth and yield parameters studied. Therefore, the null hypothesis (Ho) was rejected, while the alternative hypothesis was accepted. Farmers should be made to know that growing cucumber with poultry manure in southeastern Nigeria agro ecology is a successful enterprise

Keywords: cucumber, effects, growth and yield, manure

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
309 Effect of Poultry Manure and Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium (15:15:15) Soil Amendment on Growth and Yield of Carrot (Daucus carota)

Authors: Benjamin Osae Agyei, Hypolite Bayor

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This present experiment was carried out during the 2012 cropping season, at the Farming for the Future Experimental Field of the University for Development Studies, Nyankpala Campus in the Northern Region of Ghana. The objective of the experiment was to determine the carrot growth and yield responses to poultry manure and N.P.K (15:15:15). Six treatments (Control (no amendment), 20 t/ha poultry manure (PM), 40 t/ha PM, 70 t/ha PM, 35 t/ha PM + 0.11t/ha N.P.K and 0.23 t/ha N.P.K) with three replications for each were laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Data were collected on plant height, number of leaves per plant, canopy spread, root diameter, root weight, and root length. Microsoft Excel and Genstat Statistical Package (9th edition) were used for the data analysis. The treatment means were compared by using Least Significant Difference at 10%. Generally, the results showed that there were no significant differences (P>0.1) among the treatments with respect to number of leaves per plant, root diameter, root weight, and root length. However, significant differences occurred among plant heights and canopy spreads. Plant height treated with 40 t/ha PM at the fourth week after planting and canopy spread at eight weeks after planting and ten weeks after planting by 70 t/ha PM and 20 t/ha PM respectively showed significant difference (P<0.1). The study recommended that any of the amended treatments can be applied at their recommended rates to plots for carrot production, since there were no significant differences among the treatments.

Keywords: poultry manure, N.P.K., soil amendment, growth, yield, carrot

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
308 M. J. Rodríguez, F. M. Sánchez, B. Velardo, P. Calvo, M. J. Serradilla, J. Delgado, J. M. López

Authors: Q. Rzina, M. Lahrouni, S. Rida, N. Saadaoui, Y. Almossaid, K. Oufdou, K. Fares

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Many organic solid wastes are produced in the world. Poultry manure (PM), municipal organic wastes (MOW) and sugar beet lime sludge (LS) are produced in large quantities in Morocco. The co-composting of these organic wastes was investigated. The recycling and the valorization of such wastes is environmentally and economically beneficial especially for PM which is known source of bacterial pathogens. The aerobic biodegradation process was carried out by using three windrows of variable compositions: C1 prepared without LS (only MOW were composted with PM), C2 prepared from MOW plus PM and10% LS; and the last one C3 from MOW plus PM and 20% LS. The main process physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, humidity and C/N) and microbiological populations (mesophilic and thermophilic flora, total coliform, fecal coliform, Streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus and mesophilic fungi) were monitored over three months to ascertain the compost maturity and to ensure the compost hygienic aspect. The final products were characterized by their relatively high organic matter content, and low C/N ratio of 10.6-10.9. The organic matter degradation was reached approximately 59% for C2 and C3. In addition, the monitoring of the microbial population showed that the produced composts are mature and hygienic. The agronomic valorization of the final composts was tested on radish plant with tree level of composts and poultry manure without composting. The primary results of field trial showed a growth of radish plant biomass and root development without any phytotoxicity detected which reflects the quality of the composts produced. As for poultry manure it allowed to have a better results than other composts because of its readily available nitrogen.

Keywords: compost, municipal organic wastes, poultry manure, radish crop, sugar beet lime sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
307 Effects of Organic Manure on the Growth of Jatropha curcas in Kogi State North Central Nigeria

Authors: S. O. Amhakhian, M. Idenyi

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A pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of organic manure on the growth of Jatropha curcas L seedlings at the Faculty of Agriculture, Kogi State University, Anyigba. There were seven treatments, namely, three (3) levels of poultry droppings (PD) (20g, 40g and 60g/kg soil) designated as T1, T2 and T3 respectively, three (3) levels of solid cattle dung (CD) (40g, 80g and 120g/kg soil designated as T4, T5, and T6) respectively, and control (no organic manure) designated as T7. All the treatments were replicated three (3) times. Jathopha curcas L seeds were sown into the polythene pot and observed for the period of six (6) weeks. Growth parameters measured were plant height, leaf count, stem girth, numbers of branches, and fresh weight. Mean separation using F-LSD0.05 showed that 120g cow dung/kg soil (T6) gave optional level of organic manure required for Jatropha curcas throughout the growth period of the seedlings. All the treatments having organic manure were significantly better than the control (P < 0.05) except at two weeks after planting where all the treatments gave the same number of leaves and at the sixth week after planting where only 120g cow dung/kg soil (T6) showed significant difference (P <0.05) in the number of branches. As a result, 120g cow dung/kg soil (T6) is therefore recommended for raising Jatrophus curcas L seedlings in Anyigba, Kogi State.

