Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 118

Search results for: Chlorella vulgaris

118 ISSR-PCR Based Genetic Diversity Analysis on Copper Tolerant versus Wild Type Strains of Unicellular alga Chlorella Vulgaris

Authors: Abdullah M. Alzahrani

Abstract:

The unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris was isolated from Al-Asfar Lake, which is located in the Al-Ahsa province of Saudi Arabia. Two different isolates were sub-cultured under laboratory conditions. The wild type was grown under a regular concentration of copper, whereas the other isolate was grown under a progressively increasing copper concentration. An Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) analysis was performed using DNA isolated from the wild type and tolerant strains. The sum of the scored bands of the wild type was 155, with 100 (64.5%) considered to be polymorphic bands, whereas the resistant strain displayed 147 bands, with 92 (62.6%) considered to be polymorphic bands. The sum of the scored bands of a mixed sample was 117 bands, of which only 4 (3.4%) were considered to be polymorphic. The average Nei's genetic diversity (h) and Shannon-Weiner diversity indices (I) were 0.3891 and 0.5394, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the adaptation to a high level of copper in Chlorella vulgaris is not merely physiological but rather driven by modifications at the genomic level.

Keywords: chlorella vulgaris, copper tolerance, genetic diversity, green algae

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117 Growth and Immune Response of Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) Postlarvae Fed Diets Containing Chlorella vulgaris

Authors: Gian Carlo F. Maliwat, Stephanie F. Velasquez, Janice A. Ragaza

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A 50-day growth trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Chlorella vulgaris (Beijerinck) as an ingredient in the diets of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) postlarvae (PL30). Immune response (total haemocyte count and prophenoloxidase activity) was also assessed by subjecting postlarvae to a challenge test against Aeromonas hydrophila (Chester) for 14 days. Isonitrogenous and iso-lipidic test diets were prepared using a fishmeal-based-positive control diet (D0) and four basal diets with inclusion levels of 2% (D2), 4% (D4), 6% (D6) and 8% (D8) C. vulgaris. Postlarvae of M. rosenbergii were randomly stocked (mean initial body weight of 0.19 ± 0.02 g) in 30-L tanks in three replicates per dietary treatment for evaluation of growth performance. Another set of postlarvae (mean initial body weight of 1.25 ± 0.02 g) was randomly distributed in 95-L tanks in three replicates per dietary treatment for the assessment of immune response. Results showed that specific growth rate was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in postlarvae fed D4 and D6. Variations in values for carcass protein, lipid, moisture, and ash were also evident. Postlarvae fed diets with Chlorella showed increased prophenol oxidase activity and total haemocyte counts. Moreover, the survival rate after challenge with A. hydrophila was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Inclusion of C. vulgaris in diets enhanced immune response and resistance of M. rosenbergii postlarvae against A. hydrophila infection.

Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris, haemocyte count, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, prophenoloxidase activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
116 The Influence of Crude Oil on Growth of Freshwater Algae

Authors: Al-Saboonchi Azhar

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The effects of Iraqi crude oil on growth of three freshwater algae (Chlorella vulgaris Beij., Scenedesmus acuminatus (Lag.) Chodat. and Oscillatoria princeps Vauch.) were investigated, basing on it's biomass expressed as Chl.a. Growth rate and doubling time of the cell were calculated. Results showed that growth rate and species survival varied with concentrations of crude oil and species type. Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus acuminatus were more sensitive in culture containing crude oil as compared with Oscillatoria princeps cultures. The growth of green algae were significantly inhibited in culture containing (5 mg/l) crude oil, while the growth of Oscillatoria princeps reduced in culture containing (10 mg/l) crude oil.

Keywords: algae, crude oil, green algae, Cyanobacteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
115 Formulation and Characterization of NaCS-PDMDAAC Capsules with Immobilized Chlorella vulgaris for Phycoremediation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

Authors: Quin Emparan, Razif Harun, Dayang R. A. Biak, Rozita Omar, Michael K. Danquah

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Cultivation of immobilized microalgae cells is on the rise for biotechnological applications. In this study, cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris was carried out in the form of suspended free-cell and immobilized cells system. NaCS-PDMDAAC capsules were used to immobilize C. vulgaris. Initially, the synthesized NaCS with C. vulgaris culture were prepared at various concentration of 5- 20% (w/v) using a 6% hardening solution (PDMDAAC) to investigate the capsules' gel stability and suitability for microalgae cells growth. Then, the capsules produced from 15% NaCS with C. vulgaris culture were furthered investigated using 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/v) of PDMDAAC solution. The capsules' gel stability was evaluated through dissolution time and loss of uniform spherical shape of capsules, while suitability for microalgae cells growth was evaluated through the optical density of microalgae. In this study, the 15% NaCS-10% PDMDAAC capsules were found to be the most suitable to sustain the capsules' gel stability and microalgae cells growth in MLA. For that reason, the C. vulgaris immobilized in the 15% NaCS-10% PDMDAAC capsules were further characterized using physicochemical analysis in terms of morphological, carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and nitrogen (N), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), zeta potential and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) analyses. The results revealed that the presence of sulfonates in the synthesized NaCS and NaCS-PDMDAAC capsules without and with C. vulgaris proves that cellulose alcohol group was successfully bonded by sulfo group. Besides that, immobilized microalgae cells have a smaller cell size of 6.29 ± 1.09 µm and zeta potential of -11.93 ± 0.91 mV than suspended free-cells microalgae culture. It can be summarized that immobilization of C. vulgaris in the 15% NaCS-10% PDMDAAC capsules are relevant as a bioremediator for wastewater treatment purposes due to its suitable size of pore and capsules as well as structural and compositional properties.