Keywords: Jatropha curcas, cow-dungs, seedlings, poultry dropping, polythene-pot

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
306 Measuring the Effect of Co-Composting Oil Sludge with Pig, Cow, Horse And Poultry Manures on the Degradation in Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Concentrations

Authors: Ubani Onyedikachi, Atagana Harrison Ifeanyichukwu, Thantsha Mapitsi Silvester

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Components of oil sludge (PAHs) are known cytotoxic, mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic compounds also bacteria and fungi have been found to degrade PAHs to innocuous compounds. This study is aimed at measuring the effect of pig, cow, horse and poultry manures on the degradation in selected PAHs present in oil sludge. Soil spiked with oil sludge was co-composted differently with each manure in a ratio of 2:1 (w/w) spiked soil: manure and wood-chips in a ratio of 2:1 (w/v) spiked soil: wood-chips. Control was set up similar as the one above but without manure. The mixtures were incubated for 10 months at room temperature. Compost piles were turned weekly and moisture level was maintained at between 50% and 70%. Moisture level, pH, temperature, CO2 evolution and oxygen consumption were measured monthly and the ash content at the end of experimentation. Highest temperature reached was 27.5 °C in all compost heaps, pH ranged from 5.5 to 7.8 and CO2 evolution was highest in poultry manure at 18.78μg/dwt/day. Microbial growth and activities were enhanced; bacteria identified were Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Staphylococcus species. Percentage reduction in PAHs was measured using automated soxhlet extractor with Dichloromethane coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results from PAH measurements showed reduction between 77% and 99%. Co-composting of spiked soils with animal manures enhanced the reduction in PAHs.

Keywords: animal manures, bioremediation, co-composting, oil refinery sludge, PAHs

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
305 Effects of Soil Organic Amendment Types and Rates on Growth and Yield of Amaranthus cruentus, Southern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria

Authors: S. Yussuf Abdulmaliq

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Experiment was conducted for two years (2013 and 2014) at Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Teaching and Research Farm to study the effects of soil organic amendment types and rates on soil chemical fertility improvement, growth and yield of Amarathus cruentus in the southern guinea savannah, lapai, Niger state, Nigeria. Soil and manure samples were collected and analysed for physical and chemical components. The experiments were laid out in 3 x 4 factorial in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Consisting of three (3) levels of soil amendment types (Poultry manure, goat manure and cowdung) and four (4) levels of amendment rates (0, 6, 12 and 18 t ha-1). Data collected include plant height/plant (cm), number of leaves/plant, leaf area/ plant (cm2) at 2, 4, 6 and 8WAT, fresh vegetable yield/plant, fresh vegetable yield/plot and fresh vegetable yield in tons ha-1. The result obtained showed that, Amaranthus cruentus height, number of leaves and leaf area were not significantly affected by the type of organic amendment and rates at 2WAT in 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons. However, at 4, 6 and 8 WAT, significant differences were observed among the types of amendment and their rates. Application of poultry manure as soil amendment supported taller, large number of leaves and wider leaf area, and higher marketable vegetable yield in 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons (Pα 0.05) which was closely followed by goat manure in the two (2) cropping seasons. In addition, the application of 18 t ha-1 was superior to 12, 6 and the control by producing tallest amaranthus plants, higher number of leaves, wider leaf area and higher marketable vegetable yield in 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons (Pα 0.05). In conclusion, the use of 18 t ha-1poultry manure is therefore recommended as soil amendment for Amaranthus cruentus in southern guinea savannah of Nigeria.

Keywords: Amaranthus cruentus, cowdung, goat manure, poultry manure, soil amendment

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
304 Poultry Manure-Inhabiting Mite Fauna from Punjab Province, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Asif Qayyoum, Bilal Saeed Khan

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Household poultry, including chickens, turkeys, ducks and geese, are affected by parasitic lice and mites. The dermanyssid mites (Acari: Dermanyssidae) are the most important parasites of poultry because they act as vectors of many pathogens of poultry and workers. Mesostigmatic mite fauna was poorly identified from Pakistan, only one species was reported before in 1971. Surveys were conducted in 2014 - 2015 to investigate the mite fauna from poultry cages in seven locations in Punjab Province, Turkey. A total of seventy-one samples were collected on cardboard and by direct litter collection. Mites were collected directly from the cardboard and 100 g samples of the litter were processed through a Berlese funnel. The collected mites were prepared for identification by using Hoyer’s medium. A total of twenty-two species belonging to the Dermanyssidae, Parasitidae, Cheyletidae, Laelapidae, Macrochelidae and Uropodidae were identified with two new species.

Keywords: poultry cages, Acari, mesostigmatic mites, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
303 Effect of Cocoa Pod Ash and Poultry Manure on Soil Properties and Cocoyam Productivity of Nutrient-Depleted Tropical Alfisol

Authors: T. M. Agbede, A. O. Adekiya

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An experiment was carried out for three consecutive years at Owo, southwest Nigeria. The objective of the investigation was to determine the effect of Cocoa Pod Ash (CPA) and Poultry Manure (PM) applied solely and their combined form, as sources of fertilizers on soil properties, leaf nutrient composition, growth and yield of cocoyam. Three soil amendments: CPA, PM (sole forms), CPA and PM (mixture), were applied at 7.5 t ha-1 with an inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15) at 400 kg ha-1 as a reference and a natural soil fertility, NSF (control), arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that soil amendments significantly increased (p = 0.05) corm and cormel weights and growth of cocoyam, soil and leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg, soil pH and organic carbon (OC) concentrations compared with the NSF (control). The mixture of CPA+PM treatment increased corm and cormel weights, plant height and leaf area of cocoyam by 40, 39, 42, and 48%, respectively, compared with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) and 13, 12, 15 and 7%, respectively, compared with PM alone. Sole or mixed forms of soil amendments showed remarkable improvement in soil physical properties compared with NPK and the NSF (control). The mixture of CPA+PM applied at 7.5 t ha-1 was the most effective treatment in improving cocoyam yield and growth parameters, soil and leaf nutrient composition.

Keywords: Cocoa pod ash, cocoyam, poultry manure, soil and leaf nutrient composition.

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
302 Effects of Sole and Integrated Application of Cocoa Pod Ash and Poultry Manure on Soil Properties and Leaf Nutrient Composition and Performance of White Yam

Authors: T. M. Agbede, A. O. Adekiya

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Field experiments were conducted during 2013, 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons at Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, southwest Nigeria. The objective of the investigation was to determine the effect of Cocoa Pod Ash (CPA) and Poultry Manure (PM) applied solely and their combined form, as sources of fertilizers on soil properties, leaf nutrient composition, growth and yield of yam. Three soil amendments: CPA, PM (sole forms), CPA and PM (mixture), were applied at 20 t ha-1 with an inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15) at 400 kg ha-1 as a reference and a natural soil fertility, NSF (control). The five treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The test soil was slightly acidic, low in organic carbon (OC), N, P, K, Ca and Mg. Results showed that soil amendments significantly increased (p = 0.05) tuber weights and growth of yam, soil and leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg, soil pH and OC concentrations compared with the NSF (control). The mixture of CPA+PM treatment increased tuber weights of yam by 36%, compared with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) and 19%, compared with PM alone. Sole PM increased tuber weight of yam by 15%, compared with NPK. Sole or mixed forms of soil amendments showed remarkable improvement in soil physical properties, nutrient availability, compared with NPK and the NSF (control). Integrated application of CPA at 10 t ha-1 + PM at 10 t ha-1 was the most effective treatment in improving soil physical properties, increasing nutrient availability and yam performance than sole application of any of the fertilizer materials.

Keywords: cocoa pod ash, leaf nutrient composition, poultry manure, soil properties, yam

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
301 Utilization and Proximate Composition of Nile Tilapia, Common Carp and African Mudfish Polycultured in Fertilized Ponds