Keywords: biological capsules, immobilized cultivation, microalgae, physico-chemical analysis

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114 Assessment of the Effect of Cu and Zn on the Growth of Two Chlorophytic Microalgae

Authors: Medina O. Kadiri, John E. Gabriel

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Heavy metals are metallic elements with a relatively high density, at least five times greater compared to water. The sources of heavy metal pollution in the environment include industrial, medical, agricultural, pharmaceutical, domestic effluents, and atmospheric sources, mining, foundries, smelting, and any heavy metal-based operation. Although some heavy metals in trace quantities are required for biological metabolism, their higher concentrations elicit toxicities. Others are distinctly toxic and are of no biological functions. Microalgae are the primary producers of aquatic ecosystems and, therefore, the foundation of the aquatic food chain. A study investigating the effects of copper and zinc on the two chlorophytes-Chlorella vulgaris and Dictyosphaerium pulchellum was done in the laboratory, under different concentrations of 0mg/l, 2mg/l, 4mg/l, 6mg/l, 8mg/l, 10mg/l, and 20mg/l. The growth of the test microalgae was determined every two days for 14 days. The results showed that the effects of the test heavy metals were concentration-dependent. From the two microalgae species tested, Chlorella vulgaris showed appreciable growth up to 8mg/l concentration of zinc. Dictyoshphaerium pulchellum had only minimal growth at different copper concentrations except for 2mg/l, which seemed to have relatively higher growth. The growth of the control was remarkably higher than in other concentrations. Generally, the growth of both test algae was consistently inhibited by heavy metals. Comparatively, copper generally inhibited the growth of both algae than zinc. Chlorella vulgaris can be used for bioremediation of high concentrations of zinc. The potential of many microalgae in heavy metal bioremediation can be explored.

Keywords: heavy metals, green algae, microalgae, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
113 Evaluation of Pretreatment and Bioactive Compounds Recovery from Chlorella vulgaris

Authors: Marina Stramarkou, Sofia Papadaki, Konstantina Kyriakopoulou, Magdalini Krokida

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Nowadays, microalgae represent the diverse branch of microorganism that is used not only in fish farming, but also in food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and biofuel production as they can produce a wide range of unique functional ingredients. In the present work, a remarkable microalga Chlorella vulgaris (CV) was selected as a raw material for the recovery of multifunctional extracts. First of all, the drying of raw biomass was examined with freeze-drying showing the best behavior. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) using different solvents was applied under the specific optimized conditions. In case of raw biomass, ethanol was the suitable solvent, whereas on dried samples water performed better. The total carotenoid, β-carotene, chlorophyll and protein content in the raw materials, extracts and extraction residues was determined using UV-Vis spectrometry. The microalgae biomass and the extracts were evaluated regarding their antiradical activity using the DPPH method.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, pigments, proteins, ultrasound assisted extraction

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112 Nutrient Removal and Microalgal Biomass Growth of Chlorella Vulgaris in Response to Centrate Wastewater Loadings

Authors: Lingfeng Wang, Zhipeng Chen, Shuang Qiu, Shijian Ge

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The effects of wastewater, with four different nutrient loadings, from synthetic centrate on biomass production of Chlorella vulgaris, nutrient removal, microalgal settling, and lipid production were investigated in photobioreactors under both batches and, subsequently, semi-continuous operations. At higher centrate concentration factors (17.2% and 36.2%), hydraulic retention time and pH adjustments could be employed to sustain acceptable microalgal growth rates and wastewater treatment. Similar nutrient removals efficiencies (>95%) and biomass production (0.42-0.51 g/L) were observed for the four centrate concentrations. Both the lipid productivity and lipid content decreased with increasing nutrient loading in the wastewater. The results also demonstrated that the mass ratio of carbohydrate to protein could provide a good indication of microalgal settling performance, rather than sole component composition or total extracellular polymeric substances.

Keywords: lipid production, microalgae, nutrient removal, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
111 Effect of Lowering the Proportion of Chlorella vulgaris in Fish Feed on Tilapia's Immune System

Authors: Hamza A. Pantami, Khozizah Shaari, Intan S. Ismail, Chong C. Min

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Introduction: Tilapia is the second-highest harvested freshwater fish species in Malaysia, available in almost all fish farms and markets. Unfortunately, tilapia culture in Malaysia is highly affected by Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus agalactiae, which affect the production rate and consequently pose a direct negative economic impact. Reliance on drugs to control or reduce bacterial infections has been led to contamination of water bodies and development of drug resistance, as well as gave rise to toxicity issues in downstream fish products. Resorting to vaccines have helped curb the problem to a certain extent, but a more effective solution is still required. Using microalgae-based feed to enhance the fish immunity against bacterial infection offers a promising alternative. Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of Chlorella vulgaris at lower percentage incorporation in feeds for an immune boost of tilapia in a shorter time. Methods: The study was in two phases. The safety concentration studies at 500 mg/kg-1 and the administration of cultured C. vulgaris biomass via incorporation into fish feed for five different groups in three weeks. Group 1 was the control (0% incorporation), whereas group 2, 3, 4 and 5 received 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5% incorporation respectively. The parameters evaluated were the blood profile, serum lysozyme activity (SLA), serum bactericidal activity (SBA), phagocytosis activity (PA), respiratory burst activity (RBA), and lymphoproliferation activity (LPA). The data were analyzed via ANOVA using SPSS (version 16). Further testing was done using Tukey’s test. All tests were performed at the 95% confidence interval (p < 0.05). Results: There were no toxic signs in tilapia fish at 500 mg/kg-1. Treated groups showed significantly better immune parameters compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: C. vulgaris crude biomass in a fish meal at a lower incorporation level of 5% can increase specific and non-specific immunity in tilapia fish in a shorter time duration.

Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris, hematology profile, immune boost, lymphoproliferation

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110 Synergistic Impacts and Optimization of Gas Flow Rate, Concentration of CO2, and Light Intensity on CO2 Biofixation in Wastewater Medium by Chlorella vulgaris

Authors: Ahmed Arkoazi, Hussein Znad, Ranjeet Utikar

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The synergistic impact and optimization of gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity on CO2 biofixation rate were investigated using wastewater as a medium to cultivate Chlorella vulgaris under different conditions (gas flow rate 1-8 L/min), CO2 concentration (0.03-7%), and light intensity (150-400 µmol/m2.s)). Response Surface Methodology and Box-Behnken experimental Design were applied to find optimum values for gas flow rate, CO2 concentration, and light intensity. The optimum values of the three independent variables (gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity) and desirability were 7.5 L/min, 3.5%, and 400 µmol/m2.s, and 0.904, respectively. The highest amount of biomass produced and CO2 biofixation rate at optimum conditions were 5.7 g/L, 1.23 gL-1d-1, respectively. The synergistic effect between gas flow rate and concentration of CO2, and between gas flow rate and light intensity was significant on the three responses, while the effect between CO2 concentration and light intensity was less significant on CO2 biofixation rate. The results of this study could be highly helpful when using microalgae for CO2 biofixation in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: bubble column reactor, gas holdup, hydrodynamics, sparger

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109 Wet Extraction of Lutein and Lipids from Microalga by Quantitative Determination of Polarity

Authors: Mengyue Gong, Xinyi Li, Amarjeet Bassi

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Harvesting by-products while recovering biodiesel is considered a potentially valuable approach to increase the market feasibility of microalgae industry. Lutein is a possible by-product from microalgae that promotes eye health. The extraction efficiency and the expensive drying process of wet algae represent the major challenges for the utilization of microalgae biomass as a feedstock for lipids, proteins, and carotenoids. A wet extraction method was developed to extract lipids and lutein from microalga Chlorella vulgaris. To evaluate different solvent (mixtures) for the extraction, a quantitative analysis was established based on the polarity of solvents using Nile Red as the polarity (ETN) indicator. By the choice of binary solvent system then adding proper amount of water to achieve phase separation, lipids and lutein can be extracted simultaneously. Some other parameters for lipids and lutein production were also studied including saponification time, temperature, choice of alkali, and pre-treatment methods. The extraction efficiency with wet algae was compared with dried algae and shown better pigment recovery. The results indicated that the product pattern in each extracted phase was polarity dependent. Lutein and β-carotene were the main carotenoids extracted with ethanol while lipids come out with hexane.

Keywords: biodiesel, Chlorella vulgaris, extraction, lutein

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108 Microalgae Applied to the Reduction of Biowaste Produced by Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster

Authors: Shuang Qiu, Zhipeng Chen, Lingfeng Wang, Shijian Ge

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Biowastes are a concern due to the large amounts of commercial food required for model animals during the biomedical research. Searching for sustainable food alternatives with negligible physiological effects on animals is critical to solving or reducing this challenge. Microalgae have been demonstrated as suitable for both human consumption and animal feed in addition to biofuel and bioenergy applications. In this study, the possibility of using Chlorella vulgaris and Senedesmus obliquus as a feed replacement to Drosophila melanogaster, one of the fly models commonly used in biomedical studies, was investigated to assess the fly locomotor activity, motor pattern, lifespan, and body weight. Compared to control, flies fed on 60% or 80% (w/w) microalgae exhibited varied walking performance including travel distance and apparent step size, and flies treated with 40% microalgae had shorter lifespans and decreased body weight. However, the 20% microalgae treatment showed no statistical differences in all parameters tested with respect to the control. When partially including 20% microalgae in the standard food, it can annually reduce the food waste (~ 202 kg) by 22.7 % and save $ 7,200 of the food cost, offering an environmentally superior and cost-effective food alternative without compromising physiological performance.

Keywords: animal feed, Chlorella vulgaris, Drosophila melanogaster, food waste, microalgae

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
107 Comparison of Fuel Properties from Species of Microalgae and Selected Second-Generation Oil Feedstocks

Authors: Andrew C. Eloka Eboka, Freddie L. Inambao

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Comparative investigation and assessment of microalgal technology as a biodiesel production option was studied alongside other second generation feedstocks. This was carried out by comparing the fuel properties of species of Chlorella vulgaris, Duneliella spp, Synechococus spp and Senedesmus spp with the feedstock of Jatropha (ex-basirika variety), Hura crepitans, rubber and Natal mahogany seed oils. The micro-algae were cultivated in an open pond using a photobioreactor (New Brunsink set-up model BF-115 Bioflo/CelliGen made in the US) with operating parameters: 14L capacity, working volume of 7.5L media, including 10% inoculum, at optical density of 3.144 @540nm and light intensity of 200 lux, for 23 and 16 days respectively. Various produced/accumulated biomasses were harvested by draining, flocculation, centrifugation, drying and then subjected to lipid extraction processes. The oils extracted from the algae and feedstocks were characterised and used to produce biodiesel fuels, by the transesterification method, using modified optimization protocol. Fuel properties of the final biodiesel products were evaluated for chemo-physical and fuel properties. Results revealed Chlorella vulgaris as the best strain for biomass cultivation, having the highest lipid productivity (5.2mgL-1h-1), the highest rate of CO2 absorption (17.85mgL-1min-1) and the average carbon sequestration in the form of CO2 was 76.6%. The highest biomass productivity was 35.1mgL-1h-1 (Chlorella), while Senedesmus had the least output (3.75mgL-1h-1, 11.73mgL-1min-1). All species had good pH value adaptation, ranging from 6.5 to 8.5. The fuel properties of the micro-algal biodiesel in comparison with Jatropha, rubber, Hura and Natal mahogany were within ASTM specification and AGO used as the control. Fuel cultivation from microalgae is feasible and will revolutionise the biodiesel industry.