Authors: I. A. Yola

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Impact of poultry dropping, cow dung and rumen content on utilization and proximate composition of Oreochromis niliticus, Clarias gariepinus and Cyprinus capio in a polyculture system were studied. The research was conducted over a period of 52 weeks. Poultry droppings (PD), cow dung (CD) and rumen content (RC) were applied at three levels 30g,60g and 120g/m2/week, 25g,50g and 100g/m2/week and 22g, 44g and 88g/m2/week treatment, respectively. The control only conventional feed with 40% CP without manure application was used. Physicochemical and biological properties measured were higher in manure pond than control. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05) between and within treatments with exception of temperature with a combined mean of 27.900C. The water was consistently alkaline with mean values for pH of 6.61, transparency 22.6cm, conductivity 35.00µhos/cm, dissolved oxygen 4.6 mg/l, biological oxygen demand 2.8mg/l, nitrate and phosphates 0.9mg/l and 0.35mg/l, respectively. The three fish species increase in weight with increased manure rate, with a higher value in PD treatment on C. capio record 340g, O. niloticus weighed 310g and C. gariepinus 280g over the experimental period. Fishes fed supplementary diet (control) grew bigger with highest value on C. capio (685g) O. niloticus (620g) and then C. gariepinus (526g). The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The result of whole body proximate analysis indicated that various manures and rates had an irregular pattern on the protein and ash gain per 100g of fish body weight gain. The combined means for whole fish carcass protein, lipids, moisture, ash and gross energy were 11.84, 2.43, 74.63, 3.00 and 109.9 respectively. The notable exceptions were significant (p < 0.05) increases in body fat and gross energy gains in all fish species accompanied by decreases in percentages of moisture as manure rates increased. Survival percentage decreases from 80% to 70%. It is recommended to use poultry dropping as manure/feeds at the rate of 120kg/ha/week for good performances in polyculture.

Keywords: organic manure, Nile tilapia, African mud fish, common carp, proximate composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 456
300 Food Traceability System: Current State and Future Needs of the Nigerian Poultry and Poultry Product Supply Chain

Authors: Hadiza Kabir Bako, Munir Abba Dandago

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The fright of food-borne diseases as a result of animal health across the globe is creating the need for origin confirmation, safety of food and method of identification of food produce within the supply chain. In this paper, we investigated two commercial and one backyard poultry farm; live poultry, poultry meat and egg. We propose various implementation options for the poultry traceability system with respect to trace and track, and food recall and withdrawal requirements. With the intention that farmers, Investors or Regulatory agencies would find it useful for the Nigerian poultry sector and we highlight the future needs and challenges that lie ahead in the two most significant system of poultry production in Nigeria: the commercial poultry and backyard breeding.

Keywords: farm, food safety, food traceability, poultry

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
299 Manure Management Systems in Sheep and Goat Farms in Konya, Türkiye

Authors: Selda Uzal Seyfi

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Goat and sheep milk is quite significant in human nutrition. It is considered as more important day by day. This study was carried out in order to determine applied manure management system and their possibilities of improvement in goat and sheep farm in between 2012 and 2013 years. In the study, it was investigated manure management systems of 25 pieces of sheep and goat farms. It was analyzed the manure collecting, storage and treatment features of farms and whether or not they are suitable for animal breeding. As a result of the study, it was determined that the applied manure management systems in the farm were insufficient. Planning the manure management systems in goat and sheep breeding is appropriate technical criteria is useful in respect of the animal welfare, animal health, the health of workers in the barn and environmental pollution.

Keywords: goat farm, sheep farm, manure storage, manure management

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
298 Effect of Organic Fertilizers on the Improvement of Soil Microbiological Functioning under Saline Conditions of Arid Regions: Impact on Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization

Authors: Oustani Mabrouka, Halilat Md Tahar, Hannachi Slimane

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This study was conducted on representative and contrasting soils of arid regions. It focuses on the compared influence of two organic fertilizers: poultry manure (PM) and bovine manure (BM) on improving the microbial functioning of non-saline (SS) and saline (SSS) soils, in particularly, the process of mineralization of nitrogen and carbon. The microbiological activity was estimated by respirometric test (CO2–C emissions) and the extraction of two forms of mineral nitrogen (NH4+-N and NO3--N). Thus, after 56 days of incubation under controlled conditions (28 degrees and 80 per cent of the field capacity), the two types of manures showed that the mineralization activity varies according to type of soil and the organic substrate itself. However, the highest cumulative quantities of CO2–C, NH4+–N and NO3-–N obtained at the end of incubation were recorded in non-saline (SS) soil treated with poultry manure with 1173.4, 4.26 and 8.40 mg/100 g of dry soil, respectively. The reductions in rates of release of CO2–C and of nitrification under saline conditions were 21 and 36, 78 %, respectively. The influence of organic substratum on the microbial density shows a stimulating effect on all microbial groups studied. The whole results show the usefulness of two types of manures for the improvement of the microbiological functioning of arid soils.

Keywords: Salinity, Organic matter, Microorganisms, Mineralization, Nitrogen, Carbon, Arid regions

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
297 The Effects of Cow Manure Treated by Fruit Beetle Larvae, Waxworms and Tiger Worms on Plant Growth in Relation to Its Use as Potting Compost

Authors: Waleed S. Alwaneen

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Dairy industry is flourishing in world to provide milk and milk products to local population. Besides milk products, dairy industries also generate a substantial amount of cow manure that significantly affects the environment. Moreover, heat produced during the decomposition of the cow manure adversely affects the crop germination. Different companies are producing vermicompost using different species of worms/larvae to overcome the harmful effects using fresh manure. Tiger worm treatment enhanced plant growth, especially in the compost-manure ratio (75% compost, 25% cow manure), followed by a ratio of 50% compost, 50% cow manure.  Results also indicated that plant growth in Waxworm treated manure was weak as compared to plant growth in compost treated with Fruit Beetle (FB), Waxworms (WW), and Control (C) especially in the compost (25% compost, 75% cow manure) and 100% cow manure where there was no growth at all. Freshplant weight, fresh leaf weight and fresh root weight were significantly higher in the compost treated with Tiger worms in (75% compost, 25% cow manure); no evidence was seen for any significant differences in the dry root weight measurement between FB, Tiger worms (TW), WW, Control (C) in all composts. TW produced the best product, especially at the compost ratio of 75% compost, 25% cow manure followed by 50% compost, 50% cow manure.

Keywords: fruit beetle, tiger worms, waxworms, control

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
296 Compost Bioremediation of Oil Refinery Sludge by Using Different Manures in a Laboratory Condition

Authors: O. Ubani, H. I. Atagana, M. S. Thantsha

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This study was conducted to measure the reduction in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content in oil sludge by co-composting the sludge with pig, cow, horse and poultry manures under laboratory conditions. Four kilograms of soil spiked with 800 g of oil sludge was co-composted differently with each manure in a ratio of 2:1 (w/w) spiked soil:manure and wood-chips in a ratio of 2:1 (w/v) spiked soil:wood-chips. Control was set up similar as the one above but without manure. Mixtures were incubated for 10 months at room temperature. Compost piles were turned weekly and moisture level was maintained at between 50% and 70%. Moisture level, pH, temperature, CO2 evolution and oxygen consumption were measured monthly and the ash content at the end of experimentation. Bacteria capable of utilizing PAHs were isolated, purified and characterized by molecular techniques using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), amplification of the 16S rDNA gene using the specific primers (16S-P1 PCR and 16S-P2 PCR) and the amplicons were sequenced. Extent of reduction of PAHs was measured using automated soxhlet extractor with dichloromethane as the extraction solvent coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Temperature did not exceed 27.5O°C in all compost heaps, pH ranged from 5.5 to 7.8 and CO2 evolution was highest in poultry manure at 18.78 µg/dwt/day. Microbial growth and activities were enhanced. Bacteria identified were Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Staphylococcus species. Results from PAH measurements showed reduction between 77 and 99%. The results from the control experiments may be because it was invaded by fungi. Co-composting of spiked soils with animal manures enhanced the reduction in PAHs. Interestingly, all bacteria isolated and identified in this study were present in all treatments, including the control.

Keywords: bioremediation, co-composting, oil refinery sludge, PAHs, bacteria spp, animal manures, molecular techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
295 Analyzing the Effect of Biomass and Cementitious Materials on Air Content in Concrete

Authors: Mohammed Albahttiti, Eliana Aguilar

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A push for sustainability in the concrete industry is increasing. Cow manure itself is becoming a problem and having the potential solution to use it in concrete as a cementitious replacement would be an ideal solution. For cow manure ash to become a well-rounded substitute, it would have to meet the right criteria to progress in becoming a more popular idea in the concrete industry. This investigation primarily focuses on how the replacement of cow manure ash affects the air content and air void distribution in concrete. In order to assess these parameters, the Super Air Meter (SAM) was used to test concrete in this research. In addition, multiple additional tests were performed, which included the slump test, temperature, and compression test. The strength results of the manure ash in concrete were promising. The manure showed compression strength results that are similar to that of the other supplementary cementitious materials tested. On the other hand, concrete samples made with cow manure ash showed 2% air content loss and an increasing SAM number proportional to cow manure content starting at 0.38 and increasing to 0.8. In conclusion, while the use of cow manure results in loss of air content, it results in compressive strengths similar to other supplementary cementitious materials.