Keywords: biodiesel, fuel properties, microalgae, second generation, seed oils, feedstock, photo-bioreactor, open pond

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106 Optimization of a Bioremediation Strategy for an Urban Stream of Matanza-Riachuelo Basin

Authors: María D. Groppa, Andrea Trentini, Myriam Zawoznik, Roxana Bigi, Carlos Nadra, Patricia L. Marconi

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In the present work, a remediation bioprocess based on the use of a local isolate of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris immobilized in alginate beads is proposed. This process was shown to be effective for the reduction of several chemical and microbial contaminants present in Cildáñez stream, a water course that is part of the Matanza-Riachuelo Basin (Buenos Aires, Argentina). The bioprocess, involving the culture of the microalga in autotrophic conditions in a stirred-tank bioreactor supplied with a marine propeller for 6 days, allowed a significant reduction of Escherichia coli and total coliform numbers (over 95%), as well as of ammoniacal nitrogen (96%), nitrates (86%), nitrites (98%), and total phosphorus (53%) contents. Pb content was also significantly diminished after the bioprocess (95%). Standardized cytotoxicity tests using Allium cepa seeds and Cildáñez water pre- and post-remediation were also performed. Germination rate and mitotic index of onion seeds imbibed in Cildáñez water subjected to the bioprocess was similar to that observed in seeds imbibed in distilled water and significantly superior to that registered when untreated Cildáñez water was used for imbibition. Our results demonstrate the potential of this simple and cost-effective technology to remove urban-water contaminants, offering as an additional advantage the possibility of an easy biomass recovery, which may become a source of alternative energy.

Keywords: bioreactor, bioremediation, Chlorella vulgaris, Matanza-Riachuelo Basin, microalgae

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
105 Fungal Flocculation of Single Algae Species and Mixed Algal Communities

Authors: Digby Wrede, Stephen Gray, Syed Hussainy

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Microalgae are extremely useful organisms but notoriously hard to harvest. The use of fungal pellets has been found to be an efficient way to flocculate numerous species of algae. However, only the flocculation of single species of algae has been investigated. Algae are generally found in complex communities in the environment comprising of numerous species of algae ranging from simple single cell algae such as Chlorella to more complex or communal algae such as Dictyosphaerium. This study investigated the flocculation capabilities of Aspergillus oryzae to flocculate four species of algae; Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Scenedesmus acuminatus and Dictyosphaerium sp., and the algal communities in four different types of domestic effluent from a lagoon-based treatment plant; primary effluent, secondary effluent and the high rate algal pond effluent at a natural and at a lowered pH level. Spectrophotometry was used to measure the changes in algal population. C. vulgaris, S. acuminatus and S. quadricauda, had over 90% reduction of algal in suspension after 24 hours. Dictyosphaerium sp. showed a little to no removal after 24 hours. The primary, secondary, and natural pH level HRAP had roughly a 50% removal after 24 hours, the HRAP which was grown at a lower pH level had over a 90% removal after 24 hours. pH has been shown previously to affect fungal flocculation. Fungal and algae pellets have been shown to be able to treat wastewater and can be converted to biofuels in a very similar method to how algae are currently converted. The mixture of both fungi and algae has also been shown to provide a higher yield of oils then separately and are able to more efficiently treat wastewater then algae or fungi by themselves.

Keywords: algae harvesting, Aspergillus oryzae, fungal flocculation, wastewater treatment

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104 Effect of Nitrogen and Carbon Sources on Growth and Lipid Production from Mixotrophic Growth of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2

Authors: Ratanaporn Leesing, Thidarat Papone, Mutiyaporn Puangbut

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Mixotrophic cultivation of the isolated freshwater microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 in batch shake flask for biomass and lipid productions, different concentration of glucose as carbon substrate, different nitrogen source and concentrations were investigated. Using 1.0g/L of NaNO3 as nitrogen source, the maximum biomass yield of 10.04g/L with biomass productivity of 1.673g/L d was obtained using 40g/L glucose, while a biomass of 7.09, 8.55 and 9.45g/L with biomass productivity of 1.182, 1.425 and 1.575g/L d were found at 20, 30 and 50g/L glucose, respectively. The maximum lipid yield of 3.99g/L with lipid productivity of 0.665g/L d was obtained when 40g/L glucose was used. Lipid yield of 1.50, 3.34 and 3.66g/L with lipid productivity of 0.250, 0.557 and 0.610g/L d were found when using the initial concentration of glucose at 20, 30 and 50g/L, respectively. Process product yield (YP/S) of 0.078, 0.119, 0.158 and 0.094 were observed when glucose concentration was 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/L, respectively. The results obtained from the study shows that mixotrophic culture of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 is a desirable cultivation process for microbial lipid and biomass production.

Keywords: mixotrophic cultivation, microalgal lipid, Chlorella sp. KKU-S2

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103 Effect of Falcaria vulgaris in Wound Healing and Immune Response of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Authors: N. Choobkar, M. Rezaeimanesh, A. M. Emami Rad, M. Ghaeni, H. Norouzi, S. Pahlavani, M. S. Tamasoki, E. Nezafatian

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Antibiotics are used to increase the immune and wound healing in many animals . But due to the residual effects of a drug , researchers sought to replace them with natural materials such as Plant extracts. Falcaria vulgaris is the most attractive sources of the new drugs. Falcaria vulgaris (locally named Ghazzyaghi/Poghazeh) is a member of Umbelliferae family which grows near farmlands and is consumed as a vegetable in some regions of Iran. In the West of the country, in the wound healing and irregularities in the digestive system is also used. There were no scientific reports available in literature in support of the traditional claims of F. vulgaris in fish. The present study is therefore an attempt to assess the efficacy of this indigenous herb for its healing effect in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Falcaria vulgaris at concentrations of 0, 2 and 10 % with Lophag foods used on wound healing of common carp and immune response, and weight grow and survival during periods of 21 days with feeding 2 times per day on the basis of body weight. The results showed that, compared with the control group, using of concentration 10 % F. vulgaris have significant effect on wound healing and stimulates the immune system by increasing white blood cells (WBC) and weight grow and survival of carp. The herb can used in wound healing, increased resistance to disease and weight grow in fish and the beneficial effects of this combination goes back to man.

Keywords: common carp, falcaria vulgaris, immune response, wound healing

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102 Effect of Dust Rejected by Iron and Steel Complex on Roots of Bean Phaseolus vulgaris

Authors: Labiba Zerari Bourafa, Djebar Mohamed Reda, Berrebah Houria, Khadri Sihem, Chiheb Linda

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The study of the effect of metal dust (pollutants) was performed on higher plant white beans Phaseolus vulgaris; the experience took place in cellular toxicology laboratory (in vitro culture). The seeds of the bean Phaseolus vulgaris are cultured in a metal contaminated dust medium (a single treatment by different increasing doses), at a rate of 10 seeds per box, for 10 days. The measurement of morpho-metric parameters is performed during the first 96 hours that follow the germination; while the dosage of the proline, the protein content and histological sections are formed on the tenth day (240 h). All morpho-metric and biochemical parameters measured were highly disturbed by metal dust; histological sections confirm this disurbance.

Keywords: conductive fabrics, metal dust, osmoticums, roots, Phaseolus vulgaris

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101 Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oil from the Leaves of Thymus vulgaris L.

Authors: Tsige Reda

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Essential oil of Thymus vulgaris was extracted by means of hydro-distillation. This study was done to investigate the chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The chemical composition of the essential oils was determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Using disc diffusion assay the antibacterial activity was assessed on one Gram-positive bacteria and one Gram-negative bacteria. The percentage oil yield of the essential oil was found to be 0.97 ± 0.08% (w/w) with yellow color. The physicochemical constants of the oil were also noted. The phytochemical screening of the plant extract revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, phenol, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and alkaloids. A total of 18 chemical constituents were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis representing 100% of the total essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, with thymol (31.977%), o-cymene (29.992%), and carvacrol (14.541%). Previous studies have revealed that the thymol, o-cymen and carvacrol components of Thymus vulgaris are responsible for their biological activities. Thymus vulgaris have been used traditionally to treat a wide variety of infections. Based on the extensive use and lack of scientific evidence, a study was embarked upon to determine its bioactivity. The essential oil of Thymus vulgaris leaves exhibited higher activity towards the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aurous) than the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and also has good antioxidant activity, and can be used medicinal and therapeutic applications. This activity may be due to the high amount of thymol, o-cymen and carvacrol.

Keywords: hydro-distillation, Thymus vulgaris, essential oil composition, phytochemical screening, physicochemical constants, antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity

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100 Growth and Biochemical Composition of Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. under Varied Growth Conditions

Authors: M. Alsull

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In this study, Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. isolated from Penang National Park coastal waters, Malaysia, and cultivated under combined various laboratory conditions (temperature, light and nitrogen limitation and starvation). Growth rate, dry weight, chlorophyll a content, total lipids content and total carbohydrates content were estimated at mid-exponential growth phase. Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. showed remarkably decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and dry weight when maintained under nitrogen limitation and starvation conditions, as well as when grown under 12:12 h light, dark regime conditions. Chlorella sp. showed ability to counter the fluctuation in temperature with no significant effects on the measured parameters; in contrast, Tetraselmis sp. showed a decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and dry weight when grown under 15±1˚C temperature. Cultures maintained under nitrogen full concentration, and 24 h light regime showed decrease in total lipids content, compared with 12:12 h light, dark cycle regime, in the two tested species.