Keywords: air content, biomass ash, cow manure ash, super air meter, supplementary cementitious materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
294 Effect of Organic Manure on Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

Authors: R. Behrooz, D. Jahanfar, D. Reza

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Organic farming is a fundamental principle in sustainable agriculture. Preventing excessive contamination of water and soil with pesticides and chemical fertilizers is important in order to produce healthy food. For this purpose, two potato cultivars (Sante and Marfona) and seven levels of fertilizer (non-fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, granulated chicken manure, common manure, compost, vermicompost and tea compost) were evaluated by factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. According to the results, the effect of different manure was significant on number of tubers per plant, tuber weight per plant and tuber yield. The highest value of these traits was obtained by using of chicken manure which was significantly superior to other treatments. However, there was no significant difference between the two varieties. According to the results, the use of chicken manure has produced the highest potato yield even in comparison with the use of chemical fertilizer.

Keywords: organic farming, organic manure, potato, tuber yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
293 Increasing Yam Production as a Means of Solving the Problem of Hunger in Nigeria

Authors: Samual Ayeni, A. S. Akinbani

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At present when the price of petroleum is going down beyond bearable level, there is a need to diversify the economy towards arable crop production since Nigeria is an agrarian country. Yam plays prominent role in solving the problem of hunger in Nigeria. There is scarcity of information on the effect of fertilizers in increasing the yield of yam and maintaining soil properties in South Western Nigeria. This study was therefore set up to determine fertilizer effect on properties and yield of yam. The experiment was conducted at Adeyemi College of Education Teaching and Research Farm to compare the effect of organic, Organomineral and mineral fertilizers on yield of yam. Ten treatments were used 10t/ha Wood Ash, 10t/ha Cattle Dung, 10t/ha Poultry Manure, 10t/ha Manufactured Organic, 10t/ha Organomineral Fertilizer, 400kg/ha NPK, 400kg/ha SSP, 400kg/ha Urea and control with treatment. The treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Compared with control, Organomineral fertilizer significantly (P < 0.05) increased the soil moisture content, poultry manure, wood ash significantly decreased (< 0.05) the bulk density. Application of 10t/ha Organomineral fertilizer recorded the highest increase in the yield of yam among the treatments.

Keywords: organomineral fertilizer, organic fertilizer, SSP, bulk density

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
292 Poultry Manure and Its Derived Biochar as a Soil Amendment for Newly Reclaimed Sandy Soils under Arid and Semi-Arid Conditions

Authors: W. S. Mohamed, A. A. Hammam

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Sandy soils under arid and semi-arid conditions are characterized by poor physical and biochemical properties such as low water retention, rapid organic matter decomposition, low nutrients use efficiency, and limited crop productivity. Addition of organic amendments is crucial to develop soil properties and consequently enhance nutrients use efficiency and lessen organic carbon decomposition. Two years field experiments were developed to investigate the feasibility of using poultry manure and its derived biochar integrated with different levels of N fertilizer as a soil amendment for newly reclaimed sandy soils in Western Desert of El-Minia Governorate, Egypt. Results of this research revealed that poultry manure and its derived biochar addition induced pronounced effects on soil moisture content at saturation point, field capacity (FC) and consequently available water. Data showed that application of poultry manure (PM) or PM-derived biochar (PMB) in combination with inorganic N levels had caused significant changes on a range of the investigated sandy soil biochemical properties including pH, EC, mineral N, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic N (DON) and quotient DOC/DON. Overall, the impact of PMB on soil physical properties was detected to be superior than the impact of PM, regardless the inorganic N levels. In addition, the obtained results showed that PM and PM application had the capacity to stimulate vigorous growth, nutritional status, production levels of wheat and sorghum, and to increase soil organic matter content and N uptake and recovery compared to control. By contrast, comparing between PM and PMB at different levels of inorganic N, the obtained results showed higher relative increases in both grain and straw yields of wheat in plots treated with PM than in those treated with PMB. The interesting feature of this research is that the biochar derived from PM increased treated sandy soil organic carbon (SOC) 1.75 times more than soil treated with PM itself at the end of cropping seasons albeit double-applied amount of PM. This was attributed to the higher carbon stability of biochar treated sandy soils increasing soil persistence for carbon decomposition in comparison with PM labile carbon. It could be concluded that organic manures applied to sandy soils under arid and semi-arid conditions are subjected to high decomposition and mineralization rates through crop seasons. Biochar derived from organic wastes considers as a source of stable carbon and could be very hopeful choice for substituting easily decomposable organic manures under arid conditions. Therefore, sustainable agriculture and productivity in newly reclaimed sandy soils desire one high rate addition of biochar derived from organic manures instead of frequent addition of such organic amendments.