Keywords: microalgae, biochemical composition, temperature, light, nitrogen limitation

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99 Gluability of Bambusa balcooa and Bambusa vulgaris for Development of Laminated Panels

Authors: Daisy Biswas, Samar Kanti Bose, M. Mozaffar Hossain

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The development of value added composite products from bamboo with the application of gluing technology can play a vital role in economic development and also in forest resource conservation of any country. In this study, the gluability of Bambusa balcooa and Bambusa vulgaris, two locally grown bamboo species of Bangladesh was assessed. As the culm wall thickness of bamboos decreases from bottom to top, a culm portion of up to 5.4 m and 3.6 m were used from the base of B. balcooa and B. vulgaris, respectively, to get rectangular strips of uniform thickness. The color of the B. vulgaris strips was yellowish brown and that of B. balcooa was reddish brown. The strips were treated in borax-boric, bleaching and carbonization for extending the service life of the laminates. The preservative treatments changed the color of the strips. Borax–boric acid treated strips were reddish brown. When bleached with hydrogen peroxide, the color of the strips turned into whitish yellow. Carbonization produced dark brownish strips having coffee flavor. Chemical constituents for untreated and treated strips were determined. B. vulgaris was more acidic than B. balcooa. Then the treated strips were used to develop three-layered bamboo laminated panel. Urea formaldehyde (UF) and polyvinyl acetate (PVA) were used as binder. The shear strength and abrasive resistance of the panel were evaluated. It was found that the shear strength of the UF-panel was higher than the PVA-panel for all treatments. Between the species, gluability of B. vulgaris was better and in some cases better than hardwood species. The abrasive resistance of B. balcooa is slightly higher than B. vulgaris; however, the latter was preferred as it showed well gluability. The panels could be used as structural panel, floor tiles, flat pack furniture component, and wall panel etc. However, further research on durability and creep behavior of the product in service condition is warranted.

Keywords: Bambusa balcooa, Bambusa vulgaris, polyvinyl acetate, urea formaldehyde

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98 Producing Lutein Powder from Algae by Extraction and Drying

Authors: Zexin Lei, Timothy Langrish

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Lutein is a type of carotene believed to be beneficial to the eyes. This study aims to explore the possibility of using a closed cycle spray drying system to produce lutein. The system contains a spray dryer, a condenser, a heater, and a pressure seal. Hexane, ethanol, and isopropanol will be used as organic solvents to compare the extraction effects. Several physical and chemical methods of cell disruption will be compared. By continuously sweeping the system with nitrogen, the oxygen content will be controlled below 2%, reducing the concentration of organic solvent below the explosion limit and preventing lutein from being oxidized. Lutein powder will be recovered in the collection device. The volatile organic solvent will be cooled in the condenser and deposited in the bottom until it is discharged from the bottom of the condenser.

Keywords: closed cycle spray drying system, Chlorella vulgaris, organic solvent, solvent recovery

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97 Prolonged Synthesis of Chitin Polysaccharide from Chlorovirus System

Authors: Numfon Rakkhumkaew, Takeru Kawasaki, Makoto Fujie, Takashi Yamada

Abstract:

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses contain a gene that encodes a function for chitin synthesis, which is expressed early in viral infection to produce chitin polysaccharide, a polymer of β-1, 4-linked GlcNAc, on the outside of Chlorella cell wall. Interestingly, chlorovirus system is an eco-friendly system which converses CO2 and solar energy from the environment into useful materials. However, infected Chlorella cells are lysed at the final stage of viral infection, and this phenomenon is caused the breaking down of polysaccharide. To postpone the lysing period and prolong the synthesis of chitin polysaccharide on cells, the slow growing virus incorporated with aphidicolin treatment, an inhibitor of DNA synthesis, was investigated. In this study, a total of 25 virus isolates from water samples in Japan region were analyzed for CHS (the gene for CH synthase) gene by PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The accumulation and appearance of chitin polysaccharide on infected cells were detected by biotinylated chitin-binding proteins WGA (wheat germ agglutinin)-biotin for chitin in conjunction with avidin-Cy 2 or Cy 3 and investigated by fluorescence microscopy, observed as green or yellow fluorescence over the cell surface. Among all chlorovirus isolates, cells infected with CNF1 revealed the accumulation of chitin over the cell surface within 30 min p.i. and continued to accumulate on cells until 4 h p.i. before cell lyses which was 1.6 times longer accumulation period than cells infected with CVK2 (prototype virus). Furthermore, addition of aphidicolin could extend the chitin accumulation on cells infected with CNF1 until 8 h p.i. before cell lyses. Whereas, CVK2-infected cells treated with aphidicolin could prolong the chitin synthesis only for 6 h p.i. before cell lyses. Therefore, chitin synthesis by Chlorella-virus system could be prolonged by using slow-growing viral isolates and with aphidicolin.

Keywords: chitin, chlorovirus, Chlorella virus, aphidicolin

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96 Field Effects on Seed Germination of Phaseolus Vulgaris, Early Seedling Growth and Chemical Composition

Authors: Najafi S., Heidai R., Jamei R., Tofigh F.

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In order to study the effects of magnetic field on the root system and growth of Phaseolus vulgaris, an experiment was conducted in 2012. The possible involvement of magnetic field (MF) pretreatment in physiological factors of Phaseolus vulgaris was investigated. Seeds were subjected to 10 days with 1.8 mT of magnetic field for 1h per day. MF pretreatment decreased the plant height, fresh and dry weight, length of root and length of shoot, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b and carotenoid in 10 days old seedling. In addition, activity of enzymes such as Catalase and Guaiacol peroxidase was decreased due to MF exposure. Also, the total Protein and DPPH content of the treated by magnetic field was not significantly changed in compare to control groups, while the flavonoid, Phenol and prolin content of the treated of the treated by magnetic field was significantly changed in compare to control groups. Lateral branches of roots and secondary roots increased with MF. The results suggest that pretreatment of this MF plays important roles in changes in crop productivity. In all cases there was observed a slight stimulating effect of the factors examined. The growth dynamics were weakened. The plants were shorter. Moreover, the effect of a magnetic field on the crop of Phaseolus vulgaris and its structure was small.