Keywords: biochar, dissolved organic carbon, N-uptake, poultry, sandy soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
291 A Prospective Study on the Pattern of Antibiotics Use and Prevalence of Multidrug Resistant Escherichia Coli in Poultry Chickens and Its Correlation with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Stelvin Sebastian, Andriya Annie Tom, Joyalanna Babu, Merin Joshy

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Introduction: The worldwide increase in the use of antibiotics in poultry and livestock industry to treat and prevent bacterial diseases and as growth promoters in feeds has led to the problem of development of antibiotic resistance both in animals and human population. Aim: To study the pattern of antibiotic use and prevalence of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli in poultry chickens in selected farms in Muvattupuzha and to compare the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria from poultry environment to UTI patients. Methodology: Two farms from each of 6 localities in Muvattupuzha were selected. A questionnaire on the pattern of antibiotic use and various farming practices were surveyed from farms. From each farm, 60samples of fresh fecal matter, litter from inside, litter from the outside shed, agricultural soil and control soil were collected, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of E. coli was done. Antibiogram of UTI patients was collected from the secondary care hospital included in the study, and those were compared with resistance patterns of poultry samples. Results: From survey response antibiotics such as ofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, colistin, ceftriaxone, neomycin, cephalexin, and oxytetracycline were used for treatment and prevention of infections in poultry. 31of 48 samples (51.66%) showed E. coli growth. 7 of 15 antibiotics (46.6%) showed resistance. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, meropenem, tetracycline showed 100% resistance to all samples. Statistical analysis confirmed similar resistance pattern in the poultry environment and UTI patients for antibiotics such as ampicillin, amoxicillin, amikacin, and ofloxacin. Conclusion: E. coli were resistant not only to extended-spectrum beta-lactams but also to carbapenems, which may be disseminated to the environment where litter was used as manure. This may due to irrational use of antibiotics in chicken or from their use in poultry feed as growth promoters. The study concludes the presence of multidrug-resistant E.coli in poultry and its spread to environment and humans, which may cause potentially serious implications for human health.

Keywords: multidrug resistance, escherichia coli, urinary tract infection, poultry

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
290 Eco-Agriculture for Effective Solid Waste Management in Minna, Nigeria

Authors: A. Abdulkadir, Y. M. Bello, A. A. Okhimamhe, H. Ibrahim, M. B. Matazu, L. S. Barau

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The increasing volume of solid waste generated, collected and disposed daily complicate adequate management of solid waste by the relevant agency like Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA). In addition, the impacts of solid waste on the natural environment and human livelihood require identification of cost-effective ways for sustainable municipal waste management in Nigeria. These signal the need for identifying environment-friendly initiative and local solution to address municipal solid waste. A research field was secured at Pago, Minna, Niger State which is located in the guinea savanna belt of Nigeria, within longitude 60 3614311- 4511 and latitude 90 291 37.6111- .6211 N. Poultry droppings, decomposed household waste manure and NPK treatment were used. The experimental field was divided into three replications and four (4) treatments on each replication making a total of twelve (12) plots. The treatments were allotted using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and Data collected was analyzed using SPSS software and RCBD. The result depicts variation in plant height and number of leaves at 50% flowering; Poultry dropping records the highest height as a number of leaves for waste manure competes fairly well with NPK treatment. Similarly, the varying treatments significantly increase vegetable yield, as the control (Nontreatment) records the least yield for the three vegetable samples. Adoption of this organic manure for cultivation does not only enhance environment quality and attainment of food security but will contribute to local economic development, poverty alleviation, and social inclusion.

Keywords: environmental issues, food security, NISEPA, solid waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
289 Biodiesel Synthesis Using Animal Excreta-Based Biochar and Waste Cooking Oil

Authors: Sang-Ryong Lee, Min-Woon Jung, Deugwoo Han, Kiyong Kim

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This study laid an emphasis on the possible employment of biochar generated from pyrolysis of animal excreta to establish a green platform for producing biodiesel. To this end, the pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction using chicken manure biochar and waste cooking oil was investigated. Compared with a commercial porous material (SiO2), chicken manure biochar generated from 350 C showed better performance, resulting in 95.6% of the FAME yield at 350C. The Ca species in chicken manure biochar imparted strong catalytic capability by providing the basicity for transesterification. The identified catalytic effect also led to the thermal cracking of unsaturated FAMEs, which decreased the overall FAME yield. For example, 40–60% of converted FAMEs were thermally degraded. To avoid undesirable thermal cracking arising from the high content of the Ca species in chicken manure biochar, the fabrication of chicken manure biochar at temperatures ≥350C was highly recommended.