Keywords: carotenoid, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, DPPH, enzymes, flavonoid, germination, growth, phenol, proline, protein, magnetic field, phaseolus vulgaris

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95 Time-Course Lipid Accumulation and Transcript Analyses of Lipid Biosynthesis Gene of Chlorella sp.3 under Nitrogen Limited Condition

Authors: Jyoti Singh, Swati Dubey, Mukta Singh, R. P. Singh

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The freshwater microalgae Chlorella sp. is alluring considerable interest as a source for biofuel production due to its fast growth rate and high lipid content. Under nitrogen limited conditions, they can accumulate significant amounts of lipids. Thus, it is important to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of their lipid metabolism. In this study under nitrogen limited conditions, regular pattern of growth characteristics lipid accumulation and gene expression analysis of key regulatory genes of lipid biosynthetic pathway were carried out in microalgae Chlorella sp 3. Our results indicated that under nitrogen limited conditions there is a significant increase in the lipid content and lipid productivity, achieving 44.21±2.64 % and 39.34±0.66 mg/l/d at the end of the cultivation, respectively. Time-course transcript patterns of lipid biosynthesis genes i.e. acetyl coA carboxylase (accD) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (dgat) showed that during late log phase of microalgae Chlorella sp.3 both the genes were significantly up regulated as compared to early log phase. Moreover, the transcript level of the dgat gene is two-fold higher than the accD gene. The results suggested that both the genes responded sensitively to the nitrogen limited conditions during the late log stage, which proposed their close relevance to lipid biosynthesis. Further, this transcriptome data will be useful for engineering microalgae species by targeting these genes for genetic modification to improve microalgal biofuel quality and production.

Keywords: biofuel, gene, lipid, microalgae

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
94 Biosorption of Lead (II) from Aqueous Solution Using Marine Algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa

Authors: Pramod Kumar, A. V. N. Swamy, C. V. Sowjanya, C. V. Ramachandra Murthy

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Biosorption is one of the effective methods for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Results are presented showing the sorption of Pb(II) from solutions by biomass of commonly available marine algae Chlorella sp. The ability of marine algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa to remove heavy metal ion (Pb(II)) from aqueous solutions has been studied in this work. The biosorption properties of the biosorbent like equilibrium agitation time, optimum pH, temperature and initial solute concentration were investigated on metal uptake by showing respective profiles. The maximum metal uptake was found to be 10.27 mg/g. To achieve this metal uptake, the optimum conditions were found to be 30 min as equilibrium agitation time, 4.6 as optimum pH, 60 ppm of initial solute concentration. Lead concentration is determined by atomic absorption spectrometer. The process was found to be well fitted for pseudo-second order kinetics.

Keywords: biosorption, heavy metal ions, agitation time, metal uptake, aqueous solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
93 Effectiveness of ISSR Technique in Revealing Genetic Diversity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Representing Various Parts of the World

Authors: Mohamed El-Shikh

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Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the world’s second most important bean after soybeans; used for human food and animal feed. It has generally been linked to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer and diseases of digestive tract. The effectiveness of ISSR in achievement of the genetic diversity among 60 common bean accessions; represent various germplasms around the world was investigated. In general, the studied Phaseolus vulgaris accessions were divided into 2 major groups. All of the South-American accessions were separated into the second major group. These accessions may have different genetic features that are distinct from the rest of the accessions clustered in the major group. Asia and Europe accessions (1-20) seem to be more genetically similar (99%) to each other as they clustered in the same sub-group. The American and African varieties showed similarities as well and clustered in the same sub-tree group. In contrast, Asian and American accessions No. 22 and 23 showed a high level of genetic similarities, although these were isolated from different regions. The phylogenetic tree showed that all the Asian accessions (along with Australian No. 59 and 60) were similar except Indian and Yemen accessions No. 9 and 20. Only Netherlands accession No. 3 was different from the rest of European accessions. Morocco accession No. 52 was genetically different from the rest of the African accessions. Canadian accession No. 44 seems to be different from the other North American accessions including Guatemala, Mexico and USA.

Keywords: phylogenetic tree, Phaseolus vulgaris, ISSR technique, genetics

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92 Production of Date Juice Infused with Natural Antioxidants from Qatari Herbs

Authors: Tahra ElObeid, Noura Al-Wahiemed, Jawaher Al-shammari, Wedad Al-Asmar

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The aim of this study is to utilize Qatari raw materials in the production of a date juice high in antioxidants. The antioxidants were extracted from five Qatari herbs: Caspian manna, Tetraena mongolica, Capparis spinosa, Ziziphus Vulgaris and Lycium shawii. The date juice was prepared in the lab and was infused with the polyphenolic extracts from the 5 different Qatari herbs. The date juice was then infused with the antioxidant containing the highest antioxidant activity and was within the acceptable range in sensory evaluation scale. The phenolic content for Lycium shawii, Alhagi maurorum, Ziziphus Vulgaris, Capparis spinosa and Tetraena mongolica was 4294 ppm, 3843 ppm, 804.59 ppm, 189.14 ppm and 226 ppm respectively, whereas their antioxidant capacity of was 6.21 %, 45.27 %, 69.81 %, 2.96 % and 8.63 % respectively. The highest antioxidant capacity was found in Ziziphus Vulgaris 69.8 % and the highest phenolic content was found in Lycium shawii 4294 ppm. Alhagi maurorum, Tetraena mongolica and Lycium shawii showed good results in terms of taste and aroma however Ziziphus Vulgaris exhibited bitter flavor. Alhagi maurorum antioxidant extract was used to be added to the date juice due to its high phenolic content, high antioxidant capacity, good taste and aroma.