Keywords: Trasesterification, Animal excreta, FAME, Biochar, Chicken manure

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
288 Investigation of Biogas from Slaughterhouse and Dairy Farm Waste

Authors: Saadelnour Abdueljabbar Adam

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Wastes from slaughterhouses in most towns in Sudan are often poorly managed and sometimes discharged into adjoining streams due to poor implementation of standards, thus causing environmental and public health hazards and also there is a large amount of manure from dairy farms. This paper presents a solution of organic waste from cow dairy farms and slaughterhouse. We present the findings of experimental investigation of biogas production using cow manure, blood and rumen content were mixed at three proportions :72.3%, 61%, 39% manure, 6%, 8.5%, 22% blood; and 21.7%, 30.5%, 39% rumen content in volume for bio-digester 1,2,3 respectively. This paper analyses the quantitative and qualitative composition of biogas: gas content, and the concentration of methane. The highest biogas output 0.116L/g dry matter from bio-digester1 together with a high-quality biogas of 85% methane Was from the mixture of cow manure with blood and rumen content were mixed at 72.3%manure, 6%blood and 21.7%rumen content which is useful for combustion and energy production. While bio-digester 2 and 3 gave 0.012L/g dry matter and 0.013L/g dry matter respectively with the weak concentration of methane (50%).

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, bio-digester, blood, cow manure, rumen content

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
287 Modeling and Simulation for Infection Processes of Bird Flu within a Poultry Farm

Authors: Tertia Delia Nova, Masaji Watanabge

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Infection of bird flu within a poultry farm involves hosts, virus, and medium. Intrusion of bird flu into a poultry farm divides the population into two groups; healthy and susceptible chickens and infected chickens. A healthy and susceptible bird is infected to become an infected bird. Bird flu viruses spread among chickens through medium such as air and droppings, and increase in hosts. A model for an infection process of bird flu within a poultry farm is described, numerical techniques are illustrated, and numerical results are introduced.

Keywords: bird flu, poultry farm, model for an infection process, flu viruses

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
286 Changes in Physical Soil Properties and Crop Status on Soil Enriched With Treated Manure

Authors: Vaclav Novak, Katerina Krizova, Petr Sarec

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Modern agriculture has to face many issues from which soil degradation and lack of organic matter in the soil are only a few of them. Apart from Climate Change, human utilization of landscape is the cause of a majority part of these problems. Cattle production in Czechia has been reduced by more than half in recent 30 years. However, cattle manure is considered as staple organic fertilizer, and its role in attempts for sustainable agriculture is irreplaceable. This study aims to describe the impact of so-called activators of biological manure transformation (Z´fix, Olmix Group) mainly on physical soil properties but also on crop status. The experiment has been established in 2017; nevertheless, initial measurements of implement draft have been performed before the treated manure application. In 2018, the physical soil properties and crop status (sugar beet) has been determined and compared with the untreated manure and control variant. Significant results have been observed already in the first year, where the implement draft decreased by 9.2 % within the treated manure variant in comparison with the control variant.

Keywords: field experiment, implement draft, vegetation index, sugar beet

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
285 Evaluation of Biofertilizer and Manure Effects on Quantitative Yield of Nigella Sativa L.

Authors: Mohammad Reza Haj Seyed Hadi, Fereshteh Ghanepasand, Mohammad Taghi Darzi

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The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of Nitrogen fixing bacteria and manure application on the seed yield and yield components in black cumin (Nigella sativa L.). The experiment was carried out at the RAN Research Station in Firouzkouh in 2012. A 4×4 factorial experiment, arranged in a randomized complete blocks designed with three replications. The treatments consisted of 4 level of nitrogen fixing bacteria (control, Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Azotobacter + Azospirillum) and 4 level of manure (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 ton ha-1). The present results have shown that the highest height, 1000 seeds weight, seed number per follicle, follicle yield, seed yield and harvest index were obtained after using Azotobacter and Azospirillum, simultaneously. Manure application only affects on follicle yield and by 5ton manure ha-1 the highest follicle yield obtained. Results of this investigation showed that the maximum seed yield obtained when Aotobacter+Azospirillum inoculated with black cumin seeds and 5 ton manure ha-1 applied. Combined application of nitrogen fixing bacteria and manure can be helpful in developing of production and yield in Black cumin.

Keywords: azotobacter, azospirillum, black cumin, yield, yield components

Procedia PDF Downloads 310