Keywords: Qatar, dates, herbs, antioxidants

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
91 Effect of Phaseolus vulgaris Inoculation on P. vulgaris and Zea mays Growth and Yield Cultivated in Intercropping

Authors: Nour Elhouda Abed, Bedj Mimi, Wahid Slimani, Mourad Atif, Abdelhakim Ouzzane, Hocine Irekti, Abdelkader Bekki

Abstract:

The most frequent system of cereal production in Algeria is fallow-wheat. This is an extensive system that meets only the half needs some cereals and fodder demand. Resorption of fallow has become a strategic necessity to ensure food security in response to the instability of supply and the persistence of higher food prices on the world market. Despite several attempts to replace the fallow by crop cultures, choosing the best crop remains. Today, the agronomic and economic interests of legumes are demonstrated. However, their crop culture remains marginalized because of the weakness and instability of their performance. In the context of improving legumes and cereals crops as well as fallow resorption, we undertook to test, in the field, the effect of rhizobial inoculation of Phaseolus vulgaris in association with Zea Mays. We firstly studied the genetic diversity of rhizobial strains that nodulate P.vulgaris isolated from fifteen (15) different regions. ARDRA had shown 18 different genetic profiles. Symbiotic characterization highlighted a strain that highly significantly improved the fresh and dry weight of the host plant, in comparison to the negative control (un-inoculated) and the positive control (inoculated with the reference strain CIAT 899). In the field, the selected strain increased significantly the growth and yield of P.vulgaris and Zea Mays comparing to the non-inoculated control. However, the mix inoculation (selected strain+ Ciat 899) had not given the best parameters showing, thus, no synergy between the strains. These results indicate the replacing fallow by a crop legume in intercropping with cereals crops.

Keywords: fallow, intercropping, inoculation, legumes-cereals

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
90 Efficacy of Sparganium stoloniferum–Derived Compound in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: A Pilot Study

Authors: Wanvipa Thongborisute, Punyaphat Sirithanabadeekul, Pichit Suvanprakorn, Anan Jiraviroon

Abstract:

Background: Acne vulgaris is one of the most common dermatologic problems, and can have a significant psychological and physical effect on patients. Propionibacterium acnes' roles in acne vulgaris involve the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) pathways. By activating these pathways, inflammatory events of acne lesions, comedogenesis and sebaceous lipogenesis can occur. Currently, there are several topical agents commonly use in treating acne vulgaris that are known to have an effect on TLRs, such as retinoic acid and adapalene, but these drugs still have some irritating effects. At present, there is an alarming increase in rate of bacterial resistance due to irrational used of antibiotics both orally and topically. For this reason, acne treatments should contain bioactive molecules targeting at the site of action for the most effective therapeutic effect with the least side effects. Sparganium stoloniferumis a Chinese aquatic herb containing a compound called Sparstolonin B (SsnB), which has been reported to selectively blocks Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated inflammatory signals. Therefore, this topical TLR2 and TLR4 antagonist, in a form of Sparganium stoloniferum-derived compound containing SsnB, should give a benefit in reducing inflammation of acne vulgaris lesions and providing an alternative treatments for patients with this condition. Materials and Methods: The objectives of this randomized double blinded split faced placebo controlled trial is to study the safety and efficacy of the Sparganium stoloniferum-derived compound. 32 volunteered patients with mild to moderate degree of acne vulgaris according to global acne grading system were included in the study. After being informed and consented the subjects were given 2 topical treatments for acne vulgaris, one being topical 2.40% Sparganium stoloniferum extraction (containing Sparstolonin B) and the other, placebo. The subjects were asked to apply each treatment to either half of the face daily morning and night by randomization for 8 weeks, and come in for a weekly follow up. For each visit, the patients went through a procedure of lesion counting, including comedones, papules, nodules, pustules, and cystic lesions. Results: During 8 weeks of experimentation, the result shows a reduction in total lesions number between the placebo and the treatment side show statistical significance starting at week 4, where the 95% confidence interval begin to no longer overlap, and shows a trend of continuing to be further apart. The decrease in the amount of total lesions between week 0 and week 8 of the placebo side shows no statistical significant at P value >0.05. While the decrease in the amount of total lesions of acne vulgaris of the treatment side comparing between week 0 and week 8 shows statistical significant at P value <0.001. Conclusion: The data demonstrates that 2.40% Sparganium stoloniferum extraction (containing Sparstolonin B) is more effective in treating acne vulgaris comparing to topical placebo in treating acne vulgaris, by showing significant reduction in the total numbers of acne lesions. Therefore, this topical Sparganium stoloniferum extraction could become a potential alternative treatment for acne vulgaris.

Keywords: acne vulgaris, sparganium stoloniferum, sparstolonin B, toll-like receptor 2, toll-like receptor 4

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
89 The Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Metabolism in Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Plant Exposed to Drought and Salt Stresses

Authors: Fazilet Özlem Çekiç, Seyda Yılmaz

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Salinity and drought are important environmental problems in the world and have negative effects on plant metabolism. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), four-carbon non-protein amino acid, is a significant component of the free amino acid pool. GABA is widely distributed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Environmental stress factors increase GABA accumulation in plants. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on GABA metabolism system during drought and salt stress factors in Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants. GABA, Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity, chlorophyll, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) analyses were determined. According to our results we can suggest that GA play a role in GABA metabolism during salt and drought stresses in bean plants. Also GABA shunt is an important metabolic pathway and key signaling allowing to adapt to drought and salt stresses.

Keywords: gibberellic acid, GABA, Phaseolus vulgaris L., salinity, drought

Procedia PDF Downloads 296